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:
("
"). :
(2h+1)(2h+1) ""
2+h(h-1)/2 ( 1<h<9) .

, 55 (h=2)

: ,
h. ,
, . h
.

15.12.2012 Wladimir Kovalevski 2


- -
- ,
,
"".
-:
sum=0; number=0; M=Input(X, Y);
for each pixel Input(x, y) in the window with the center at (X, Y):
if (abs(Input(x, y)-M)<tolerance) { sum+=Input(x, y); number++;}
Output(X,Y)=Round(sum/number);
:
OPP=4W . ,
, , .. ,
-, .

- .
:

, -
. OPP=2W+2(2+1) .

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()

3=30 55

55 - 55 ,
=30

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()

3=60 99

99 - 99 , =58

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()

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, :
1. H 256 .
2. :
2.1. H .
2.2. G
H G 1.

:
1.
.
2. .
+ 2.1. , "+"
+ , ,
+
+ ,
+ .
2.2. , "-"
, ,

,
.
3. 2 .
15.12.2012 Wladimir Kovalevski 8
-
1. .
2. : [. -, . +].
3. S1
.
4. S2 .
5. S1 S2. .
.

2*+1

55=25
=4;
. =6;
=[2, 10]

: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10, 11,12, 13,14, 15,16,17


: 4, 5, 0, 3, 0, 6, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 4, 0, 2
S1=5*2+3*4+6*6+1*8=66;
S2=5 +3 + 6 + 1 =15; =66/15=4.

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-
- W=2h+1
( h) T, ,
. ,
-,
:


GW
GW +

GW -

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T=27

= 6 12 18 24 30 36 42

160*20

-
W=5; T=27

-
W=20; T=27

,
. ,
(=27) ,
(
2020).

15.12.2012 Wladimir Kovalevski 11


-
:
, , ,
" ".
.
,
.

, .
, , ..
, ,
.

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,
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, "".
.

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-

-
, ,
.


,
-,
,
.
(. ).

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-
.
-
.

M2=150
150-26
90+26
M1=90


(>26)

. gv=0 90 150 255


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-
()
- ,



.

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-
W ,
D .
W/2 W.
= D W/ 2 .
W :
, .
, .. .
, , , .

,
,
.

W ,
,
.
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.
: T=2. ,
. .

, :
,
. .
.



o 99

o 1111

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""
. :
, 99 , ,
1111 . , ""
. ,
, .

.
.
.


o 99

o 1111

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. ,
,
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.
,
- .
.

-, ,
, .
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55

55 55

- ,
15.12.2012 Wladimir Kovalevski 21

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.
:
Lap(F(x, y))=F(x, y)=F/x+F/y.
.
:
D1: D1(x, x, F)=F(x+x)F(x)
F(x) x x.
Dn: Dn(x, x, F)=D1(x, x, Dn1(x, F(x)) n>1
n- F(x) x x.
F(x, y) x y :
D2(x, x, F)=F(x-x, y)2F(x, y)+F(x+x, y);
D2(y, y, F)=F(x, y-y)2F(x, y)+F(x, y+y);
x=y=1 :
F(x, y)=F(x-1, y)+F(x+1, y)4F(x, y)+F(x, y-1)+F(x, y+1).
+1

: +1 4 +1
+1

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+1
+1 4 +1 F(x, y)
+1 :

F(x, y)=F(x-1, y)+F(x+1, y)4F(x, y)+F(x, y-1)+F(x, y+1); (1)

(1) :
F(x, y)=F(x-1, y)+F(x+1, y)+F(x, y-1)+F(x, y)+F(x, y+1)5F(x, y)=
=5M(x, y)5F(x, y)=5(M(x, y)F(x, y)); (2)
M(x, y) F(x, y)
(x, y).
, P=(x, y)
P
P.

. ,
, LoG-
(Logarithm of Gaussian).
15.12.2012 Wladimir Kovalevski 24

+1

+1 4 +1

+1 ( )


(
)


.
.
, .. F(x, y)
F(x, y)
. , ,
-.
. -
.
.

15.12.2012 Wladimir Kovalevski 25


?
, ,
. ,
, , . .
, .
"" , .
B.
. .

. . . B: . C:
( )

15.12.2012 Wladimir Kovalevski 26


?
:
, ,
, , .
,
. .
, , .

: , .
(),

. C:
. . . B:

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.
. ;
, .

0 X

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- ; - ;
- . - ,
. , -
. .

15.12.2012 Wladimir Kovalevski 29



,
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.

.


-
-.
,
.
15.12.2012 Wladimir Kovalevski 30
. -
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( CCD)
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, .


-
.
, ..

( 33)
.

t

,
.
CCD
.

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, (=10)
.
, .
.

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, (=15)
.
, .
.

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, - -
. ,
,
.
:
Gradx(x, y)=GW((x, y)-GW((x-1, y);
Grady(x, y)=GW((x, y)-GW((x, y-1).
, ,
- - . .

, th=20 - , th=9
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-

-
, =5

-



-
-

- ( )
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, ,
. ,
.
.
-
.
,
. ,
, - .
.

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(Canny)
[3].
G(x, y) ,
( 45) ,
|G(x, y)|.
" ": (x, y)
|G(x, y)|, , ,
, .
:
T1<T2. , ,
|G(x, y)| 2. ,
|G(x, y)| 1,
.
. .
.

.

15.12.2012 Wladimir Kovalevski 38


.

(en.Wikipedia) .
15.12.2012 Wladimir Kovalevski 39

, ,
-.
, ,
.

. - -
. -
:
, .
" "
.

, .
- -
. ,
, .
.

15.12.2012 Wladimir Kovalevski 40


,

- - -

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1. -
. .
2.
.
3. (
) , -
,
-
-.
4.
, -
.

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1. John-Sen Lee: Digital Image Smoothing and the Sigma Filter,
CVGIP Vol. 24, No 2, November 1983, pp. 255-269.

2. Pavel. A. Chochia: Image Enhancement Using Sliding Histograms,


CVGIP, Vol. 44, No 2, November 1988, pp. 211-229.

3. Canny, J. F.: A computational approach to edge detection, IEEE Trans. on


Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 8(6), 1986, pp. 679-698.
.

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