Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 40

CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:03 Page 1

Learning to read the world


Through Other Eyes
Authors: Vanessa Andreotti // Lynn Mario T. M. de Souza
Artist: Mereana Taki

An open access online study programme focusing on


engagements with indigenous perceptions of global issues.

Educational project hosted by:

www.throughothereyes.org.uk
CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:03 Page 2

EDITORIAL CONTENT
Through Other Eyes is hosted by Global 02 INTRODUCTION
Education Derby, the Centre for the Study
of Social and Global Justice at the University 07 1. NOTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT PAGE

of Nottingham and the University of 1.1 GETTING STARTED 07


Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. 1.2 MAINSTREAM PERSPECTIVES 08
1.3 DIFFERENT LOGICS 10
Other partner organisations include: the 1.4 THROUGH OTHER EYES 11
London Institute of Education, Manchester 1.5 CASE STUDY 12
University, University of Leicester, the 1.6 READING THE WORLD AGAIN 14
Wellington University of Victoria, University
of Canterbury, National University of Galway, 15 2. NOTIONS OF EDUCATION
DICE (Ireland), DEP and HEC. 2.1 GETTING STARTED 15
2.2 MAINSTREAM PERSPECTIVES 16
Authors: Vanessa Andreotti and 2.3 DIFFERENT LOGICS 18
Lynn Mario T. M. de Souza 2.4 THROUGH OTHER EYES 19
2.5 CASE STUDY 20
Illustrations: Alexandre Dubiela
2.6 READING THE WORLD AGAIN 22
Art work: Mereana Taki
Photographs: Vanessa Andreotti
23 3. NOTIONS OF EQUALITY
3.1 GETTING STARTED 23
Layout: Pierrepont Design and Print 3.2 MAINSTREAM PERSPECTIVES 24
This work is licensed under a creative 3.3 DIFFERENT LOGICS 26
commons attribution/non-commercial 3.4 THROUGH OTHER EYES 27
shareAlike 2.0 License. 3.5 CASE STUDY 28
ISBN: 978-0-9535605-3-0 3.6 READING THE WORLD AGAIN 30

Date of publication: February 2008 31 4. NOTIONS OF POVERTY


Publisher: Global Education, Derby, UK 4.1 GETTING STARTED 31
4.2 MAINSTREAM PERSPECTIVES 32
This project was partly funded through
4.3 DIFFERENT LOGICS 34
the Development Awareness Fund of
4.4 THROUGH OTHER EYES 35
the Department for International
4.5 CASE STUDY 36
Development (DFID)
4.6 READING THE WORLD AGAIN 38

Through Other Eyes // Introduction


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 8/2/08 23:07 Page 3

NOTE FROM THE AUTHORS


Global citizenship has become a buzz a set of tools to reflect on their own I to critically examine these
word in educational circles and European knowledge systems and engage with interpretations both Western and
government policies in recent years. other knowledge systems in different indigenous looking at origins and
New strategies and initiatives have been ways, in their own learning or in potential implications of assumptions
promoted to address this topic and their classrooms.
educators are encouraged to bring the I to identify an ethical framework for
world into their classrooms by addressing This programme of study offers a improved dialogue, engagement and
global issues and perspectives related to theoretical framework and methodology mutual learning
social justice, interdependence, diversity, to support educators to read the cultural
human rights, peace, and international logics (systems of meaning and I to transfer the methodology
and sustainable development. This representation) of specific indigenous developed in the programme into the
represents a significant step in creating the groups in relation to concepts related to classroom context through the
educational opportunities for learners to the agenda for international development analysis and piloting of sample
be equipped to imagine and create a (e.g. development, poverty eradication, classroom materials
world beyond the levels of inequality we equality, education, etc.). This
face today. cross-cultural exercise invites learners to This is an ongoing learning journey for
examine the origins of their own us, so we welcome your feedback and
However, very often, approaches to perceptions and cultural logics (their would love to hear about how you are
global citizenship education in Europe values and assumptions), to develop using this resource in your context.
address the agenda for international self-reflexivity, to re-evaluate their own
development in a manner that leaves positions in the global context and to Best wishes,
assumptions unexamined and ignores learn from other local ways of knowing Prof Lynn Mario T M de Souza
how this agenda is re-interpreted in and seeing. University of So Paulo and
other contexts. Not addressing these Dr Vanessa Andreotti
different readings may result in the This set of learning activities was University of Canterbury
uncritical reinforcement of notions of the designed to enable learners:
supremacy and universality of our An academic article and bibliography
(Western) ways of seeing, which can I to develop an understanding of how related to this project will be available
reproduce unequal relations of dialogue language and systems of belief, on the website.
and power and undervalue other values and representation affect the
knowledge systems. way people interpret the world

The aim of this project is to address this I to identify how different groups
perceived gap. We have developed a free understand issues related to
online programme of study which was development and their implications
designed to enable educators to develop for the development agenda

Through Other Eyes // Introduction


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:03 Page 4

TOE INTRODUCTION
The full introduction to this course is only available online at www.throughothereyes.org.uk
This introduction provides an overview of the objectives, framework and methodology of this course,
so that you can understand what you will be invited to do in the learning activities and why.
We strongly encourage you to go through this introduction before you start the course.

TOE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK


This conceptual framework is the basis for the pedagogic organization and orientation of each part or section of each unit.

WORLDCENTRIC
LEARNING TO UNLEARN
Other possible framings,
learning to perceive that what one considers as neutral
narratives and
and objective is a perspective and is related to where one is representations
coming from socially, historically and culturally
(deconstruction: making visible the origins and hidden
HUMANCENTRIC
agendas of taken for granted concepts)
The framings, narratives
and representations of
LEARNING TO LISTEN other social groups
learning to perceive the effects and limitations of ones
perspective and to acquire new conceptual models (toolbox) ETHNOCENTRIC
The framings,
LEARNING TO LEARN narratives and
representations of
learning to situate oneself and others and to compare,
the social groups
contrast and juxtapose conceptual models (thinking outside I belong to
the box)

EGOCENTRIC
LEARNING TO REACH OUT
My framings,
learning to apply/adapt/situate/re-arrange this learning to
narratives
ones own context (putting ones learning into practice) and representations

This framework addresses different levels of reading

Through Other Eyes // Introduction


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:03 Page 5

METHODOLOGY
Each learning activity has six components and extra online resources (e.g. short videos and
classroom activities). Each component was designed with a specific rationale (see below).

GETTING STARTED You will find three types of activities in


learning to unlearn (ego-ethno relationships) each section:
Brainstorm of individual perspectives, invitation
to relate it to different perspectives in ones
social group

MAINSTREAM PERSPECTIVES LEARNING JOURNAL: each learning activity


learning to unlearn (heterogeneity at the of Through Other Eyes (including the
ethno level) introduction) has 6 learning journal tasks that
Analysis and deconstruction of mainstream: should be completed online or as part of your
exposing learners to the heterogeneity within institutions coursework (according to the
the ethno narrative and to an outline of advice you have received from your tutors).
different strands in the debate

DIFFERENT LOGICS
learning to listen (ethno-human-world)
Analysis of another possible (and logical) way of REFLECTIONS: these are questions that are
thinking about the issue (through metaphors). key to your learning journal task
The interviews with indigenous people served
as a basis for the metaphor strands, however,
the perspective presented is the authors
interpretation of the collected data.

FURTHER REFLECTIONS: these are extra


THROUGH OTHER EYES questions for you to start thinking about if you
learning to listen (ethno-human) want to go deeper into this issue
Exposure to other personal narratives (the
metaphor in action).
TOE THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND
RESEARCH PROCESS
CASE STUDY
learning to learn (world-human-ethno) If you are interested in the theoretical
Examination of the complexity of issues related background and research process of TOE,
to coloniser-colonised relationships. please visit our FAQ section on the website or
read the article available in the same section.

READING THE WORLD AGAIN Comments and suggestions can be sent to the
learning to reach out (world-human-ethno-ego) authors at:
Self-assessment in terms of potential vanessa.andreotti@canterbury.ac.nz
transformation in thinking and implications for or mdesouza@usp.br
professional practice.

Through Other Eyes // Introduction


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:03 Page 6

PREFACE
The late king of Tonga (my country of In the same way, in international forums things which do not question inequalities
origin) once referred to education as a I have often felt obliged to ensure that between various knowledge systems and
kato he loto kato (a basket within a different baskets of knowledge, differing cultural forms of rationality.
basket) which I have interpreted to mean especially those of indigenous peoples,
the knowledge, skills and values that are included in discussions because of But learning to unlearn and to learn from
we learn as a result of our various the continuing impact that these forums others to question long held beliefs
journeys, and which are stored, have on our future (educational) and open oneself to different forms of
interpreted and shared within a wider, development. In the context of knowledge is never easy. As higher
all embracing cultural context which we considering global education and education institutions and international
define for ourselves and which others instruments such as the Millenium forums around the world continue to
define for us. Development Goals, Education For All or privilege Western ways of being,
Education for Sustainable Development knowing, thinking and relating, the
This notion points to the importance of for example, some important questions importance of preparing learners to
recognising that manifestations of are still rarely asked such as: What engage with other perspectives is
culture, such as dances and attitudes, development? What education for all? paramount. The challenge of the
have their origin in a wider cultural What and whose sustainable ideology that supports the idea of one
context a basket that holds the ways development? Whose human rights? rationality, the pressures to arrive at
different social groups perceive and Good governance for whom? And, most consensus and the continued silencing of
relate to the world and to other groups. importantly, what and whose values different perspectives pose a huge
Being able to recognise our own basket underpin the (education) conversations challenge in terms of education for an
or cultural context and to open up to the that we are involved in? ethical relationship to difference.
gifts of other baskets seem to be
extremely important educational aims. These norms and rules of global The Through Other Eyes Project for
engagement in education are often teacher education has taken up and
In terms of North-South relationships it is defined by experts in so called developed responded to this challenge in a positive,
common to witness the projection of one countries. They reflect the cultures of productive and innovative way in its
groups basket of knowledge as a the people who make the decisions. educational agenda and learning
universal basket one that is more They emphasise individual rights at the activities. This initiative, coordinated by
valuable than all others and that should expense of collective rights, and they Prof de Souza and Dr Andreotti, supports
be imposed through strategies of human promote an individual-centred view of educational processes that will enable
resource development, capacity building, the world rather than a relational view of teachers to engage in these debates
enlightenment, cash employment, good the world. And what do you get from and develop the skills to perceive ones
governance, human rights, freedom, such an education? The idea that wealth basket of knowledge, to recognise the
democracy and education. The equals material accumulation rather than gifts of other baskets, to engage in
expectation is that the recipient of these the enhancement of social relationships. dialogue and to transform perceptions
baskets of knowledge will change for the Perhaps we need to promote a new and relationships.
better. People who participate in these conceptualization of wealth in the world
interventions rarely ask: How do people Professor Konai Helu Thaman
as productive, social relationships
in this community, this place, Unesco Chair in Teacher Education and
and educate ourselves and our
conceptualise wisdom, learning and Culture University of the South Pacific
children accordingly.
knowledge? Nor do they wonder if the
values inherent in and propagated by My hope is that we would develop and
their agendas are shared by the majority encourage a pluralistic view of learning,
of people whose lives are meant to be knowledge and wisdom in order to
improved as a result of their intervention. reflect the diverse heritages of every
Few even realise the ideological and culture. This will help us move beyond
philosophical conflicts associated with labels such as romantic as opposed to
differing perceptions of championed rational views of knowledge, education
ideas, leaving many communities and culture, and also beyond labels such
confused and, in some cases, angry. as ethno-science and other ethno

Through Other Eyes // Introduction


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:03 Page 7

Learning to read the world


Through Other Eyes

1. NOTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT

A RN
I N G TO R
EA
1.1 GETTING STARTED
LE R N IN
EA
CH

G
ARN L
LEARN

A R
OUT

E N
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Which of these ideas (if any) is Take a few minutes to reflect on


TO

E O
UNL most closely associated with your the following
G

understanding of development?
N

L IN
EARN I Who would not agree with your
definition of development?

I Do you think your country is


ABUNDANCE AVAILABILITY developed? What are your
OF MATERIAL OF parameters for evaluating
WEALTH TECHNOLOGY development? Where do those
parameters come from?

I What are the parameters for


development (or achievement and
merit) within your community
(please define community in any way
HIGH LEVELS ACCESS TO
you want)?
OF LITERACY HEALTH CARE
I How does your community see itself
in relation to other communities?
How do you think other communities
see your community and why?

I How do you think you contribute


(or not) for the development of your
TASK 1: country or community? Who have
established the criteria of this
Write down in your own words your contribution? Are there any groups
definition of development. that would have more difficulties of
meeting this criteria?

Through Other Eyes // Notions of development


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:03 Page 8

R N I N G TO R
EA
1.2 MAINSTREAM PERSPECTIVES
L EA
RNIN
EA
CH

G
ARN L
LEARN

EA R N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Can you think of different perspectives on what development means?


TO

E O
UNL Which notion of development do you think is mainstream where you live?
G

How did it become mainstream?


N

L IN
EARN
Look at the perspectives below. How is development defined in each of them?
What do you think are the assumptions about a good life informing these
perspectives? What could be the implications of these assumptions?

We need to learn from them. If they are Developing countries are poor because
developed and rich it means that they they lack technology and education.
can teach us. Of course not everyone in Their systems of governance are not as
this country will be able to catch up, at mature as ours. We need to help by
the end of the day, most people here are giving them technology, proper work
uncultured and uneducated. But the
best ones can be just like them if
habits and good education.
properly taught. Developed countries are rich because
they have exploited us for a long time.
When we say a country is First, by colonising us, then with unfair
underdeveloped we are implying that it trade rules, debt interests and
is backward and retarded in some way, sweatshops. If we were given a fair
that its people have shown little capacity chance we could be even richer than
to achieve and evolve. The use of the
word developing is less insulting, but
they are.
still misleading. It still implies that
poverty was an original historic condition They come here and impose their
based on the lack of attributes of its education, their technology and their
people (in relation to characteristics we way of seeing the world. This makes
have) a mindset that was dominant in people more competitive and
colonial times. individualistic and breaks our
communities. We do not need what they
are trying to sell. We need a better
They should not come here and think we distribution of resources so that we can
are going to learn overnight. We are at
least 50 years behind. We need much
define our own development.
more time to become what they are
now. But we do have the potential!

Through Other Eyes // Notions of development


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:03 Page 9

MAINSTREAM NOTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT:


AN OVERVIEW

Development is a controversial concept. This concept of development has been


It is linked both to decolonisation processes questioned in recent years from different
and to the end of World War 2, when perspectives. Some critics see development
countries were classified according to their as the imperialism of knowledge, a
political/ideological alliances: First World continuation of colonialism, which imposes
(capitalist), Second World (communist) and on the world a modernity that it does not
Third World (unaligned nations). Therefore, necessarily want. Others see development
the notion of development always implies a efforts as political moves that will benefit
relationship with other countries and ideas mainly the economies of 'developed'
about what ideal societies should look like. countries and create even more inequalities
as the flow of knowledge and power is often
The idea of a more developed country one-way in the development industry.
generally evokes the image of Some groups have tried to re-deploy the
industrialised, affluent nations, material notion of development taking into account
wealth, technology, modernity, democracy, the environmental costs of industrialisation
scientific knowledge, civilisation and and have advocated for 'sustainable
education. However, this image is development'. Others say that a capitalist
constructed in relation to other nations and economic model is never going to be
their peoples which are thought to be sustainable, so what we need is sustainable
backwards, lacking in these attributes and contraction (as opposed to development)
in need of assistance to catch up. But who and the discussion goes on.
defines these parameters, in whose name
and for whose benefit?

TASK 2:

Write down your answer to one of the following questions:

I Should all countries be aiming for one (universal) ideal of development?


Who should define this ideal? What would be the implications of going in
this direction?

I How could the labels developed/underdeveloped affect how people relate


to each other?

I What are the reasons and implications of trying to impose one notion of
development or progress as universal (i.e. the only possible direction for everyone)?

Through Other Eyes // Notions of development


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:03 Page 10

R N I N G TO R
EA
1.3 DIFFERENT LOGICS
L EA
R N I
EA NG
CH

ARN L
LEARN

R
EA N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

TO

E O
UNL
G

L IN
EARN

Analogy Development as ecology Development as a ladder


adaptation and survival in towards a fixed ideal of
interdependent systems progress (e.g. technology,
civilisation, etc.)

Idea of time Cyclical creation, growth, Linear, progressive, building


containment, consolidation, blocks towards an ideal
death/change, creation, (e.g. agriculture, industry,
growth, etc Looks into the service base economy).
past and the present Looks into the future

Human Multiple and context Single and universal


Look into this overview of two Evolution dependent
different perspectives on development
and reflect on the practical Progress Successful response to Planning of steps and moving
implications of both. context based on past and forward towards ideal
new experiences

Diversity Natural and valued as Valued only if not a threat


responsible for different to ideal of progress
functions in a cycle or in and civilisation
the system
TASK 3:
Relationship Humans as part of nature in a Humans outside nature in a
What kinds of possibilities or to the relationship of reciprocity relationship of dominance,
problems does each create? Environment control and exploitation

Ethics Co-existence, interdependence Competition, profit based

Aim Self-reliance, well being of all Attainment of ideal


in interdependent contexts, (e.g. construction of a perfect
sustainability of the system society based on singular
for future generations notion of progress)

Potential Vulnerability in terms of Imposes ideal as universal


Implications external domination denies different forms
of development

Through Other Eyes // Notions of development


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:03 Page 11

R N I N G TO R
EA
1.4 THROUGH OTHER EYES
L EA
R N I
EA NG
CH

ARN L
LEARN

R
EA N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Consider how these people from other cultures see development.


TO

E O
UNL Which metaphor (ecology or ladder) would you associate with
G

each perspective?
N

L IN
EARN

Mereana Taki Wera Mirim


Rotorua Santa Catarina
Aotearoa (NZ) Brazil

Development is about the quality and The development they want us to have
integrity of our relationships of means detachment from our
reciprocity. It is also about the community. It means living like the
connections we have to ourselves and people in the city: isolated from other
the spirit world. We are conscious that people, isolated from earth, alone in
TASK 4: the world does not revolve around us. the world. Development in my
The Western idea of development language means connection to ones
Choose one topic to comment on does not make sense. community, to the land and to ande
Ru (force of creation or God).
I Similarities or differences amongst
the perspectives

I Something that challenged your


own understanding
Juan Carlos Bob Randall
I The practical effects of these beliefs Machicado Mutitjulu
(in terms of social relations, Cusco Peru Australia
distribution of resources/power,
behaviour, dress, etc)?
Inca progress or development is A developed society is a whole society.
I The relationship between these beliefs conceived in a collective way and in The question we ask for checking these
and the common image one has of the context of relationship with the connections is simple: is what we are
this community earth. Everything more that I want for doing costing other living beings life or
me, it should be fair that everyone else not? If it is then we are going on the
I How these beliefs are distant or close should have it also. But if having that wrong trail. If man continues to destroy
to your beliefs (what you agree or means taking from others or from the at the rate we are destroying today
disagree with) or from the beliefs of environment in ways that are unfair, there wont be much left for our
other people in your social group then I should not want it. A developed childrens children.
society gives everybody enough and
caters for everybodys needs.

Development is a complex thing. I feel


I am part of a wider system of relations
and that the modern notion of progress is
Bronwyn very problematic, but I also do not think
Thurlow I would prefer to live without electricity,
Otautahi hot water, books, violins, heat pumps,
Aotearoa (NZ) disposable nappies or cars.

Through Other Eyes // Notions of development


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:03 Page 12

R N I N G TO R
EA
1.5 CASE STUDY
L EA
R N I
EA NG
CH

ARN L
LEARN

R
EA N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Analyse the case study and reflect on the questions below.


TO

E O
UNL
G

L IN CONTEXT:
EARN
The Bushmen of central Kalahari have been violently evicted from their lands in Botswana.
These evictions started in 1997 following the discovery of diamonds on Bushman land.

PERSPECTIVES:

President of Botswana: Some bushmen who decided to leave:

How can we have a stone age creature We are sad to be leaving but there
continue to exist in the age of is nothing here for our children.
computers? If the Bushmen want to Our childrens future is in the city
survive, they must change or otherwise, with a good education.

like the Dodo, they will perish.

A human rights organisation trying to


The Bushmen who refused to leave: support the Bushmen:

This is our home, the home of our The Bushmen have chosen to live in a
ancestors, which we have inherited from different way from ours. They have no
our forefathers. Our ancestors have not debt, no bombs, no prisons, no poverty,
told us to move on. Now we are not no homelessness, no junk food and no
allowed to hunt and gather food, which pollution. The results of forced
we do in order to live. This is our way. development are almost always
This is our culture. We survive off this catastrophic for indigenous peoples:
land that feeds us. The government have poverty, alcoholism, prostitution, disease
stolen our goats and banned our way of and death. The idea that they are
life. We do not choose to move, we primitive leads directly to their
choose to stay and live on our land. persecution and the violation of their
rights. They should decide whether and
how they want to change and not be
Some non-indigenous people in
Botswana who support the
forced to change.
government:

The Bushmen are primitive! Living like


the animals is no way to live. They live in
the past and they need to change.
Forcing them to develop is for their own
good. It will help them catch up with the

civilised world.

The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples


states that indigenous peoples have the right to self-determination and
self-government, this means they can choose their political status and the
way they want to develop (articles 3 and 4); they also have the right to the
land and resources that they have traditionally held and to maintain and
strengthen their distinctive spiritual relationship to their land, waters and
other resources (articles 25 and 26).

Through Other Eyes // Notions of development


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 13

1. Are there people who are considered uncivilised by most people where
you live?

2. What would you do if someone thought you were uneducated or


uncivilised and tried to help you by imposing a notion of
progress/development that you did not agree with?

3. What would happen if most people where you live thought that your
community (or your ethnicity or identity group) was inferior and shameful?
What would happen to your sense of who you are if you started to
believe them?

4. What are the long term implications (both for individuals and across
generations) of being considered (by the mainstream) inferior to others?
What are the implications of feeling inferior to others? What happens if,
besides feeling inferior, people are also exposed to constant discrimination
and humiliation in the mainstream society? What do you think would be the
implications for you and your family if you were in this situation?

5. How does your community see itself in relation to other communities in


terms of progress/development? How do you think other communities see
your community and why?

6. Do you feel the society where you live needs to catch up with other
societies? Do you feel the society where you live can teach something to
other societies? Why? How did you come to think in this way?

TASK 5: MAPPING A CONFLICT

Think about a similar situation in your context (where people who have chosen
to live differently have been forced to do things they either did not want to do or
that put them in a situation of risk or disadvantage). Can you map the different
perspectives and create a case study? How is your case study different or similar
to the one presented here?

Through Other Eyes // Notions of development


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 14

R N I N G TO R
EA 1.6 READING THE WORLD AGAIN
L EA
RNIN
EA
CH

G
ARN L
LEARN

EA R N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Examine the definition of TASK 6:


TO

E O
UNL development you wrote in your diary
G

for the getting ready section. Comment on what you have learned
N

L IN
EARN (if anything) from the exercises so
Can you identify the assumptions behind far about yourself, indigenous
your beliefs? Where do they come from? knowledges or learning/teaching.
Has your understanding of
How do you think your beliefs shape development changed in any way?
(or shaped) your perception, relations
and actions?

To access your online learning journal, log in at


www.throughothereyes.org.uk and choose
free online course

You will also find extra resources (videos and


classroom activities) that are only available on
the website.

Through Other Eyes // Notions of development


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 15

Learning to read the world


Through Other Eyes

2. NOTIONS OF EDUCATION

A RN
I N G TO R
EA
2.1 GETTING STARTED
LE R N IN
EA
CH

G
ARN L
LEARN

A R
OUT

E N
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Which of these ideas (if any) is most Take a few minutes to reflect on
TO

E O
UNL closely associated with your the following
G

understanding of education?
N

L IN
EARN I Who would not agree with your
definition of education?

I From your perspective, is there a


EDUCATION SOCIETY difference between schooling
REFLECTS REFLECTS and education?
SOCIETY EDUCATION
I What is the connection between
learning and teaching? What is
the connection between learning
and schooling?

EDUCATION SOCIETY I What are the characteristics of an


SHAPES SHAPES educated person in your community?
SOCIETY EDUCATION What are the characteristics of an
uneducated person? Where do these
parameters come from? What are the
implications of holding them as true?

I Do you think the system of education


in your country or community is similar
to other systems in different places?
TASK 1: Do you think it is better or worse than
other systems? How is your system
Write down in your own words your seen by other communities?
definition of education.
I Are there any groups in your
country who reject the mainstream
educational system? If so, what are
their justifications?

Through Other Eyes // Notions of education


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 16

R N I N G TO R
EA
2.2 MAINSTREAM PERSPECTIVES
L EA
RNIN
EA
CH

G
ARN L
LEARN

EA R N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Can you think of different perspectives on education in your community?


TO

E O
UNL Which one(s) do you think are mainstream where you live? How did they
G

become mainstream?
N

L IN
EARN
Look at the perspectives below. What kind of education is each perspective
referring to? Is there a connection between education and being a good person?
How is a good person defined? What are the implications of these assumptions?

In todays world the most valuable asset In former colonies, education served
is knowledge the more you learn, and still serves as a powerful tool to
the more you earn. Education prepares create subservience and dependence:
human capital to contribute to to show people their place in society.
economic growth. We still believe England is paradise
and that is why we buy their textbooks

Education is like light, it can enlighten


and degrees.
the lives of people who live in the
darkness of poverty. It brings civilisation Education can be liberating or
and development for everyone. domesticating. It can help people fight
Education for all is the solution to all against inequality and injustice or help
problems. people to create or maintain it.
Education is always political and there is
no middle ground you are either on
Schools are wedded to a view of the the side of the powerful or on the side
future that is already obsolete. This
could be the reason why in metropolitan
of the powerless.
centres a growing number of students
feel what they learn is meaningless, Our schools are now factories with
boring and useless. production lines and quality control.
Teachers have become de-skilled factory
workers who deliver the curriculum and
I am suspicious of education. obey the government without
The atrocities of the holocaust and questioning or thinking about their role
many others in our history have
been committed by learned and

and responsibility in society.

well educated people.


In schools we are only concerned with
how far students can read, write, count
Our education system is a way of or regurgitate information. Whether
controlling the minds and bodies of our students can live with their body,
young: of making them think the way understand their feelings, relate well to
the government wants them to think others or love their lives is not part of
and make them do what other people our agenda.
want them to do.

Through Other Eyes // Notions of education


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 17

MAINSTREAM NOTIONS OF EDUCATION:


AN OVERVIEW

A broader definition of education all problems. But, what education/


encompasses all processes of learning people schooling is for has always been a matter
go through in their lifetimes including the of debate. Some people see schooling as a
learning that does not occur in institutions, way of preparing economic units (people)
for example the learning that happens in to produce economic growth (for their
peoples interactions with other people and Nation). Some see this kind of schooling as
with their environments. However a good a tool of cultural repression and social
number of people associate education manipulation. Some defend the idea that
exclusively with schools. But the very idea of schooling should aim to liberate people
a school (as we know it) is a relatively from oppression. Some think that
contemporary invention that was created to schooling should prepare individuals for
meet the demands of the industrial a happy life according to their choice.
revolution. It then also became an important Some defend that it should prepare
tool for colonial rule and marketing during individuals for life in a specific community.
colonialism. From that time onwards schools Some say education should prepare people
gained an unprecedented power the to address inequalities. Others defend
power to shape society. Whoever decides the idea that schooling (not learning)
the curriculum defines how identities, is damaging to people and should
allegiances, values, aspirations, cultures, be abolished.
nations and social relations are shaped.
From this perspective, discussions and On the other hand, answering the question
decisions about the school and the around the aims of education does not
curriculum relate to governance, the represent the end of the debate. Once that is
distribution of resources and the exercise of sorted, further questions raising different
power and control over populations. That is issues and perspectives include: what
why many people say that schooling (or constitutes good teaching/learning; how
education) is always a political issue. assessment is carried out; how equity or
equality can be achieved; how much input
This concept of education (as schooling) different stakeholders should have; who
has been used as a banner in many ways: should make these decisions; in whose
as a solution to all evils or as the cause of name; for whose benefit.

TASK 2:

Write down your answer to one of the following questions:

I Who should be involved in the decision making process about the type of education
and/or schooling for a specific community?

I Who should education and/or schooling be primarily accountable to the individual


him/herself or society as a whole?

I What are the reasons and implications of trying to impose a standardised curriculum
and qualifications worldwide?

Through Other Eyes // Notions of education


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 18

R N I N G TO R
EA
2.3 DIFFERENT LOGICS
L EA
R N I
EA NG
CH

ARN L
LEARN

R
EA N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

TO

E O
UNL
G

L IN
EARN

Analogy Educating people as looking Educating people as cultivating


after different species of plants bonsai for sale
in a forest

Even the same trees arent the Market forces/fashion define the
Diversity same and each tree is highly hierarchy of values (of different
influenced by is surroundings species or shapes of trees)

Standardisation Standardisation of value Classification and


each tree is one of a kind standardisation to meet
externally defined demands

Look into this overview of two Timing/Stages Readiness according to Expectation of timed progression
different perspectives on education internal (individual) clocks through imposed stages
and reflect on the practical implications
Relationships Tree to tree Gardener to bonsai
of both.
subject to subject subject to object

Carer/teacher Observes, learns, respects and Watches, feeds, prunes, applies


provides/supports if need be techniques, shapes

Planning Care not control Structured and highly


TASK 3: important for optimal results

What kinds of possibilities or Management Self-regulating space for Pruning according to


problems does each logic create? growth for all desirable shape

Failure No imposed pre-determined Rejection and disposal


outcomes, so no failure (exclusion) of plants that
refuse to be shaped according
to standards

Aim Apprenticeship into adulthood Preparing bonsai to be sold


learning to stand, firmly according to pre-established
rooted, on ones own expectations of size and shape

Through Other Eyes // Notions of education


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 19

R N I N G TO R
EA
2.4 THROUGH OTHER EYES
L EA
R N I
EA NG
CH

ARN L
LEARN

R
EA N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Consider how these people from other cultures see education.


TO

E O
UNL Which metaphor would you associate with each perspective?
G

L IN
EARN

Mereana Taki Dennis Banda


Rotorua Zambia
Aotearoa (NZ)

In my language there is just one word We have an African saying that it takes
for learning and teaching: AKO. The an entire village to educate a child.
education that matters most is that And when this child receives western
which happens in your community. My oriented schooling education, he or she
role as a tribal adult is to apprentice meets contradictions between the
my children into adulthood. I need to school and community offer. He or she
teach them about life in all its aspects learns to navigate and negotiate
as it is unfolding. And how are they through the school and community
going to learn that if they are taken cultures all the time. At school the
TASK 4: somewhere else and cannot see what message is alternative knowledge
I am doing? I used to take them with to school knowledge is ignorance.
Choose one topic to comment on me everywhere, including to my work The child finally becomes a stranger to
at the university. This caused a lot of her or his own community. Our elders
I Similarities or differences amongst problems to the mainstream system. have come up with an acronym for
the perspectives this schooling education. It is
PHD- Permanent Head Damage.
I Something that challenged your
own understanding Noemi
Valle Sagrado
I The practical effects of these beliefs Peru
(in terms of social relations, Bob Randall
distribution of resources/power, Mutitjulu
behaviour, dress, etc)? Australia
The teachers in the village school taught
me to read, to write and to count and
I The relationship between these beliefs then I left because they did not respect
and the common image one has of or value the ways of my people. They Some people come here and want us to
this community wanted everyone to live and think like change into what they have in mind we
the people in the city. What I learned of should be, others come and want us to
I These beliefs are distant or close to most value to me, I learned from my stay the same. Neither consider that we
grandparents: to respect this land and to need access to the resources of the
your beliefs (what you agree or
survive in it with integrity. Now I am dominant culture, but we have the right
disagree with) or from the beliefs of
attending a new college that respects to decide what to do with it.
other people in your social group
our way of thinking.

Education is more about bringing the


person out than putting stuff (knowledge)
in. In early childhood, education is about
respectfully keeping out of the way to
observe with awe and wonder, to allow
Bronwyn holistic unfolding of the person, once the
Thurlow basics of physical care are taken care of.
Otautahi Who is this person? Where and who did
Aotearoa (NZ) they come from? Who will they become?
What part is it my privilege to play?

Through Other Eyes // Notions of education


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 20

R N I N G TO R
EA
2.5 CASE STUDY
L EA
R N I
EA NG
CH

ARN L
LEARN

R
EA N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Analyse the case study and reflect on the questions below.


TO

E O
UNL
G

L IN CONTEXT:
EARN
From 1867 to 1969 the government of New Zealand had native boarding schools for
Maori children.

PERSPECTIVES:

Some Maori elders: A director of education in 1929:

We want our children to have access to We should provide fully a type of


all bodies of knowledge including the education that would lead the Maori lad
one of the colonisers. We gifted the land to become a good farmer and the Maori
The United Nations Declaration
to the colonists so that our children
could go to school and have the
girl to become a good farmers wife.
on the Rights of Indigenous
advantage of this other opening out,
Peoples states that indigenous
but not by cancelling out who we were Government report of 1961:
peoples have the right to establish
and control their own schools and
first in order to get that. We did not say
by all means take this land because
Urban migration is the best way to
to provide education in their integrate the two species of New
we are too dumb to think for ourselves Zealanders. Education of Maori children
languages, and in a manner that is
and we need your schooling otherwise will pave the way to further progress in
appropriate to them (article 14).
we will be eternally dumb. We said: housing, health, employment and
we are clear about who we are and acculturation. Children mix naturally so
we also want to understand what race relations are best served by
you have brought as a resource. absorbing as many Maori children as
We might want to use it, we might
not we will decide.
possible into Boarding schools.
A Maori activist in 2003:
An inspector of native schools in 1888:

The work of teaching the Maoris to Maori embraced schooling as a means


to maintain their sovereignty and
speak, write and understand English is in enhance their life-chances. The
importance second only to that of government, on the other hand, sought
making them acquainted with European control over Maori and their resources
customs and ways of thinking, and so through schooling. Maori wanted to
fitting them for becoming orderly and extend their existing body of knowledge.
law abiding citizens. The government, with its assimilation
policy, intended to replace Maori culture

An inspector of native schools in 1908:


with that of the European.
It will be of greater use to the Maori boy A Maori young person in a mainstream
to know the principles and practices of
agriculture, the elements of dairy school in Christchurch in 2007:
farming, wool classing and the
management of stock, than the
School is boring and family sucks. It is
your mates and rap that teach you what
declension of Latin nouns and verbs. is important in life. I dont think much
about the future. I will end up working
as a driver or in construction work.

I dont really care.

Through Other Eyes // Notions of education


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 21

1. Are there people who are considered uneducated by most people where
you live?

2. Are there cultural or social groups that are considered underachievers?


What are the implications of this kind of stereotype?

3. Should children of different cultures attend separate schools in a


multi-cultural society? What are the arguments in favour and against
this strategy?

4. What happens when teachers believe that a certain culture (or type
of identity) does not possess the right attributes to succeed in the
school system?

5. What happens when teachers believe that certain cultures have not
contributed (or have contributed very little) to progress and civilisation
(understood as the best and only way to go)?

6. Should children from minority ethnic communities be forced to adhere to


the common dress and behaviour of the dominant majority in a school
setting? Or should they (and their parents and communities) have the
freedom to vary according to their particular traditions? What are the
implications of adherence, and of complete freedom?

7. Should indigenous groups be educated or schooled in indigenous ways?


Should they have access to mainstream schooling? Who should decide?

TASK 5: MAPPING A CONFLICT

Think about a situation in your context that has parallels with the situation in the
case study. Can you map the different perspectives and create your own case
study? How is your case study different or similar to the one presented here?
Suggestion: you can map the debate around separating black boys or children
from different cultures in British schools.

Through Other Eyes // Notions of education


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 22

R N I N G TO R
EA 2.6 READING THE WORLD AGAIN
L EA
RNIN
EA
CH

G
ARN L
LEARN

EA R N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Examine the definition of education TASK 6:


TO

E O
UNL you wrote in your diary for the
G

getting ready section. Comment on what you have learned


N

L IN
EARN (if anything) from the exercises so
Can you identify the assumptions behind far about yourself, indigenous
your beliefs? Where do they come from? knowledges or learning/teaching.
Has your understanding of education
How do you think your beliefs shape changed in any way?
(or shaped) your perception, relations
and actions?

To access your online learning journal, log in at


www.throughothereyes.org.uk and choose
free online course

You will also find extra resources (videos and


classroom activities) that are only available on
the website.

Through Other Eyes // Notions of education


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 23

Learning to read the world


Through Other Eyes

3. NOTIONS OF EQUALITY

A RN
I N G TO R
EA
3.1 GETTING STARTED
LE R N IN
EA
CH

G
ARN L
LEARN

A R
OUT

E N
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Which of these ideas (if any) is most Take a few minutes to reflect on
TO

E O
UNL closely associated with your the following
G

understanding of education?
N

L IN
EARN I Who would not agree with your
definition of equality?
WE ARE ALL
WE ARE ALL
EQUAL BECAUSE I Does equality mean sameness?
EQUAL BECAUSE
WE ARE ALL
WE ALL
HUMAN BEINGS I From your perspective, is it possible for
HAVE RIGHTS
WITH THE SAME people to be equal and different at the
GUARANTEED BY
NEEDS AND same time? How would we need to
OUR NATIONS
DESIRES
understand equality and difference
for this to happen?

WE ARE ALL I What are the advantages and


EQUAL BECAUSE disadvantages of treating everyone
WE ARE NOT
WE CAN ALL
EQUAL. EACH OF the same (for example, in a
CHOOSE FREELY
US IS DIFFERENT school setting)?
WHAT TO DO
WITH OUR LIVES I What are the advantages and
disadvantages of treating
everyone differently?

TASK 1:

Write down in your own words your


definition of equality or a response
to the question: what unites us as
human beings?

Through Other Eyes // Notions of equality


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 24

R N I N G TO R
EA
3.2 MAINSTREAM PERSPECTIVES
L EA
RNIN
EA
CH

G
ARN L
LEARN

EA R N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Can you think of different perspectives on equality in your community?


TO

E O
UNL Which one(s) do you think are mainstream where you live? How did they
G

become mainstream?
N

L IN
EARN
Look at the perspectives below. Where is each definition of equality coming
from? What are the implications of these assumptions?

We are all equal because we are all If all pupils are equal, teachers should
sinful and worthy of disrespect. If we all treat everyone in the same way.
follow the example of God, we can be
redeemed of our sinful nature. Different pupils have different needs.
If teachers are blind to difference and
We are all equal because we are refuse to meet different needs, only
different. We should respect and value those pupils who fit the norm will
the different nature, role and survive the system.
contribution of each person.
We are all the same because we all
We are equal because we are all free to aspire to the same goals in life.
choose who we want to become and We all want to have all our needs met.
how to get there. We all want freedom to consume and
participate in the global economy.
We are equal because we all have the
same capacity. How well we develop and
use this capacity determines the success

we have in life.

We all have the same capacity, but we


are faced with unequal access to
opportunities. Some people face less
hardship because of their skin colour,
class, ethnicity, etc. so we should have a
system that redresses imbalances and
provides equal opportunities for all, so
that we can become truly equal.

Through Other Eyes // Notions of equality


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 25

MAINSTREAM NOTIONS OF EQUALITY:


AN OVERVIEW
TASK 2:
The concept of equality is used in different as a group, but in doing that they were
ways in different contexts. In the West creating and imposing their own version of Write down your answer to one of
the concept is closely related to the idea of sameness upon the members of their the following questions:
individuality or what it means to be a groups. For example, some groups of
person. Historically, in political terms, women claimed that their stories and ideas I The idea of a complete person or
the notion of equality was created around of womanhood represented the stories of citizen is generally associated with
the idea of sameness and one-size-fits-all all women. The same thing happened with characteristics that evoke the
individuality. From this perspective, other groups that organised around potential for achieving success in
an individual was a white-male-property- identities (what some critics called identity a specific context. What are the
owning person; that is, in order to be politics). These groups started to fight for characteristics of a complete
considered a complete citizen, one was social change in relation to what they person or citizen in your context
expected to be white, masculine and own perceived the problem to be and (e.g. in terms of potential for
property considered to be of value. People sometimes they had to compete against success, contribution, gender, age,
who did not fit this description could not each other in terms of what kind of race, religion, ideology, etc.)?
participate in political, economic or injustice was worse or deserved more Do you know anyone who is
intellectual activities (and therefore were immediate attention. This competition led successful without these
not equal). Groups that fought to to political separatism and fragmentation. characteristics?
challenge this understanding on behalf of
women, working class people, indigenous There have been different kinds of reaction I What is the role of education
people and disabled people started by to this political scenario. Some people who in reproducing or challenging
arguing that they were the same as are seen as oppressors by some of these the assumptions related to a
everyone else. However, within this way of groups have got even more entrenched in complete person?
thinking any difference is considered a ideologies that demonise or exclude
defect or a lack; although in theory this difference. Some people have suggested I In terms of age or gender, are
argument achieved equal rights for that the concepts of egalitarianism or people valued equally within the
different groups, in practice, (because individualism are not useful anymore. communities/groups you belong to?
these groups were not the same, i.e. not Other people are putting forward an
all were white-male-property owning understanding of equality and difference as
persons), they were still seen as not having interdependent concepts. These people are
what it takes. proposing that the concepts of equality
and individuality need to be reconstructed
In response to this, some people started to to recognise, value and allow the
challenge the parameters of measurement expression of different ways of being,
of individuality and ideas of sameness and seeing, saying, knowing and learning.
equal rights. They claimed that the groups
or identities they represented were This text is a based on key ideas in the
different from and better than the chapter Being Equal and Different of the
standard model of the individual. They book Catching the Knowledge Wave?
were fighting for their right to be different By Jane Gilbert (2005) NZCER: Wellington.

Through Other Eyes // Notions of equality


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 26

R N I N G TO R
EA
3.3 DIFFERENT LOGICS
L EA
R N I
EA NG
CH

ARN L
LEARN

R
EA N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

TO

E O
UNL
G

L IN
EARN

Analogy Fingers of the same hand. Range of differently priced


Different roles/functions, pens. Same roles/functions,
same value different value

Capacity We are all abled in certain We can all do the same thing
aspects and disabled in others

Success Combination of Dependent on individual


complementary differences effort, willingness and ability
joint effort (better performance in
pre-determined tasks)

Look into this overview of two Individuals Individuals are insufficient in Individuals are whole/complete
different perspectives on equality themselves (if separated from in themselves
and reflect on the practical their groups), and
implications of both. indispensable in their groups
(as they bring different
contributions)

Participation We are all indispensable/ Each of us is dispensable/


irreplaceable replaceable/disposable

TASK 3: Difference Difference is seen as natural, Difference is seen as either


necessary and essential deficit (negative value) or
What kinds of possibilities or advantage (positive value)
problems does each logic create?
Value Everyone brings a different The value of each individual is
contribution to the whole, but defined by the market (rule of
the functional value (of each supply and demand)
finger) is relative to the task
(attributed in context)

Knowledge Individual experience produces Knowledge is accumulated


limited knowledge. The group by the rational thinking of
has more knowledge than an individual
individuals. Individuals reflect
and contribute to the
knowledge of the group

Roles Innate tendencies, abilities and Freedom of choice objective


drives determine your path and rational choice (you can be
and the kind of contribution anything you want as long as
you can make you fit in)

Through Other Eyes // Notions of equality


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 27

R N I N G TO R
EA
3.4 THROUGH OTHER EYES
L EA
R N I
EA NG
CH

ARN L
LEARN

R
EA N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Consider how these people from other cultures see equality.


TO

E O
UNL Which metaphor would you associate with each perspective?
G

L IN
EARN

Mereana Taki Dennis Banda


Rotorua Zambia
Aotearoa (NZ)

Each child is and brings a gift to the Everyone in a community has a role or
world. This gift is not something we place attributed to him or her by the
shape. Our role is to support them in community. They observe your
bringing it out and to uplift it when strengths and limitations and through
we see it. Children also reflect what is apprenticeship, test your abilities as
not right in the communities they are you grow. In the development of this
TASK 4: born into. If there is a problem with relationship, there is no failure. You
the child, the cause is located in the grow to understand yourself and they
Choose one topic to comment on environment where she belongs. grow to understand you. You grow not
for self alone but for them as well.
I Similarities or differences amongst This is the relationship school
the perspectives education throws out of the window.

I Something that challenged your own


understanding

I The practical effects of these beliefs


(in terms of social relations, Juan Carlos Bob Randall
distribution of resources/power, Machicado Mutitjulu
behaviour, dress, etc)? Cusco Peru Australia

I The relationship between these beliefs


and the common image one has of
Everyone has a role and a place in the We are all part of a long chain of
this community
community. Everyone participates in relations and memberships. Whoever
terms of receiving and giving. crosses my path (be it animal, plant,
I These beliefs are distant or close to
Depending on your role in the land or human) has something to
your beliefs (what you agree or
community, what and how much you exchange (to teach and to learn) with
disagree with) or from the beliefs of
exchange will vary, but every me and I need them as much as they
other people in your social group
contribution (however small) is essential. need me. This notion of oneness in
difference is what we call Kaniyni.

Through Other Eyes // Notions of equality


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 28

R N I N G TO R
EA
3.5 CASE STUDY
L EA
R N I
EA NG
CH

ARN L
LEARN

R
EA N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Analyse the case study and reflect on the questions below.


TO

E O
UNL
G

L IN CONTEXT:
EARN
In New Zealand, in a Maori ceremony for welcoming visitors (powhiri) in a Maori
community house (Marae), women should not make speeches or sit in the front rows.

PERSPECTIVES:

A tourist: A Maori academic:

Women are not given voice in this Men and women are equally valued in
community, therefore they are silenced this community but in terms of different
and oppressed. They need the help of roles and contexts. Women are valued
feminist activists to be liberated and to because of their capacity to bear
The United Nations Declaration
on the Rights of Indigenous
speak up. children for the sustainability of the
group and men are valued for their
Peoples states that indigenous
physical capacity to defend women
peoples have the right to be free
from cultural destruction
A non-maori New Zealander: and children.
(article 8). This Maori community considers women
inferior to men. It needs education to
A Maori woman:
overcome this deficiency.
Women are the gateway to the future as
they bring the children into the present
A non-maori New Zealander: and without children there is no nation.
However, they are also more physically
The fact that women walk behind men vulnerable. In the context of a welcoming
indicates that women know their place.
ceremony for visitors, they have had
This is similar to traditional Western
traditionally to sit at the back because if
values, so some Maori traditions should
war breaks out, the men are the first line
be preserved in this community as it
of defence. In this ceremony, women
safeguards and protects family values.
cannot make the speeches, but they have
We could learn this from them. other important roles. In fact, their voices
are the first and the last to be heard in a
An anthropologist: powhiri, which starts with a calling
delivered by a senior woman or women in
It is a biological fact that men are the community and finishes with a waiata
stronger than women. In this Maori (song), which supports - or not - the
community the way women are treated
reflects their biological constitution.
speech of the men.
This shows us how primitive societies do
not have the capacity to think beyond A Maori woman:
the limitations of nature. These traditions made sense back in the
day when wars were much more
A social activist: frequent than in current times. We need
to select carefully what makes sense in
If properly trained women can be taught the context we live today and if this
to defend themselves physically and means it makes sense for Maori women
mentally. This community needs to start to speak and sit at the front row in a
to educate their girls to play the same Marae, we should talk about change.
roles as men.

Through Other Eyes // Notions of equality


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 29

1. Should women perform the same roles as men in all circumstances?

2. Would you accept separating gender roles as long as they held the same
value or prestige?

3. In which circumstances (if any) should outsiders intervene if they believe


people are being oppressed within a specific community?

4. What would be the implications if an outsider feminist activist decided to


intervene in this context? Where would she be coming from? What would
she probably do? What would be the possible positive or negative effects of
her actions? Who would support or reject her intervention?

TASK 5: MAPPING A CONFLICT

Reflect on how the position of each speaker affects his/her way of relating to
the issue of gender equality and difference in this community. How has the
context of each speaker affected what he or she sees and the solutions or
generalisations proposed?

Think about a situation in your context that has parallels with the situation in the
case study. Can you map the different perspectives and create your own case
study? How is your case study different or similar to the one presented here?

Through Other Eyes // Notions of equality


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 30

R N I N G TO R
EA 3.6 READING THE WORLD AGAIN
L EA
RNIN
EA
CH

G
ARN L
LEARN

EA R N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Examine the definition of equality you TASK 6:


TO

E O
UNL wrote in your diary for the getting
G

ready section. Comment on what you have learned


N

L IN
EARN (if anything), from the exercises so
Can you identify the assumptions behind far, about yourself, indigenous
your beliefs? Where do they come from? knowledges or learning/teaching.
Has your understanding of equality
How do you think your beliefs shape changed in any way?
(or shaped) your perception, relations
and actions?

To access your online learning journal, log in at


www.throughothereyes.org.uk and choose
free online course

You will also find extra resources (videos and


classroom activities) that are only available on
the website.

Through Other Eyes // Notions of equality


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 31

Learning to read the world


Through Other Eyes

4. NOTIONS OF POVERTY

A RN
I N G TO R
EA
4.1 GETTING STARTED
LE R N IN
EA
CH

G
ARN L
LEARN

A R
OUT

E N
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Which of these ideas (if any) is most Take a few minutes to reflect on
TO

E O
UNL closely associated with your the following
G

understanding of poverty?
N

L IN
EARN I Who would not agree with your
definition of poverty?

WEALTHY WEALTHY I Is there poverty in your society?


PEOPLE HELP PEOPLE HELP What forms does it take?
ALLEVIATE CREATE What causes it? What effects
POVERTY POVERTY does it have in your life?

I How is poverty and wealth in your


country related to poverty in other
parts of the world?
POVERTY IS POVERTY IS
ABOUT A ABOUT A I What are the connections between
LACK OF LACK OF poverty and education? Do you think
FINANCIAL PRINCIPLES education can contribute to poverty
RESOURCES OR VALUES alleviation? Do you think education
can contribute to poverty creation?

TASK 1:

Write down in your own words your


definition of poverty or a response
to the question: what are the causes
and possible solutions of poverty from
your perspective?

Through Other Eyes // Notions of poverty


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 32

R N I N G TO R
EA
4.2 MAINSTREAM PERSPECTIVES
L EA
RNIN
EA
CH

G
ARN L
LEARN

EA R N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Can you think of different perspectives on poverty in your community?


TO

E O
UNL Which one(s) do you think are mainstream where you live? How did they
G

become mainstream?
N

L IN
EARN
Look at the perspectives below. Where is each definition of poverty coming from?
What are the implications of these assumptions?

People are poor because they lack Poverty is a consequence of social


education, proper work habits and a injustices, therefore overcoming poverty
good attitude towards life. is not a gesture of charity, but of
justice. It is the protection of a
fundamental human right, the right to
People are poor because they are dignity and a decent life. While poverty
exploited. They are made to work for persists, there is no true freedom
low wages while their employers because there is no justice.
become rich.
Poverty and exploitation will always exist
You need money to make money. because human nature is self-interested.
Those who are born in rich families have Everyone will always choose to
much higher chances of success than safeguard their interests. After all, other
those who are born in poor families. people would not make a choice that
would favour others anyway.
Everyone is born poor babies do not
have anything. When people work and
think hard they create wealth. Individual
If everyone competed for their own
interests, as everyone would be
effort is what determines your chances motivated to keep going, the good of all
to be rich or poor. If you are lazy you would be achieved. Competition creates
deserve to be poor. wealth and brings benefits for all.
If some poor people have managed to Competition is based on winners and
come out of poverty, why cant other losers. It cannot eradicate poverty.
poor people do the same? Some of Where there is competition there will be
them do not want to work very hard those who have more and those who
they prefer to live on benefits.
These people were born poor and they
have less.

will die poor.
I buy, therefore I am. If I cannot buy
Why would you want to participate in
a game that is set to fail you and your
children? You are paid less than others,
you are perceived as ignorant,
incompetent and in need of charity
at some point you give up. This happens
when you realise that no matter
what you do, you will never be good
enough or meet the standards set by
other people.

Through Other Eyes // Notions of poverty


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 33

MAINSTREAM NOTIONS OF POVERTY:


AN OVERVIEW
TASK 2:
There is no consensus on the definition of Depending on the definition of poverty and
poverty amongst academics, communities its causes, different perspectives on how to Write down your answer to one of
and governments. The definitions of address it will follow. One proposition is the following questions:
poverty are tied to the aims of the that, as poor people need jobs, the best
organisations that define it and to the way forward is to offer support to rich I What positive and negative
specific contexts or countries these people so that they can expand their characteristics (e.g. laziness/hard
definitions are applied to. Three common businesses, create more jobs for the poor work, cleanness/lack of hygiene,
definitions are that poverty can be defined: and strengthen the economy of their alcoholism/solidarity, damage
in comparison to the median income of a countries. This, in turn, would increase the to/protection of the environment,
specific country (relative notion); in relation collection of taxes that the government etc) are associated with poverty
to the costs of providing for the basic could use in social programmes to help the or poor people in your context?
necessities of life in a specific context poor. Critics of this proposition argue that How do you think people have
(absolute notion); in relation to a set increasing support for the rich only widens come to think in this way?
standard, for example the notion that the gap between the rich and the poor. What ideas about poverty
those who earn less than two dollars a day They say that the main priority for business and wealth have influenced
are poor and those who earn less than one owners in a market economy is to increase these perspectives?
dollar a day are extremely poor. However, profit, not to contribute to society.
most mainstream definitions of poverty are Therefore, from this perspective, business I If we could divide the world
based on a notion of wealth that is linked owners will always tend to exploit the between privileged and
to the accumulation of material and workers in order to keep costs low and under-privileged people,
symbolic goods and the ability to consume profits high. A second proposition is that which side would you be on?
in a market economy. poor people should revolt against property What do you think are the origins
owners and take control of the businesses of your privilege or underprivilege?
Academics, communities and governments in order to secure a more fair distribution
do not agree on the causes of poverty of resources. Critics of this notion say that I Who do you perceive to be the
either. A common notion is that people are this would not work, and has not worked, rich and poor in your context?
poor because there is a problem with them as very quickly other workers would How would each group explain the
- they lack something. Within this view the assume positions of power and start the origins of their present condition?
causes of poverty are crimes, substance unfair distribution again. A third What are the different ways in
abuse, lack of education, lack of social proposition seeks a third way between which these two groups could
skills, lack of morality or bad individual the first and second propositions, arguing perceive each other?
choices. Therefore, within this perspective, for a more humane market economy. A
poor people are responsible for their fourth proposition is that our ideas of
poverty. Some critics argue that it is the poverty and wealth need to be
governments structures, policies, history reformulated in terms of our impact on the
and elites that are responsible for the environment and our relationships to each
unfair distribution of wealth and resources. other. From this perspective the market
From this perspective, crime, substance economy system of accumulation of wealth
abuse, lack of education, social skills, is unsustainable and in decline. The
morality or bad individual choices are problem, it is claimed, is that it shatters
effects of an unfair discriminatory system relationships by setting people against each
and poor people are victims of an injustice. other in exploitative relationships and does
Some critics of the ideas of wealth not consider the rate of destruction of the
accumulation say that it is the market environment. And the debate goes on.
economy that creates poverty by forcing
poor people to work very hard for very little
and to go into debt. They argue that the
main cause of poverty is exploitation of
vulnerable people by the elites who control
the means of production and have their
own wealth accumulation as a priority.

Through Other Eyes // Notions of poverty


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 34

R N I N G TO R
EA
4.3 DIFFERENT LOGICS
L EA
R N I
EA NG
CH

ARN L
LEARN

R
EA N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

TO

E O
UNL
G

L IN
EARN
Analogy An adult tooth pulled out of the An isolated old-fashioned,
mouth in a trauma poverty as rusty and broken bicycle in the
isolation as a result of breaking back garden
or harming the relationship of a
part to the whole

Wealth Purpose and abundant Accumulation of accessories


nourishment through the newest and most equipped
relationship to the community model in the market
(mouth) and land (body)

Poverty A tooth outside the mouth A problem of the individual


has lost its purpose and bicycle: it is broken and out
connection to a system of of date
nourishment
Look into this overview of two
different perspectives on poverty Cause of Loss of relationships Deficit and inadequacy of the
and reflect on the practical poverty individual: the bicycle is not only
implications of both. not road-worthy, but does not
inspire anyone to ride it

Fixing poverty Implanting the tooth back into Fixing, updating and dressing
its place up the bicycle so that it can be
sold or put to use again

TASK 3: Value of the Each tooth has a basic equal The value of the bicycle (before
individual value when inside the mouth and after repair) is relative to the
What kinds of possibilities or value of the latest model in the
problems does each logic create? market and to the demand for
what it can offer

Whose fault? Outside forces or the community The bicycles manufacturer


itself (who could not hold (deficient ethnicity or
the tooth) the pulled tooth background ), quality (deficient
is not made responsible for morality), age (deficient
the accident self-actualization)

Responsibility Depends on the conditions It is inevitable that bicycles will


for prevention external to the tooth itself and become outdated as new
the owner of the mouth, but bicycles enter the market
includes the owner of the mouth

Prevention/ Understanding what caused Recycling systems (for self-


Eradication the accident and learning to actualisation). As long as the
protect oneself or avoid it number of old bicycles is kept
happening again out of sight, the system need
not tackle the problem

Implications The loss of a tooth brings stress The newest bicycles from the
to the whole community best manufacturers with the
latest accessories will always
have an inflated value

Through Other Eyes // Notions of poverty


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 35

R N I N G TO R
EA
4.4 THROUGH OTHER EYES
L EA
R N I
EA NG
CH

ARN L
LEARN

R
EA N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Consider how these people from other cultures see poverty.


TO

E O
UNL Which metaphor would you associate with each perspective?
G

L IN
EARN

Mereana Taki Dennis Banda


Rotorua Zambia
Aotearoa (NZ)

The wealth of a person is measured in A poor person is one that cannot


relation to the mana she or he sustain oneself. He or she is a perpetual
manifests (power of creation imbued beggar and a shame to society. The
in a person). Mana does not come irony in all the talk of aid to Africa is
with material possessions neither can it that the most important concept and
be bought. The logic is quite the source of pride in many African
TASK 4: opposite: the more you share mana communities is that of self-sufficiency
(putting it to the service of your and self-reliance. My Chewa community
Choose one topic to comment on community), the more mana you have. has managed to survive successfully for
ages until some colonialists and
I Similarities or differences amongst currently some NGOs come to tell us
the perspectives that we are poor, disempowered, and
illiterate and in dire need of help. These
I Something that challenged your own are the views externally imposed and
understanding Noemi unfortunately accepted and now
Valle Sagrado internalised as our condition.
I The practical effects of these beliefs Peru
(in terms of social relations,
distribution of resources/power,
behaviour, dress, etc)? Someone who is in a personal
thunderstorm and cannot perceive his
I The relationship between these beliefs own suffering and the suffering that he Bob Randall
and the common image one has of is causing to others is a person who is Mutitjulu
this community struck by poverty. Australia

I These beliefs are distant or close to


your beliefs (what you agree or Poverty is losing what sustains you
disagree with) or from the beliefs of your connection to the land, to your
other people in your social group relations and to your self-esteem.
Wera Mirim
Santa Catarina
Brasil

There are three types of poverty.


The first is when you have lost your
connection to the spirit. The second is
when you have lost your connection to
your community. The third type of
poverty is when you do not have
enough to share.

Through Other Eyes // Notions of poverty


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 36

R N I N G TO R
EA
4.5 CASE STUDY
L EA
R N I
EA NG
CH

ARN L
LEARN

R
EA N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Analyse the case study and reflect on the questions below.


TO

E O
UNL
G

L IN CONTEXT:
EARN
In some parts of Australia, some Aboriginal People prefer to live on benefits rather than
work from 9 to 5. It is common for these families not to force their children to go to
school. Many people (both indigenous and non-indigenous) believe that schooling and
entrepreneurship are the ways out of poverty for these communities.

PERSPECTIVES:

A school principal in 2007: their benefits to buy drugs and alcohol.


They do not have any hope for the
We hope that we can instil a different future and this is what their children
work ethic in the children who are
learn from them. That is why this
coming from these families. We will
The United Nations Declaration teach them about cleanness, prayer and
community is poor and ignorant.
on the Rights of Indigenous obedience. We will make sure they will
Peoples states that indigenous develop the skills to find proper work as
peoples have the right to their Community member 2:
toilet cleaners or kitchen assistants in the
culture (article 11); to education
in their own language (article 14);
tourist resort next door. We can live off the land to survive and
we get money from the government, so
to determine their own identity we are not poor. We can survive very
(article 33); to be free from A teacher in the local aboriginal school: well. We would be poor if we did not
cultural destruction (article 8) and receive benefits or if we did not know
to their own political, economic School attendance is very poor. When the how to get food off the land. This is
children come they are dirty, they cannot
and social systems (article 20). what our children should learn and we
speak English and they have short
attention spans. What else would you
dont need schools to do this.
expect? They have so little to eat and their
families have no hygiene. So I make sure
Community member 3:
they understand that, to start the day,
they need to be clean, to have their hair Why send the children to school? The
tidy, to sit still and be polite. We have an only jobs available are cheap labour for

English only policy in this school. the white men. They keep us poor by
paying us very little and saying that they
are helping us by giving us jobs. The
A student: only thing the outside world can offer
our children is racism and exploitation.
At school we learn to pray, to read Children are better off with their families
hymns, to brush our teeth and we play
with Santa Claus jigsaws. Sometimes I
and their community.
feel really homesick. School is very
different from home. I dont know how
Community member 4:
this is going to help my family. I could be
helping more at home and I could do We wanted our children to be educated
more interesting things elsewhere. according to the bible and to become
doctors and lawyers in order to work for
the benefit of their community. But the
Community member 1: few that escape the poverty here and
move to the cities to receive education
The government has taken away the role change so much that they never come
of the man of the house the need to
back to help their families. Today only
sustain the family. These people will
the old women, the children and a few
receive their money whether or not they
go to work so why bother? Many use
old men are here.

Through Other Eyes // Notions of poverty


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 37

1. What would you do if you were invited to suggest a solution for


this community?

2. What kind of education could help the aboriginal children more?

3. Would it help them if the government cut their benefits and forced the
children to go to school?

4. What would be the implications if these children were separated from their
families and taken to a boarding school (a strategy that the Australian
government has used with dual heritage children before)?

TASK 5: MAPPING A CONFLICT

Reflect on how the position of each speaker affects his/her way of relating to
the issue of poverty and the role of education in alleviating poverty. How has the
context of each speaker affected what he or she sees and the solutions or
generalisations proposed?

Think about a situation in your context that has parallels with the situation in the
case study. Can you map the different perspectives and create your own case
study? How is your case study different or similar to the one presented here?

Through Other Eyes // Notions of poverty


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 38

R N I N G TO R
EA 4.6 READING THE WORLD AGAIN
L EA
RNIN
EA
CH

G
ARN L
LEARN

EA R N
OUT
TO
L

ING T

LISTE

Examine the definition of poverty you TASK 6:


TO

E O
UNL wrote in your diary for the getting
G

ready section. Comment on what you have learned


N

L IN
EARN (if anything) from the exercises so far
Can you identify the assumptions behind about yourself, indigenous
your beliefs? Where do they come from? knowledges or learning/teaching.
Has your understanding of poverty
How do you think your beliefs shape changed in any way?
(or shaped) your perception, relations
and actions?

To access your online learning journal, log in at


www.throughothereyes.org.uk and choose
free online course

You will also find extra resources (videos and


classroom activities) that are only available on
the website.

Through Other Eyes // Notions of poverty


CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 7/2/08 12:04 Page 39
CSSGJ - 4158 Through Other Eyes A4 40pp NO PAGE:- 8/2/08 23:07 Page 1

Learning to read the world


Through Other Eyes

In an increasingly globalised world, Through Other Eyes provides an venue formative locations, life histories and
it is becoming essential that for global citizens to critically engage sociopolitical contexts. It asks learners
educational policies, programmes and with the increasing cultural diversity to consider a dissonant range of
practices recognise the importance of and complexity faced in todays global arguments on particular topics and
equipping learners to engage with a societies, and to negotiate the helps learners move from entrenched
range of voices and perspectives and, complexities of engaging with universalist perspectives towards an
most importantly, with ones own difference in a thoughtful and openness to other forms of seeing,
perception of the wider world. considered way. Dr Kathleen living and being in the world. Dr. Lisa
Through Other Eyes has been a key Quinlivan, University of Canterbury, Taylor, Bishops University, CANADA.
initiative in promoting this critical NEW ZEALAND.
reflection, which needs to be more Engaging with difference requires an
widely understood and supported by Through Other Eyes provides essential interrogation of the origins and
both policy makers and practitioners. tools to rethink knowledge, culture and implications of taken-for-granted
Dr. Douglas Bourn, Development power, through our own reflection and assumptions (ours and others),
Education Research Centre, in dialogue with others. These which implies a profound respect for
London Institute of Education, processes can help us to and interest in what we engage with
UNITED KINGDOM. re-imagine ourselves, our cultures and (otherwise, why even bother to
our relationships with others in order to consider it?). Through Other Eyes
The regular encouragement to bring about the genuine changes that supports this kind of engagement and
question, reflect, and reconsider in are needed for us to play our part in an helps learners to actively build
Through Other Eyes should assist interdependent world, regardless of provisional meanings, construct
student teachers to unlearn many where we are located within it. knowledge constantly in the move,
personal and professional assumptions Dr. Su-ming Khoo, National University and thus learn to renew their identities
and to make new understandings not of Galway, IRELAND. in dialogue with different perspectives.
only of the remote indigenous Dr. Clarissa Jordao, Federal University
people but also of their own Through Other Eyes is designed to of Parana, BRAZIL.
communities and educational practices. create a space open to the divergent
Prof. David Hollinsworth, University forms of knowledge and perspectives
of Queensland, AUSTRALIA. each participant brings from their

Project coordinators:
Lynn Mario T. M. de Souza We would like to thank the following
E: mdesouza@usp.br people who have supported the
Vanessa Andreotti development of this resource:
E: vanessa.andreotti@canterbury.ac.nz
Alun Morgan, Amosa Faafoi, Andrew Robinson,
Project Manager: April Biccum, Bob Randal, Bronwyn Thurlow,
Linda Barker Clive Belgeonne, David Hollinsworth, Dennis
E: linda@globaleducationderby.org.uk Banda, Godo Fran, Hazel Phillips, Juan Carlos
Machicado, Katy Newell-Jones, Katya Brookes,
Through Other Eyes Laiz Capra, Maree Grant, Margaret Giroux,
Matthias Fiedler, Mereana Taki, Noemi,
www.throughothereyes.org.uk Paul Warwick, Pedro, Raul Pardinaz-Soliz,
ISBN: 978-0-9535605-3-0 Rob Bowden, Simon Tormey, Sujatha Raman,
Global Education, Derby, UK Veronica Boiels, Wera Mirim, Yousria Hamed
UK 9.99