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Theory of Date Authors Basis Hypothesis

The behaviourist 1940s B. F. Skinner Imitation and practice The children imitate and practice what they have heard, especially
perspective 1950s in the new words, and the make them habits
Encouragement of the environment
They made associations and patterns
Focus on meaning

The innatist Noam The language learning is Children can discover by themselves the rules of a language system
perspective Chomsky already programmed in the Basic contribution of the environment.
childrens brain Universal Grammar patterns are common to all the speakers
The childs brain is shaped by exposure to the language
The Critical Period Hypothesis.
It says that animals and humans are genetically programmed to
acquire certain kinds of knowledge and skill at specific times in life
Developmental 1951 Jean Piaget Childrens cognitive It is not believed that there is a specific brain structure for language
perspective development determine how acquisition.
fast and well is the language Language acquisition is influenced by others kinds of skills and
acquired. knowledge.
Language represents the knowledge that the child has acquired
through interaction with the environment.
Sociocultural 1978 Lev Vigostsky Social interaction: Conversations have to be in an appropriate environment
Theory conversations Zone of Proximal Development someone with more knowledge helps
the kid to learn new things.
Vigotsky though at the language as an internalized speech that
surges in the social interaction.
Theory of Date Authors Basis Hypothesis
The 1940s Nelson Brooks & Mimicry and memorization It believes that the habits that appeared first in the L1
behaviourist 1970s Robert Lado Audiolingual approach acquisition will appear in the L2 acquisition
Identification of similarities between L1 and L2, sometimes
confusing the sentence structure of both.
The innatist Lydia White Stephen Krashens Monitor Model: The Universal Grammar proposed by Chomsky doesnt
perspective Rober Bley- 1. Acquisition/ learning hypothesis: learning work for L2 learners because they are not in the Critical
Vroman is to put attention to the form and rules, Period
Jacquelyn while acquisition is what we did as The logical problem of second language acquisition:
Schachter children, when we just heard the Learners get more information than they could have done
Vivian Cook language and internalize it. if they had depended on the exposure to the input.
Bonnie 2. Monitor hypothesis: use of rules and Acquisition appears when learners understand how to use
Schwartz patterns, appears the theres a concern the language.
to learn
3. Natural order hypothesis: the easiest
words are not always acquired first.
4. Comprehensible input: exposure to the
language, usually at the level you have
and one level above, the one that
youre learning.
Affective filter hypothesis: Some problems
might appear if the learner is anxious or
has negative attitudes against the
The cognitive 1990 Robert Emphasize the human ability to process We didnt born with the ability to learn linguistics, we use
perspective DeKeyser and learn information, based on the the normal theories of learning to acquire the language.
Richard experience L1 and L2 are consider to have the same processes, but
Schmidt sometimes not everybody can acquire the L2.
Elizabeth Bates The L2 can be called in automatically when speaking and
Mac Whinney understanding.
Evelyn Hatch
Michael Long Declarative knowledge: what knowledge we are aware of
Procedural knowledge: next step of the declarative
Automatized: the procedural knowledge that is now
Competition model is an explanation for L1 and L2 that
consider language form, use and meaning.
L1 and L2 have different positions in the hemispheres of the
Second language applications:
The interaction hypothesis: talk with a native or more
advanced speaker of the L2, whom will modify his
interaction and negotiate for meaning, this can be
understand as speak more slowly, say synonyms and
explain. And the less advanced speaker will try to do a
comprehensible output.
The noticing hypothesis: notice language features said in
the input, in order to begin to acquire the language.
Input processing: misinterpretation of sentences because
of the word order and some false cognates; focus in
Processability theory: Features at the beginning of a
sentence are easier to process, learners have to develop a
capacity in the L2 to compare it with L1 features;
variational feature means that they can be learned not
mattering in which stage of development the person is.
The role of practice: practice what you want to learn.
Principles for practice a foreign language: interactive,
meaningful and focus on task-essential forms. If some
language features become automatized, there are more
cognitive resources to learn new things.
The Jim Lantolf Social interaction. Internalizing occurs when an individual interacts with
sociocultural Richard Use of the ZPD someone out of his Zone of Proximal Development, when
Donato the learner can speak in a higher level with the help of the
Merrill Swain other person.
Sharon Lapkin The ZPD emphasizes how learners construct knowledge at
interacting with their interlocutor.
Collaborative dialogue the context where language use
and language learning can co-occur