Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 124

IJLTER.

ORG
International Journal
of
Learning, Teaching
And
Educational Research
p-ISSN: 1694-2493
e-ISSN: 1694-2116

Vol.15 No.4
PUBLISHER International Journal of Learning, Teaching and
London Consulting Ltd Educational Research
District of Flacq
Republic of Mauritius
www.ijlter.org The International Journal of Learning, Teaching
and Educational Research is an open-access
Chief Editor journal which has been established for the dis-
Dr. Antonio Silva Sprock, Universidad Central de semination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the
Venezuela, Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of field of education, learning and teaching. IJLTER
welcomes research articles from academics, ed-
Editorial Board
Prof. Cecilia Junio Sabio ucators, teachers, trainers and other practition-
Prof. Judith Serah K. Achoka ers on all aspects of education to publish high
Prof. Mojeed Kolawole Akinsola quality peer-reviewed papers. Papers for publi-
Dr Jonathan Glazzard cation in the International Journal of Learning,
Dr Marius Costel Esi Teaching and Educational Research are selected
Dr Katarzyna Peoples through precise peer-review to ensure quality,
Dr Christopher David Thompson
originality, appropriateness, significance and
Dr Arif Sikander
Dr Jelena Zascerinska readability. Authors are solicited to contribute
Dr Gabor Kiss to this journal by submitting articles that illus-
Dr Trish Julie Rooney trate research results, projects, original surveys
Dr Esteban Vzquez-Cano and case studies that describe significant ad-
Dr Barry Chametzky vances in the fields of education, training, e-
Dr Giorgio Poletti learning, etc. Authors are invited to submit pa-
Dr Chi Man Tsui
Dr Alexander Franco
pers to this journal through the ONLINE submis-
Dr Habil Beata Stachowiak sion system. Submissions must be original and
Dr Afsaneh Sharif should not have been published previously or
Dr Ronel Callaghan be under consideration for publication while
Dr Haim Shaked being evaluated by IJLTER.
Dr Edith Uzoma Umeh
Dr Amel Thafer Alshehry
Dr Gail Dianna Caruth
Dr Menelaos Emmanouel Sarris
Dr Anabelie Villa Valdez
Dr zcan zyurt
Assistant Professor Dr Selma Kara
Associate Professor Dr Habila Elisha Zuya
VOLUME 15 NUMBER 4 Special Issue

Table of Contents
Perceptions of Science Teachers from Marawi City High Schools on the Kto12 Curriculum Implementation ......... 1
Norolayn K. Said-Ador

Path Analysis on the Performance of Educators in Mindanao State University-Tawi Tawi College of Technology
and Oceanography................................................................................................................................................................ 11
Kaberl O. Hajilan

Learning Styles as Predictor of Academic Performance in the Nursing Department of an Asian University and
Colleges .................................................................................................................................................................................. 22
Ashley Ali Bangcola

Issues-Oriented Approach: Effects on Students Concept Reconstruction and Achievement in Biology ................. 32
Mariam A. Sunggod

English Instructional Materials: Imperative Learning Aid for the High School Bound Summer Program of the
MSU-Science High School. .................................................................................................................................................. 42
Prof. Jose G.Tan Jr.

Factors Affecting the Teaching of Public High School Mathematics Teachers in the Province of Lanao del Sur and
Maguindanao. ....................................................................................................................................................................... 51
Engr. Acsara A. Gumal

The Teaching Chemistry in Context: Its Effects on Students Motivation, Attitudes and Achievement in
Chemistry .............................................................................................................................................................................. 60
Dr. Epiphania B. Magwilang

Technology and Livelihood (TLE) Instruction of Technical Vocational and Selected General Secondary Schools in
Catanduanes . ........................................................................................................................................................................ 69
Maria Sheila R. Gregorio

Level of Efficiency of the Information Technology Professional Subjects Instruction at the Catanduanes State
University for School Year 2015-2016 ................................................................................................................................. 75
Belen M. Tapado and Maria Sheila R. Gregorio
Organizational School Climate and Organizational Health of Mountain Province State Polytechnic College ....... 82
Dr. Arel B. Sia-ed

Maximizing Organizational Leadership in Academic Setting ........................................................................................ 91


Warren L. Acain

Effects of Instructional Objectives on Mathematics Learning among Selected College Students in LSU-Ozamis 102
Mark Premacio Laurente

Investigating the Macro Perspective Affecting the Passing Rate in Board Examinations: A Take-off Point in
Designing a Causal Model . ............................................................................................................................................... 108
Milger A. Baang
1

International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research


p-ISSN: 1694-2493
e-ISSN: 1694-2116
Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 1-10, IJLTER

Perceptions of Science Teachers from Marawi City High Schools


on the Kto12 Curriculum Implementation

Norolayn K. Said-Ador
Asst. Prof., MSU-Institute of Science Education, Marawi City
Ph.D Candidate, MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City

Abstract
The Department of Education (DepEd) has an impetus for Kto12 Curriculum implementation.
However, this remains an issue due to argument that it is merely a superficial solution. And it
does not truly address the countrys more fundamental educational problems. Accordingly, the
study was conducted during its second year implementation and it only included grade 7 and 8
science teachers to investigate their perceptions as well as to know the relationships of some
variables pertaining to teachers characteristics and their type of school. Descriptive with
correlational type of research method was employed. The study found out that many science
teachers positively perceived on the curriculum implementation and agreed on its rationale,
education vision and goals, and benefits stipulated by the DepEd. On the other hand, some had
negative impression on the transition due to lack of readiness and discrepancy of reproduced
learning materials for the teachers on classroom instruction. In addition, more science teachers
from public high schools attended the Kto12 trainings and used the said materials than those
from private high schools. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the teachers
attendance in the Kto12 trainings and their usage of materials in the classroom instruction. The
study suggested that DepEd ought to send their teachers on Kto12 trainings to prepare them for
the curriculum transition. Additionally, thorough examination on the Kto12 materials shall be
conducted by DepEd to meet what it intends to implement and attain.

Keywords: Kto12 curriculum, public high school, private high school

Introduction
Procuring better education has been everyones vision. For this will prepare him with the
indispensable knowledge and skills acquired to be practical citizen of the society. As stressed, a
good education helps individuals to gain knowledge and wisdom. It enables them to discern
truth from error and then make good choices. Further, education and literacy are also keys to
personal growth, groundwork for employment and making a meaningful contribution to the
society. On the other side, with the past assessments conducted by international agencies such
as Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS), Philippines ranks poorly in
the tests. And it has been attributed to many factors; probably, the kind of curriculum which
exists in the country may be one of those. Thus, as part of the efforts of Aquino administration,
the Department of Education (DepEd) had directed the implementation of Kto12 Curriculum.
Additionally, Bacani (2014) pointed out that benchmarking the Philippine education curriculums
content and structure is needed to affirm that basic education in the country meets the demands
of the twenty-first century. It is envisioned that graduates of K to 12 Basic Education Program
2

are envisaged to be better prepared for life as they are expected to possess sufficient mastery of
21st century core skills. And they will be emotionally developed and competent to live a
meaningful life; be socially aware and be pro-active in civic affairs. Aside from these, they will be
adequately prepared for the world of work or entrepreneurship or higher education; be legally
employable; and be globally competitive (Salan, 2014).

Nevertheless, this remains an issue because some teachers as well as educators and many parents
have argued that it is merely a superficial solution. And it does not truly address the more
fundamental problems of the educational system. Besides, critics also interrogated the
relationship between education cycle length and education quality. In fact, they cited studies
conducted by TIMSS that longer education cycles do not necessarily result to better performance
of students, contrary to what is believed. Further, one of the major concerns of the critics is the
parents additional expenses on their childrens school cost. For the longer education cycle may
add burden to households. Subsequently, it may end to higher dropout rates. Because, in spite
that the government can provide free public education, parents still carry the responsibility
defraying the allowances, transportation, education supplies, and other school expenses.
Meanwhile, some are apprehensive on the urgency to its enactment. For one, if publicly funded,
the rush implementation of the program may have inadvertent effects on social equity. Primarily,
it is due to many poor families not reaching beyond the secondary level of educational
attainment (PIDS, 2014).

Statement of the Problem


This study aimed to investigate the perceptions of science teachers from Marawi City High
Schools on the Kto12 Curriculum implementation. Specifically, it sought to answer the
following: 1) What is the comparison of the teachers characteristics from public and private high
school in terms of age, civil status, highest educational attainment, employment status, and
number of years in teaching? 2) How do the public and private high school science teachers
differ in their attendance in the Kto12 seminar/training, positive perception on the Kto12
curriculum implementation; and usage of Kto12 materials in their classroom instruction? 3) Is
there a significant relationship between the teachers attendance in the Kto12 seminar/training
and their positive perception on its implementation? 4) Is there a significant relationship between
teachers attendance in the Kto12 seminar/training and their agreement on the rationale,
education vision, goals, and benefits of the curriculum? 5) Is there a significant relationship
between the teachers attendance in the Kto12 seminar/training and their usage of Kto12
materials in their classroom instruction? 6) What are the perceptions of the teachers on the
Kto12 curriculum implementation?

Significance of Study
Although, the acceptability on the enactment of the new curriculum is mandated for the
teachers, the study will give imperative insights regarding the views of the teachers specifically to
provide the school administrators with some feedbacks on the perceptions of the teachers, to
enlighten the policy makers and curriculum designers for the enclosure of seminars and trainings
in the program, to offer the DepEd with some informative criticisms on the curriculum
implementation, and it may contribute to the fund of knowledge in Science Education.

Research Design of the Study


Descriptive with correlational type of research method was employed to investigate the science
teachers perceptions as well as to know the relationships of some variables pertaining to
teachers characteristics on the Kto12 curriculum implementation. In descriptive research, it
involves detailed descriptions of specific situation(s) through interviews, observations, and
document review. It may also include numerical descriptions such as frequency and average. On
3

the other hand, correlational method encompasses quantitative analyses on the strength of
relationships between two or more variables (SBR RTAPS,2008).

Sampling Procedure of the Study


The study was conducted in 2013 and early 2014. Due to Kto12 curriculum second year
implementation, the study only covered the grade 7 and grade 8 teachers from Marawi City high
schools, particularly those teaching science subjects. Purposive sampling was employed in the
study. Subsequently, this resulted to thirty (30) and twenty (20) science teachers from public and
private high schools in Marawi City, respectively.

Collection of Data
Science teachers characteristics and their perceptions were gathered with the use of the
following: the questionnaire for teachers profile and for the positive and negative feedbacks of
the implementation and these were supported by Likert Scale on how they agreed on the
statements formulated by the DepEd on the rationale and benefits of the Kto12 curriculum; the
interview guide in which the questions were primarily based on the questionnaire to follow-up
and verify the data collected from the respondents; and the observation notes to triangulate the
gathered data from the questionnaire on whether or not the teachers used the Kto12 learning
materials in their classroom instruction.

Treatment of the Data


Through Microsoft excel and statistical software, the collected data were systematically organized
and analyzed with the following: the arithmetic mean and percentage to describe the
respondents characteristics; the histogram graphs to visually identify some variables included in
the study; and the Pearson chi square test to know if the relationship between the teachers
perception on the Kto12 curriculum implementation as well as the usage of Kto12 materials and
the attendance in the Kto12 seminar/training is significant or not. Furthermore, the perceptions
of the science teachers were categorized as either positive or negative. In addition, some
significant accounts under each sort were also identified.

Findings of the Study


As shown in Figure 1, most of the grade 7 and grade 8 private high school science teachers were
at the age bracket 20-25. While that of public science teachers belonged between 41-55 years of
age. It may be explained that most of the teachers from the former were fresh graduates. Private
school administrators probably have an easy access to recruit younger teachers. Possibly, in terms
of age, teachers from the private high schools were more decided in dealing with curriculum
change.
4

Figure 1. Comparison of Age Between Public and Private High School Science Teachers

On the other hand, it is interesting to note that the researcher observed that almost all of the
respondents were Meranaos, one of the Muslim groups in the country. Being married is a status
symbol particularly in Muslims (Gumal, 2012). Furthermore, a married individual in Meranaos
has many social obligations; she/he is required to appear in many occasions: wedding, funeral,
etc. This may convey that they may have distributed time between social and work obligations.
Thus, students may be at risk, particularly if teachers are on excessive social commitments. In
other words, it would be difficult to entertain some changes in the teaching specifically in the
curriculum. And another time ought to be allotted to study and explore the materials given by
the DepEd. However, this inference may not be true for all teachers. Another study ought to be
conducted to substantiate such implication.

Figure 2. Comparison of Civil Status Between Public and Private High School Science Teachers

It can be seen in Figure 2 the comparison between the civil status of public and private high
school science teachers handling grade 7 and grade 8. Since younger teachers were noted in the
private high schools, the teachers may not be at the period of marrying or perhaps not yet ready
for such. Hence, they may give more attention in their teaching career and more open for
curriculum transition. Nonetheless, another study must be conducted to support this claim.

Figure 3 expressed the comparison on the highest educational attainment of science teachers
from public and private high schools. It is clearly comprehended that both public and private
high school had science teachers with masters degree units. Since a course on curriculum
development is one of the subjects offered in the graduate study, this may mean that teachers
may already have thorough knowledge on curriculum transition. And they may have the insights
on the previous curriculum and how it differs both in the content and process. Probably, this
may affect their perceptions on the Kto12 curriculum implementation. In addition to that, some
of them just finished their baccalaureate courses, specifically more from the private high schools.
As attested from the previous findings, private schools had more fresh graduates. It is
believed that neophytes are more exposed to changes.
5

Figure 3. Comparison of Highest Educational Attainment Between Public and Private High
School Science Teachers

Figure 4 provided information on the employment status of the high school science teachers. As
noted, most teachers from the public high schools already gained permanent employment in
their school. This may imply that the school administrators may not be hesitant to send their
teachers on the Kto12 seminars/trainings as these may be funded by the DepEd. Moreover, they
may have an easy contact for the Kto12 materials. Hence, they may use those in their classroom
instruction. In contrast to the private high schools, it is apparent that teachers may not stay
permanently in their corresponding schools particularly if they find better opportunities. Only
those directly connected to the administrators may prefer to stay longer; probably they may have
high raise compared to others.

Figure 4. Comparison on the Employment Status between Public and Private High
School Science Teachers

As shown in Figure 5, most of the public high school science teachers had longer length of
service compared to the private high school science teachers. Most of the latter were still new
recruits. This may be explained by the fact that once the teachers find more opportunities, they
left the private institutions. However, this may entail that private science teachers may have an
easy acceptance on the new curriculum since they were still not burn-out in their profession.
6

Figure 5. Comparison of Years of Teaching between the Public and Private High
School Science Teachers

Figure 6. Attendance in the Kto12 Seminar/Training

As shown in the figure above, most public science teachers handling grade 7 and grade 8 had
attended the seminar/training pertaining to the Kto12 curriculum. This is supported by the
interview that they were required to attend the said orientations/workshops since these were
funded by their schools as obliged by the DepEd. This is then implied that they may gain
positive perception on the new curriculum; and that the speakers may have well convinced the
teachers to adapt it. As contended by Fajardo (2012) that another factor which sought to
determine its influence on Kto12 programs social acceptability is the speakers bureau. Effective
communication strategies of the speakers bureau in relation to the promotion of and
information dissemination about Kto12 may be acquired by the teachers during the seminars.

Similarly, it can be surmised that public high school science teachers may be well acquainted with
the curriculum compared to the private high school science teachers. In fact from the interview
conducted, some science teachers from the private high schools claimed that they failed to attend
the seminar/training because either their school administrators or academic consultants had
instead come to such academic event. Afterwards, they conducted a semi-echo of the
seminars/trainings. Perhaps, this was so due to financial reasons because some
seminars/trainings required expenses either for the registration fees or for the transportation and
other fees during the travel once conducted outside Marawi City.
7

Figure 7. Perception of High School Science Teachers on Kto12 Curriculum Implementation

As revealed in the figure shown above, many science teachers had a positive perception on the
Kto12 curriculum implementation. It was supported by the interview that aside from the
anticipation that the said curriculum may bring positive impact on the performance of the
students, whether they like it or not they did not have the choice to say no since it has been put
into law through RA 10533 which was signed by President Aquino on May 15, 2013. Apparently,
the figure expressed that science teachers coming from the public and private high schools have
the same status on how they perceived the curriculum transition.

Figure 8. Usage of Kto12 Learning Materials in the Classroom Instruction

Figure 8 illustrated that most teachers from the public high schools used Kto12 materials in their
classroom instruction; this is in contrast to those from private high schools. The figure above
can be supported by the previous figure (Figure 6) that many from private high school science
teachers had not attended the Kto12 trainings compared to the public high school. This is also
revealed in the classroom observations conducted by the researcher. Moreover, some teachers
claimed that using the materials without orientation/attendance in the seminar/training may be
difficult. Nevertheless, it is shown further in the figure that both sectors had teachers who
flanked to use the materials. During the interview, it was found out that some teachers were
reluctant to use the Kto12 materials due to detected errors specifically in the modules. In
addition to this, some of them were not convinced on the sequence of the lessons given in the
modules. They could not find coherence in the presentation of the lessons. The interview also
8

revealed that many teachers both from the two sectors had initiated to get some materials
(softcopy/hardcopy of the module) on their own expenses.

This may mean that module writers through the assistance of DepEd and other agencies ought
to improve the materials since this may forfeit the vision of the curriculum to enhance the
academic performance of the students. Mistakes cannot correct another mistakes.

Table 1. Correlation on the Attendance in Seminar/Training and the Perceptions on the Kto12
Curriculum Implementation

Value df Sig. (2-sided) Decision


Pearson chi square .721 1 .396 Not significant
Linear-by-linear association .707 1 .401
N of valid cases 50

As demonstrated in the table above, there is no significant relationship between the science
teachers attendance on the Kto12 seminar/training and their perceptions on its implementation
since the p-value (0.396) is greater than 0.05 level of significance. This may imply that teachers
already had the mind set to accept the curriculum transition since it has already been approved
by President Aquino. This would further corroborate that teachers were compliant to whatever
the DepEd supports and implements.

Table 2. Correlation on the Attendance in Kto12 Seminar/Training and Agreement on the


Rationale, Education Vision, Goals, and Benefits of Enhanced Kto12 Basic Education Program

Value df Sig. (2-sided) Decision


Pearson chi square .654 1 .419 Not significant
Linear-by-linear association .641 1 .423
N of valid cases 50

In congruent to the previous table, Table 2 indicated that there is no significant relationship
between the science teachers attendance on the Kto12 seminar/training and their agreement on
the rationale, vision, goals, and benefits of the new curriculum since the p-value (0.419) is greater
than 0.05 level of significance. This may confirm that teachers were amenable to the programs
implemented byDepEd.

Table 3. Correlation on the Attendance in the Kto12 Seminar/Training and the Usage of
Kto12 Materials in Classroom Instruction

Value df Sig. (2-sided) Decision


Pearson chi square 5.265 1 .022 Significant
Linear-by-linear association 5.160 1 .020
N of valid cases 50

Table 3 revealed that there is significant relationship between the science teachers attendance in
the Kto12 seminar/training and the usage of Kto12 materials in classroom instruction since the
p-value (0.022) is below 0.05 level of significance. This may suggest that in order for the DepEd
9

to have full implementation of the curriculum, they ought to provide more seminars/trainings to
the teachers. Through these, they would be encouraged and enlightened to use the materials. On
the other hand, they should examine first those materials before using in classroom instruction
because this may only lead to more problems in the students learning process. Eventually,
wrong concepts may result to useless new curriculum.

Perception of Science Teachers


Since, the perceptions of the teachers coming from public and private science teachers on the
Kto12 curriculum implementation were alike, the data were generally categorized according to
whether positive or negative perceptions.

Positive Perceptions
As revealed from the questionnaire and the interview, many science teachers (88.20%) from
grade 7 and grade 8 in public and private high schools in Marawi City claimed that Kto12
curriculum may bring improvement on the educational system of the country. They also stressed
that since the curriculum was approved by the President, they have to support it. Many of them
positively responded on the rationale, education vision, goals, and benefits of the curriculum
claimed by the DepEd.

Negative Perceptions
On the other hand, 11.8% of the teachers were doubtful on the implementation. It was found
out from the interview that they were not ready for the curriculum transition specifically those
teaching in the private high schools. They asserted that more seminars and trainings ought to be
conducted so as to prepare the teachers. Similarly, they found the Kto12 materials with
discrepancy which made them unenthusiastic towards the use of it. However, many of them
instead use the materials as references.

The above two general perceptions of the science teachers may suggest that the DepEd still
needs to widen their campaign on the implementation through trainings so as to increase the
awareness of the teachers. Importantly, they have to assess the materials before releasing them to
the different schools to avoid more inaccuracy.

Conclusions and Implications of the Study


The teachers characteristics such as age, civil status, highest educational attainment, employment
status and number of years in teaching may have inferred different influences on their
perceptions in the Kto12 curriculum implementation. Further, more science teachers from the
public high schools had attended the Kto12 seminars/trainings than those from the private high
schools. Similarly, there were the same positive perceptions on the Kto12 curriculum
implementation between the science teachers from public and private high schools. Nonetheless,
more public high school science teachers had used the Kto12 materials in the classroom
instruction than those from private high schools. And there was no significant relationship
between the teachers attendance in the Kto12 seminar/training and their positive perception on
its implementation. Similarly, there was no significant relationship between teachers attendance
in the Kto12 seminar/training and their agreement on the rationale, education vision, goals, and
benefits of the program. However, there was a significant relationship between the teachers
attendance in the Kto12 seminar/training and their usage of Kto12 learning materials in their
classroom instruction. Additionally, many science teachers positively perceived on the Kto12
curriculum implementation as well as agreed on the rationale, education vision and goals, and
benefits of the curriculum cited by the DepEd. On the other hand, some had negative
10

impression on the transition due to lack of readiness and inconsistency of the materials
reproduced by the agency for the teachers in classroom instruction.

Accordingly, it is necessary for the DepEd and school administrators to send their teachers on
Kto12 seminars/trainings to prepare them for the curriculum transition. Besides, thorough
examination on the Kto12 materials ought to be conducted by DepEd and module/textbook
evaluators to meet what they intend to attain. Furthermore, these shall be distributed to the
schools for free. Likewise, it is appreciated if DepEd continually coordinates with the private
high schools on the implementation of the new curriculum. This may help private high school
teachers reduce confusions and hesitations. Finally, it is suggested that for future researchers,
they may consider the following: 1) increase the number of respondents and include not only
science teachers but also those from other fields; 2) content analyze the Kto12 learning materials
provided by the DepEd; 3) develop module in line with the Kto12 curriculum; and 4) explore
other variables aside from the parameters covered in this study.

References
Bacani, R. (2014). The Preferred Education Solutions Provider in Southeast Asia and Beyond. Retrieved
from http://www.seameo-innotech.org/ on March 6, 2014.
Salan, L. (2013). Understanding the K to 12 Basic Education Reform. Retrieved from
http://www.slideshare.net/Lilian5254/understanding-k-to-12-enhanced-basic-education on
January 12, 2014.
PIDS. (2014). Issues on K to 12 Basic Education Reform. Retrieved from http://www.pids.gov.ph/ on
February 10, 2014.
SBR RTAPS (2008). Types of Research Methods. Retrieved from
http://www.doe.virginia.gov/support/school_improvement/training/dta_student_support_sys/
dropout_prevention/webinars_9-12/w2_s2_types_of_research_meth ods.pdf on
December 20, 2013.
Gumal, Acsara A.(2012). Factors Affecting the Teaching of Public High School Mathematics Teacher in
the Province of Lanao del Sur and Maguindanao. Dissertation, MSU Marawi City.
Fajardo, A. (2012). Social Acceptability of the K+12 Program and the Role that the Speakers Bureau
Plays in Promoting it as Perceived by Selected Students and Parents. Retrieved from
http://iamlexy.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/final-thesis_fajardo.pdf on March 5, 2014.
11

International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research


p-ISSN: 1694-2493
e-ISSN: 1694-2116
Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 11-21, IJLTER

Path Analysis on the Performance of Educators in Mindanao State


University-Tawi Tawi College of Technology and Oceanography
Kaberl O. Hajilan
kaberl_hajilan@yahoo.com

Abstract
Path analysis is a statistical technique used to examine causal relationships between two or more
variables. It is also used to understand comparative strengths of direct and indirect relationships
among a set of exogenous and endogenous variables which make it unique from other linear
equation models. In this study path analysis was used to draw and gather empirical basis on the
strengths and weaknesses of educators to allow them either to revise, compare, maintain, or
discontinue their teaching performance using the models. It is in this study where the
performance of educators of Tawi-Tawi elicited, specifically the teaching habits, attitudes, skills,
administrators involvement, appointment status and demographic profile among educators of
Mindanao State University in Tawi-Tawi province. Purposive sampling was used in selecting the
participants. Causal model techniques were used in this descriptive correlational study. The
researcher distributed the questionnaire to each college faculty. Results revealed that the
educators were majority old age, married, Islam, permanent and masters holder. Full model
regression analysis revealed that teaching skills and administrators involvement had the most
influential effect on the performance of educators. The teaching habits and attitudes have
significant relationships on appointment status, educational attainment and teaching skills with
teaching habits, monthly income, and the administrators involvement have also significant
relationship to the performance of educator. Therefore, it is concluded that have direct effect
and influence to the performance of educators. Hence, the model 7 concluded as the best fits
models. Skills increase the educators performance in college teaching. Educators with positive
teaching attitudes have wholesome improved teaching skills; wholesome and improved teaching
skills increase the teaching habits, and better teaching habits increase educators performance.

Keywords: Path analysis, Causal models, Performance, Educators

Introduction
The pursuit of excellence is a concern of Philippine higher education. This is in line with its goal
to produce qualified manpower needed to accelerate social and economic development and thus
bring about improvement in the quality of life of the people. In its quest for excellence, higher
education in the Philippines must therefore be able to harness the potential of a person to the
fullest extent, so that one may be able to discharge his/her social, political, economic and
spiritual roles in the society to the best of his/her ability. Sutaria, as cited by Nagtalon (2001)
mentioned that quality education implies an upgrading of educational standards a condition
that is seminal to the development of excellence in education as well as in life. A performance of
higher standards requires an improvement of inputs, processes and outputs of education, the
individual learners, as well as the content and relevance of what is taught. Eisner (1995) states
that some educators refuse to understand the importance of their role in evaluation. Often times,
they feel evaluation as fault-finding mission rather than improving instruction and learning
12

strategies. According to Gronlund (1995) path analysis and discrepancy evaluation model are
processes or cluster of processes that the faculty perform in order to gather data that will enable
them to decide whether to continue, change, revise or terminate some teaching roles. In
evaluation both educators and educational managers are concerned with determining the relative
values of whatever they are performing.

Ben-Peretz (2001) articulated in her article that, many things worth knowing can be taught.
These includes the things that would relate to the growing, diverse and sometimes contradictory
expectations of teacher education programs. Egan (2001) as she cited argued that educators
should give attention for clarifying student evaluation by the teachers; how they evaluate it
must not confines on the technical aspects when facilitating students learning. Ben-Peretz (2001)
said that teacher education is delicate academic endeavor because once a teacher teaching is
performance is vague, ambiguous, and fraught with uncertainties it will lead to tremenduous
misconceptions among learner. This scenario poses extremely difficult challenges for teacher
education. Ben- Peretz as cited by Sindelar and Rosenberg (2000) identified some demands
regarding teacher education that are contradictory. These includes legislative mandates for
curriculum coverage, restrictive university regulations, and theconsumer orientations of
higher education students. In addition, there is a danger of professional standards of being
ignored due to extreme shortages of teachers which may lead to lack the necessary competencies
of teaching force pertaining to the demands of the profession.

Like other colleges and universities, the MSU Tawi-Tawi faculty members have the same roles.
As expected, such role should come up with quality output to fulfill the institutional goals and
objectives as its mandate. Through evaluation, one can see the real picture and image of such
role that it is from here where necessary actions be conceived and realized for further
development that its continuity of teaching roles be assured. Oriondo and Antonio (1989)
affirmed that systematic process on determining the extent to which instructional objectives are
achieved through evaluation is deemed necessary. Decisions making should be trusted based on
the individual needs of learners in the classroom. Both the flexibility and responsiveness require
the idiosyncratic nature of learning (Humberman 1983, McDonald 1992). To address this
problem, this study was undertaken to develop and unify a set of measures that could be used to
assess and evaluate the effectiveness of the roles of teachers in higher education institutions.
Lariosa (2001) stated that excellence is what we want in a university because it sets high
expectations and goals for all the learners, and then we also work hard in every way to help our
students achieve excellence. The school is a miniature society by itself and thus, forms a new
generation of citizens capable of thinking and changing as conditions in society also change. It
was indeed the main concern of this study to provide leeway for the improvement, modification,
and redirection of educators role in higher education institution by adopting the path analysis
and discrepancy evaluation models.

Statement of the problem


This study was undertaken to develop and unify a set of measures that could be used to assess
and evaluate the effectiveness of teachers performance and to determine the relationship of the
teachers performance to the teaching methods in higher education institutions. As mentioned by
Sutaria in Nagtalon (2001), quality education could only be attained through upgrading
educational standards that enhance the development of excellence in education as well as in life.
However, Eisner (1995) states that some educators refuse to understand the importance of their
role in evaluation. Often times, they feel evaluation as fault-finding mission rather than
improving instruction and learning strategies. Thus this study specifically sought answers on the
following statements; first, does the demographic profile of the participants significantly
contribute to the variance in the relationship between the performances of educators? Second,
13

what relationship exists among the teaching habits, attitudes, skills, demographic profiles and
educators performance? Third, which of the variables in the t models that have great influence
on educators performance and most best fits model? The hypotheses statements in this study
were concentrated on educators performance data as measured by teaching variables through
path analysis using Pearson product-moment coefficient from seven causal models (See Annexes
for each model). According to Gronlund (1995) path analysis and discrepancy evaluation model
are processes or cluster of processes that the faculty perform in order to gather data that will
enable them to decide whether to continue, change, revise or terminate some teaching roles. In
evaluation both educators and educational managers are concerned with determining the relative
values of whatever they are performing.

Research Design of the Study


This study made used of a descriptive correlational research design. The purpose of this
descriptive correlational study (Causal Model) was to assess, identify, determine and find out by
examining the relationships of the teaching habits, attitudes, skills, and other variables in the
demographic profiles of educators performance in MSU Tawi-Tawi as measured by the data
collected from educators teaching in college. Models of the different path and relationship of
variables were shown in the annex section of this paper. Teaching Habit (TH), Teaching Attitude
(TA), Educators Performance (EP) is shown in Figure1. Path model 1 showing the teaching
habits and teaching attitudes influence on the performance of educators. Variables Teaching
Habit (TH); Teaching Skills (TS); Teaching Attitude (TA); EP DE UR CF AO TR OM RA SN
C E is shown in Figure2. Path model 2 shows that teaching skills influence on the performance
of educators Teaching Skill (TS) Teaching Educators Attitude Performance (TA) (EP) Teaching
Habit (TH) Figure3. Path Model 3 showing no link between teaching attitudes and educators
performance. Teaching Educators Experience Performance (TE) (EP) Teaching 0.08S6kills (TS)
Monthly Income (MI) Figure 4. Path model 4 shows the total effect of teaching experience on
Performance Satisfaction.

The direct effect on performance, teaching skills, and monthly income Teaching Skills, Teaching
Experience, Teaching Habit, Educational Attainment Educators Performance Appointment,
Teaching Status, Attitudes, and Administrators Involvement are shown in Figure5. Path Model 5
shows the variables and arrows to indicate the direction of effects to be investigated or
educators performance Teaching Skills, Teaching Experience, Teaching Habits, Teaching
Attitudes, Educational Attainment, Teaching Attitudes, and Administrators Involvement
(Figure6). Path model 6 shows the variables influencing educators performance Teaching Skills,
Teaching Habits, Appointment Status, Educators Performance, Teaching Attitudes, and
Administrators Involvement (Figure7). Path Model 7 is showing the best model of the
independent variables to the dependent variables.

Significant of the study


The concern and highlight of this study was on important feature on the role of educators to
provide faculty an elbow room for self-esteem, self-realization, self-improvement; to provide
students with excellent learning and opportunities for acquisition of quality knowledge; and put
forward the goals and objectives of educational managers to achieve standard as prescribed by
the university. The findings of this study would provide educational managers some bases in the
formulation of policies, standards to optimize the capabilities of higher education institution in
the different part of the country in providing excellent education for the intended beneficiaries
of tertiary education. This would awaken and make them aware of their strengths and
weaknesses in their teaching roles and functions as educators and educational managers. The
administrators would know where to improve and develop their skills, methods, approaches, and
14

practices for effective performance in teaching learning activities. The result of this study would
be useful for the incoming, new and old educators for a more effective, efficient, dynamic and
successful teaching- learning activities. It would provide the chairpersons, deans, directors,
secretaries, supervising- instructors, program coordinators, and unit heads as well as instructors
and professors important information to improve their management and supervision practices
and serve as basis for improving and developing the teaching methods, strategies and techniques
to maximize learning activities. This study would provide the educators important insights that
would encourage and boost their moral and make them responsible citizens in a technological
age. To students, this study would bridge gap among limitations and bring about better
understanding of themselves, their mentors, staff and educational managers. They would be
more keen observers of their academic endeavors and be guided as to their conduct of behavior
and actions. As ultimate beneficiaries of these educational mandates, the student would acquire
more if there are changes in classroom management. Heller (1998) stressed that improving
performance needs to challenge existing ways of working through systematic approach. One
must learn to improve and generate their own tasks, tackle problems, agree on solutions, and
implement their decisions with confidence. This will become successful when the educators are
properly guided, supported and given attention in improving their teaching methodologies:
quality instruction, quality facilities, and quality improvement, it would result to quality learning
vis--vis quality educators, thus quality education and graduates. To Commission on Higher
Education (CHED) management as a whole, this study would provide input to enhance and
improve current policies, rules and regulation affecting the evaluation on the role of educators as
well as relevant insights to curricular expansions in the future evaluations.

Methods of Procedure
This descriptive correlation causal model study was designed to examine the relationship of
educators performance with teaching habits, skills, attitudes as well as demographic profile. In
an effort to establish a clearer view of the performance, the seven (7) models of teaching
strategies showing different arrows intertwined from endogenous and exogenous variables were
drawn based on the usual practice of the educators. The total sample population consisted of
college educators of Mindanao State University in Tawi-Tawi that gathered data from them for
the school year 2004- 2005.

Collection of Data
With the permission from the Office of the Mindanao State University at Tawi-Tawi Chancellor,
the researcher stated gathering data from seven colleges throughout that institution. Data were
taken from the college faculty of MSU Tawi- Tawi involving ten colleges including the extension
classes at the different municipalities of Tawi-Tawi province. Data were gathered through the
survey questionnaire which was valid and reliable with an alpha coefficient of = 0.87 reflecting
high reliability. This was pre- tested among the college faculty of Central Mindanao University,
Musuan, Bukidnon, Philippines. It took one month of January 2005 to gather the data from
seven colleges in the Island Municipalities where College of Arts and Sciences Extensions
located. For the Island Municipalities College Arts and Sciences Extensions faculty participants,
questionnaires were sent through hired research assistant that spent two weeks to retrieve the
responses. Primary data were collected through personal interview and administration of the
questionnaire by the researcher. The high school and elementary educators were excluded in this
study. All in all there were 130 college faculty of MSU Tawi-Tawi who were the respondents of
the study.

Treatment of Data
All gathered data were summarized, translated, interpreted and analyzed using a statistical
software. Descriptive statistic was used to describe the educators, performance in college
15

teaching at Mindanao State University Tawi-Tawi. Pearson Product Moment Correlation was
used to determine the linear associations or relationship among the selected variables such as the
performance of the educators in performing their roles in teaching. Multiple stepwise regression
analysis was used to determine the variations of independent variables that are influential and
have direct and indirect effects on the educators performance in teaching. It was also used to
determine the most important factors that contributed to the competence and skills developed
by the educators. Furthermore, path analysis was used for studying the patterns among the
demographic profile, teaching habits, attitudes, skills, performance and practices of educators in
teaching. This 12 was also utilized for identifying the direct, indirect and total effects of the
variables in the models. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to determine
the significance among the means of the responses to the questionnaire from the group of
participants. To get the best model and best fits of the data multiple stepwise regression analysis
was used. The endogenous variable and exogenous variables have intertwined arrows showing
the direct, indirect and total effects. To determine statistical significant of the data 0.05 level used
as measure.

Findings
This inquiry intended to analyze and determine which among the variables, demographic profile,
teaching habits, attitudes, skills, experience, and administrators involvement were the best
predictors of the educators performance in college teaching using path analysis. It investigated
further into the possible patterns of causation among variables that directly or indirectly involve
or affect the educators performance in college teaching.

Among the hypotheses tested the variables that show significant relationships to educators
performance are: teaching habits and attitudes; teaching habits and skills; skills and attitudes;
teaching experience and monthly income; teaching experience and administrators involvement;
skills and administrators involvement. Only the educators appointment and teaching skills
shows no significant relationship. The numerical values of significant were the following;
Teaching Skills 0.021 0.286 0.173; Teaching Habits 0.184 0.563; Appointment Status 0.012;
Educators Performance 0.250 0.134; Teaching Attitudes 0.123 0.075 0.023; Administrators
Involvement 0.136 0.283; (Figure7). Path Model 7 is showing the best model of the independent
variables to the dependent variable.

Conclusion and implication of the study


The level of teaching habits of educators in their identified roles is very high as indicated by the
computed Pooled Average weighted Mean of 4.57. Thus, the null hypothesis stating that there is
no significant relationship between appointment status and teaching habits on the educators
performance is rejected since significant relationship between the appointment status and
teaching habits on the educators performance existed. The attitudes acquired by the educators
towards their role were also very high as revealed by the Pooled Average Weighted Score of 4.58.
This means that educators who have good attitudes also developed positive teaching habits. This
claims is supported with the statistical results showing a significant relationship between the
variables. Educational attainment and teaching attitudes on educators performance is also highly
correlated.

The relationship between teaching habits and teaching attitudes of the educators is highly
influential on the performance of educators and significantly correlated. Thus, the null
hypothesis stating that there is no significant relationship between teaching habits and attitudes is
rejected. The skills acquired by the educators who undergo teaching have greatest
effect/influence on the educators performance as evidenced by the path coefficient of 0.662.
16

This means that skills have influenced so much on the educators performance. Therefore, there
is significant relationship between the teaching skills and attitudes on the educators
performance. The level of performance of educators in the fulfillment of their teaching role is
relatively high as indicated by the computed Pooled Average Weighted Score of 4.39. This means
educators that have really often performed their teaching roles. It is also significantly existed
when educators role was correlated with teaching efficiency using different strategies. Thus,
teaching skills and monthly income in the performance of educators is significantly correlated.
The relationship between teaching habits, skills and performance of educators in fulfilling their
teaching roles significantly existed when they were correlated. The factors that have direct
influence on the performance of educators are the following: teaching habits with coefficient
value 0.250, skills 0.265, attitudes 0.331, age .039, and civil status .043 at 1% level of significance.
This means that all of these factors had greatly contributed/influenced on educators
performance. These results indicate that there is significant relationship between the teaching
skills and administrators involvement on the educators performance. Other results showed a no
significant relationship existed between educators performance and their sex, religion, monthly
income, appointment status, years of experience in college teaching, and educational attainment.

Bibliography
ALIMO-OT, M. L. 2003. Teacher Personality Traits and Practices Prepared of Students of Halipatan
National High School in Relation to Their Academic Achievement. Graduate School Journal.
6(1), pp.37, CMU Graduate School, Musuan, Bukidnon,Philippines
BARRIDO, E. L. 2001. Some Strategies for Maintaining Communicative Teaching. In:
Achieving Excellence in Research, Extension and Instruction;
PAL, S. K. (ed). 2001. Graduate School Students Council. Central Mindanao University,
Musuan, Bukidnon, Philippines.
BARRIDO, E.L., REOMERO, P.R., AND TIANERO, L.C. (ed.) 2002. Graduate School
Student Council Journal, Central Mindanao University, Musuan, Bukidnon. 3 (1).,pp.38-39
BEN-PERETZ, M. 2001. The Impossible Role of teacher Educators in Changing World.
Journal of Teacher Education. 52 (6),pp.90-111
BERG, H. and M. FERBU. 2000. Men and Women Graduate Students. Journal of Higher
Education. 54 (6), pp. 49-50
DUKE, C. 2002. Managing the Learning University . SRHE and Open University, Celtic
Court, 22 Ballmoor, Buckingham,
DUKE, C. 2002. Managing the Learning University. Celtic Court 22 Ballmoor, Buckingham,
MK 18 IXW SRHE and Open University press.
FORKETT, N. and LUMBY, J. 2003. Leading and Managing Education. 6 Bonhill St.,
London: Paul Chapman Publishing. A SAGE Publishing Company.
GRONLUND, N.E 1995. Measurement and Evaluation in Teaching. 5th ed. New York:
McMillan Publishing http://www.thejournals.com.
GOOD, R. 2000. A Review of the Integration of Science and Mathematics Implications for
further Research. Louisiana State University. Journal of Teacher Education. 100 (2).
Educational Technology Standards and performance Indicators for All Teachers.
Internet~URL:
HAWORTH, A. and BRYAN, R. A. 1998. Emblems of Quality in Higher Education:
Developing and Sustaining High-Quality Programmes. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
A Viacom Company.
HOUSEHOLDER, D.L. and BOSER, R. A. 2004. ASSESSING THE effectiveness of The
Change to Technology in Technical Education. Internet~ http.// www.yahoo.com
Inverting our Future Role of Teachers. Internet~URL: http://www.nap.edu/readingroom
Recommendation: Improving the Quality of Mentoring. http://www.object~hrm.
Objectives & Competencies in the Teacher Education Program. Internet~URL:
http://www.evaluation.htm. Evaluating Instruction for Indicators of Engaged Learning.
Internet~URL: http://www.nets for teacher.htm.
LABAY, T. and MACARAYAN, N. A. 1998. Teachers Perceptions Towards The
17

Implementation of THE in selected NHS of Bukidnon. Graduate School Journal. 1 (1),pp.115,


CMU Graduate School Journal, Musuan, Bukidnon,Philippines
LARIOSA, E.A. 2001. Some Roadblocks to Academic Excellence in Our Schools. In:
Achieving Excellence in Research, Extension, and Instruction.
PAL, S.K. (ed.). 2001. Graduate School Students Council. Central Mindanao University,
Musuan, Bukidnon, Philippines
LAO, M.M. 2001. The Making of a University. In: Achieving Excellence in Research,
Extension, and Instruction. PAL, S.K. (ed.) 2001. Graduate School Students Council. Central
Mindanao University, Musuan, Bukidnon. philippines
MK 18 IXW DUKA, C. D. 1999. Historical, Political, and Legal Foundation of Education.
Quezon City, Philippines: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc.
MONSON, M.P., and MOSON, R.J. 1999. Who Creates Curriculum? New Roles for
Teachers. Journal of Teacher Education
NEISS, M.L. 2001. A Model for integrating Teacher in Preservice Science and Mathematics
Content-Specific Teacher Preparation. Journal of Teacher Education. 101(2).
NAGTALON, J. A. 2002. Realities and Challenges in Graduate School Education. In:
Charting Our Course: Trends and Issues in Education for the New Millennium.
NAGTALON, J. A. 2001. Participatory Curriculum Development: A Requisite of
Excellence and Relevance in Educational Programs. In: Achieving Excellence in Research,
Extension and Instruction.
PAL, S.K. (ED.). 2001. Graduate School Students Council Journal. Central Mindanao
University, Musuan, Bukidnon.
PAMPANGA, A.R. 2004. Strategic Management and Instructional Leadership. Educational
Conference. DepEd. Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines.
PETERSON. 2001. Teacher Evaluation. Internet http://www.programeval.htm.
PRADO, N.I. 2003. Causal Model of College Academic Achievement of Central Mindanao
University, Graduate School, Journa, 6 (2),pp. 105-111.
RAGE and HOPE. 2004. Role of Teachers. . Internet http://www.mydocument.
RAMSDEN, P. 2003. Learning to Teach in Higher Education. 2nd edition. 11 New Fetter
Lane, London: Routeledge Falmer.
REES, W. D. 1999. The Skills of Management. 4th ed., London: International Thomson
Business Press.
ROSSI, FREEMAN, and LIPSEY, 1999. Cost-Effectivenes Model. . Internet
http://www.yahoo.com
SEELEY, 2004. Role of Teachers. Internet http://www.yahoo.com SUK PANG, J., and
TIANERO, and TIANERO. 2001. School Legislation. Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines: 22
Karats Printing and Publishing House.
TUCKER, A. and BRYAN, R. A. 1998. The academic Dean: Dove, Dragon, and Diplomat.
866 3rd Ave., New York: McMillan Publishing Company.
WOODLEY, D. 2000. Curriculum Evaluation Plan Internet http://www.programeval.htm.
ZWAENEPOEL, P.P 1995. System Analysis in Education. 2nd ed.,Manila,UST, Printing
Office.
18

Annexes

TEACHING
HABIT
(TH)

EDUCATORS
PERFORMANCE
(EP)

TEACHING
ATTITUDE
(TA)

Figure1. Path model 1 showing the teaching habits and teaching attitudes influence on the
performance of educators

TEACHING
EP
HABIT (TH)
DE
UR
CF
TEACHING AO
SKILLS TR
(TS) OM
RA
SN
C
E
TEACHING
ATTITUDE
(TA)
Figure2. Path model 2 showing that teaching skills influence on the performance of educators

Teaching
Skill
(TS)
Teaching Educators
Attitude Performance
(TA) (EP)

Teaching
Habit
(TH)

Figure3. Path Model 3 showing no link between teaching attitudes and educators performance.
19

Teaching Educators
Experience Performance
(TE) (EP)

Teaching
Skills
0.086
(TS)

Monthly Income
(MI)

Figure 4. Path model 4 showing the Total effect of teaching experience on Performance
Satisfaction. In comparison, the direct effect on performance, teaching skills, and monthly
income

Teaching
Skills

Teaching
Experience
Teaching
Habit

Educators
Educational Performance
Attainment

Teaching
Attitudes

Appointment
Status

Administrators
Involvement

Figure5. Path Model 5 showing the variables and arrows to indicate the direction of effects to be
investigated or educators performance
20

Teaching
Skills

Teaching Teaching
Experience Habits

Teaching
Attitudes

Educational Teaching
Attainment Attitudes

Administrators
Involvement

Figure6. Path model 6. Showing the variables influencing educators performance


21

Teaching
Skills
0.021 0.563
0.286

Teaching
0.184
Habits
0.173
Appointment
Status 0.012 Educators
Performance
0.250

0.283 Teaching 0.136


Attitudes
0.283
0.134
0.123 0.075 0.023

Administrators
Involvement

Figure7. Path Model 7 showing the best model of the independent variables to the dependent
variable

The Author

Kaberl O. Hajilan born in Dahu, Pangutaran, Sulu, Philippines on July 19,


1958. He finished PhD. Educational Administration and completed
academic requirements PhD in Agricultural Educations at Central
Mindanao University, Musuan, Bukidnon, Philippines, Masters in Public
Administration, Masters in Education, and Bachelor of Science in
Fisheries in Mindanao State University-TawiTawi College of Technology
and Oceanography, Sanga-Sanga, Bongao, Tawi-Tawi Philippines. He is
the dean of Graduate School Mindanao State University, Tawi-Tawi
College of Technology and Oceanography, a former Director of Student Affairs, Director
Alumni Relations, Chairman Graduate Education, Public Administration, Marine Fisheries, and
Ocean and Fish Technology Center of the same University. Dr. Hajilan is a founder of
Association of Doctors in the Academe of Tawi-Tawi (ADATA, Inc). He is a member of
ZAMBASULTA-Palawan Hajj council of the Philippines and has travelled to Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia performing pilgrimage since 1990 to present.
22

International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research


p-ISSN: 1694-2493
e-ISSN: 1694-2116
Vol. 15, No.4, pp. 22-31, IJLTER

Learning Styles as Predictor of Academic Performance in the


Nursing Department of an Asian University and Colleges

Ashley Ali Bangcola


orcid.org/0000-0002-8228-9930
ashyannaali@gmail.com
Mindanao State University
Marawi City, Philippines

Abstract
There have been many attempts to study the different elements that are keys to academic
performance students learn as measured by their learning styles and how this will translate to
academic success have been considered as an insignificant component in the academic success of
students. This quantitative descriptive-correlational study aimed to determine correlation
between learning styles and academics. The participants consisted of 304 nursing students who
were randomly selected from eight nursing schools in Marawi City. The Perceptual Learning
Style Questionnaire was utilized to carry out the rationale of the study. The results demonstrated
that the students were generally doing fairly well in the nursing program and generally exhibited a
close balance between all the learning styles. The four learning styles (Visual, Auditory, Tactile
and Kinesthetic) were found to have been used by the students simultaneously as major learning
styles with most of them expressing preference for Kinesthetic learning style (78%) while
expressing minor and negligible preference for Group learning style. The study revealed
important relation between learning styles and performance. The findings in this study highlight
the importance of recognizing students varying learning styles. Teachers should be aware that
efficacy with more learning styles will allow students to achieve the optimal learning
environment.

Keywords: Nursing students, Learning Styles Preference, Academic Performance, quantitative


research, Philippines

Introduction

There were several attempts to enhance the level of academic achievement by students and there
are plenty of literature whose subject matter focuses on the academic performance of students
and the different factors affecting it. Yet, there remains a research gap in the literature when it
concerns learning styles, and how this affects or even translates to academic success. Previous
researches on learning styles have found varying environments and individual cognitive
processing as significant determinants to academic performance. Nuzhat et al (2011) argued that
learning processes are affected by the environment and cognition (Abidin et. al, 2011). The study
of learning styles has undergone several examinations (Samarakoon et al, 2013). Analyzing the
learning process of students, and understanding the cycle of knowledge from classroom to
student and back, will go far in helping student be more aware and consequently improve their
23

academic performance. Reid (1995) says that students have individual propensities and that
learning styles are individual natural, habitual, and preferred way(s) of absorbing, processing,
and retaining new information and skills. Some may prefer visual presentations while others
may favor the hands-on approach. On the other hand, Dunn and Griggs (2003) defined learning
style as attitudinal. According to the above-mentioned, learning methods may vary and learning
styles impact educational processes. Nursing students also learn differently. Hence, it would be
worthwhile to study the learning styles of nursing students to enable educators to formulate
positive intervention mechanisms. Learning styles also change overtime as students continue to
experiment on their effectiveness and develop strong style preferences, eventually the student
will favor a certain learning style that has proven helpful in the learning cycle. According to Reid
(1995), perceptual learning styles are the changes among learners in using one or more senses
to understand, organize, and retain experience. Reid also identified six learning styles related to
individual perceptions, namely: auditory, visual, kinesthetic, tactile, group and individual learning.
The common usage of learning style generally follows the abovementioned classifications of
perceptual learning style. According to Gurpinar (2010) instructors should be aware of learning
styles to enable them to use appropriate educational materials. Moreover, when learning and
teaching styles are compatible, this can result to improved understanding of course content
(Mlambo, 2011). The reality however is that educators are not really conscious of their learners
learning styles. Educators generally impart knowledge and skills based on conventions and
individual teaching styles, without necessarily considering the different learning styles of
students. However, to be more effective in the learning cycle, educators should also consider
differences in learning styles among students. While substantive literature exists detailing effects
of learning styles on performance in other countries, the impact of learning styles on Filipino
nursing students has not been as thoroughly investigated in the Philippines. Choi et al (2014) in
their study among pharmacy students found no significant correlation between learning styles
and academic performance of the respondents. In another recent descriptive study about the
elements determining performance among nursing students in a Philippine university identified
study habits and factors relating to school and teachers as having high impact on student nurses
academic performance (Alos et al, 2015), but the effect of learning styles on performance was
not investigated. This study is an attempt to bridge the gap by focusing on learning styles and
success of nursing students in Marawi City. At the very least additional literature in this particular
area of study will have been presented that can serve as reference for further researches in the
importance of learning styles like the model developed by Dunn and Dunn (1978) which has
greatly influenced this study. The learning styles model says that individual differences in learning
styles are conditioned by biological and environmental factors. By using teaching and educational
materials that suit student learning styles, educators can improve academic performance.

Statement of the Problem


Nursing as a profession, requires precision and accuracy, as well as attention to detail. The very
life of another person relies on these qualities possessed by nurses. In the course of acquiring
this knowledge, nursing students are exposed to a unique learning environment and their
performance can be affected by their preferred learning styles. Nursing Students may come from
various backgrounds but when they join the nursing program teachers often use instruction
without considering learning styles. Thus, students may favor certain subjects depending on the
suitability of teaching styles to their very own learning styles. This study was initiated to
determine the learning style preferences of nursing students. We will also investigate the
relationship between academic performance and learning styles among student nurses in Marawi
City.
24

Research Design
The primary goal of this quantitative study was to examine the correlation of learning styles to
academic performance as measured by their grade point average. To accomplish the purpose of
this study, these questions were used. 1. What are the learning styles of nursing students in
Marawi City? (2) What is the academic performance of nursing students in Marawi City? What is
the relationship of learning styles to academic performance? The hypothesis statements in this
study concentrated on academic performance as measured by GPA. Therefore, after controlling
for the demographic variables of the students, the hypothesis to be tested was there is no
significant relation between academic performance and learning style. The descriptive design was
used to describe the learning style preferences and academic performance of nursing students
who were enrolled in all the nursing schools in Marawi City during the Second Semester of
School Year 2014-2015. The correlation method of research was used to determine the relation
between learning styles and academic performance.

Significance
Nursing education needs continued improvement. Understanding learning styles is a way for
educators to upgrade the delivery of instruction by enabling students to optimize their learning
capabilities. The results of this study can be used to facilitate dialogue between students and
faculty members on the nature of the learning process, and what can be done to improve it.
Hopefully, it will enable nursing students to get more of the academic process. Awareness of
learning styles will enable students to use their strengths to achieve academic success. If a
learning experience is adjusted to accommodate diverse styles, students will be able to use their
strengths to achieve academic success. Attention to learning style theory may improve learning
outcomes and academic performance.

Method of Procedure
This study is descriptive and will attempt to find out if the learning styles of nursing students will
influence their overall academic performance. The study used the survey method through a list
of questionnaires. The questionnaire was expanded to include the demographic data such as the
age, sex, year level, and GPA (general point average) of the respondents. The questionnaire
assessed the preferences of student learning styles based on their perceptions. It consists of 30
self-report statements using 5-point Likert scales. The 30 items are distributed equally among the
learning style preferences: Five (5) items each for statements regarding Visual, Auditory,
Kinesthetic, Tactile preferences, and two social aspects of learning: Group and Individual
preferences. The inventory was scored by the student respondents themselves. The learning style
categories with the most points determine an individuals preference for those categories. An
advanced study was conducted to analyze and revise the questionnaires. Its validity was assessed
through computing Cronbachs alpha, which shows the reliability value of .764 indicating the
high reliability of items used in the questionnaire. For the purpose of selecting the setting of the
study, all the eight nursing schools in Marawi City (seven privately-funded schools and one
government-owned school) were selected as the locale and focus area of the study. The
respondents were randomly selected from these schools. The respondent sample comprised of
who are currently enrolled in the nursing program during the Second Semester of School Year
2014-2015. The respondents were almost evenly distributed between all year levels.

Collection of Data
The researcher requested permission to seek participation of the students from the Deans of the
nursing schools prior to initiating the study. The randomly selected nursing students were briefed
on the purpose of the study and their role as respondents. Participating students were given a
consent form. After consent was obtained, the students were given standardized information on
how to answer the questionnaire then each student was given a copy of the Learning Style
25

Questionnaire along with a scoring sheet to complete. After forms were completed they were
returned to the researcher for verification of compliance. Three hundred fifty questionnaires
were distributed to all nursing students. Three hundred four questionnaires were completed and
collected (86.6% response rate). The data gathered were tallied, tabulated, and then subjected to
statistical treatment.

Treatment of Data
The data was analyzed by statistical method. Scores for each set of variable in the learning style
dimension was classified into major, minor and negligible. A score of 38-50 a major preference
towards a particular learning style. A score of 25 to 37 indicates a minor preference. A score of 0
to 24 indicates a negligible preference towards a particular learning style. Frequency count was
used to complete a students learning style profile. The occurrence of each learning style among
nursing students in Marawi City was then presented through descriptive statistics (frequency and
percentages). The other method used is inferential statistics. As such, Spearman Rho Correlation
was used to get results to determine statistical significance. We conclude that the methods of
data analyses are enough to find answers to the research questions in the study.

Findings

Table 1. Frequency and Percentage, Distribution, Learning Styles

Learning Styles Respondents Learning Style Preference based on


Scores
Major Minor Negligible
F % f % f %
Kinesthetic 237 78.0 64 21.1 3 1.0
Auditory 233 76.6 70 23.0 1 .3
Visual 204 67.1 95 31.3 5 1.6
Individual 199 65.5 95 31.3 10 3.3
Tactile 190 62.5 106 34.9 8 2.6
Group 145 47.7 130 42.8 29 9.5

The findings in Table 1 revealed that the most common learning style among nursing students
was Kinesthetic (78%) followed closely by Auditory learning style (76.6%); Visual learning style
(67.1%); Individual learning styles (65.5%); Tactile learning styles (62.5%); and lastly by Group
learning style (47.7%). Conversely, minority of the respondents at 21.1% have Kinesthetic as
their minor learning style preference; followed by Auditory with 23.0%; Visual and Individual
learning styles come next, both with 31.3%, Tactile learning style with 34.9%. Kinesthetic
learning was the major learning style among the respondents. Consequently, majority of the
participants have Group learning style as their minority learning style preference (42.0%). From
the results it is clear that respondents were not in favor of group learning. Kinesthetic learning
style is the most popular major learning style but the least popular as a minor learning meaning
nursing students would rather be active participants in the classroom; they need to move around
to learn more effectively. This is in line with the finding of Alsafi (2010) in his investigation of
learning styles among 90 medical students, which also yielded similar results. Trinidad (2008)
investigated the learning styles of 298 students and found out that (76.6%) preferred kinesthetic
learning style. Moreover, Draper (2007) had listed kinesthetic, as the most preferred learning
style among college students. On the other hand, Ong et al (2006) revealed that students in
education courses mostly preferred kinesthetic learning while auditory learning was the least
preference. To supplement or contrast with other past researches, there has been other studies
investigating the same research area notably by Mulalic (2009) and Hariharan and Ismail (2003)
26

which found learning style preferences among students as varying depending on the milieu.
These studies showed that some learning styles are less preferred and considered as negative
learning styles. For example, Mulalic et al. (2009) studied the learning style preferences of 160
students. The findings showed that those students preferred kinesthetic, individual and tactile
learning styles as their negative preferences, and auditory, visual, and group learning styles as
their minor preferred. In other words, majority of the respondents would tend to prefer auditory,
visual and group learning styles than kinesthetic, individual and tactile learning style. In another
study, Hariharan found out that secondary school students in Malaysia did not have any major
learning styles. The findings would show that the respondents selected kinesthetic and group as
their minor learning styles and chose tactile, visual, auditory, and individual learning as their
negative learning styles which contrasts directly with the results of the study of Mulalic et al.
(2009) Few studies reveal preferences for major or minor learning styles. For instance, Ahmads
(2011) study had the aim of identifying the learning style preferences of 252 low level students at
a local tertiary institution, with the findings showing that the students did not have any major or
even minor learning style preference. All six learning styles were negative learning style
preference however individual learning style was the least preferred. It was noted that it could be
implied from the results of that study that it is possible for one to have no preferred learning
style, whether because the student employs a variety of learning styles without any overt
preference thus implying flexibility, or because the student himself or herself does not recognize
the characteristics of his own learning style thus implying lack of self-awareness. The findings
also revealed that the relationship between the frequency and distribution for the learning styles
as either major or minor is inversely proportional which means that since majority of the
participants use kinesthetic as a major learning style, this also means that only a few participants
use kinesthetic as minor learning style since one cannot use a specific learning style as major and
minor learning styles simultaneously. Group learning style which is not exactly a learning style
but a social aspect of learning ranks lowest. Since most of the participants were female Meranaos
who are by tradition conservative and do not feel comfortable when in a group even for studying
purposes. As further proof of this, Individual learning style ranks quite highly in the social aspect
of learning, which would imply that participants are able to study more effectively alone.

Table 2. Frequency and Percentage Distribution, Respondents Academic Performance As


Measured By Their GPA

Academic Performance f %
Excellent 5 1.6
Very Good 44 14.5
Good 108 35.5
Satisfactory 73 24.0
Fair 45 14.8
Passing 29 9.5
Total 304 100.0

Table 2 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to their
Grade Point Average (GPA), which is the grade points earned, divided by the number of credits.
The results show that 35.5% had GPA which is equivalent to Good, followed by Satisfactory
27

(24%), Fair (14.8%), Very Good (14.5%), Passing (9.5%), and finally a mere 1.6% got an
Excellent GPA. The results indicate that although a majority of the respondents have a GPA
that is equivalent to Good, only a handful of students are excelling in the nursing program.
Based on the data, it is clear that nursing students are doing well in nursing program with
academic grades ranging from fair to very good, with majority of the respondents obtaining a
GPA that is equivalent to Good. This would mean that academic achievement is indeed present,
and it could also mean that the learning styles applied by the students are effective. However, as
shown by the findings, only a negligible number attained a GPA of Excellent. This implies that
although the respondents are doing fairly well in the nursing program, there is still a need for
improvement. Grades as a measurement of academic performance are important to both
students and faculty. These findings are very important in the nursing community because these
may support the claim that the quality of nursing education has shown signs of deterioration as
measured by the quantity of nursing graduates who pass the Board of Nursing licensure
examinations.

Table 3. Correlation, Respondents Learning Styles and Their Academic Performance

Independent Spearman Computed Interpretation


Variables Rho p Value
Correlation
Value
Kinesthetic .168 .003 ** Significant at the .01 level

Auditory .234 .000 ** Significant at the .01 level

Visual .309 .000 ** Significant at the .01 level

Individual .216 .000 ** Significant at the .01 level

Tactile .317 .000 ** Significant at the .01 level

Group .003 .961 Not significant


** Correlation is significant at the .01 level (2-tailed).

The results in the above table show that out of the six learning styles mentioned, only Group
learning style is found to have no significant relationship with the respondents academic
performance which means that Group learning style does not have any bearing on the
respondents academic success. 1Visual, Auditory, Tactile, Kinesthetic, and Individual learning
style are all positively correlated with the academic performance of the respondents with 100%
confidence level at a level significance of 0.01 for all learning styles with the exception of
kinesthetic, with 99.7% confidence level. In other words, as the students preferences for visual,
auditory, tactile, kinesthetic, and individual learning styles increase so does their academic
performance, and vice-versa. These findings contradict the findings of Urval et. al. (2011) and
Gurpinar et. al. (2010). Both studies show no relationship between the learning styles and the
academic performance of medical students in India. Meanwhile, Choi et, al. (2014) in their study
assessing the learning styles of pharmacy students in the University of the Philippines found no
significant relationship between learning style and academic performance. However,
Alkhasawneh et al (2008) suggested that learning style is an important factor in students
achievement. The successful learner has different ways of learning but would tend to favor one
style over the others in a given situation. Of the learning styles mentioned, students selected five
that they consider as major learning styles. A combination of these learning styles can positively
28

impact academic performance. Group learning style preference is not significantly correlated
with the respondents academic performance. Group learning style and Individual learning style
are not really learning styles per se, but more on the social aspect of learning or the attitude of a
student towards learning. This would imply that the social aspect in terms of learning with a
group do not affect how the respondents learn and process information. Moreover, a majority of
the respondents have Group learning style as their minority learning style preference (42.0%)

Conclusions and Implications of the Study


This study provided valuable information regarding the preferred learning styles of
undergraduate nursing students. Some of the findings of this study agree with the Learning Styles
Model of Dunn and Dunn, as well as the results of previous learning style studies, lending
support to the construct validity of Reids Learning Style Questionnaire. In line with the
foregoing findings, the following conclusions have been reached: 2Within the learning style
dimension, the findings revealed that majority of the respondents exhibited a close balance
between all the learning styles with predominance towards kinesthetic while disfavoring group
learning style. In terms of academic performance, majority of the respondents were doing well in
the nursing program with academic grades ranging from fair to very good, with majority of the
respondents obtaining a GPA that is equivalent to Good. Lastly, this study revealed a significant
relationship between learning style preferences and academic performance. The study also
showed that the majority of the respondents have multiple learning styles or a combination of
more than one. Overall, it can be deduced from the findings the each student is most
comfortable learning in ways personally unique to himself or herself and that the respondents
have different learning styles which they made use of in their journey as students which in turn
have an impact on their academic performance2According to Dunn and Griggs (2003), multi-
style learners tend to achieve more and score better than learners with one or two learning styles.
As such, it is inferred that learning styles do make an impact on the students overall academic
achievement. The present study 2uncovered the existence of different learning styles, multiple
learning styles and a variety of major, minor and negligible learning styles among students. Most
educational psychologists would agree that multiple learning styles significantly enhance
academic achievement (Felder 1995). Dunn and Dunn (1986) state that in most cases, a
successful learner learns in several different ways. Thus, students with naturally one or two
learning styles can improve significantly when taught through other learning styles. It is of prime
importance that teachers become aware of effective methods of teaching and not only that but
also of the learning styles and study methods of their students. This way, teachers can optimize
learning for most students. The findings in this study highlight the importance of recognizing the
variety of learning styles that students may have. Teachers must know the utility of learning styles
and how this connects to the ease of learning of students for effective learning to take place.
24The more that teachers become aware of their students' style preferences, the more effectively
they can orient their instruction and method of teaching to be interwoven as an overall strategy
which can complement 1those style preferences. Some learners might need instruction presented
more visually, while others might require more lectures, which appeal to their auditory senses,
and still some may prefer hands-on learning as they would be kinesthetic or tactile learners.
1Without adequate knowledge about their individual students style preferences, teachers remain
ignorant and lack key information that they would need to optimize the learning process that will
bring out the best results from students. To emphasize the importance of knowing student
learning styles, they should complete a learning style profile at the start of a course. There are
plenty of standardized tests and questionnaires, which are easy enough to complete in a quick
span of time. The results of the learning style instrument not only act as a guide for the students,
but also for the teacher as well. It is also a good opportunity for students to develop their
interpersonal skills by being more aware of the learning styles and studying preferences of their
fellow colleagues. Furthermore, it allows students to train themselves in managing and being part
29

of a group, allowing them to practice taking maximum advantage of their own learning styles and
that of their team mates. This would benefit them in the future, as nurses will often have to work
in teams in a professional setting. In conclusion, it is important to raise two main points. First,
teachers should consider differences in learning styles among students. When teachers are aware
of learning styles, they put the students as their prime consideration when creating their lesson
plan. Second, students should be aware of styles and strategies. Awareness of their own learning
styles can build self-confidence in the students that can help them excel in the academic field.
Some issues emerge from this study such as the inevitable mismatch in teaching and learning
styles in the classroom. The researcher recommends further researches in learning and teaching
styles. When teachers are teaching in ways that agree with their personal styles and strengths,
both students and teachers are likely to benefit. Nursing faculty can certainly help students
identify their preferred learning styles and strengthen their natural abilities, while at the same
time teaching in a manner that will emphasize their own strengths. The area of learning style is
wide and may be approached in various ways. Implications to future researchers would be to
conduct alternative approach to studying the different learning styles of students such as a
qualitative study focusing in depth on only one or two learning styles, such as
Kinesthetic/Tactile or Auditory learning style, so frequently found in nursing. Since the ability to
process information quickly and efficiently is so vital to learning, a study focusing only on
concept attainment using the cognitive style might be another possibility. In relation, a study of
other variables related to learning styles may improve on the present knowledge and application
of learning styles to Filipinos, specially Meranaos as is the context of this study, can be
discovered and utilized to help students attain their full potentials. Additionally, further testing
and refinement of the Learning Style Questionnaire could be carried out to add to its reliability
and validity as a tool measuring learning style. While this study was conducted locally, its findings
certainly can be applied to educational institutions in other countries. Making adjustments for
cultural differences, the findings on learning styles of students may be utilized by teachers in
foreign educational institutions to create their own optimal learning models.

Literature Cited
Ahmad,A., 2011. Language learning style preferences of Low English proficiency (LEP) students in a
tertiary institution. Malaysian Journal of ELT Research 7 (2): 33-62. Retrieved from:
http://www.slideshare.net/ahmadfaizulshah/research-on-students-attitudes
Alkhasawneh IM, Mrayyan MT, Docherty C, Alashram S, Yousef HY., 2008. Problem-based
learning (PBL): assessing students learning preferences using VARK. Nurse Educ
Today. 2008;28:572579. [PubMed]
Alos S., Lawrence C. Caranto, Juan Jose T. David, 2015. Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of
the Student Nurses of BSU. International Journal of Nursing Science. p-ISSN:
21677441 eISSN: 2167-745X; 5(2): 60-65 doi:10.5923/j.nursing.20150502.04 Retrieved from:
http://article.sapub.org/10.5923.j.nursing.20150502.04.html
Alsafi, A., 2010. Learning style preferences of Saudi Medical students. Master thesis. Essex University.
(online) http://www.essex.ac.uk/linguistics/dissertations/2010/docs/Alsafi.pdf (19 August
2011).
Abidin M, Rezaee A, Abdullah H, Singh K., 2011. Learning styles and overall academic achievement in a
specific educational system. IJHSS. 2011;1:143152. Retrieved from:
http://www.ijhssnet.com/journal/index/315:vol-1-no-10-august-
2011abstract19&catid=16:journal-abstract
Choi, Franchesca D., Yu, Alyssa Marie M., Loquias, Monet M., 2014. Learning Styles of Pharmacy
Students in the University of the Philippines Manila (UP Manila). IJPTP, 2014, 5(2), 949-955.
Retrieved from:
30

http://iomcworld.com/ijptp/files/Alyssa%20Marie%20M%20et%20al.,%20June%202014-
02.pdf
Draper, E., 2007. Continuing education for college students based on learning style research. Retrieved on
August 11, 2015 from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/chp.4750090308/abstract
Dunn, R. & Dunn, K., 1978. Teaching students through their individual learning styles: A practical
approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Reston Book.
Dunn, R. and Griggs, S.A., 2003. Synthesis of the Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model: Who, What,
When, Where, and So What?, Center for the Study of Learning and Teaching Styles, St Johns
University, New York, NY.
Felder, Henriques, 1995. Learning and Teaching Styles in Foreign and Second Language Education,
Foreign language Annals, 28(1), 21-21.
Gurpinar E, Alimoglu MK, Mamakli S, Aktekin M., 2010. Can learning style predict student satisfaction
with different instruction methods and academic achievement in medical education? Adv Physiol
Educ.2010;34:192196. [PubMed]
Hariharan ,N. Krishnasamy & Ismail Ibrahim, 2003. Learning style preferences of Kedah secondary
school students. research report, UUM.
Mlambo V., 2011. An analysis of some factors affecting student academic performance in an introductory
biochemistry course at the University of the West Indies. Caribbean Teaching
Scholar. 2011;1:7992. Retrieved from: http://www.sciepub.com/reference/67291
Mulalic, A., Shah, P., & Ahmad , F., 2009. Learning- style preference of ESL students. Asean Journal of
Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 1(2):9-17.
Nuzhat A, Salem R, Quadri M, Al-Hamdan N., 2011. Learning style preferences of medical students:
a single-institute experience from Saudi Arabia. Int J of Med Educ. 2011;2:7073. Retrieved
from: https://www.ijme.net/archive/2/students-learning-style-preferences.pdf
Ong, A., Rajendram, S., and Yusof, M., 2006. Learning style preferences and English proficiency
among Cohort 3 Students in IPBA (online) Retrieved from:
http://apps.emoe.gov.my/ipba/ResearchPaper/stdntseminar/p g23to36.pdf
Reid, J.M., 1995. Learning Style in the ESL/EFL Classroom. Boston: Heinle Publishers. Retrieved on
August 11, 2014 from:
http://lwtoefl.ielp.pdx.edu/internal_resources/tutor/level_1_regular/Learning_Styl
Samarakoon L, Fernando T, Rodrigo C., 2013. Learning styles and approaches to learning among
medical undergraduates and postgraduates. BMC Med Educ. 2013;13:42. [PMC free
article] [PubMed]
Trinidad, O.C., 2008. Demographics and learning styles of Automotive Technology Students. Thesis
Master, South Illinois University.
Urval RP, Kamath A, Ullal S, Shenoy AK, Shenoy N, Udupa LA., 2014. Assessment of learning styles of
undergraduate medical students using the VARK questionnaire and the influence of sex and
academic performance. Adv Physiol Educ. 2014;38:216220. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Ashley Ali Bangcola is the eldest daughter of the late Datu Mustapha
A. Ali and late Bai Adiah Barodi Ali. She is an accomplished
professional nurse for ten years with a mix of clinical and academic
experiences, both here and abroad. She went to college in St.
Scholastica's College in Manila to take up Business administration.
Unfortunately, she got married early and was not really able to practice
business administration. She later took up MBA in Ateneo de Manila
31

and even Law in the College of Law in MSU, but did not really find these professions to her
liking. She became a banker and worked in City Bank, Banco de Oro, and BPI. Despite the well-
enough income, the world of business did not really appeal to her. In 2003, with already two very
young daughters, she tried nursing at De Ocampo Memorial College and after three years of
nursing education, she finished her BSN Degree in 2006. After passing the PNLE in 2006, she
worked with two hospitals in the United Arab Emirates where she worked in a variety of settings
and nursing positions. She returned to the Philippines in 2008 and immediately decided to
pursue her Master's Degree in Nursing, while at the same time teaching at the MSU College of
Health Sciences where she held various positions including being the College Secretary, Co-
Chairperson of the Accreditation Committee, faculty adviser for their colleges undergraduate
journal and a member of the editorial board of MSU graduate school journal. She finished her
Master of Arts in Nursing major in Nursing Administration in 2011. She is now currently taking
Doctor of Science in Nursing at Cebu Normal University in preparation for assuming further
responsibilities as core faculty of the future Doctor of Science in Nursing course offering of the
College of Health Sciences. Prof. Bangcola has attended several seminars and symposia both
locally and abroad and has won 1ST Place in the Research Capsule Development for a paper
entitled The Lived Experiences of Circumcised Meranao Women during the Seminar-
Workshop on Phenomenological Research organized by MSU Iligan Institute of Technology
in Iligan City on March 20-21, 2014. She was also awarded as Best in Oral Presentation in the 3rd
International Conference on Multidisciplinary Research held in Hong Kong on December 14-17,
2015. She is currently the primary researcher of a University-funded research on educators
perceptions and understanding of the basis of Outcome-based education and its impact on their
assessment practices.
32

International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research


p-ISSN: 1694-2493
e-ISSN: 1694-2116
Vol. 15, No.4, pp. 32-41, IJLTER

Issues-Oriented Approach: Effects on Students Concept


Reconstruction and Achievement in Biology

Mariam A. Sunggod
Mindanao State University
Marawi City, Philippines
mariams_101@yahoo.com

Abstract
This quasi-experimental study was undertaken to determine the effects of the issues-oriented
approach (IOA) on concepts reconstruction and achievement of students towards Biology. This
study utilized both quantitative and qualitative methods of research specifically pretest posttest
control group design. Two (2) comparable intact sections of grade eight junior high school
students at Mindanao State University- Integrated Laboratory School (MSU- ILS) were involved
in this study. Data were gathered using the concept map, achievement test, journal writing, and
interview. The data gathered were analyzed statistically using t-Test and Pearson Correlation
Coefficient. Findings showed that both groups hold many misconceptions on the selected topics
in Biology before and still even after the intervention but it considerably decreased in the
experimental group. In reconstructing students concept in Biology, the issues-oriented approach
(IOA) group significantly performed better compared to the traditional lecture-based approach
(TLBA) group. Thus, it can be concluded that the issues-oriented approach (IOA) in teaching
Biology has a positive effect on the achievement of students, as well as on the concepts
reconstruction of the students. The results imply that IOA lead to better understanding of some
biological concepts as revealed in the refinement and reconstruction of the concepts of the
students and their higher achievement in biology on the topics regarding Ecology, Taxonomy,
and Evolution. It is then recommended that science teachers in different grade eight junior high
school students use this kind of method as one mode of their teaching instructions, in order for
the students to become issues-oriented and increase awareness to their environment.

Keywords: Achievement, Concept Reconstruction, and Issues-Oriented Approach

Introduction
The Philippines educational system focuses on the attainment of quality education, particularly in
science education as mandated in the 1987 Philippines Constitution. It is cited in another article
in the Constitution that science and technology are essential in national development. It has been
stressed further by Senator Angara (2008) that a strong foundation on new science and
technology will lead the Philippines to development. However, it seems that this old dream of
achieving quality education and advancement in science is yet to be achieved. Based on the
report of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Second
International Science Study (SISS), the Science Education in the Philippines is lagging behind
and placed in a disadvantaged position among participating nations (Orleans, 2005; Schmidt et
al., 2001; DECS, 2000). Furthermore, the poor quality of education is shown by the National
Achievement Test in which only 15.3 % of elementary school pupils crossed the 75 % level
required for high school, and that less than 1 % of high school graduates crossed the 75 % level
33

in the 2006 National Achievement Test, according to the press statement of Senator Legarda
(2009). She further emphasized that clearly there is something wrong with the method and
content of teaching in our elementary and high schools. These findings are very alarming, that is
why the researcher has conducted this study, in the hope to contribute in addressing these
problems in the educative process. Several studies on students concepts reconstruction and
achievement in Biology have been conducted by the different researchers, but most of these
studies do not adequately address the problem. One cannot deny the fact that misconceptions
have serious impacts on the individual's learning. It can be a profound barrier to understanding
science. Based on the findings of Gabriel (2007), Web-enhanced instruction can promote
students concept construction, achievement, and attitude towards biology. Her findings also
suggest a need to conduct a similar study, this time with the researcher using an Issues-oriented
approach instead of Web-enhanced instruction. Moreover, Jenkins and McDonalds (1989) argue
that alternative teaching methods of science itself might provide opportunities for some
meaningful learning. Moreover, the teacher needs to innovate on instruction to be able to
prepare the students better for the modern society that is, to make them competitive in these
challenging times (IBM eMentor, 2006). In order to integrate issues, teachers may need to
innovate their methodology (Lewis, 2003).

One of the teaching strategies/ methods integrating current issues in teaching is the
Issue-Oriented Approach. The term issue refers to a subject that is of current interest and
general concern in society and is open to public debate and the formulation of opinion among
individuals or groups. Many of them may be controversial, such as cloning, genetic engineering
and abortion (Mathison, et al., 1997; Yager et al., 1981). Furthermore, Lewis (2003) stresses that
through the use of issues in the science classroom, students can develop good qualities such as
improving their critical analysis skills; easily adapt to the dynamic nature of science in society;
understand the importance of scientific issue in making decision; and make science come alive.
Therefore, using issues in teaching science can cater to the different needs that we could be
inculcated in student learning and could provide them with all-important skills for economic
survival in todays workplace if this approach could be applied effectively.

Purpose Statement of the Study


Addressing the concerns and issues presented above, this study was conducted to determine the
effect of using the IOA on students concepts reconstruction and achievement in Biology.
Specifically the study aimed to determine the effects of the Issues-Oriented Approach (IOA) on
the concepts reconstruction and achievement of students in Biology. IOA and the traditional
lecture-based approach (TLBA) were compared to find out which teaching instruction was more
effective in reconstructing concepts and progressing students achievement. Seven research
questions guided the study. First, what misconceptions do the students have on selected topics in
biology prior to the intervention? Second, what were the misconceptions that are reconstructed
for both groups after the intervention? Third, is to identify if there a significant difference
between the pretest-posttest mean gain score of the students taught by way of the IOA and the
students taught using the TLBA; fourth, is to find if significant difference in the posttest mean
scores of the students taught by way of the IOA and the students taught using the TLBA. Fifth,
is to evaluate if there is a significant difference between the post-instructional concept map mean
scores of the students taught by way of the IOA and the students taught using the TLBA; Sixth,
is to determine if there is a significant difference in the concept map mean gain scores between
the students taught by IOA and the students taught using the TLBA; and seventh, is to
determine if there is a significant correlation between the concept reconstructions and academic
achievements in both groups?
34

Method

Participants
Two (2) intact sections of grade eight junior high school students at MSU-ILS were the
respondents of this study. The respondents were matched on the basis of their average grades
from first grading to third grading in biology. Levenes Test was used to say that (there is a basis
for comparison) the two groups were comparable. Assigning of experimental and control group
was done through the tossing of a coin. The experimental group underwent the issues-oriented
approach (IOA) on three selected topics in Biology while the control group underwent the
traditional lecture-based approach (TLBA) on the same topics.

Design
This quasi-experimental study employed the Matching Only Pretest Posttest Control Group
Design. It employed both quantitative and qualitative methods of research to determine the
effects of the issues-oriented approach on the students concept reconstruction and academic
achievement in biology. The quantitative aspect follows the experimental design of research
specifically quasi- experimental research design.

Materials
Four (4) research instruments were used in data gathering. These are the concept map,
achievement test, journal writing and interview. A concept map was used to identify the prior
knowledge and misconceptions of the students. While an achievement test was a teacher made
90-item test which was utilized to evaluate the achievement of the students in both group and it
has a 0. 771 value of Cronbachs Alpha. The questions in this test covered the topics in the
fourth grading period (Ecology, Taxonomy, and Evolution). An interview and journal writing
were used to substantiate the data gathered from the questionnaire and concept map.

Procedure
Prior to the intervention, permissions from the gatekeepers were sought to conduct the study on
the selected second year high school students as respondents of the study. It happened that the
two intact sections were handled by the researcher. To ensure that the researcher did not deviate
from the lesson plan, participation of one science teacher as observer was asked. Moreover, the
researcher administered first the pre- achievement test in the experimental and control groups.
The researcher administered the tests herself to ensure the uniformity of testing procedure.
Instructions on answering the tests were explained properly and the students were given ample
time to finish the tests.

Checking and scoring was done immediately after the pre-test and before the
intervention took place for analysis. Prior to the intervention, the researcher asked the students
in both groups to make pre- instructional concept maps regarding the selected topics in biology
to know the prior knowledge and misconceptions of the respondents on these topics. After the
construction of the pre- instructional concept maps, science classroom instruction was
conducted using the issues-oriented approach on the experimental group and traditional lecture-
based approach on the control group. At the end of every topic, they were required to make their
post- instructional concept map on the lesson presented and they were reminded to accomplish
their journals.

An interview was conducted also to confirm the reconstructed concepts of the students
for both groups. After the intervention, the post-test on achievement was administered on the
two groups of students. Then, the data gathered was analyzed and interpreted. The duration of
35

the study was more than six (6) weeks or one grading period. For the whole period of the
intervention, both groups were given the same objectives, topics, instructional materials, quizzes
and assignments but different methods of instructions. In addition, laboratory activities and
reinforcements were given to both experimental and control groups for uniformity of activities.

Quantitative data were analyzed through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences
(SPSS) software. Mean score describe the scores of the respondents that are exposed to the two
teaching strategies in understanding the biological concepts. t-Test (for correlated mean) was
used to determine the significant differences between the two groups in the achievement test
scores and concept mapping scores. Specifically, it was executed on the mean gain scores of the
achievement test and concept map between groups. Moreover, to find significant correlation
between the concept reconstructions and academic achievements of the two groups Pearson
Correlation Coefficient was used. For qualitative data, hand analysis was used.

Results and Discussion


Students misconceptions and concept reconstructions were assessed through concept map and
it were supported from the evidences in the journal writing and interview of students from both
groups. Findings revealed that prior to the intervention; the number of students who committed
misconceptions in the experimental group was moderately higher compared to the students in
the control group. Results also show that some student committed more than one
misconception. After the intervention, there were misconceptions which were corrected and
restructured but there were students also who still had misconceptions even after the
intervention. It can be noticed too that most of the respondents misconceptions significantly
decreased particularly in the experimental group, as evident in their concept map and journal
entries. During interview before the intervention, the students were asked about their idea on the
definition and meaning of ecology. These were their responses:

Researcher:
In your own idea, describe what Ecology is.
Respondent:
For me, Ecology is the study of living things Shal, (Experimental Group: )

According to Capco and Yang (2010), Ecology is the branch of biology that deals with
the study of the relationship between organisms and their environment. Based on the quoted
response above, there seems to be a misconception in the ideas of the students about ecology.

Another view about the meaning of Ecology was also expressed by Asno from the
Control Group where this student relates ecology with the environment.

Interview (01/25/10) Ecology is concerned with environment. Ecosphere and Biosphere is under the
environment. Asno, Control Group: Interview (01/25/10)

It is obvious that these students have a limited knowledge about ecology.

After the intervention, there are changes in the concepts of the students. Some their responses
were quoted below:

Researcher:
After our discussion about Ecology, what can you say about this topic?
Respondent:
36

I learned that Ecology is a branch of biology that deals with the study of the relationship
between organisms and their environment.

Researcher:
What else did you learn in the lesson?
Respondent:
I also learned in this lesson that the biotic and abiotic is different and it is not the same. I
learn that abiotic is a non-living thing and biotic is living things.

Shal, Experimental Group: Interview (02/12/10) a quite similar concept was conveyed
by the students in the Control Group. Ecology consists of biotic factors, ecosphere and abiotic
factors.
Asno, from Control Group: Interview (02/12/10) which can be seen from the above
interview excerpt indicate that students in the experimental group have better knowledge of this
topic after the intervention, compared to students in the control Group. But both students relate
ecology to biotic and abiotic factors. They both had misconceptions in directly relating Ecology
to these factors. The student in the control group was not able to establish that Ecology was a
branch of biology.

Furthermore, the students need deeper understanding of phenomena that reveal multiple
levels and scales in order to understand and apply ecological concepts, and therefore, identifying
that while one does not always predict an outcome, they can recognize factors, their magnitude
and roles (Stamp et al., 2006). During the conduct of interview before the intervention, the usual
response of most of the respondents are, I dont know, maam, or I dont have any idea. Some
students gesture was just to shrug their shoulders, indicating indifference or lack of knowledge.
It was observed also that students are hesitant to answer the questions. It might be because they
were not used to being asked these questions. It was evident also that after the intervention, the
number of misconception committed in the topic of Ecology decreased. It can be noticed, too,
that there were fewer misconceptions. The erroneous implication could lead to more confusion
or to another alternative concept that is why it is very important to correct it immediately. These
may result in chains of misconceptions that can obstruct the students higher learning. This view
is supported by Guro (2011) that if these misconceptions were not corrected, they would lead to
other misconceptions that can hinder higher learning of the students.

Misconceptions in ecology strike at the heart of a general understanding of ecology


and influence opposition in tackling and solving problems of the environment (Munson, 1994).
The implications of these matters are quite alarming. The students need to understand this lesson
clearly for them to appreciate their role in preserving and taking care of their environment. On
the other hand, determining misconceptions in ecology is quite hard (Stamp et al, 2006).

Another concept included in the study is the Ecosystem and its components. Capco
(2003) defines ecosystem as an ecological unit that includes all interacting parts of an
environment in an area. It consists of the interaction between the living (biotic) factors and the
nonliving (abiotic) factors. All living organisms are considered as biotic factors while the physical
conditions that influence the interaction of the two components is the abiotic factors (Manosa
and Talaue, 2007).

The rich biodiversity and complexity of the ecosystem are vital to the survival of the
organisms and the natural environment (Guro, 2011). Biodiversity in the ecosystem is our wealth
and shared natural resources. Students awareness of their biodiversitys role in maintaining the
ecosystem is very crucial. In the interview students were asked what ecosystem is and describe its
37

components. This question could evaluate their environmental awareness of the preservation of
the biodiversity of the ecosystem. Results are further supported by another reflective insight of
the students in their journal writing after the intervention. Students responses wrote in their
journal were made after the task to know their own insights and understanding about the lesson
discussed with them, using the Issues-oriented approach. Student appreciates the lesson and
recognizes her own role in preserving the ecosystem. As supported by Minkoff and Baker (2001),
biology should be seen as a process of discovery rather than a series of facts to be memorized.

The issues approach in teaching could ensure that students learn to think critically about
the role that science plays in their world. In connection with this aim, Respondents Journal Entry
gives an idea about their environmental awareness and how they were able to reflect and remind
themselves of their responsibility in protecting and conserving the environment. These results
simply implied that students misconceptions can be corrected with the use of appropriate
teaching methods.

Generally, findings of this study revealed that the MSU-ILS grade eight junior high
school students had misconceptions in the topic Ecology, Taxonomy and Evolution. However,
after the intervention, the experimental group had a perceptible decrease of misconceptions, as
compared to the control group. These results support other related studies on misconceptions in
science such that of Guro, 2011; Tan-Paiton, 2008; Gabriel, 2007; and Stover and Mabry, 2007.
The importance of these findings is that the identified misconceptions of the students from both
groups reveal a great deal of information on the teaching-learning process in Biology. It is very
crucial to know the different factors that could badly affect the learning of the students, such as
committing misconceptions.

One cannot refute the fact that misconceptions have severe impacts on student's
learning. They could be a hindrance to the understanding, as well as the positive reception, of
students towards science, but when misconceptions are found, they can be useful indicators of
concepts that are potentially confusing to students (Hershey, 2005). By knowing these
misconceptions earlier, it could be addressed properly and immediately to prevent them from
continuing. This studys findings also suggest that the use of the issues- oriented approach on
students concepts reconstruction on selected topics in Biology is more effective as compared to
the traditional lecture-based approach, since it can be noticed that the misconceptions of the
student in the Experimental Group declined as compared to those in the Control Group. This
occurrence may be best explained by the argument of Mathison and Freeman (1997) who
stressed that issues increase the students awareness, improve their capability in making decision
in times of controversy and enrich their understanding and tolerance for contradictory opinions.

In the aspect of students achievement in the pretest and posttest, results revealed that
both groups has almost the same score during the pretest, however in the posttest they showed
an increase in their mean scores in the posttest. However, experimental group means score is
significantly higher than the control group means score. This result implied that the IOA group
revealed a higher mean score than the TLBA group was that the students became more adept
with the lessons presented because it was related to recent issues in the society, which made the
lesson engaging and current. It also awakened their awareness regarding the different
controversial issues in their surroundings that somehow affected their lives. As pointed out by
Minkoff and Baker (2001) that the issues approach in teaching could ensure that the students
learn to think critically about the role that science plays in their world.
It is vital to note that there is really a significant difference in the two groups in terms of
their achievement posttest mean score. This may imply that Experimental Group had performed
better in improving their achievement in biology as compared to the Control Group. This might
38

be due to the use of the issues- oriented approach which made the lesson current and engaging.
As supported by Lewis (2003), using issues in the science classroom helps students develop the
skills of critical analysis and lifelong learning and deal with the changing nature of science in
society.

Thus, using this approach makes learner a lifelong learner. Furthermore, it involves
students in the improvement of their decision making skills and attitudes and inspires them to
make sound judgment towards issues in science and technology (Heath, 1992). It can be inferred
from the results above that there is a significant difference of the students taught by way of the
issues- oriented approach and the students taught using the traditional lecture based approach
based on the outcomes of their achievement test. This may imply that the issues- oriented
approach is effective in improving the academic achievement of the students because this
approach makes science come alive. Students can easily understand the lesson tackled because
these are related to and connected with the current and controversial issues in society. This
finding was supported by the studies done by Hanegan, Price and Peterson (2008), who
scrutinized how the use of socioscientific bioethics issues influence the teacher expectations of
students general performance and student confidence in their own work in a scientific
argumentation.

The teachers use of bioethical issues in the classroom can not only provide biology
content knowledge but also improve their skills in decision-making. Moreover, through scientific
argumentation, learning bioethics provides students a chance to express their ideas, formulate
their opinions and respect other point of view. Concept Map Mean Scores of the Students
shows that the experimental group obtained higher mean scores on the topic Ecology and
Taxonomy compared to the control group. The results may be attributed to the fact that these
topics might have been taught to them in small details in their science subjects in their earlier
years of education, which is why the experimental group had more prior knowledge on these
topics.

Furthermore, the results could be explained by the fact that before instruction, learners
brought with them a set of assumptions and beliefs that could serve as mental framework for
learning (Mendija, 2005). On the topic Evolution, the control group obtained a modest increase
in the pre-instructional concept map mean scores over that of the experimental group, although
this does not indicate a significant difference. This may indicate that the use of the Issues-
Oriented Approach on the experimental group was effective in correcting the misconception of
the students. This may also means that during the intervention, the students may have gained
better understanding of these topics, as shown in the improvement and conceptual refinement of
their concept maps. Furthermore, it was unexpected that during the intervention, there were
many issues in the society due to the effects of the El- Nino phenomenon. Most of these issues
were unexpectedly related to and correlated with the topics discussed. This may be the reasons
why students had a profound understanding and knowledge of the different topics presented to
them since they experienced it in their daily life in the society, as evident in the result of the post-
instructional concept map means score of the experimental group. They were actively engaged in
their learning due to the societal issues that were related to the lesson during the intervention. As
pointed out by Johnson (2007), using current issues in teaching biology can spark curiosity to
non-science majors through inspiring them to link real-world issues to biological concepts which
are significant in their own lives.

In the analysis done on the post- instructional concept map mean score of the
experimental group and the control group. Finding shows that their levels of concept
reconstruction, as designated by the mean score in their post- instructional concept map on the
39

different topics, showed the two groups to be significantly different. This results imply that the
intervention used in the experimental group is much effective than the traditional method of
teaching. In relation to the above results, this trend is expected under the assumption that during
the intervention the students had acquired additional knowledge and had gained better
understanding of the topics that brought about by the intervention. This may also imply that
there was an improvement in the conceptual understanding of the students in the experimental
group. This was perhaps due to the use of the Issues-oriented Approach, in which the students
easily understood the lesson because they could relate it to the different issues in their own
society where they have a first-hand experience. Studies reveal that students can learn best in an
event that tackle what they know, test their misconceptions, and allow them to integrate new
knowledge with the previous (National Research Council, 1999).

Additionally, they had a greater retention of the lesson since it was connected to the
controversial issues in their environment where they become aware of it and understood it a little
deeper because it was tackled inside the class. This result supports the contention of Bodzin and
Mamlok (2000), which emphasizes that when students are taught using controversial and
authentic issues, science instruction becomes current and engaging.

It is essential to note that before the intervention, the levels of concept formation
between the two groups were solely dependent on prior knowledge of the students; for this
reason there were many misconceptions identified prior to intervention, as shown in their pre-
instructional concept maps, journals and informal student interview. Accordingly, after the
intervention, the misconceptions of the students in the IOA group were distinctly decreased as
shown in their post-instructional concept maps. Finally, they were able to reconstruct their
previous concepts and elaborate further on the relationships among the concepts in their post-
instructional concept maps. With regard to the control group, there was also concept
reconstruction, but not as reflective and profound as that of the experimental group.

In the aspect of concept reconstructions and academic achievements in both groups


results revealed that there is very little correlation between the concept reconstructions and
academic achievements. Particularly, the value of the correlation coefficient (r) for achievement
(gain) and ecology (gain) is 0.150 with a p-value of 0.343 which is greater than 0.05 level of
significance. This means that the academic achievement of the students was not correlated to
their concept reconstructions in the topic ecology. This may imply that change in the concept
reconstructions may not lead to academic achievements. It further implies that, academic
achievement is not the appropriate way to measure concept reconstruction. This finding is
supported by the study of Mendija (2005) which states that the students performance on
examinations questions does not accurately reflect the students understanding of concepts.

Conclusions and Recommendation


The Issues-Oriented Approach (IOA) strategy is effective in the process of teaching and
learning. In this strategy, students are led to think deeply of the topics since they can relate it to
the different issues currently occurring to their environment and which they presently
experience. IOA has positive effects on the concepts reconstruction and achievement of
students Biology. It means that this approach leads to better understanding of some biological
concepts as revealed in the refinement and reconstruction of the concepts of the respondents
and improvement in respondents achievement. Thus, teachers are encouraged to identify the
students misconceptions before the start of the lesson and be given enough attention and apt
action in order to minimize pre-conceived misconceptions. Follow up studies are imperative to
understand better the effects of using different methods, particularly the Issues- Oriented
Approach, in addressing these concerns to correct students misconceptions. Future studies
40

would be able to better assess long-term impacts of using the Issues- Oriented Approach in
concept reconstruction of biology students. Students Achievement Through the teacher-
constructed achievement test, the achievements of the students were assessed and evaluated.

References
Bodzin, A. M. and Mamlok, R. (2000). Engaging Students with Issues-Based Scenario. Lehigh University.
Retrieved from http://www.lehigh.edu/~amb4/cv.pdf
Capco, C. M. (2003). Biology. (New Ed.). Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. Capco, C. M. and
Yang, G. C. (2010). You and the Natural World: Biology. (3rd Ed.). Quezon City: Phoenix
Publishing House, Inc.
DECS Service Manual. (2000). Educational Laws. The DECS Vision and Mission. Pasig City Department
of Education. (2002). Handbook on the Implementation of the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum
Reform. Pasig City
Gabriel D. M. (2006). Web- enhanced Instruction: Effects on Students Concept Reconstruction,
Achievement, and Attitude towards Biology. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Mindanao State
University, Marawi City.
Guro, A. M. (2011). Effects of Educational Films in Reconstructing Misconceptions on Selected Topics
in Environmental Science among Students of MSU- University Training Center. Unpublished
Masters Thesis, Mindanao State University, Marawi City.
Hanegan, N. L., Price, L., & Peterson, J. (2008). Disconnections between teacher expectations and
student confidence in bioethics. Science & Education, 17(8-9).
Heath, P.A. (1992). Organizing for STS teaching and learning: The doing of STS. Theory into Practice,
31 (1), 52-58.
Hershey, D. R. (2005). More Misconceptions to Avoid When Teaching about Plants. Retrieved from
http://www.actionbioscience.org
IBM eMentor Training. (2006). Training Handouts: Pedagogical Perspectives in the Use of Technology in
Education, 2(10).
Jenkins M. and McDonalds M. (1989). Market Segmentation: Organizational Archetypes and Research
Agendas. Retrieved last August 2009, retrieved
fromhttps://dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk/bitstream/1826/1044/1/McDonaldMarket Se
gmentation EJM.pdf
Johnson, M. D. (2007). Human Biology: Concepts and Current Issues. (4th Ed.). Benjamin Cummings
Lewis, S. E. (2003). Issue-Based Teaching in Science Education. An ActionBioscience.org original article.
Retrieved from ActionBioscience.org
Maosa, S. D. & Talaue, F. T. (2007). Breaking through Biology. Quezon City: C & E Publishing, Inc.
Mathison, S. & Freeman, M. (1997). The Logic of Interdisciplinary Studies. A paper presented at the
Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago
Mendija, G. (2005). Modular Interactive Multimedia: Its Effect on Students Pattern of Concept
Formation and Achievement in Chemistry. Published Masters Thesis, Mindanao State
University, Marawi City.
Minkoff, E. and Baker, P. (2001). Biology Today: an Issues Approach. Mc Graw-Hill Companies
Munson, B. H. (1994). Ecological misconceptions. Journal of Environmental Education, 25(30
34).

National Research Council. (1996). National Science Education Standards. Washington, D.C.: National
Academy Press.
Orleans, A. V. (2005). The Condition of Secondary School Physics Education in the Philippines: Recent
Developments and Remaining Challenges for Substantive Improvements. Hiroshima University,
Japan. Retrieved July 12, 2009 from http://www.aare.edu.au/aer/online/0701d.pdf
Press Releases of Philippine Senator Angara. (2008). Retrieved last April 20, 2009 from www.
Edangara.com/archives/2008 Press statement of Senator
Legarda. (2009). On Education. Press Release: June 1, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.senate.gov.ph
Schmidt, H.J., & Volke, D. (2001). Shift of meaning and students alternative concepts. International
Journal of Science Education, 25(11), 1409-1424.
41

Stamp, N., Armstrong, M. and Biger, J. (2006). Ecological misconceptions, survey III: the challenge of
identifying sophisticated understanding. ESA Bulletin 87:2168-175.
Stover, S. and Mabry, M. (2007). Influences of teleological and Lamarckian thinking on student
understanding of natural selection. Bioscene 33 (1): 11-18.
Tan- Paiton, M.J. (2008). Effects of Using Scientific Models in Reconstructing Students Misconceptions.
Published Masters Thesis, Mindanao State University, Marawi City.
TIMSS. (2003). Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study TIMSS 2003 Philippine Report.
Pasig City; Bicutan; Quezon City: DepEd; DOST/SEI; UPCE;
UPNISMED, 2007. Retrieved from http://www.elib.gov.ph/results.php
Yager, R.E. and Lutz, M.V. (1995). STS to enhance total curriculum. School Science and Mathematics,
95(1), 28-35.
42

International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research


p-ISSN: 1694-2493
e-ISSN: 1694-2116
Vol. 15, No.4, pp. 42-50, IJLTER

English Instructional Materials: Imperative Learning Aid


for the High School Bound Summer Program of the MSU-
Science High School

Prof. Jose G.Tan Jr.


English Faculty
Mindanao State University, Marawi City
josericknie@yahoo.com

Abstract
This study was conducted to meet the long-felt need of the MSU-Institute of Science Education-
Science High School to have English instructional materials that will be used for its High School
Bound Summer Program. The descriptive method of research and a quantitative analysis of the
performance of the respondents on the Proficiency Test were used in this study. The inquiry
started off with a needs analysis through a proficiency test administered to the Grade VI pupils
of MSU-Integrated Laboratory School (ILS), Ibn Sienna Integrated School, Foundation (ISISF)
and Ranao Child Development Center (RCDC). A modified proficiency test was used in this
study. To establish reliability and validity, it was patterned after the English Language Proficiency
Test (ELPT) of the Language Center of MSU-College of Social Sciences and Humanities. The
proficiency test consisted of three parts: Test of Language Use (TLU), Test of Written English
(TWE) and Test of Spoken English (TSE). Each respondent was given an answer sheet for Parts
I and II. By means of stratified random sampling, a smaller number of respondents drawn from
the original sample of 263 respondents were selected to take Part III which was in the form of an
interview. Their answers were tape recorded and then evaluated and rated by three (3) competent
faculty members. The needs analysis yielded the following findings: majority of the respondents
of the three elementary schools have a minimum knowledge about the structure of English
language such as sentences, clauses, vocabulary and reading comprehension; majority of the
respondents have attained only low proficiency levels in writing; and majority of the respondents
displayed hesitations and difficulty in listening and speaking. In short, there is a serious problem
in English language proficiency of the respondents in terms of writing, listening and speaking.
Based on the overall result, majority of respondents could be said to be suffering from what is
known as Limited English Proficiency (LEP) and are likely at risk for learning disabilities or
failure. Although no single cause could be pin-pointed, it can be hypothesized that impoverished
background and inadequate training are contributory factors. The problem can be remedied by
addressing the students weaknesses. Materials can be designed for this purpose. Hence, better
performance in English language proficiency is possible if lessons and activities address the
needs of the pupils.

Keywords: English Instructional Materials, Learning Aid, Instructional Design,


Language Materials, Learning Instruction
43

Introduction
Experts vehemently expressed English as the language of the global village. This is particularly
true in the domain of Science and Technology, especially in the pure and applied sciences. A
knowledge of English is often required if one wants to publish in the influential journals. It is
undeniable that English language is the medium of instruction and increasingly used in
publications. The rationale of putting science and technology to work more constructively and
humanely in the context of education English language takes on greater significance and urgency.
This fact is true in the Philippine setting. However, according to Joel Adriano in his article, The
Philippines: Still Grappling with English, in the 2009 annual international student performance
tests in math and science Filipino students obtained a lowest scores. What could be the probable
causes? Accordingly, policy experts believed that this low performance was attributed to language
difficulty especially English language that is used for instruction. Shifting from home language to
another language used as medium of instruction requires adjustment; the shift creates a problem
that could have dire consequences for academic performance. Language is obviously a vital tool
(Brown, 2000).

One must understand that English is not just a subject; it is also a means of
communicating thoughts and ideas, but it also establishes identity, promotes economic growth
and sustainability, and forges friendships and cultural ties. John Stuart Mill as cited by Brown
(2000) further said that language is in the light of the mind that enable individual to
communicate each other. A mentor of Whorf also noted that language is not only a vehicle for
the expression of thoughts, perceptions, sentiments and values characteristics of a community
but it also represents a fundamental expression of social identity. The1position of English in
some of the sciences is even more solidly rooted. Many articles local, national and international
are published in English. Even in smaller nations or scientific societies, like those of Slovenia and
the Philippines Bato Balani are published 1in English. However, the worth of science lies in
how people would embrace its vitality in their lives for there is a need for economic
competitiveness and this need will continue to grow as the world continues to become more
technology dependent and need more science literate workers. This essential competitiveness is
made possible through education.

A famous Chinese statesman once said that if the rest of the world like Asia will catch up
and surpass the advanced countries in science technology, they must significantly improve not
only the quality of education but also the quality of communication which is the English
language. Thus this study takes this challenge as its point of departure since this is important in
education. Accordingly, education exemplifies the methods of imparting knowledge, culture and
values from one generation to the next. Education and language learning is the best and effective
way in doing progressions in all intuitions and other sectors. That is, language plays a vital role in
effectively gearing the actuality and action of communication and learning.

As language experts have restated the ease for education, the legitimate and inevitable
function of education is to cultivate character. This summarizes the intent of the study as it is
envisioned to be of help by designing and providing instructional materials that integrate
meaningful content and language objectives and addressing a particular need in the MSU-Science
High School.

Theoretical Framework
An authenticity of a language learning situation is reinforced with different factors involving
learning and educational theories (Gagn, 1985). One very important theory is progressivism.
This theory stresses that all learning should center on the childs needs and interest (Dewey,
1916). Progressive education also emphasized on the needs philosophy based upon experience,
44

the interaction of the person with his environment. Progressivism primarily aims to meet the
learning needs of a growing child. This has been supported with the learning theory called
constructivism. This theory is greatly influenced by Piagets (1950) and Lev Vygotskys (1978)
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). According to them, knowledge is a product from
different activities practiced by the learners in a social environment. Constructivist emphasized
the learner centered approach in teaching-learning process.

In the last 100 years, three major schools of learning theories have emerged (Ornstein,
1990). These formulations provide theoretical grounds for this study. First, the behavioral
theories see learning in terms of changing what people do. They emphasize behavioral
modification through conditioning by means of reinforcement. Second, field and gestalt theories
consider how the individual perceives the learning environment or situation. They emphasize
observational learning, imitation and modeling. Third, cognitive theories consider how the
learner thinks, reasons and transfers information to new learning situations. The rapid turnover
or succession of language teaching methods is a proof of dynamism, vitality and vibrancy in the
field of language pedagogy.

The search for methods, approaches, strategies and materials to facilitate, enhance and
maximize language learning is relentless; it is pursued with great expectations. However, experts
emphasize that the current theories which suggest that humans have the unique species-specific
ability to test various hypotheses about the structure of language are indispensable. Emphasis
must be put also on Thorndikes law of readiness which is an important condition of learning
because satisfaction or frustration depends on an individuals state of readiness. It focuses on the
idea that to do so is satisfying; not to do so is annoying. In other words, it is unlikely that learners
will acquire a new pattern unless they are developmentally ready for it. It is primarily on this that
the value of the study hinges i.e. the learners must be ready to undergo rigid academic training
with the aid of instructional materials. In the recent language learning continuum, a learner is
considered as an active learner.

Current linguistic and psycholinguistic theories suggest that efforts to teach language to human
learners should actively engage them in the learning process. Such active engagement consists of
providing opportunities to explore and implore about language rather than simply requiring
learners to memorize bits of language. With the dynamism of language and systematic changes in
knowledge, materials for teaching language should be designed to fit the varying developmental
levels of children within a classroom. The Concept Underlying Instructional Materials In the
course of the history of language learning and teaching, instructional materials played an
important role to achieve meaningful learning. Tomlinson (2004) aptly expressed that
instructional materials provide procedural frameworks for the systematic production of
instructions. They give structure and meaning to instruction. Bruner (1975) believes that people
should learn a foreign language for performing different functions. Learning language could be
best facilitated through authentic teaching. Nunan (1992) said that authentic learning materials
should be natural used or introduce in class.

Fradd & McGee (1994) has demonstrated that instructional materials are to be prepared by
teachers. Furthermore, Reiser & Dempsey (2007) emphasized that materials should be as
authentic as those from real life language situation. Tomlinson (2004) added that materials
should provide sources of language input and exploit the said sources to maximize learning.
Hence, designing instructional materials imperative in learning that can be deliberately use to
facilitate instruction and discussion so as to increase learners knowledge and interest in learning
is very much important.
45

Generally, in language teaching and learning, the elements such as students and
instructional materials coupled with the curriculum offered are intertwined with instructional
materials in the frontlines or forefront of a successful learning process. There are benefits of a
good learning product through an effective good instructional material: the learning material
meets the needs of the learner; and make them feel stimulated and eager to learn. Nunan (1992)
stressed that the instructional materials should not only encourage the students to help one
another but also increase motivation to learn; the instructional materials should allow students to
focus on the formal aspects of language; the instructional materials should provide students with
efficient learning strategies and; the instructional materials should encourage students to apply
their developing language skills to the real world, a world beyond the bounds of the teachers and
classroom. Bloom (1976) believed that in the designing and construction of materials, one should
not lose sight of the fact that there are faster and slower learner instead of thinking that learners
are good and poor. He considered the role of attitudes in the instructional process as equally
important as the learners themselves.

Contemporary educators encourage teachers to rethink their approach, using well-


planned and well-designed instructional materials especially in a specialized science curriculum
high school. These will be a bridge to learning and doing mathematics and science. Educators
have this perspective as an area of agreement: We can begin to envision pedagogical possibilities
that are built on the instructional materials as an intellectual resource (Reiser & Dempsey,
2007). Effective instructional materials should be based on current and confirmed research;
designed to ensure that all students master each of the English language content; reflects and
incorporate the content of the language; sufficient instructional time is allotted to content
standards with a clear prerequisites; includes activities that relate directly to the learning
objectives; grammar and spelling is properly correct; and it provide strategies for teachers and
students to develop critical thinking.

Aside from curriculum planners, teachers and students are also vital a factor in successful
language teaching and learning processes. This involves their learning needs, abilities and
interests. It is not the quantity of students that justifies the quality of performance but it is the
quality of students. As expounded by language experts, students everyday experiences and first
language can and do serve not only as obstacles but also as resources. Their interests as well as
their experiences mean something in learning environments.

Method

Respondents
The respondents were the Grade VI pupils of the three elementary schools in the Lanao area,
namely: Mindanao State University-Integrated Laboratory School (MSU-ILS); Ibn Sienna
Integrated School, Foundation (ISISF) and Ranao Child Development Center (RCDC). The
respondents were assumed to have a general knowledge in science. This assumption is based on
the record or reputation of the schools from which the sample used in the study was drawn.

Design and Procedure


The study employed the descriptive method of research with a quantitative analysis using
statistical tools by means of a thorough analysis of the English needs of the incoming freshmen
students of the MSU- Science High School as a basis for the preparation of English instructional
materials to be used in its High School Bound Summer Program. This study set out with a needs
analysis through a proficiency test administered to the respondents. The descriptive research
design was used to treat data on the needs analysis.
46

There were two (2) stages in the conduct of this study: (1) establishing the need for
English instructional materials and the needs analysis of the respondents through a proficiency
test; and (2) the designing and developing of instructional materials based on the needs analysis
conducted.

The number of the respondents was determined by Slovens formula with two hundred
sixty-three (263) out of a population of Grade VI pupils totaling 460, were randomly selected.
Using the formula, a sample of 263 respondents was drawn from the population of the study.
From this number, a smaller sample -- 65 or 20%-30% -- was drawn for interview to assess their
listening and speaking skills. The selection for this data-gathering stage was done through
stratified random sampling.

To gather the needed data, the researcher used a modified proficiency test based on the
English Language Proficiency Test (ELPT) of the Language Center of the College of Social
Sciences and Humanities, Mindanao State University. The ELPT as a standardized test consisted
of three parts: Test of Language Use (TLU), Test of Written English (TWE) and Test of Spoken
English (TSE). It aims to measure the test takers macro skills, namely, reading, writing, listening
and speaking. Specifically, the TSE measures the listening and speaking skills of the test takers;
the results of which were evaluated and rated by competent raters. The rubric of the level of
proficiency is shown in Table 1.

Table 1
Levels of Proficiency

HIGH ADVANCE -displays fluency with no hesitations in speaking, employs complex


sentences with no grammatical lapses, uses a wide range of vocabulary,
comprehends fully the task given, produces clear, crisp and correct sound of
English.
LOW ADVANCE -is fluent with very minimal or no hesitations in speaking, employs complex
sentences with very few or no grammatical lapses, uses a wide range of
vocabulary, completes the task given, produces clear, crisp and correct
sound of English.
HIGH -displays a degree of fluency with occasional hesitations in speaking,
INTERMEDIATE employs complex or often simple sentences with very few or no
grammatical lapses, uses a variety of vocabulary, completes the given task,
produces mostly clear and correct sound of English.
LOW -displays a considerable degree of fluency with some hesitations in speaking,
INTERMEDIATE employs simple sentences and/or with occasional fragments and other
grammatical lapses, uses a variety of vocabulary, almost completes the given
task, produces clear but with occasional errors in the sound of English.
HIGH BEGINNER -displays hesitations in speaking.
LOW BEGINNER -displays difficulty in speaking.
47

Results and Discussion

Table 2
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents According to Reading Skill

Level ILS ISIS RCDC TOTAL Percentage


High Advance 0 0 0 0 0
Low Advance 2 0 0 2 0.76
High Intermediate 14 24 3 41 15.59
Low Intermediate 71 96 10 177 67.30
High Beginner 21 17 5 43 16.35
Low Beginner 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 108 137 18 263 100

Table 2 posited that a considerably large proportion of the respondents fall in the low intermediate
and high beginner. This suggests a serious proficiency deficiency. The data presented reveal that
majority or 63.3 percent of the respondents do have a minimum required knowledge of the
structure of the English language, such as grammar, vocabulary and reading comprehension. The
data further reveal that 15.59 percent of the respondents are considered average learners and less
than 1 percent of the total number of respondents is above average. Specifically, the figures from
MSU-ILS were heavily concentrated in the low intermediate and high beginner levels of
proficiency. This result is alarming. At their grade level, the respondents are already expected to
have a minimum knowledge of the basic structure of the English language.

These imply that in terms of reading skill, the respondents have the basic skills in reading
with only few of them having the ability to do more than is required and expected of them. But it
is sad to note that as the data show, there were still many among the respondents who were
below the required and acceptable level of proficiency in reading. Hence, there is basis or warrant
for the conclusion that there is a need to maximize learning potentials of the pupils in terms of
exposure to the use of the language. They should be exposed to a variety of inputs in English.

Table 3
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents According to Writing Skill

Level ILS ISIS RCDC TOTAL Percentage


High Advance 0 0 0 0 0
Low Advance 0 0 0 0 0
High Intermediate 4 14 0 18 6.84
Low Intermediate 17 46 2 65 24.71
High Beginner 82 76 13 171 65.02
Low Beginner 5 1 3 9 3.42
TOTAL 108 137 18 263 100

Table 3 shows that 9 (3.4%) of the total number of respondents are low beginners; 171 (65%) are
high beginners; 65 (24.71%) are low intermediate learners and 18 (6.84%) are high intermediate learners.
The overall result implies that more than half or 68.4 percent of the respondents are considered
to experience difficulty and hesitations in writing. This means that most of the respondents
48

could hardly put into words their thoughts in an organized manner with English as a medium of
communication. Specifically, the data from the MSU-ILS show that majority of the respondents
have low proficiency level in writing and only few are classified as average. This clearly means
that the respondents have weak background in writing. On the other hand, the data from ISISF
show that majority or 56.2% of the respondents have difficulty in writing. The figure compared
with MSU-ILS is smaller, which means that in terms of writing skill, the ISISF sample was far
better. The data from RDCD reveal that only 2 respondents have a minimum knowledge in
writing. The rest of the respondents are considered to experience more serious difficulty and
hesitations in writing.

From this can be deduced that there is a grave problem among the respondents in terms
of writing skill. The problem can be attributed to a host of problems, among which are pupils
interest in and focus on writing, language use, exposure to writing, poor comprehension,
teaching materials and teachers teaching strategies. This is a serious problem considering the
multiplicity of writing tasks high school students are required to do like reports, research papers,
critical analysis, essays and answering test questions and various write-ups. The overall result
shows lack of preparation for these tasks.

Table 4
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents Based Listening and Speaking Skills

Level ILS ISIS RCDC TOTAL Percentage


High Advance 0 0 0 0 0
Low Advance 1 0 0 1 1.54
High Intermediate 0 0 0 0 0
Low Intermediate 6 2 0 8 12.31
High Beginner 14 26 5 45 69.23
Low Beginner 9 2 0 11 16.92
TOTAL 30 30 5 65 100.00

Table 4 shows that 11 (16.9%) out of the 65 respondents interviewed are low beginners; 45 (69.2%)
respondents are high beginners, and 8 (12.3%) are low intermediate learners. There is only one
respondent who is considered a low advance learner. These data show that majority or 86.1 percent
of the total number of respondents have deficiency in listening and speaking, a receptive
(passive) and productive (active) skill, respectively. This means that more than 75 percent of the
respondents display difficulty and hesitations in speaking as they listen. Poor background and
less exposure to the use of English in speaking are some of the factors that contributed to this
problem.

Hence, it could be inferred that there is a common problem among the Grade VI pupils
in the Lanao areas that needs to be addressed in these skills. This means that generally in the
classroom situations where English is used as a medium of instruction and communication, the
respondents experience difficulty both in listening and speaking. English being a second language
poses difficulties to Filipino students who are not native speakers of the language. This problem
can be partly accounted for by the home language. School language shift can be a strain for many
students. The shift does not happen automatically and smoothly. Accordingly, learners
experience much strain or pressure in learning lessons through a language different from, or
other than, their first language.
49

In general based on the results of the proficiency test, there is a need to enhance the
pupils macro skills in terms of writing, listening and speaking skills. These skills are necessary to
achieve language competence in high school years. To maximize the learning potentials of the
students in terms of writing, reading, listening and speaking, they must be exposed to a variety of
teaching methodologies and learning principles that enhance learning. Hence, deficiency in
writing, listening or speaking can be remedied. Moreover, the study of Brandford (1998)
supported the findings of the present study. He has cogently argued for multiple accesses to
ideas media using different media and a rich learning context enriched with examples and
explanations. Although as pointed out by contemporary researches, second language learning is
affected by culture, instruction and assessment. This should not be a hindrance to successful
second language learning.

Conclusions
On the basis of the findings, analysis and interpretations of the data, the following conclusions
are drawn:
1. There is a serious problem regarding English language proficiency of the respondents
in terms of writing, listening and speaking skills. Majority of the respondents from all
three schools are diagnosed for Limited English Proficiency (LEP). There is, in fact,
a high probability that a more thorough investigation could reveal more serious
weaknesses or deficiencies e.g. pidginized English;
2. Better performance in English language proficiency is possible if lessons and
activities address the need of the pupils;
3. Majority of the respondents are likely to experience greater difficulties as they
advance to higher grade levels and encounter increasingly cognitively demanding
tasks.

Recommendations
In the light of the aforementioned findings and conclusions drawn from the study, the following
recommendations are presented for serious consideration of all stakeholders in the education of
the young:
1. The pupils of the Lanao areas should be given more support to help English language
skills since language is an indispensable tool. They must be immersed for a long time in
the target language to develop competence in oral and written communication;
2. Parents, teachers and school administrators should work hand in hand in a concerted
effort to cultivate learners competence in reading, writing, listening and speaking;
3. Parents should support their children by providing a variety of good reading materials at
home and exposing them to the use of the target language. They should be good models
themselves. The stimulation provided by the immediate environment can hardly be
emphasized;
4. Teachers should provide interactive, integrative and communicative learning situations
for their pupils. They should continuously seek furtherance of their training and growth
by attending seminars and workshops to gain more knowledge and skills in language
teaching to benefit not just themselves but also the students;
5. School administrators should take it upon themselves to create the conditions conducive
to effective teaching and learning e.g. providing essential facilities, such as a rich and
updated library, modern laboratories, furnished with computer units, projectors, and the
like;
6. Researchers should use the information or result from the study to conduct similar
studies to enable to realize the need for English instructional materials;
50

7. Similar studies should be undertaken involving other feeder schools in Lanao areas to
determine or assess the state of affairs in these schools and discover similar or distinctive
features/problems and work out solutions to these;
8. Further efforts should be exerted to assess the needs of the respondents in terms of
subject matter or topics (e.g. tense, subject-verb agreement, punctuations and pronoun-
antecedent-agreement) in the English language.

In view of the findings of the study, the proposed English Instructional Materials to be used in
the High School Bound Summer Program of MSU- Institute of Science Education Science
High School is strongly recommended for review and be used for the purpose it was intended to
serve.

References
Brown, H.D. (2000). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
Bloom, B. (1976). Taxonomy of educational objectives. New York. David McKay.
Brandford, J.D. (1998). Invited Address Presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Reading
Conference, Tucson, Arizona.
Bruner, J.S. (1975) Language as an instrument of thought. In A. Davies (ed.), Problems of Language and
Learning. London: Heinemann.
Cummins, J. (1996) Negotiating identities: Education for empowerment in a diverse society. Los Angeles:
California Association for Bilingual Education.
Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and Education. New York: Macmillan.
Edwards, J., et al. (1992). Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. Essex, England: Longman Group,
UK Limited.
Fradd, S.,& McGee, P . (1994) Instructional Assessment: an Integrative Approach to EvaluatingStudent Performance
in Reading, Addison Wesley
Gagn, R. (1985). The Conditions of Learning and the Theory of Instruction, (4th ed.), New York: Holt,
Rinehart, and Winston.
Krashen, S. (1982). "Principles and practice in second language acquisition." Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Nunan, D. (1992). Research Methods in Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
OMalley, M. & Chamot, A.(1990). Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge
University Press.
Ornstein, A. (1990) Strategies for Effective Teaching. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.
Piaget, J. (1950). The Psychology of Intelligence. New York: Routledge.
Reiser, R. A. & Dempsey, J. V. (2007).Trends and Issues in Instructional Design (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Tomlinson, B. (2004). Material Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press.
Villamin, A. (1998). Innovative Strategies in Teaching Reading. Quezon City. SIBS Publishing House.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978).Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge,
MA: Harvard University Press.
51

International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research


p-ISSN: 1694-2493
e-ISSN: 1694-2116
Vol. 15, No.4, pp. 51-59, IJLTER

Factors Affecting the Teaching of Public High School


Mathematics Teachers in the Province of Lanao del Sur and
Maguindanao

Engr. Acsara A. Gumal, Ph.D.


MSU LNCAT
Marawi City, Philippines

Abstract
This study was conducted to provide a comprehensive description of the factors affecting the
teaching of Public High School Mathematics Teachers in the ARMM, specifically, in the select
provinces of Lanao del Sur and Maguindanao, and Marawi City. Through the use of quantitative
and qualitative research design, this study examined whether or not the identified factors
affecting the performance of mathematics teachers established during the preliminary survey
conducted in October 2011 at two (2) public high schools with sizable student population in
Marawi City also hold true in the public high schools of the two provinces including Marawi
City. The identified factors became the baseline information of this study. These factors are:
students-related factors, teachers-related factors, administrators-related factors, school support
facilities, school curriculum, parent and community attitudes, and socio-cultural setting. Simple
and stratified random sampling techniques were used for the respondent size of six hundred and
twelve (612) students, thirty-two (32) teachers, and twenty-three (23) administrators. The
instruments used for data gathering were: survey questionnaires, interviews, classroom
observation and teachers beliefs, students final grades in their third year level and second
grading period grades in their fourth year level and observation guide to obtain a picture of the
physical environment of each school. The findings of the study are: (1) very few mathematics
teachers which is a mathematics majors; (2) teaching strategies or techniques used by the teachers
were not updated or abreast with the new trends of teaching practices; (3) school administrators
support for the professional growth of mathematics teachers and school facilities was very
inadequate due to lack of funds; (4) the school curriculum did not directly respond to the needs
of the learners; (5) the students and teachers attitudes on learning and teaching did not directly
lead to better and productive learning and teaching outcomes; (6) the parents and community
attitudes are not geared to better learning of the students; and (7) the socio-cultural setting had
an effect on students and teachers learning and teaching performance. Thus it is recommended
that the process of recruitment, trainings and seminar must be strictly followed and regularly
implemented respectively.

Keywords: factors in teaching, mathematics teaching, ARMM region

Introduction
In the educational realm, the study of teachers and their teaching careers has been dynamic and
impassioned for a long time. Since dynamism connotes advancement it is assumed that through
52

time, teaching should have been improving, that is, in terms of quality of results. However,
one serious problem faced by many educators and policymakers in Mindanao, particularly in the
ARMM, has been the question whether teaching in this part of the country has been improving
or deteriorating; if the latter, are teachers blameworthy. There is the further question whether the
teachers own views on this matter have been considered and whether or not learning is solely
dependent on teachers, or also influenced by other factors. The possibility that other factors
may play significant roles cannot discount. It is, however, deemed more profitable to look deeply
into the teachers characteristics, beliefs, practices, and attitudes since these are essential to the
educational process.

Moreover, several other factors significantly affect their teaching performance.


Mathematics teaching is not just about teaching numbers. Math teachers must have sufficient
understand in different mathematics concepts and principles. Mathematics teachers play
challenging roles or functions expected of mathematics teachers, it is no wonder that very few
embark on getting professional training in this field. This fact results in scarcity of qualified and
competent mathematics teachers. The ARMM Basic Education Plan discusses teacher shortage
as a chronic problem. Accordingly, findings on the 2007 BEIS revealed that there are only 1.2
teachers. Results of the National Achievement Test (NAT) have not been very encouraging. As
stated in the ARMM Basic Education Development Plan, This limited pedagogic and learning
approach, as well as low teacher competence in core subject areas, affects student performance,
as reflected in the National Achievement Test (NAT) and the Region-wide Assessment in
Mathematics, Science and English (RAMSE). In the 2006-2007 NAT, ARMM was still one of
the poorest performing regions. The same is true with MSU-SASE results.

Data from a study conducted by the former MSU Asst. Vice Chancellor for Academic
Affairs Dr. Benaning Omacaan revealed highly significant difference in the SASE mean scores
for the years 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 of MSU high schools and public high schools in
Lanao del Sur in favor of the MSU high schools. This means that SASE takers from the MSU
high schools performed better than takers from the public high schools. Moreover, the number
of admission in MSU high schools and public high schools in Lanao del Sur to the MSU Main
Campus at Marawi City showed that in S.Y. 2007-2008 only 16.94% out of 1,169 total of
enrollees came from public high schools and 83.06% of them came from MSU high schools. In
S.Y. 2008-2009, only 24.02% out of 716 totals of enrollees were from public high schools and
75.98% of them were from MSU high schools and, finally, in S.Y. 2009-2010 only 2.65% out of
2,906 total enrollees were graduates of public high schools and 97.35% of them were graduates
from MSU high schools. This low admission rate of students from public high schools might be
due to a poor foundation that could be attributed to several factors, one of which most probably
is related to teaching practices issues. More data on SASE results were generated from the
Electronic Data Processing (EDP) Department of the MSU Main Campus in Marawi through
the assistance of its head, Prof. Ronald Silvosa, upon instruction from the Vice President for
Academic Affairs and SASE Chairperson Dr. Alma E. Berowa. The result revealed that the
weighted average scores in mathematics of the respondent schools participated in the SASE
examination were 8.913 in SASE 2010 and 11.812 in SASE 2011. The weighted average scores of
the public high schools in the Province of Maguindanao are 8.050 in SASE 2010 and 11.941 in
SASE 2011. Both results show that the students from the two provinces performed poorly in the
MSU-SASE. The poor performances of these public high schools can be attributed by different
factors which may include of having poor preparation in mathematics instruction, which can be
also be most possibly traced back to mediocre teaching practices. The abovementioned issues
point up the need to investigate the ability of public secondary high school teachers in the
Province of Lanao del Sur and ARMM region.
53

Among the compelling reasons for conducting this study is the usual claim that the most
overlooked area in the country is the ARMM. Traditional politicians have been said to have
directly and indirectly interfered in the educational bureaucracy, resulting in inadequate facilities,
mediocre management of schools, faulty recruitment process, and inadequate training of
teachers, among a myriad of problems. As a native of this place, the researcher considered it his
responsibility to explore possibilities of helping alleviate the plight of the Bangsa Moro
particularly in the field of mathematics education. As an initial step, he sought to find out what
brought about the problems in the teaching of Mathematics in this region. Finally, looking into
this problem would benefit not just the top management of the Department of Education but
most importantly, it would profit students, teachers, parents, and the community. Teachers and
administrators would be given opportunities for reassessing teaching practices and school
capacity. Students would be afforded better opportunities to learn and hopefully pursue college
and earn degrees. When they get jobs, they would become more useful citizens of the country
and help alleviate poverty in their respective communities.

Respondents of the Study


Respondents were limited to the thirty-one (31) Public High School Mathematics Teachers (from
first year to fourth year level), six hundred and twelve (612) fourth year high school students and
twenty-three (23) school officials or administrators of the respondents schools in two provinces,
including Marawi City. In view of the huge number of schools and students in the marked out
area and most importantly, the uncertainty of the prevailing peace and order situation in some
remote municipalities, a sample had to be drawn from the identified population using both
random and stratified modes.

Research Design and Methods


This study made used the combination of quantitative and qualitative research design.
.Discussion on the procedural flow of the research as well as the demographic profiles of the
respondents with interpretation and implications are presented. More specifically, it utilized the
descriptive-correlational research design as it investigated the different variables involved in this
study. The variables, which were considered as the factors affecting the teaching of mathematics
teachers, are analyzed, compared and eventually classified and ranked. These factors included the
following: teachers attitude, personal profile, educational background, teaching experience and
strategies; the administrators management support and supervision; school facilities and physical
environment; the students attitudes; the parents and community constituents attitudes, and the
socio-cultural setting. This study used triangulation of data to validate the results of one
instrument with the other two instruments. This procedure means that in order to generate the
data for this purpose, three sources of data were used for this investigation, namely: surveys,
interviews and classroom observations.

The basic concepts and criteria asked and collected were reflected in the three
instruments. The survey questionnaires and interviews were applied to the fourth year high
school students, mathematics teachers and the school administrators as research respondent in
each respondent school. The classroom observation for mathematics teachers was done with
schools A, B and G (Please see attached table of letter symbols for schools). Data from the three
instruments were then documented and integrated. Several stages were followed in the conduct
of this study, as shown in the attached schematic diagram. The first stage was the preliminary site
visit for actual observation and benchmarking of the schools identified by the researcher with
regard to school environment and school facilities and also to establish rapport prior to the
interview. The second stage was the development of the three instruments, which included the
validation of the survey questionnaires by an expert and then followed by pilot testing. The third
stage was the conduct of survey questionnaires with the respondents. The fourth stage was the
54

conduct of interviews with the students, mathematics teachers and administrators. It also
included the classroom observation of the mathematics teachers. The final stage was the analysis
and interpretations of the collected data. For reliable and valid study data, the researcher
performed a preliminary survey among mathematics teachers in two government high schools
with a large enough student population to find out the factors affecting the teaching of
mathematics teachers. In this preliminary survey, the following factors were established:
students-related factors, teachers- related factors, administrators-related factors, school support
facilities, school curriculum and parents and community attitudes, and socio-cultural setting.

Significance of the Study


This study is an attempt to examine and assess the factors affecting the teaching of public high
schools mathematics teachers in the ARMM. The result of this study is hoped to: 1. Provide
teachers with reliable feedback on the following issues so that they can explore avenues for self-
improvement: a) Exposure to seminars and trainings; b) Expert educational qualification; and c)
Teaching strategies and techniques. 2. Provide the school management with reliable feedback on
what they might contribute towards the improvement of the teaching of mathematics in their
school, particularly support for teachers, implementation of intended curriculum and
improvement of school facilities; 3. Help shed light on the part or role of the community
constituents and the parents, that is, to what extent they could contribute towards the
improvement of teaching mathematics in the schools; 4. Help shed light on the part of the
policymakers and/or the curriculum designers for the inclusion of teachers pre-service and in-
service education as part and parcel of teachers pre- qualification for teaching, i.e., various
training and seminars for teachers experiences and professional growth must be embedded in
the curriculum; 5. Provide the Department of Education (DepEd) and the Department of
Science and Technology (DOST) factual data they can use in designing or redesigning programs
toward assisting the different public high schools in improving the teaching of Mathematics in
the ARMM; and 6. Contribute to the fund of knowledge in mathematics teaching.

Collection of Data
The researcher identified a home base in each school district, a place that was
strategically located between the remote municipalities within the two provinces, which served as
the base for him to work out the data collections and conduct other research instruments needed
in this study. Prior to the conduct of this research study, experts from Mindanao State University
were consulted on the do-ability and significance of the research. Then, preliminary visits and
consultation with some Division Superintendents, School Principals and Teachers of the eight
(8) identified respondents schools, were also made to establish good rapport. Letter requests
seeking permission for the conduct of the research study in the respondents school were then
given to the Division Superintendents down to the school Principals by the researcher. These
permissions were readily granted (see Appendices E.1 E.7 and F.1 F.8 respectively).
Moreover, separate letter requests were also given to the three (3) sectors of respondents,
namely; the students, teachers and administrators (see Appendices A.1A.3). The following
activities were done relative to this purpose: 1. Home base area where consolidation of data were
made. For the respondents school within the province of Lanao del Sur and Marawi City, the
researchers home was identified as his home base, as the respondents schools were accessible
and could be traveled back and forth within a day. However, for the respondents schools in the
province of Maguindanao I and II, a rented hotel room in Cotabato City was the home base,
as these schools were almost equidistant from Cotabato City. 2. Hiring a research assistant. The
research assistants from the MSU Main Campus at Marawi and from the respondent schools
were hired to help the researcher administer the distribution of the instruments to the
respondents including their retrieval. The qualifications of these research assistants were at least a
college graduate and able to express explain clearly the procedure, as well as the questions both
55

in the English language and in the vernacular of the respondents school. The identification and
selection of these research assistants were made with the consent and approval of the respective
school principal.

There were three (3) and two (2) hired research assistants in the province of Lanao del
Sur including Marawi City, and the province of Maguindanao respectively. These hired research
assistants were properly briefed and oriented about the objectives of this study, especially their
role and duties, as required. 3. Administration of the survey questionnaires. These questionnaires
were given to the three sectors of respondents of this study. For the students whose sample size
in each respondents school were indicated and determined in Respondents A, the questionnaires
were given to them during their regular class period in the presence of the researcher, in order to
readily answer and or provide added clarification during documentation of different activities.
The teachers and administrators were given in their respective offices and they were given
enough time to answer the questionnaire developed for them. 4. Interview. This instrument was
administered by the researcher himself and was done with all the mathematics teachers in each
respondent school after they were done with the questionnaire. It was conducted to validate and
supplement the data collected from the teachers responses on the questionnaire. The interview
was done in their respective offices and lasted about 25 to 40 minutes per respondent. It was
properly documented with the use of a video camera to serve as back- up files. The students
were randomly selected interviewed by the researcher during their recess period in their own
classroom. For the administrators, they were purposively chosen depending on their availability
and willingness. But there were at least three administrators in each respondent school who were
interviewed in their respective offices with the exception of one school, which had only two
officials interviewed. 5. Classroom observation. The classroom observation for mathematics
teachers was conducted by the researcher himself and was done with schools A, B and G only.
The reason for this was precarious peace and order condition in some remote municipalities and
the large amount of time the activity would consume if more sites were covered. These
respondents schools were stratified and randomly chosen in each province and the City of
Marawi and were represented then approved by the panel members. The schedule of classroom
observation was agreed upon by the researcher and the teachers. The results of this observation
were properly documented. 6. Teachers beliefs. The teachers beliefs forms were given to
mathematics teachers after they were done with the questionnaire and were administered by the
researcher himself. 7. Students Card. The students card, which referred to their final grades in
their third year and second grading grades in their fourth year level, were retrieved from the
Registrars Office and some from their advisers. 8. Observation-guide to capture the physical
facilities and/or environment of the respondents school. This observation- guide form was
administered by the researcher to produce an account of the availability of playground, basketball
and volleyball courts, cafeteria, comfort room, etcand open stage of the respondents school,
especially if repair and maintenance was being made by the school administrators. The data
gathering activities were done on November 14 to December 15, 2011. All the information and
data gathered were properly documented. Video-camera recording and journals of written
descriptions were utilized by the researcher to ensure back up file and information which were
deemed necessary in the final categorization and in-depth analysis of each respondents
responses in the instruments. Statistical Treatment of Data To ensure the reliability of the
outcome of the research data, the researcher separately organized and documented data based on
what were to be measured quantitatively and qualitatively. As to its qualitative aspect, the data
were thematically consolidated and continually reviewed and coded as the collection of data and
data analysis were a simultaneous process in qualitative research, Creswell (1994). For the data to
be quantitatively measured, the SPSS 17 program was used.
56

Treatment of Data
All the data collected from the questionnaire, classroom observation and teachers beliefs were
encoded and pseudonyms of respondents schools were used for confidentiality as mentioned in
the respondents and sampling procedure of this study. The following statistical tools were then
clicked from this SPSS 17 program and analysis and interpretation of the results followed. The
Arithmetic Mean and Percentage were used to describe the demographic profile of the
respondents, such as their age, gender, civil status, tribe, religion, educational qualifications and
length of teaching practices or experiences. These were also used for finding the mean average of
the respondents responses on the questionnaire, teachers beliefs and classroom observation.
The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient (Cr) was used to determine the significant
associations between dependent and independent variables or between independent variables,
i.e., between students grades & teachers attitude and or between students attitude & teachers
attitude. The significant difference of respondents responses on the questionnaires, i.e.,
responses between students and teachers on school facilities and or responses between teachers
and administrators on teachers leadership skill were identified through the use of Mann-Whitney
U-test. This statistical tool was appropriate to use since the data were small and were ordinal.
The Histogram Graphs were also used to visually and easily identify some variables relationship,
i.e., the mean effect of rido or awidan on students studies and teachers performance.

Summary of Findings
This study is a modest attempt to provide a clear and comprehensive picture of the factors
affecting the public high school mathematics teachers in ARMM and Lanao del Sur. Findings
revealed that; 1. Among the 31 teacher respondents, 13 were graduates of the minimum
requirement for professionals, a Baccalaureate degree. Nine were graduates of a baccalaureate
degree with some units leading to a Masters degree. Three were graduates of baccalaureate
degrees and were candidates for graduation for the degrees leading to Masters Degree. Only one
of the respondents was a graduate of Engineering with Magna Carta units. Only two were
graduates of a Masters degree other than Education; only one was a graduate of a Masters
degree in Education; only one also was a Ph.D. candidate and another one a holder of a Ph.D.
degree.

Generally, most of the teachers lacked expert educational qualification. This could
certainly hamper teaching practices as indicated in the conceptual framework of this study.
Teacher qualification is one of the potential factors affecting teaching, a sub-factor of
opportunities for teachers learning, affects professional development involvement and vice versa.
It also affects professional learning community which is a sub-factor of school capacity and
teachers knowledge which is a sub-factor of teacher capacity which shapes classroom practices
and vice versa. 2. There were 14 teachers who had teaching experiences between 6-10 years; six
teachers had 11-15 years; seven teachers had 16-20 years; and only 4 teachers had 21 - 33 years of
teaching experiences. Teaching experience is important factors in teaching learning process. It
also affects professional learning community, an aspect of school capacity and teachers
knowledge which is a sub-factor of teacher capacity that shapes classroom practices and vice
versa. 3. On the issue of the periodic observation and implementation of teachers seminars and
trainings, responses of schools were undecided, unfavorable and highly unfavorable. This
means that teachers were not given opportunities for learning, a potential factor affecting the
teaching of mathematics teachers, more specifically professional development involvement and
which in turn affects the teachers qualification and vice versa. These qualifications and
professional development involvement both affects program coherence and finally teachers
knowledge which is a factor of teacher capacity, another potential factor as shown in the
conceptual framework of this study. 4. On the issue of the use of various teaching strategies, aids
and techniques by the mathematics teacher, the respondents responses of schools were likewise
57

unfavorable and highly unfavorable. This unfavorable result is believed to affect teaching as
going back to the conceptual framework classroom practices such as employment of various
teaching strategies, aids and techniques affect teachers knowledge and vice versa. Classroom
practices are affected by both program coherence and teaching technical resources and it affect
students opportunity to learn. 5. On the issue of the school curriculum the respondents
responses of the schools were undecided and highly unfavorable. This means that there
seemed to be mismatch between what the intended curriculum was and what was implemented.
This could certainly affect teaching as based on the conceptual framework, program coherence
under which curriculum falls, affects classroom practices which is a sub-factor of student
opportunity to learn, one of the potential factors affecting teaching. 6. On the issue of school
facilities, such as library resources, laboratory facilities and sports facilities, the respondents
responses of the schools were undecided and highly unfavorable. The students responses
tend to lean toward unfavorable. This means that these issues, being part and parcel of school
system level factors which is a sub- factor of opportunities for teachers learning, affect program
coherence and teaching technical resources and which in turn ultimately affects classroom
practices as illustrated in the conceptual framework. The result came out consistently from the
three instruments used (triangulated) such as observation, interview and questionnaire. 7. On the
issue of the parent and community attitude, the respondents responses of schools were
undecided and unfavorable. This results points to the absence of family and community
support, as some students said that they were sometimes absent because of lack of funds for
transportation expense and because they were required by their parents to help in the farm.. 8.
On the issue of the socio-cultural factors relative to the students studies, on socio- cultural
setting relative to the teachers performance in teaching, the respondents responses of schools
were undecided and unfavorable. These factors are also related to community and family
background that shape teachers beliefs, knowledge, beliefs and practices; classroom practices;
and student learning outcomes. 9. More studies need to be done about factors affecting teaching.

Conclusion
Based on the gathered data, which have been carefully processed and analyzed, the following
conclusions were drawn: 1. All of the public high schools mathematics teachers in this study
have finished their undergraduate degrees but few were mathematics majors. Only one (1) out of
thirty one (31) mathematics teachers was a Ph.D. holder, while only two (2) of them were
masters degree holder. However, these teachers had enough experience in teaching as not one of
them has less than five years in teaching practices so that with this number of years in teaching,
they must be equipped with better knowledge in the teaching profession. 2. The professional
growth of these mathematics teachers were not well supported by the administration due to lack
of funds.

Only limited seminars and training were attended by even a few teachers and their
academic studies were likewise not encouraged for them. However, no teacher had a teaching
experience of less than five years. This implies that all of these teachers were not new to the
teaching profession and that their loyalty and dedication to the teaching profession may not be
questioned. 3. The mathematics teachers teaching strategies were not well- updated with the new
trends of teaching practices. This still resulted from the fact that the schools did not have
enough funds for further academic growth of the teachers. 4. The public high schools in the two
provinces investigated had their own curriculum, in which Arabic subjects were part of the
contents. However, this in effect shortened the time schedules of some subjects, including
mathematics subjects. 5. The school support facilities of the public high school were not
properly addressed and well maintained. In fact one (1) school showed no library and even those
with libraries, there were not enough copies for textbooks and references.
58

In particular, there were more schools in the province of Lanao del Sur that lacked good
chairs from some of the classrooms and no concrete basket-ball courts. However, there were
more schools in Maguindanao province that lacked textbooks and references in the school
library than in the province of Lanao del Sur. In general, the public high schools in the two
provinces investigated did not have sufficient and suitable school facilities. 6. The school
administrators were supportive of the mathematics teachers but they were limited by inadequate
funding for the teachers academic development program. However, the parent-teachers
associations, for the same reason, were also reluctant to help the school administration for the
learning of their child and for the school improvement and maintenance. Some schools have
PTCA officers and in others, such a group did not exist. 7. The students attitude toward their
mathematics studies was not dedicated and inspiring. Their attitude was not attuned to effective
learning, as manifested by their academic achievement through their final grades in their third
year and second grading grades in their fourth year level. This may be accounted for by the lack
of inspiration and follow-up support by their mentors, especially their parents. Furthermore, the
teachers attitude relative to their teaching performance was not effective and that it had an
insignificant effect on students learning. Similarly, the administrations attitude is likewise not
significant towards mathematics learning.

The mathematics teachers had knowledge/understanding of the subject. However, as to


the effect of mathematics teachers knowledge/ understanding and their beliefs on the students
achievement, it is very clear. Similarly, the mathematics teachers beliefs likewise had no
significant effect on students achievements. This study is based on their final grades in their
third year and their second grading grades in their fourth year level.

The socio-cultural settings had an effect on both the students studies and teachers
teaching performance. Thus, similar studies but more comprehensive ones may be undertaken to
find out the students and teachers attitudes towards mathematics. It is also strongly
recommended that once the prevailing peace and order in the ARMM provinces calms down, a
similar study of this kind be undertaken and that the number of respondents schools, students,
teachers and administrators must be increased to find out if there would be some categorical
changes in the results of this study. There must be a periodic assessment of school library
resources and procurement of necessary books and other library materials. The top management
of the public secondary schools might look into a review and improvement of curriculum,
incorporating other subjects like Arabic and Islamic studies. Efforts for activating parent-teacher
association, scheduling regular conferences with parents and sponsoring relevant lectures and
seminars, such as lectures on parenting, may be considered by the school management.

References.
Aquino, G. V. (1992). Fundamentals of Research. Mandaluyong City: Cacho Hermanos, Inc. Pines cor.,
Union Sts.
Broto, A. S. (2008). Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics. Quezon City: J- Labels & Printing
Corporation.
Calderon, J. F. & Gonzales, E. C. (1993). Methods of Research and Thesis Writing. Mandaluyong City,
Philippines: Cacho Hermanos, Inc. Pines cor., Union Sts.
Calmorin, L. P. (2004). Measurement and Evaluation. Marulas, Valenzuela City: 24K Printing Co., Inc., 33
Acebo Sts. Campbell, W. G. & et. al. (1991). Forms & Style: These, Reports & Term Paper. Boston,
Massachusetts, United State of America: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Cayongcat, A. T. (1989). Knowing the Maranao. Third edition, Iligan Printing Press, Gen. Wood St.,
Iligan City.
59

Creswell, John W. (1994). Research Design, Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Thousand Oaks,
California 91320: SAGE Publication, Inc.,
Doll, Ronald C. (1989). Curriculum Improvement. New York: University of New York, 1989.
Gregorio, H. C. (2004). Theories of Learning and their Implications in Teaching. 903 Quezon Boulevard
Extension, Quezon City: R. P. Garcia Publishing Company.
Hernandez, D. F. (1996). History, Philosophy and Science Education. Institute for Science and
Mathematics Education Development. Diliman, Quezon City 1101: University of the Philippines.

Olson, J. (1992). Understanding Teaching Beyond Expertise. Celtic Court, 22 Ballmoor, Buckingham,
MK18 1XW: Open University Press,
Salandanan, Gloria G. (2009). Methods of Teaching. Metro Manila: Lorimar Publishing, Inc. B.
Journals/Articles Cagaanan, Daisy E. The Modern Teacher. Essential Theories of Mathematics
Instructions, Volume VIII, January 1993.
Handal, Boris & Herrington, Anthony. Mathematics Teachers Beliefs and Curriculum Mathematics
Education Research Journal 2003, Vol. 15, No. 1, 59-69, Cumberland High School, Sydney Edith
Cowan University.
Lamb, Stephen & Fullarton, Sue. Classroom and School Factors Affecting Mathematics Achievement: A
Comparative Study of Australia and the United States Using TIMSS, Australian Journal of
Education, Vol. 46, 2002.
Mji, Andile & Makgato, Moses. Factors Associated with High School Learners Poor Performance: A
Spotlight on Mathematics and Physical Science. South African Journal of Education, 2006 EASA,
Vol 26(2) 253-266.
OGENA, E. B. Professional Development of Science and Mathematics Teachers and Educators in the
Philippines. The 1st Asia Science Educator Academy, August 3-6, 2010, Seoul & Daejeon,
Republic of Korea C.

Doctoral Dissertation and Masters Theses


Ababa, Zenaida A. Cultural Orientation and High School Classroom Contexts: Factors of Meranao
Students Performance in College Mathematics. Doctoral Dissertation, Division of Curriculum
and Instruction, College of Education, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, A.Y.
1997-1998
Ampuan-Sana, Noraisah. Mathematics Readiness and the Academic Performance of Sophomore Students
in Elementary Algebra: Their Relationships with Some Selected Variables. Doctoral Dissertation,
MSU-External Units, Main Campus, A.Y. 2000-2001
Gumal, Acsara. A. Circular Number and Circular Multiplicity of Some Graph. Masteral Thesis, MSU-
Main Campus, Marawi City, 2007
Gumal, Rocaira, R. English Proficiency Upgrading Materials for Arabic Teachers Based on a Needs
Assessment. Masteral Thesis, MSU- Main Campus, Marawi City, 2006
Latip, Inoray, G. Status and Prospects of Science Teaching in Selected Madaris in Marawi City. Masteral
Thesis, ISED, MSU-Main Campus, Marawi City, 2010.
Mangca, K. D. Teachers Morale and Some Selected Factors as they Relate to Achievement Among High
School Students in Lanao del Sur & Marawi City: Basis for an Intervention Program. Doctoral
Dissertation, College of Education, MSU main Campus, Marawi City, 2009
60

International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research


p-ISSN: 1694-2493
e-ISSN: 1694-2116
Vol. 15, No.4, pp. 60-68, IJLTER

Teaching Chemistry in Context: Its Effects on Students


Motivation, Attitudes and Achievement in Chemistry

Dr. Epiphania B. Magwilang


Mountain Province State Polytechnic College
Bontoc, Mountain Province
Philippines
epiphaniamagwilang@yahoo.com

Abstract
Context-based approach in chemistry teaching presents scientific concepts by establishing
contexts and relationships selected from daily life events. It has come into wide use recently with
the aim of bridging the gap between students daily life experiences and the content of the
chemistry course. It is along this line that the researcher motivated to evaluate the effectiveness
of context-based teaching approach towards students learning, their motivation to learn
chemistry, their attitudes towards chemistry lessons and their level of success in understanding
the concepts that were taught. The study made use of an experimental research method with pre-
test-posttest control group design involving 96 students from two inorganic chemistry classes in
at the State Polytechnic College of Mountain Province, Philippines. The Context-based
Chemistry Motivation Scale, the Attitude toward Chemistry Lessons Scale and achievement tests
were used as data gathering instruments. The score averages and standard deviations of score
distributions were calculated while t-test was used for group comparisons. Results indicated that
students in the treatment group demonstrated significantly higher motivation levels, attitude
levels and academic achievement as compared to the control group. Thus, the study concluded
that context-based learning improved students motivation in learning chemistry and their
attitude towards the chemistry course as well as increased their achievement levels in the subject.

Keywords: context-based learning, inorganic chemistry, attitudes towards chemistry,


motivation to learn

Introduction
Context-based approach in chemistry teaching has come into wide use recently especially in
other countries like the United States of America, United Kingdom, the Netherlands and
Canada, with the aim of bridging the gap between students daily life experiences and the content
of the chemistry course (Acar and Yaman, 2011).

Generally most students perceived chemistry as difficult subject despite of being the
most industrially relevant science that features every aspect of human endeavor and natural
phenomena. This perceptions may attributed by the abstract conceptions of chemistry which
they think unrelated by many students to the world they live in. According to Espinosa,
Monterola and Punzalan, (2013) chemistry students find chemistry too abstract and
mathematical. Brickhouse and Carter, (1989) also pointed that many students get lost the
concepts in chemistry if they missed to interpret the correct idea.
61

Instructional approaches to chemistry also contribute to the negative perception of the


students to the subject. In teaching, especially chemistry subject, it is not enough to simply give
facts, figures, theories, laws and other ideas in verbatim without representations the image or
application in the real life situation. Teachers should integrate new teaching pedagogies through
different hands-on activities connecting to the experiences of the learners (Reyes, Espana and
Belecina, 2014). Students perception could possibly be changed and chemistry achievement can
be improved if teachers make chemistry more relevant to the students experiences by
connecting the subject to everyday experiences (National Academy of Science, 2009).

Johnson (2002), emphasized that based on the idea of TEACHNET, teaching and
learning will become meaningful if the teachers engage contextual teaching. Context-based
method helps the teachers relate the concept being thought to the students into real world
situations leading to students motivation to learn the concepts by connecting it to their day-to-
day experiences. Context-based approaches try to cope with the highly theoretical nature of the
chemistry subject by introducing everyday contexts. In teaching context, the personal, peers, and
environmental, experiences of the learners must be included. The teaching-learning in this setting
could enhance students thinking skills and appreciate the value and importance of learning
concepts in chemistry (Campbell, Lazonby, Millar, Nicolson, Ramsden, and Waddington, 1994).

Contexts from daily life are presented as the starting points for teaching concepts which
are then followed by other contexts. Thus, contexts functions include orientation, motivation,
illustration and application (De Jong, 2006). The aim of context-based instruction in chemistry is
to create teaching learning pedagogy that will cater the physical counterparts of each concept
through real-life applications. In this way, the chemistry course is related to the daily life events
of students with the help of contexts. During the establishment of links and contexts, students
experiments involving materials that are commonly available are utilized (Gilbert, 2006).
Selection of appropriate contexts must be in accordance with students everyday lives and
teaching through these contexts would help maintain the students attention in the lessons (Unal,
2008). In addition, making the content structure more relevant to students everyday lives was
seen as a way to raise interest levels and foster learning.

Learning in context is one of the instruments that motivate and encourage students to
learn the concepts meaningfully and develop positive attitudes towards it (Bennett, Campbell,
Hogarth & Lubben, 2007). With the advantages enumerated under the context-based approach,
several studies on its effects to students attitudes and understanding of scientific ideas have been
conducted. Meta-analysis studies on the effects of context-based approach by Bennett, Hogarth
and Lubben (2003) emphasized the positive effects of context-based approach especially in
affective domain. Ramsden (1997) compared evaluated the performance of students on a
context-based approach and in the traditional approach in teaching chemistry. Based on his
findings he concluded that only a little difference existed between the group in terms of the level
of understanding, but context-based approach stimulate students interest in science compared to
the traditional approach. Other researches however, show that context-based learning generally
affects positively on students interests, attitudes, motivation and success in the field of science
(Ulusoy & Onen, 2014).

Gutwill-Wise (2001) also conducted a parallel study regarding the effectiveness of


context-based teaching. Results showed students exposed to context-based have better
understanding in chemistry concepts compared to the students exposed in the traditional
method of teaching. Ceyhan idemolu (2012) also found out that context-based approach is
very effective in improving students understanding, achievements, and literacy especially in the
62

chemical reactions and energy concepts. Furthermore, it also develops students intrinsic
motivation to learn chemistry.

Thus, a chemistry teacher, the researcher was motivated to explore and evaluate how
effective the context-based approach among Filipino learners. Students comments on chemistry
being difficult, complaints regarding this subject and personal experience and observations of
students attitudes toward chemistry prompted the researcher to conduct this investigation.

Method

Participants
The study involved 96 students from two inorganic chemistry classes at Mountain Province State
Polytechnic College, Bontoc Mountain Province, Philippines. Each class has forty eight (48)
students. All participants for the study were inorganic chemistry students who were taking the
course as part of their basic education program for the school year 2015-2016. They were
selected on the basis of class membership as enrolled at the registrars office. Prior to the study,
one class was assigned as experimental group and one as the control group through a coin toss.

Design
A pre-test-post-test control group design was used in this study through random
assignment of respondents as experimental and control group. The experimental group was
exposed to context-based method of teaching while the control group was exposed to the usual
/traditional method of teaching. The groups were given the same set of test as pretest and
posttest. Table 1 below shows the set-up of the experiment and its treatment.

Table 1
Experimental Design Used in the Study
Experimental Group T1123 X T2123
Control Group T1123 T2123
Where:
X - treatment
T11 CBCMS (pre-test) T21-CBCMS (post-test)
T12- ATCLS (pre-test) T22 ATCLS (post-test)
T13- academic achievement test (pre-test) T23-academic achievement test (post

Materials
Questionnaire on achievement test in chemistry was used as the pretest and posttest instrument.
Context-based Chemistry Motivation Scale (CBCMS), Attitude toward Chemistry Lessons Scale
(ATCLS) and achievement tests (AT) per unit prior to the experimental process were
administered. Both groups were again given the same set of test, the CBCMS, ATCLS and
achievement tests per unit after the experimental process as post-tests.

Adapted CBCMS was used to measure students motivation levels towards their learning
of chemistry using a context-based approach. This CBCMS developed by Ulusoy & Onen
(2014). The scale consisted of 20 items within a 3-factor structure and it is rated through Likert
type Scale. ATCLS was also adapted from Cheung (2007). This was used to measure students
attitudes towards chemistry learning. This instrument consists of 12 items containing 4 subscales
with a five-point Likert rating scale. Subscales includes; affective domain such as the feelings of
students towards chemistry, attitude of students towards chemistry, while the other is on
63

cognitive domain. Cognitive domain includes beliefs of students on the importance of chemistry,
and their behavioral response to the different concepts of chemistry. Since CBCMS and ATCLS
were both adapted from foreign authors, the researcher of this current study pilot tested the
instruments in the Philippine setting and the results of the internal consistency reliability were
found to be valid and reliable (0.91 for CBCMS, 0.76 to 0.86 for ATCLS).

On the other hand, the third research instrument which is the achievement test that
evaluates the academic achievement of the students in chemistry was developed by the
researcher. There were 50 multiple choice type questions in the test that focus on the topics of
matter and chemical reactions only. The reliability of the test was determined with the help of
Microsoft Excel Real Statistics Resource Pack employing split-half methodology. The correlation
coefficient of the test was found as 0.80 with Spearman Brown Correction coefficient of 0.89
indicating a highly reliable test. The test was administered to both experimental and control
groups.

Procedure
Two units from the inorganic chemistry syllabus namely, Matter and Chemical Reactions were
chosen by the researcher for this study. Before the start of each of the said units, both groups
were pretested to determine how much they already know about the lessons using the developed
achievement tests. Both groups were also pretested before the start of the treatment to
determine their motivation levels towards their learning of chemistry using a context-based
approach and their attitude level towards chemistry prior to the experiment. The treatment
group was then taught using the context-based approach. At the beginning of the lessons, real
world contexts were introduced and the chemistry concept needed to better understand the
context was presented afterward. Actual life events or circumstances were given to students to
arouse their curiosity. For instance, the formation of rust in iron nails and the bubbling of
hydrogen peroxide when used to clean cuts and wounds were used to introduce the unit on
chemical reactions. Questions on how and why such circumstances happen were asked and
discussed with the students. Experiments using common and available materials in the
community were also performed and the observations and conclusions of the students were
discussed after. Many different examples and applications of such concepts in everyday life were
then determined. Problems selected from daily life events related to the topics were solved by
the students using the knowledge they have acquired.

On the other hand, control group was taught the same topic but in the traditional
approach enhanced with PowerPoint presentations and questions and answers technique.
Duration of lessons was for one-hour periods, three times a week. Lessons in Classifying matter
lasted for 5 lecture hours and 30 laboratory hours while those for chemical reactions lasted for
six lecture hours and 12 laboratory hours. The two classes were taught by the researcher herself.
After the duration of the experiment and the retrieval of needed data the scores of the students
in the pre-tests and post-tests were gathered for statistical analysis. All data gathered in the study
were statistically analyzed using Microsoft Excel Real Statistics Resource Pack. Statistical tools
include descriptive statistics and t-test for independent sample.

Results and Discussion


Findings of the study were limited only on answering the statement of the problem investigated
stating; a) what is the effect of context-based learning activities on students motivation towards
context-based chemistry learning? b) What is the effect of context-based learning activities on
students attitudes towards chemistry lessons? And c) What is the effect of community-based
learning activities in the achievement scores of the students in inorganic chemistry? Results and
discussions are presented on Table 2 to Table 7 respectively.
64

Table 2
Pre-test Motivation Scores of the Students in the Experimental and the
Control Groups

Groups n mean Std. Dev. t p


experimental 48 3.08 0.65
1.25 0.21
Control
48 2.91 0.70
*p> .05; t(94)= 1.25 < 1.9855 = tcrit

Results from independent samples t-test shown above revealed that both groups showed almost
the same motivation level. Although experimental group showed higher mean than the control
group, still the difference show no significant since the computed p value (0.21) is >than the p
critical value (.05). These statistical results show no significant difference. Prior to the conduct of
the experiment, that is, the use of context-based teaching approach, both groups have almost the
same level of motivation towards context-based learning.

At the end of intervention, post-tests were given and the results are shown in

Table 3
Post-test Motivation Scores of the Students in the
Experimental and the Control Groups

Groups n mean Std. t p


Dev.
experimental 48 4.13 0.25
10.39 0.00
Control
48 2.93 0.76
*p> .05; t(94)= 1.25 < 1.9855 = tcrit

As shown in Table 3, experimental group motivation mean score increases from 3.08 to 2.93
while the control group motivation mean score remains almost the same. Statistically, the mean
difference between group obtained a p value of 0.000 which is < than the critical p value of 0.05;
thus this results indicated that there is a significant difference on motivational attitudes of the
students between experimental and control group in favor of the experimental group. This
further means that the students who were taught with the context-based approach had a
significantly higher motivation towards context-based learning than those students who were
taught the same lessons in the traditional way.

Effects of the context-based approach on students attitude toward chemistry lesson is


presented in Table 4 and Table 5. Prior to an intervention comparison of respondents attitudes
towards chemistry lesson were statistically measured. Results of the independent sample t-test are
shown in Table 4.
65

Table 4
Pre-test Attitude Mean Scores of the Students in the
Experimental and the Control Groups
Groups n mean Std. t p
Dev.
experimental 48 1.70 0.41
Control 0.09 0.93
48 1.71 0.46
* p> .05; t(94)= 0.09 < 1.9855 = tcrit

Results in Table 4 revealed that students attitude towards chemistry lessons did not significantly
differ prior to intervention. The results has been found that their attitude were comparable with
a mean and standard deviation of almost the same to both experimental and control group
(mean= 1.70 and 1.71; standard deviation = 0.41 and 0.46) respectively. Furthermore, the t value
computed t=0.09 <1.9855= tcrit with a p= 0.93 which is greater than 0.05 level of significance
indicated a no significant difference. In a 1-5 continuum, from strongly disagree to strongly
agree regarding attitude toward chemistry lessons, the mean scores of the two classes are
between 1.70 to 1.71 indicating that on average, the students have a negative attitude towards
chemistry lessons prior to the start of their chemistry classes.

Table 5 presents the mean post attitudinal rating of the students exposed to the
contextual teaching approach and those who were not. As shown in the table the average post-
test attitude scores of the students in the experimental group has been found as to have a mean
and standard deviation of 3.97 and 0.35 respectively. And the mean post-test scores standard
deviation of the students in the control group has been found as 2.44 and 0.40. Since t(94)= 19.99
> 1.9855 = tcrit (or p-value = .00 <.05 = ), the average attitudinal scores of the two groups are
statistically differ significantly at 0.05 level. This denotes that the post-attitudinal rating of the
experimental and control groups significantly differ due to context-based approach used by the
experimental group. This further means that the post attitudinal rating of the students exposed
to the context-based approach was significantly higher compared to their counterparts in the
control group.

Table 5
Post-test Attitude Mean Scores of the Students in the
Experimental and the Control Groups

Groups n mean Std. t p


Dev.
experimental 48 3.97 0.35
Control 19.99 0.00
48 2.44 0.40
*p< .05; t(94)= 19.99 >1.9855 = tcrit

Higher attitudinal rating is indicative of favorable attitude towards chemistry as a subject. The
finding implies that there were quite a number of the students who favorably changed their
attitude towards chemistry, thus the higher attitudinal rating. For the experimental group, their
mean post-attitudinal rating shows that the use of the contextual teaching approach contributed
to their positive outlook towards the subject. It was observed that the students in the
experimental group got more interested and excited as they tried to relate contexts based on
66

community-based materials, processes and everyday applications to chemistry concepts which


helped develop students positive attitude towards chemistry lessons.

On the other hand, effects of contextual-based approach on students achievement were


also measured. The results on the comparison on the mean scores obtained by the respondents
in the achievement test given are shown in Table 6.

Table 6
Pre-test Achievement Scores of the Student in the
Experimental and the Control Groups
Groups n mean Std. t p
Dev.
experimental 48 6.56 2.73
Control 6.42 2.83 0.26 0.80
48

*p> .05; t(94)= 0.26 < 1.9855 = tcrit

Table 6; depict the comparison of the pretest scores of respondents in the achievement test prior
to intervention. As shown in the table the mean scores of the experimental and control group are
almost the same as well as their standard deviation. To statistically measure the difference
between group achievement scores t-test of independent sample was employed and the results
obtained show no significant difference since t=0.26 has p=0.80 which is greater that the critical
value of alpha which is =.05. These findings implied that prior to the conduct of the experiment,
i.e. the introduction of the lessons; both groups have almost the same level of knowledge on the
content of the chemistry lessons on the units of matter and chemical reactions.

To evaluate the effects of context-based approach in teaching chemistry towards


students achievement, post-tests were given and the scores were statistically calculated using t-
test of independent sample. Results are shown in Table 7.

Table 7
Post-test Achievement Scores of the Students in the
Experimental and Control Group

Groups n mean Std. t p


Dev.
experimental 48 38.46 6.96
Control 31.25 4.74 6.03 0.00
48

*p< .05; t(94)= 6.03 > 1.9855 = tcrit

Table 7 reveals that after the intervention used in the experimental group, the group
mean scores in the achievement test increases from 6.56(Table 6) to 38. 46 as compared to the
control group mean score that increases from 6.42 to 31. 25. In deed the control group
achievement mean scores also increased after teaching the chemistry lesson. However, results in
the t-test computation proves that the experimental group performed better compared to the
control group showing a t value = 6.03 and p value= 0.000 which is smaller than the critical
67

value of p=0.05. This results indicates that the there is a significant difference on students
performance after the treatment as measured by the achievement test. This significant difference
could be claimed as the effects of context-based approach in teaching which was used in
teaching the students in the experimental group.

Results also show that contextual learning activities increased students achievement
through increased cognition of chemistry concepts. The findings further show that better
learning took place when students were given contexts from everyday life as basis for the
discussions of chemistry concepts.

Conclusion and Implication of the Study


Contextual teaching of chemistry makes the contents of the subject more relevant to students
lives as it connects everyday life activities to chemistry concepts. By linking the macroscopic level
that is, the students everyday experiences and the microscopic level in terms of the general
content of the course, students appreciation of the contribution of chemistry to their lives are
enhanced. Students perceptions of chemistry being too abstract and difficult are then gradually
changed to more of interest, excitement and attention towards the lessons which motivates and
encourages them to develop positive attitudes towards chemistry. Motivation and positive
attitudes foster learning thereby increasing the achievement level of students in chemistry. A
gradual shift of chemistry teachers teaching styles from the traditional lecture method towards
the use of context-based approach in their chemistry teaching may be considered for the
improvement of chemistry education in the country.
Based on the findings of the study it is hoped that innovation on different teaching
pedagogies like context-based approach could make positive contributions to the chemistry
teaching process. Therefore it can be concluded that the use of the context-based approach in
the teaching of Inorganic Chemistry has brought about significant positive changes in the
achievement level, attitudes and motivation levels of students toward chemistry lessons. The use
of contexts based on locally available and observable community resources and processes and
which integrate real-life examples provide learning experiences that increase students
achievement through increased cognition of chemistry concepts as well as develop students
positive attitude and motivation levels towards chemistry.

References

Acar, B., & Yaman, M. (2011). The effects of context-based learning on students levels of knowledge
and interest. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 40, 1-10.
Bennett, J., Campbell, B., Hogarth, S., & Lubben, F. (2007). A systematic review of the effects on high school
students of context-based and science-technology (STS) approaches to the teaching of science. York, UK:
Department of Educational Studies The University of York. Retrieved June 12, 2007, from
http:// www.york.ac.uk/depts/educ/projs/EPPI/bennettsaarmste.pdf.
Bennett, J., Hogarth, S. & Lubben, F. (2003). A Systematic Review of the Effects of Context-Based and Science
Technology - Society (STS) Approaches in the Teaching of Secondary Science. In: Research Evidence In
Education Library. London: EPPI-Centre
Brickhouse, N., and Carter, C. (1989). What Makes Chemistry Difficult? Alternative Perceptions, Journal of
Chemical education, Vol. 66. No.3 pp.222-225.
Campbell, B., Lazonby, J., Millar, R., Nicolson, P., Ramsden, J., and Waddington, D. (1994). Science: The
Salters Approach : A Case Study of the Process of Large Scale Development. Science Education, 78(5), 415-
447
Ceyhan idemolu (2012). Effectiveness of Context-Based Approach Through 5e Learning Cycle Model on Students
Understanding of Chemical Reactions and Energy Concepts, and Their Motivation to Learn Chemistry.
Retrieved June 6, 2015 from https://Etd.Lib.Metu.Edu.Tr/Upload/12614466/Index.pdf.
68

Cheung, D. (2007). Developing an instrument to measure students' attitudes toward chemistry lessons for use in
curriculum evaluation. Paper presented at the 38th annual conference of the Australasian Science
Education Research Association, Fremantle, Australia.
De Jong, O. 2006 (2006). Context-based Chemical Education: How to Improve it. A Paper based on the Plenary
Lecture Presented at the 19th ICCE, Seol, Korea, 12-17 August 2016.
Espinosa, A., Monterola, S. and Punzalan, A. (2013). Career-oriented Performance Tasks in Chemistry: Effects on
Students Critical Thinking Skills. Education Research International. Volume 2013 (2013), Article
ID 834584. Retrieved November 5, 2015 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/834584.
Gilbert, J. K. (2006). Context based chemistry education on the nature of context in chemical education. International
Journal of Science Education, 28 (9), 957-976.
GutWill-Wise, J., P., (2001). The mpact of active and context based learning in introductory chemistry courses: an early
evaluation of the modular approach. Journal of Chemical Education, 78 (5), 684690
Johnson, E. (2002). Contextual teaching and learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. National Academy
of Science. (2009). Strengthening High School Chemistry Education Through teacher Outreach Program: A
Workshop Summary to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable. Retrieved June 6, 2015 from
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record.id=12533.
Ramsden, J. M., (1997). How does a context-based approach influence understanding of key chemical ideas at 16+?.
International Journal of Science Education, 19 (6), 697710
Reyes, P., Espana, R. and Belecina, R. (2014). Towards Developing a Proposed Model of Teaching-Learning Process
Based on the Best Practices in Chemistry Laboratory Instruction. International Journal of Learning,
Teaching and Educational Research. Vol. 4, No. 1, pp.83-166.
Ulusoy, F. and Onen, A. (2014). Developing the Context-based Chemistry Motivation Scale: Validity and Reliability.
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Vol. a3. No. 6, 2014.
nal,H. (2008). Researchng the effects of conductng the prmary school scence and technology lesson accordng to context
based approach on the matter-heat subject. Masters Thesis, Atatrk University, Erzurum, Turkey.

The Author

Epiphania B. Magwilang was born in Sagada, Mountain Province,


Philippines on January 6, 1978. She finished Doctor of Education and
Master of Arts in Education in Mountain Province State Polytechnic
College, Bontoc Campus, Mountain Province and her Bachelor of
Science in Chemical Engineering in St. Louis University, Baguio City. She
is an associate professor at the Mountain Province State Polytechnic
College, Bontoc Campus, Mountain Province. She has presented
researches on local textile industries and chemistry teaching in various
International Research Conferences held in the Philippines. Recently, she
has copyrighted a book titled A Community-based Learning Resource
Package in Inorganic Chemistry.
69

International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research


p-ISSN: 1694-2493
e-ISSN: 1694-2116
Vol. 15, No.4, pp. 69-74, IJLTER

Technology and Livelihood (TLE) Instruction of Technical


Vocational and Selected General Secondary Schools in
Catanduanes

Maria Sheila R. Gregorio, Ed.D.


Catanduanes State University
sheigreg@yahoo.com

Abstract
Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) Instruction of Technical Vocational and Selected
General Secondary Schools in Catanduanes Abstract TLE in the secondary level is the response
to the need of the industry in answering the call of job mismatch in the country. Considering the
nature of TLE, it provides vocational expertise and develops critical thinking among our
students. This study was covered to determine its depth and how the researcher can be of help to
the TLE teachers to overcome these problems by working out recommendations to lessen the
burden of TLE teachers especially in using remedial measures in the absence of facilities or
equipment. This study employed the descriptive-survey method of research; covered 8 general
secondary and 3 technical vocational schools in the Division of Catanduanes with an actual size
of 113 respondents. The researcher conducted an ocular inspection of the facilities of the
schools, distributed questionnaires, done informal interview and informal classroom observation.
Results revealed that technical vocational teachers are greater in number when it comes to
relevant seminars/trainings, NC II level and TM 1 compared to the general secondary teachers.
More general secondary teachers who teach TLE subjects which is not his major area of
specialization than technical vocational teachers. Available equipment, materials and facilities do
not conform to the recommended numbers which are required to support the needs of the
students who enrolled in the TLE subject and several problems being experienced by the
teachers in the absence of the required facilities in school but they have some remedial measures
done in order to facilitate the lesson well.

Keywords: Technology and Livelihood Education, Instruction, Facilities

Introduction
Education is a must for individual considering the problems, trends and innovations in
educational system. (Padolina, 2004). Taking into consideration the global environment, people
view education not only a way of developing peoples skills but also a way of preparing our
students to be globally competitive. If the schools were able to produce quality graduates it will
redound on the quality of work they will provide in their respective workplace. The academic
track provides for a continuum toward preparation for higher tertiary education and skills
development qualifications for National Certificates I and II (NC I and NC II). While public-
private partnerships have long been in existence, industry- academe linkages and partnership are
essentially weak if not non-existent in many of our academic institutions and need to be
strengthened and made part of local socio-economic development. Participation of local
government units as well as local private industry and businesses in enhancing educational
70

programs of academic institutions located within the locality is a crucial step in closely watching
the local manpower supply and demand requirements (A Gateway to Global Competitiveness,
Hi-TechLink, June, 2013, Vol. 2, No. 001). When the researcher attended the Training for
Trainers in Baguio City, some problems crop up based from the experiences of the different
TLE supervisors and TLE teachers from all over the Philippines on the implementation of K to
12 specifically on the tools, equipment and materials which also crop up during the training
conducted here in the province.

Statement of the Problem


This study was prompted after the researcher attended the Training for Trainers in Baguio City,
were some problems crop up based from the experiences of the different TLE supervisors and
TLE teachers from all over the Philippines about the implementation of K to 12 implementation
specifically on the tools, equipment and materials that is needed to enhance the teaching-learning
process in TLE education. In view of the foregoing problems, this study was covered to
determine the status and problems in TLE education and how the researcher can be of help to
the TLE teachers to overcome these problems by working out recommendations to remedy or
lessen the burden of TLE teachers especially in using remedial measures in the absence of
facilities or equipment.

Specifically sought answer to the following questions: What are the qualifications of TLE
teachers in the general secondary education and technical vocational schools in terms of: a.
relevant educational attainment; b. relevant seminars and trainings attended; c. number of years
in teaching TLE; d. National Certificate Level II; and e. Trainers Methodology Course I?, What
are the teaching practices of the TLE teachers? 3. What instructional facilities in teaching TLE
are available in the schools? 4. What remedial ways do the teachers adopt in case where
equipment and tools are absent or insufficient? 5. What are the problems met in TLE
instructions encountered by TLE teachers?

Research Design of the Study


Using the descriptive-survey method of research this study determined the status of TLE
instruction in the technical vocational and selected general secondary in the Division of
Catanduanes. There were 8 general secondary and 3 technical vocational schools in the Division
of Catanduanes with an actual size of 113 respondents. The data were gathered through ocular
inspection of the facilities of the schools, questionnaires, informal interview and informal
classroom observation. Significance of the Study The results on qualification of TLE teachers
and on professional development that is the more frequencies of teachers attended one seminar
would be an eye opener to curriculum planners on policy making that is to strengthen the TLE
curriculum in every program/subject offered. The teacher who will teach the subject should have
completely acquired the minimum requirement to teach the subject within their area of
specialization that is an ICT major should handle ICT subjects. Trainings and seminars attended
should be related to TLE subjects taught by the teacher and are attended to enhance the
teachers professional growth such as developing teaching strategies and techniques to teach
TLE subjects. Therefore the curriculum in TLE should include both the preparedness of the
teachers and the professional advancement activities.

Method of Procedure
This study used the descriptive type of research utilizing survey technique. This research method
was used because it describes the present status or condition of the topic investigated on.
Procedure in the conduct of the survey was observed with communications done with concerned
individuals.
71

Collection of Data
The study covered Technology Livelihood Education (TLE) teachers in the 8 general secondary
and 3 technical vocational schools in Catanduanes. Out of the target number of TLE teachers
which is 123, only 113 were retrieved. In view of ethical standards in research no compulsion
was done with supposed participants in the research. Treatment of Data The study made use of
frequency count to determine the number of responses in each item in the questionnaire.
Percentage was used to determine what part of the respondents answered a particular item.
Ranking was used to determine the problems and the ways the teachers adopted in the absence
of tools/equipment and materials. Weighted Mean was employed to determine the average
response based on the weight of the chosen option.

Findings
On the basis of TLE Teachers qualifications, the following are the findings of the study: The
number of technical vocational school teachers whose educational attainment is relevant to TLE
instruction is greater than the number of general secondary teachers; General secondary teachers
who did not attend relevant seminars and trainings are greater in number than technical
vocational teachers who did not attend seminars and trainings; Among those who have already
attended seminars, the most attendees are technical vocational and general secondary school
teachers who have attended 1 to 2 seminars; The technical vocational teachers who attended 3 to
4 seminars are greater in number than the general secondary teachers; The youngest in service
which is less than 1 year in the general secondary teachers is lesser than technical vocational
teachers and the oldest in service which is 9 years and above have greater frequencies of teachers
in the general secondary group than in the technical vocational group of teachers; The technical
vocational teachers who have NC II level status are greater in number than general secondary
teachers who are NC II level status; There are more technical vocational teachers who took up
Trainers Methodology Course I than general secondary teachers and There are more general
secondary teachers who teach TLE subjects which is not his major area of specialization than
technical vocational teachers. In the aspect of teaching practices of the TLE teachers in General
Secondary and Technical Vocational Schools, the following are the findings of the study:

The teaching practices that are rated 3 or Always are: (1)Take into account students
prior knowledge when planning class program for TLE lesson. (2) Develop students
understanding of concepts in TLE. (3) Relate the concepts of Technology and Livelihood to
other disciplines like Science, Mathematics, Languages, etc. (4) Students work in groups.5) Use
the instructional tool as a primary source rather than a textbook. (6)Teach groups with the same
ability (7) Listen and ask questions in order to gauge the students level of understanding. Utilize
picture of Technology and Livelihood Education lessons and activities from magazines and the
Internet. (9) Relate Technology and Livelihood Education to current technology and (10) Giving
the students a more market-oriented and customer- centered mindset rather than just focusing
on the production.

The teaching practices with a rating of Seldom are: (1) Expose your class to the use of
investigative strategies; (2) Use indigenous materials in teaching Technology and Livelihood
Education; (3) Guide students in applying technology in launching livelihood programs such as
research, printing, computer games, etc.; (4) Use of calculators/computers/LCD projector for
drill and practice; (5) Use of computers/calculators to collect and analyze data; (6)Use
computers/LCD projector to demonstrate Technology and Livelihood Education principles;
16.Use related learning experiences, charts concept clues, or concept mapping to explain
principles in TLE; (7) Group Mapping; (8) Film Viewing; (9) Conducts survey to determine the
right courses to offer according to the demand from the industry and (10) Linkage in the local
72

industry to ensure profit for the students after taking the course and acquiring a National
Certification in TESDA.

Instructional Facilities used in TLE Instruction in Secondary Schools in Catanduanes,


findings of the study revealed that based on the recommended number of trainees and the
appropriate number of tools, equipment, materials and facilities that they should use, there are
more available tools, equipment, materials and facilities in the subjects offered by technical
vocational education schools such as Dressmaking, Technical Drafting, Nail Care Servicing,
Consumer Electronics, Computer Hardware Servicing and Electrical Installation and
Maintenance. In all the schools which offered TLE subjects, the available tools, equipment,
materials and facilities do not conform to the recommended standards in terms of quantity.
Based from the list of required facilities, tools and equipment, the unavailable tools, equipment
and facilities is much greater than what are available in the schools which offered the subjects.

On specific question number 4, Remedial Measures Adopted by TLE Teachers, the


following are the findings of the study; The foremost remedial measures which TLE teachers in
the technical vocational schools adopt according to rank are: a.)Encourage students to practice
working if they have the materials/equipment at home b.) Buying own materials/equipments for
demo purposes c.) Provide pictures and d.) Make use of materials/equipment from home /
borrowing materials from co-teachers. The foremost remedial measures which TLE teachers in
the general secondary schools adopt according to rank are: a.)Buying own materials/equipments
for demo purposes b.) Encourage students to practice working if they have the
materials/equipment at home c.) Provide pictures and d.)Make use of materials/equipment from
home. Problems

TLE Teachers encountered the following problems in teaching Technology and


Livelihood Subjects according to rank. 1) Lack of trainings related to area of specialization 2.)
No capital investment 3.) Planning of TLE subjects does not include allowance for contingencies
for instructional facilities and teaching strategies and 4.) Unrepaired equipment due to
absence/lack of budget.

The following are the foremost perceived problems by the TLE teachers in general
secondary schools in teaching the subject according to rank: a.) Lack of teaching strategies b.)
Lack of trainings related to area of specialization c.) No capital investment and d.) Inadequacy of
facilities and equipment.

Conclusion and Implication of the Study


Based from the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn: The typical teacher
respondent is a BS Industrial Education graduate, with no seminars attended, has been in the
service for 9 years or above, with at least one National Certificate Level II and yet to pass a
Trainers Methodology Course; The teaching practices of the TLE teachers are: 1. Take into
account students prior knowledge in planning class program for TLE lessons, 2. Develop
students understanding of concepts in TLE, 3. Students work in cooperative learning group, 4.
Teach groups that are heterogeneous, 5. Relate concepts of TLE to other discipline, etc.; Most of
the recommended tools, equipment and materials are not available in both technical vocational
and general secondary schools. The available tools, equipment, materials and facilities do not
conform to the recommended numbers which are required to support the needs of the students
who enrolled in the TLE subject.

The schools have inadequate instructional facilities; Some of the remedial measures that
the TLE teachers adopt are: 1. Encourage students to practice working if they have the tool or
73

material at home, 2. Buy their own materials, 3. Provide pictures, 4. Film Showing, 5. Video
Presentation, 6. Solicit from community alumni by posting in a social media the tools or
materials the school needs. The problems encountered by TLE teachers are lack of teaching
strategies, lack of capital investment, lack of teachers, unrepaired equipment, inadequate number
of facilities in teaching TLE subjects etc. The implication of this research is that policy makers
were able to consider allocating an ample budget intended for the implementation of TLE
subjects. The student even in a remote place deserves to learn at its best way possible.

References
Albarico, et. al., (2014) A Gateway to Global Competitiveness, Adequacy of Instructional Materials Used
by Teachers Teaching Technology and Livelihood Education. Almekhlafi, A. G., &
Almeqdadi, F. A. (2010). Teachers' Perceptions of Technology Integration in the United Arab Emirates.
Aquino, Benigno Simeon C. (2011) State of the Nation Address Arroyo,
Armin L., (2013) Developing Information Communication Technology (ICT)
http://linc.mit.edu/linc2013/proceedings/Session7/Session7Bonifacio.pdf
Akar, P., & Ba, T. (2008). A Structural Equation Model for ICT Usage in Higher Education.
Educational Technology & Society. Yangco, Gilbert B., (2007) Effectiveness of Computer
Education Management in Selected Public Secondary Schools in the Division of City Schools in
Quezon City
Beltran, E. (2013) Reaching the Grassroots: Education and Training on the Go!, A Gateway to Global
Competitiveness, Hi-TechLink, June, 2013, Vol. 2, No. 001. Bonifacio,
Bybee, R.W., (1993) Reforming Science Education: Social Perspectives and Personal Reflections, New
York, Columbia University Teachers College. Chambers, R.,
Chang,I.-H. (2012). The Effect of Principals Technological Leadership on Teachers Technological
Literacy and Teaching Effectiveness in Taiwanese Elementary Schools. Educational Technology
and Society, 15(2), 328-340. CHED (2007)
Colinares, (2002), Philippine Education in the Third Millennium, (UNESCO) Competency-Based
Curriculum, Experiential Learning Courses Handbook, http://www.tesda.gov.ph
Conway G., (1992) Sustainable Rural Livelihoods Practical Concepts for the 21st Century. Retrieved
December 2013 http://www.opendocs.idsac.uk/opendocs/handle/123456789/80.
Corney, D., (1999) Approaches to Sustainable Livelihood for Rural Poor, Retrieved December 2013,
from http://www.hd/handle.net/123456789/497.
Corpuz and Lucido (2008) Educational Technology 1, Quezon City, Lorimar Publishing, Inc.Curriculum
Standards for K-12 Schools in the Philippines. Retrieved December 2013.
Curtis, D., (2001) Project-Based Learning: Real World Issues Motivate Students. Retrieved December 15,
2013 from: http://www.edutopia.org/project-based learning-student-motivation
DepEd Order #76, s. (2010) Policy Guidelines on the Implementation of the 2010 Secondary Education
Curriculum (SEC) Online Help Desk, Anytime Anywhere. Education Act (Republic Act No.
7798) (http://www.uis.unesco.org/Library/Documents/Philippines.pdf) Fernandez,
Garcia, et. al., (2014) Difficulties in Reading Comprehension and Metacognitive Strategies for Technology
and Livelihood Education Students Graduate School Journal December 2005 Issue, Volume
XXXI Graduate School Journal December 2006 Issue, Volume XXXII
Gloria M. (2006). Human Capacity Building Human Capital Development and Inclusive Growth,
Granada Dominador, et. al Instructional Assessment of Technology and Livelihood
Education (TLE) Program, Southern Leyte State University, Faculty Research, August 2012.
http://philair.ph/publication/index.php/jpair/article/view/14
Guiner, Dante B., (2013) Competencies of Technology and Livelihood Education
(TLE) Instructors Input to a Training. Module in Industrial Arts. International Scientific
Research Journal, Volume V, Issue-2, 2013, ISSN 2004-1749.
Hainston, Rosalina V., (2002) Applications of Learning Theories to Science Curriculum, Instruction and
Assessment, OASIS, UPOU, c. 2002.
Ibe, Milagros, (1999) Seminar Issues and Trends in Science and Technology Education, UP Diliman,
OASIS, UPOU, and SEI, DOST.
Implementation of TLE Program in Secondary Schools
http://www.deped.gov.ph/sites/default/files/order/2012/DO s2012 67.pdf International
74

Conference on Law, Education and Humanities (ICLEH 14), January 30- 31, 2014, Pattaya,
Thailand (http;//dx.doi.org/10.152/ICEHM.EDO145618 Table II, III, Jan. 30 31, 2104.
Pattaya, Thailand) Accessed on December 2014.
International Journal of Information Technology and Business Management, Feb. 28, 2013, Vol. 22 No. 1
(2012-2014) JITBM and ARF, K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum Technology and Livelihood
Education Teachers Guide.
Kolb and Kolb, (2008) Handbook of Management Learning, Education and Development, London Sage
Publications. National Framework Plan for ICTs in Basic Education (2005 2010). Harnessing
ICTs for Quality Basic Education for All.
Padolina, (2004) Educational Reform- The Philippine Education in the Third Millennium. Problems
Encountered by TLE Teachers http://www.slideshare.net/teenjoy/thesis-37517506
Raymond M. (2013), Teachers Competence and Learners Performance in the Alternative Learning
System Towards an Enriched Instructional Program, Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila
Republic Act 10533 (2014). Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013Retrieved: December 2014
Reyes-Campos, Laura T., (2002) Predictors of Teaching Efficiency: A Proposal Model, DLSU, GSEAS
Journal Volume MIII. Secondary Education Regional Information Base: Country Profile
Philippines. Bangkok: UNESCO
Bangkok,2009.http://www.uis.unesco.org/Library/Documents/Philippines.pdf
Teaching Practices of TLE Teachers (http://www.slideshare.net/knowellton/module-69-tle) Accessed
on December 2014 Technology and Home Economics (DECS) Memo No. 91 s. 1998.
Technology and Livelihood Education Curriculum Guide (Retrieved: December, 2014) Tinio, V.L.
(2002). ICT in Education, Asia-Pacific Development Information Programme. Usability of Skills
of TLE Students (http://www.eisric.com/documents/Competencies of Technology and
Livelihood Education (TLE) Instructors Input to a Training Module in Industrial Arts
1372056125.pdf) Accessed on December 2014. Usluel, Y. K.,

Online Website Sources


http://www.philstar.com/education-and-home/554429/noynoys-education-agenda
http://www.deped.gov.ph/sites/default/files/order/2012/DO s2012)
http://www/scribd.com/doc/19423301/Instructional-Materials
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_the_Philippines

The Author

Maria Sheila R. Gregorio born at San Andres, Catanduanes,


Philippines on February 28, 1974. She finished Doctor of
Education major in Educational Management, Master of Public
Administration at Catanduanes State University and Bachelor of
Secondary Education major in Computer Science in Adamson
University, Ermita, Manila. She is a licensed teacher and a lecturer
in private review center for Licensure Examination for Teachers.
She attended several trainings and seminars relevant to her area
of specialization.
75

International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research


p-ISSN: 1694-2493
e-ISSN: 1694-2116
Vol. 15, No.4, pp. 75-81, IJLTER

Level of Efficiency of the Information Technology Professional


Subjects Instruction at the Catanduanes State University for
School Year 2015-2016

Belen M. Tapado
College of Information & Communications Technology
Catanduanes State University
Virac, Catanduanes, Philippines
Email: bmtapado@gmail.com

Maria Sheila R. Gregorio


College of Education
Catanduanes State University
Virac, Catanduanes, Philippines
Email: sheigreg@yahoo.com

Abstract
This study determined the level of efficiency of Information Technology (IT) professional
subjects instruction at the Catanduanes State University for school year 2015-2016. This study
could be useful for schools offering IT courses for them to assess the quality of the instruction
that they are offering, the discipline, training, updated knowledge and skills as well as the
personal and professional qualities possessed by the faculty members and also the state of the art
facilities that will augment the conduct of teaching and learning process in order to produce high
productivity results for students in order for them to be equipped with the capabilities needed in
the industry not just in the country but abroad. Quality instruction would enable trust and
confidence of the community in the IT curricular offerings of the university. Independent
variables of faculty profile, personal qualities and knowledge and skills were considered in this
study and the level of teaching efficiency for the IT professional subjects served as the
dependent variable in this study. Faculty profile and the IT faculty members knowledge and
skills on the IT professional subjects were tested for their relationship with the IT faculty
members level of teaching efficiency for teaching IT professional subjects. Descriptive survey
method was employed in this research using questionnaire as a data gathering instrument to
determine the level of efficiency of IT professional subject instruction at the Catanduanes State
University for the school year 2015-2016. The total population of this study was the 211
Bachelor of Science in Information Technology (BSIT) and 128 Bachelor of Science in
Information Systems (BSIS) students and 12 faculty members teaching the IT professional
subjects at the College of Information and Communications Technology in this university.
Findings revealed that the knowledge and skills of faculty member in teaching IT professional
subjects is excellent; the level of efficiency of faculty members in teaching IT professional
subjects is very efficient; mastery of the subject matter is the same regardless of age, gender,
monthly income, highest educational attainment and school graduated, however, the mastery of
the subject matter differ in terms of relevant trainings attended in teaching IT subjects. Thus
76

training for faculty development is needed to give the faculty members first-hand information
and experience on the current trends in information technology being a very dynamic field.

Keywords: level of efficiency, information technology, professional subjects, information


technology professional subjects, subject instructions

Introduction
In the advent of information and communications technology, globalization and knowledge-
based economy, computers had invaded all aspects of human activities to science laboratories,
technological fields, banks, supermarkets, medical labs and different industrial office. The role of
information technology (IT) is indispensable. It could help the learners pursue information and
knowledge by suggesting leads where the information can be found. In such manner, students
will revolutionize education by assuming new roles that of navigators in a field of data,
triggered by a research process beginning with curiosity and a desire to learn. Modularized
lecturers and hands-on computing skills such as design techniques like flowcharting, software
concepts, computer programming concepts and computer languages like word processing,
spreadsheet software, data processing software, multi-media presentations, desktop publishing,
web publishing and network concepts are offered to the students. Because of this, a program for
innovating information technology education is being propelled to arm the schools with
contemporary tools and services to initiate new schemes in the teaching and learning process
that is taking advantage of the breakthrough in technologies.

Modernized education is making use of Information Technology (IT). This is an essential


resource in multiplying information and enabling greater access to knowledge and enhances skills
development and more important, it links learner through interactive systems that makes
learning a dynamic experience. Likewise, IT will help build a society based on peace, harmony
and tolerance. Teaching is a complex human activity. In fact, teachers have to play different roles
to ensure effective teaching for his/her students. In fact, there is no solitary learning strategy that
could satisfy the necessities or requirements of each learner. It is but natural that teachers should
introduce new insights, fresh knowledge and skills obtained from training and advanced
schooling. Hence an appraisal of the teachers teaching prowess should be done with religious
and utmost care so that their morale would be boosted and quality education to his/her learners
are attained. Such process of assessing the teachers performance should replicate the teaching
innovations and intricacy of the activities imposed inside the classroom. In this regard, the
conduct of IT instruction must be examined, the personality and professional qualifications,
significant preparation relevant to the teachers field of specialization must be looked into so that
quality instruction and globally competitive students will be produced.

There were researches conducted to assess the quality of instruction for English,
Mathematics and sciences but assessing quality of instruction for information technology
subjects as well as IT program offerings such as Bachelor of Science in Information Technology
(BSIT), Bachelor of Science in Information Systems (BSIS), and Bachelor of Science in
Computer Science (BSCS) are very scarce in the course of this investigation. This was the gap
observed that is addressed by the present study.

Statement of the Problem


This study determined the level of efficiency of instruction of the Information Technology
Professional Subjects in order to identify what are the needed interventions that the
77

administration should try to work out in order to elevate the quality of teaching efficiency of the
faculty members.

Specifically , this study answered the following specific questions: (1) What is the profile
of the faculty members at the Catanduanes State University who are teaching the Information
Technology Professional Subjects for school year 2015-2016 in terms of: (a) Age, (b )Gender, (c)
Civil Status, (d) Educational Attainment, and (e)Training on IT Professional Subjects?; (2) What
are the personal qualities of the faculty member that contributes to his/her level of teaching
efficiency?; (3) What are the knowledge and skills in the Information Technology Professional
Subjects that should be possessed by the faculty members teaching these subjects that will
contribute to their level of efficiency in the instruction for Information Technology Professional
Subjects? (4) What is the level of efficiency of the instruction for the Information Technology
Professional Subjects at the Catanduanes State University as perceived by the faculty members
and students for school year 2015-2016?; (5) Is there as significant relationship between the
profile of the faculty members who are teaching Information Technology Professional Subjects
and the level of efficiency of teaching the Information Technology Professional Subjects at the
Catanduanes State University for the school year 2015-2016? and (6) Is there as significant
relationship between the knowledge and skills of the faculty members who are teaching
Information Technology Professional Subjects and the level of efficiency of teaching the
Information Technology Professional Subjects at the Catanduanes State University for the
school year 2015-2016?

Research Design of the Study


Descriptive survey method was employed in this research using questionnaire as a data gathering
instrument to determine the level of efficiency of IT professional subject instruction at the
Catanduanes State University for the school year 2015-2016. The total population of this study
was the 211 Bachelor of Science in Information Technology (BSIT) and 128 Bachelor of Science
in Information Systems (BSIS) students and 12 faculty members teaching the IT professional
subjects at the College of Information and Communications Technology in this university. The
level of efficiency of the instruction for the Information Technology Professional Subjects at the
Catanduanes State University for school year 2015-2016 were determined through survey, ocular
observations and interview approach.

Significance of the Study


This study has significance to the policy makers in order to consider giving scholarship grants to
the faculty members that focuses according to their area of specialization, skills and capabilities.
The teachers will be encouraged to specialize more in computer programming and systems
development subjects since these areas are necessary in developing application solutions that
could aid in the teaching and learning process as well as facilitate the transaction in the offices or
organizations. Likewise alignment of subjects handled by the faculty members according to their
area of specialization, identification of needs of faculty, instructional resources and visual media
that will promote high productivity results for students and helping them to become globally
competitive individuals should be done by school administrators to entice trust and confidence
of the community in the IT curricular offerings of the university will be given preferential
attention. This research will also serve as a benchmark study for assessing the quality of IT
instruction since there is neither existing article that discusses assessment of IT instruction nor
study reviewed relating to quality of IT instruction.
78

Method of Procedure
Descriptive survey method using questionnaire, ocular visits by the researcher to each
participating schools, conducting informal and formal interviews were the primary instruments
used to gather the data and other necessary information relevant to this study. There were 339
total respondents participated and they were randomly interviewed through convenient method.
The survey questionnaire made use of a 5-point Likert Scale of 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1, (5 being the
highest and 1 being the lowest). This survey questionnaire primarily assessed the personal
qualities of the IT teachers as well as the knowledge and skills of the IT faculty members. The
same scale was also used to measure the level of efficiency of IT professional subjects
instruction.

Collection of Data
The total population of this study was the 211 Bachelor of Science in Information Technology
(BSIT) and 128 Bachelor of Science in Information Systems (BSIS) students and 12 faculty
members teaching the IT professional subjects at the College of Information and
Communications Technology in this university. Data were gathered through questionnaire that
were distributed to the 12 faculty members and the study sample of 114 BSIT and 69 BSIS
students.

Treatment of Data
Descriptive statistics of frequency count and weighted mean were utilized in analyzing the data
of the research. Chi-square statistic was used to test the relationship between the profile of the
faculty and the level of teaching efficiency and the relationship between the knowledge and skills
of the faculty members in teaching the IT professional subjects and their level of teaching
efficiency in teaching those subjects.

Findings
The typical faculty member who teaches IT professional subjects is between 30 to 50 years of
age, female, married, has monthly income of Php 35,000.00, a bachelors degree holder,
graduated bachelors degree from CSU, taken up masters units in MIS at PUP or UPOU and
have attended trainings on C Programming, Visual Basic, Systems Analysis and Design and Java
Programming;

The personal qualities of faculty members teaching IT subjects are: Projects his image of
authority, shows enthusiasm and vitality in the classroom; shows respect towards the students;
Responds to the student questions and comments in a timely and conscious manner; Wears
proper and decent attire in the classroom and is neat and well-groomed; is polite and patient in
dealing with the students and is approachable; express his/her ideas confidently and speaks
clearly and understandably.

The knowledge and skills of faculty member in teaching IT professional subjects is


excellent; The level of efficiency of faculty members in teaching IT professional subjects is
very efficient; Mastery of the subject matter is the same regardless of age, gender, monthly
income, highest educational attainment and school graduated, however, the mastery of the
subject matter differ in terms of relevant trainings attended in teaching IT subjects. This could be
due to the fact the training could give the faculty members first-hand information and experience
on the current trends in information technology being a very dynamic field; Teaching
79

methodology is the same regardless of age, gender and highest educational attainment, however,
teaching methodology differ in terms of highest educational attainment and relevant trainings
attended on IT subjects. Enrolling in post- graduate programs related to information technology
as well as attending training that is also related to information technology would enable the
faculty to explore new insights, concepts and approaches that will make the teaching and learning
process more interesting and effective and; Classroom management is the same regardless of age,
gender and school graduated. However, classroom management differs in terms of monthly
income, highest educational attainment and relevant trainings attended on IT teaching. Effective
teachers update trends in information technology in the teaching and learning process would
enable to make the students feel that their professors are really authorities for information
technology related subjects.

Conclusion and Implication of the Study


Based from the findings of this research the following conclusions were drawn: (a) The typical
faculty member who teaches IT professional subjects is 30-40 years of age, female, married, has
monthly income of Php 35,000.00, a bachelors degree holder, graduated bachelors degree from
CSU, taken up masters units in MIS at PUP or UPOU and have attended trainings on C
Programming, Visual Basic, Systems Analysis and Design and Java Programming; (b) The
personal qualities of faculty members teaching IT subjects are: Responds to the student
questions and comments in a timely and conscious manner; Projects his image of authority;
Wears proper and decent attire in the classroom and is neat and well-groomed; etc.; (c) The
knowledge and skills of faculty members in programming are: Gives programming exercises and
exams, which are challenging and reasonable; Demonstrate thorough, accurate and up to date
knowledge in programming; Knows how to execute programs using several programming
languages such as Turbo C, Turbo Pascal, Visual Basic, Java and the likes; etc.; In systems
analysis and design the knowledge and skills of faculty members are: Is familiar with the different
software development and maintenance models; Explains the manner/steps of systems/software
development in such a way that the students could easily understand the concepts being
discussed; Proficient in performing Software Implementation activities; etc.; The knowledge and
skills in graphics and multimedia are: Design and create a two-dimensional animation; Design
digital composition using graphics software; Exhibits familiarity with the interfaces of the
Graphics software; etc.; In terms of web design faculty members have knowledge and skills on:
Demonstrate flexibility in designing web pages; Gives web designing exercises and exams, which
are challenging and reasonable; Familiarity with the rules, building blocks and guidelines in web
designing; etc.; The knowledge and skills on data communications and networking are:
Demonstrate thorough understanding with the different physical characteristics of wired and
wireless networks and various communications media; Is aware and proficient on the different
security issues and threats in computer networks and internet; Proficiency in discussing the uses
and functionalities of Internet and TCP/IP;etc.

In terms of database management systems, the knowledge and skills are: Could identify
the different data and business rules that would be used in modelling a database design; Could
identify, compare and contrast the different data models that are used in developing and
designing database systems; Could identify the different stages in the database development
process; etc.; (d) The level of efficiency of faculty members in teaching IT professional subjects
is very efficient; (e) Mastery of the subject matter is the same regardless of age, gender,
monthly income, highest educational attainment and school graduated, however, mastery of the
subject matter differ in terms of relevant trainings attended in teaching IT subjects.; Teaching
methodology is the same regardless of age, gender and highest educational attainment, however,
teaching methodology differ in terms of highest educational attainment and relevant trainings
80

attended on IT subjects.; (f) Classroom management is the same regardless of age, gender and
school graduated. However, classroom management differs in terms of monthly income, highest
educational attainment and relevant trainings attended on IT teaching.

It is recommended that the faculty members teaching IT professional subjects must be


encouraged to retool, re-train and finish their masters and doctorate degrees in their respective
area of specialization. Training needs assessment of faculty relating to IT Professional subjects
and thorough preparation and implementation of faculty development plan that considers
alignment of faculty qualifications according to their career track/path should be done. Likewise
alignment of subjects handled by the faculty members according to their area of specialization,
skills and capabilities should also be given emphasis; and lastly, identification of needs of faculty,
instructional resources and visual media that will promote high productivity results for students
and helping them to become globally competitive individuals should be done by school
administrators to entice trust and confidence of the community in the IT curricular offerings of
the university.

References
A Quality Teacher in the Classroom (2010): Creating a Teacher Evaluation System that Works for
California. Stanford University: A Report of the Accomplished California Teachers for the
National Board Resource Center.
Becker, H. J. (1991). How are Computers Used in United States Schools: Basic Data from 1989 Survey. .
Journal of Educational Computing Research 7, 385-406.
Brummelhuis, A. T., & Plomp, T. (1994). Computers in Primary and Secondary Education: The Interest
of an Individual Teacher or a School Policy? Computers and Education, 291-299. Cid, L. A.
(1966).
Comparison of Students and Administrators Rating of Teaching Efficiency of Faculty Members of
Selected Colleges in Home Economics in Metro Manila. Unpublished Master's Thesis. Philippine
Normal University.
Crawford, P., & Bradshaw, A. I. (n.d.). Perception of Characteristics of Effective Teachers, A Scaling
Analysis in Student Rating: Reliability, Validity and Usefulness. Review of Educational Research
Vol. XXXI No. 1-4, 515.
Culatta, R. (2011). Constructivist Theories of Learning. Available: Innovative Learning:
http://www.innovativelearning.com/educational_psychology/constructivism/index.htm
Gregory, R. J. (n.d.). General Systems Theory: A Framework for Analysis and Social Change. General
Systems Theory: A Framework for Analysis and Social Change: Available:
http://wsarch.ucr.edu/archive/papers/gregory/gensysTh.html
Handler, M., & Sheingold, K. (1993). Preparing Teachers to Use Computer Technology: Perceptions and
Suggestions for Teacher Education. American Journal of Education, 101, 261-315.
Hodgson, B. R. (1994). The Roles and Needs of Mathematics Teacher Using Information Technology
(IT). Working Conference on Integrating IT into Education, Barcelona 17-21st of October 1994.
Barcelone, Spain.
Jones, L. A. (1991). Helping Teachers Effectively Use Computers n the Educational Setting. Unpublished
Master's Thesis. Nova University.
M., H., & Sheingold L. . (1993). Commonalities and Distinctive Patterns in Teaching Integration of
Computers. American Journal of Education 101, 261-315.
Morse, & Wingo. (1997). Effective Teaching Models, Strategies and Skills. Manila: Rex Bookstore. P., E.
D. (1990). Conditions that Facilitate the Implementation of Educational Technology Innovations
Journal of Research Computing in Education 23(2), 298-236.
Poignant, R. (1991). Possible Criteria for Evaluating Educational Policies. Paris: UNESCO. Popham,
W., & Baker, E. L. (1970). Systematic Instruction. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Sanders,
81

W. L., & Rivers, J.C. (1996). Cumulatice and Residual Effects of Teachers on Future Student Academic
Achievement. Knoxville: University of Tenessee Value-Added Research and Assessment Center.
Scrogan, L. (1989). Teachers, Training and Technology, Classroom Computer Learning. OTA Report.
V., M. J., Lawson, D. R. , & Sweet, D. . (n.d.). School of Effectiveness Study. State of California
Department of Education. Sacramento, California, U.S.A.
Winnans, C., & Brown, D. (1992). Some Factors Affecting Elementary Teachers' Use of the Computer.
Computers and Education, 301-309.
Zammit, S. (1992). Factors Facilitating or Hindering the Use of Computers in Schools. Educational
Research, 34, 57-66.

The Authors
Belen M. Tapado is from San Andres, Catanduanes, Philippines. She was a graduate
of Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering at the Polytechnic University of the
Philippines in 1991 and earned her Master of Science in Management major in Public
Administration at the Catanduanes State University in 2002. She is presently a
candidate for graduation for Master of Science in Information Technology (MSIT)
from the Polytechnic University of the Philippine Open University Systems (PUP-
OUS). She is connected at the Catanduanes State University in the Philippines and
presently holding a rank of Associate Professor III. She is also designated as Research Coordinator
of the College of Information and Communications Technology at the Catanduanes State University.
She is a member of Philippine Computer Society and Philippine Schools, Universities, and Colleges
Computer Education and Systems Society (PSUCCESS), Philippine Society of Information
Technology Educators (PSITE), Philippines Association of Researchers and Statistical Software and
IAMURE Multidisciplinary Research Organization. She is also a member of the pool of Accreditors
of the Accrediting Agency of Chartered Colleges and Universities in the Philippines, Inc. (AACCUP).

Maria Sheila R Gregorio is from Virac, Catanduanes, Philippines. She was a graduate
of Bachelor of Science in Secondary Education major in Computer Science at the
Adamson University. She earned her post-graduate education both in Catanduanes
State University. She is a graduate of Master of Science in Management major in
Public Administration and Doctorate of Philosophy in Educational Management. She
is connected at the Catanduanes State University in the Philippines and presently
holding a rank of Associate Professor II. She is a member of Philippine Computer
Society and Philippine Schools, Universities, and Colleges Computer Education and Systems Society
(PSUCCESS) and Philippine Society of Information Technology Educators (PSITE),
82

International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research


p-ISSN: 1694-2493
e-ISSN: 1694-2116
Vol. 15, No.4, pp. 82-90, IJLTER

Organizational School Climate and Organizational Health of


Mountain Province State Polytechnic College

Dr. Arel B. Sia-ed


Mountain Province State Polytechnic College
Bontoc, Mountain Province, Philippines

Abstract
A schools climate plays a major role in the staffs behavior. How faculty perceives their work
environment is imperative to establish because it determines the concentration and effort that
will be expended to lead an educational organization to its vision and mission. Using the
descriptive research design, this study examined the organizational school climate of the
Mountain Province State Polytechnic College involving the school administrators, the teaching
and non-teaching staff. The adapted but modified Organizational Climate Description
Questionnaire (OCDQ) and Organizational Health Index (OHI) were the two research
instruments used in the data gathering of the study. The OCDQ was used to evaluate the
administrators leadership style with the criteria of supportive, directive, and respective.
Employees interaction was also measured through collegial, intimate and disengaged behavior.
The OHI tool was used to measure the organizational health of the school at the technical,
managerial, and institutional level. From the analysis of data, findings revealed that the school
climate of MPSPC was closed. This closed school climate is brought about by the low openness
indices of the administrators and employees. On the other hand, the organizational health of
MPSPC was healthy. This healthy organizational health of MPSPC proved that our school
continue to survive in its environment and progressively aims to become strong and flourishing
in its endeavors. Therefore, school environment such as organizational climate and
organizational health were important in maintaining good relationship with peers. Results of this
study could be a basis in the making, and improving the college organizational climate and
organizational health in any institution.

Keywords: School Climate, Organizational Health, Mountain Province State Polytechnic College

Introduction
Interaction and communication are key components in education. Lacking either of these traits
can lead to misunderstandings and misconceptions. School effectiveness should be periodically
evaluated by examining the organizational school climate. A schools climate plays a major role in
the staffs behavior. How employees perceives their work environment is imperative to establish
because it determines the concentration and effort that will be expended to lead an educational
organization to its vision and mission. It is crucial for educational institution to test teachers
perception of the school climate when moving towards a new direction and to periodically check
the organizational health and stability. Utilizing this tool will help administrators know if their
leadership is effective, and may identify areas that can be addressed and improved upon to
effectively lead the teaching staff to reach the schools maximum efficiency. The strengths
83

perceived by the faculty and administration can be encouraged, strengthened and utilized to
support or correct weaker areas.

Maslow (1943) hierarchy of needs emphasized that a successful organization, one must
satisfy their needs gradually. Maslow as cited by Rafferty (2008) further reiterate that hierarchy of
needs is necessary in all types of organizations whether in business and or in educational sectors.
In a school setting, Schoen & Teddlie (2008) claims that in a school setting, satisfaction of needs
is important to guarantee a success and progressive achievement of students, teachers,
administrators, and all other stakeholders in the organization. Satisfaction of needs is an
assurance of all members in an organization to effectively and efficiently perform their duties and
responsibilities. Self-fulfillment as the highest level of Maslows hierarchy of needs is a good
motivation for every stakeholder of the school, thus it should be given a favorable juncture of
circumstances so that potential and skills of the organizational workers will be boosted.

In order for an organization to move forward and have its members productive, it is
essential that the group feel they are valued and appreciated. Administrators play a major role on
how effective their teachers are in and outside of the classroom. Employees who feel they are
part of the decision-making or school improvement tend to go beyond what is required.
Otherwise, employees who do not feel part of the organization tend to give only what is required
nothing more or less due to how they perceive the atmosphere. The most effective way to assure
successful organizational climate and organizational health is an open school environment in
which the administrators models openness for questions, problem solving and guidance,
teachers will respond with trust and loyalty. Openness and health are the two basic conceptual
structures in measuring a sound and healthy school climate. School climate can be conceived
from a variety of vantage points (Anderson 1982; Miskel and Ogawa 1988).

According to Norton (2008), the organizational school climate appertains based on the
observations and experienced of every stakeholder. A sound and healthy organization is depicted
through social and professional interactions of the workers. Halpin and Croft (1963), claims that
each of the stakeholders will have their own picture of their school climate in accordance to their
own personal interactions, perceptions, and encounters in the school. Moreover, school climate
is also described as the quality and frequency of interactions that take place between the
educators and learners, between the learners themselves, between the educators themselves,
between the principal and the educators, between the principal and the learners , between
learners and the staff of the school, the parents and finally the community (Emmons, 1996).

Miles (1969) started the investigation about organizational climate. Based on this study,
he pointed out that a healthy schools does not only survives in its environment, but also
continues to cope adequately over the long haul, and continuously develops and extends its
surviving and coping abilities. Hoy and Tarter (1997) stated that the congruency of a healthy
school, the technical, managerial and personnel institutional levels must be congruent. This
congruency of each level should be made manifesting teaching and student learning.
Interestingly, schools undergoing management and leadership changes may also have a profound
impact on the school climate and organizational health. Each president of the state college or
university is given a four - year term. There are times that the term is cut short because of
unavoidable circumstances like early resignation and death. This was experienced by the
Mountain Province State Polytechnic College when Dr. Nieves Dacyon resigned as president of
the school. Dr. Geraldine Madjaco took over as Officer in Charge until the installation of Dr.
Eufemia Lamen. The untimely demise of Dr. Lamen has placed the school again in a situation
where an Officer in-Charge has to lead the school until the election of another president. Dr.
Josephine M. Ngodcho then was appointed as the officer in charge. At present, the school is
84

headed by Dr. Rexton F. Chakas, who was installed as the College President on August, 2014.
The fast turnover of presidents and designations affects the organizational school climate of the
school.

There are two factions that could be created in a workplace. First is to adapt with the
change and deal with it head-on. Second is to shy away from it. Employees who adapt the
change often try to move ahead with the new management or otherwise treat the change as a
form of challenge which they strive to subdue. Studies on school climate and organizational
health are important concepts in their own right, notwithstanding their relationship to student
achievement. The identification of the organizational school climate serves as the baseline in
developing strategies for school improvement plans. Moreover, evaluating the organizational
school climate is one way of assessing the schools atmosphere in which could significantly
contribute to school development and achievements. Hence, the researcher aimed to examine
the connection between organizational school climate and organizational health of the Mountain
Province State Polytechnic College as eventual means for enriching schools and help the school
attain its vision, mission, goals and objectives.

Conceptual Framework
This study is anchored on the theory of Abraham Maslow (1943), Howard (1987), basic needs
and the studies of Heller (2002) and Rooney (2003). Based on their theoretical concepts, it is
believed that the kind of environment is imperative to the attainment of open and healthy
organization. The variables that were considered in this study are job classification of employees
either as administrators and employees and sex of respondents. The study considers two
assumptions: First, administrators could possess a better perception of the organizational school
climate and organizational health in as much as they are the one which craft policies and
implement the programs in their own schools compared to the views of the employees. Second,
sex may or may not have an influence to the respondents perceptions of their own schools.

Statement of the Problem


The study aimed to examine the organizational school climate and organizational health among
select school administrators, faculty and staff at the Mountain Province State Polytechnic
College. Specifically, it aimed to answer the following questions: 1. What is the organizational
school climate of the Mountain province State Polytechnic College? 1.1. What is the difference in
the perceived organizational school climate of MPSPC when the respondents are grouped into:
a. Job Classification b. Sex 2. What is the organizational health of the Mountain Province State
Polytechnic College? 1.1. What is the difference in the perceived organizational health of MPSPC
when respondents are grouped into: a. Job Classification b. Sex 3. What is the relationship
between the organizational school climate and organizational health of Mountain Province State
Polytechnic College?

Importance of the Study


The researcher believes that organizational school climate has major impact on the workers
performance. School climate could be a positive factor that influences the personality and
motivating attitude of the workers and other stakeholders of the school or it may bring
obstruction to learning. Dedicated administrators or leaders who are functional for the
improvement of their organizational school climate are definitely laboring to upgrade the
4culture and conditions in the schools so that all members of the school community will live
harmoniously. This study provides data arching to a better understanding and improvement of
the relationship between organizational school climate and organizational health of the Mountain
Province State Polytechnic College. Moreover, the result would be the baseline data for the
85

creation of school climate committee that would look into the development of positive
organizational school climate.

Methodology
The study utilized a descriptive survey method since it aimed to examine the organizational
school climate and organizational health of the Mountain Province State Polytechnic College.
There were 149 respondents involved in the study which were composed of the administrators,
the permanent teaching and non-teaching staff of the college for the second semester of the
school year 2014- 2015. The researcher utilized Slovins Formula to get her sample size for the
study. The respondents were grouped into sex and job classification. In job classification, the
respondents were classified into administrators and employees. The administrator respondents
were composed of the president, vice-presidents, executive deans, directors, coordinators,
department heads and office / unit heads. The employees were composed of the teaching and
the non- teaching staff of permanent status only.

Data Gathering Instrument


The researcher adapted the revised Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ)
developed by Hoy, Tarter, and Kottkamp (1991). The revised OCDQ is a forty two item tool
with six components that described the behavior of employees and administrators. The response
assorts along a four-point scale demarcated by the categoriesrarely occurs (1), sometimes
occurs (2), often occurs (3) andvery frequently occurs (4). This revised tool gauges three
aspects of administrators leadership which are supportive, directive and restrictive. These three
proportions of administrators behavior furnish the elements of a second order constructs
administrator openness (or closeness). The administrator - employees relations is understood
along a general continuum from open to close. The revised OCDQ also gauges three
proportions of employees relations which are collegial, intimate and disengaged behavior. Like
the proportions for administrator behavior, the three components of employee behavior
provided the building block of a second order construct, employees openness. The employee
employee relations also are pictured along a general continuum of open to close. The
proportions of employee and administrators openness are utilized in categorizing organizational
school climate into four types namely; open, closed, engaged and disengaged school climate.

The second instrument is the Organizational Health Inventory (OHI). This is composed
of forty four items tool describing the organizational health of MPSPC. The response assorts
along the four point scale demarcated by categories rarely occurs (1), sometimes occurs (2),
often occurs (3) and very often occurs (4). Describing the technical level of organizational
health, employees affiliation and academic emphasis are the critical components of a sound
organizational health. At the administrators category, including collegial leadership and resource
influence are the important elements that describe a healthy organization. On the other hand, the
institutional category is described by the institutional integrity which pertains to the capability of
the concerns of the environment. Lindahl (2006) contends that both instruments were accepted
and approved to gauge organizational school climate and Hoy et al. (1991) have standardized
them. This is also supported by Anderson (1982) when he said that the OCDQ is one of the
major school climate tools that were utilized by school reviewers researchers in assessing a
school climate organization. He further emphasized the tremendous heuristic value of this tool
that has raised spacious interest in school climate.

Treatment of Data
Organizational school climate of MPSPC, as measured by OCDQ were statistically scored by
item with the appropriate number 1, 2, 3, 4. In this study the researcher reversed the scores in
items 6, 31, 37 and calculated the mean of each item. Computation of mean score were done by
86

collating the scores in the following items: Supportive Behavior (4,9,15,16,22,23,28,29,42),


Directive Behavior (5, 10, 17, 24, 30, 34, 35, 39, 41), Restrictive Behavior (11,18, 325, 31, 36),
Collegial Behavior (1,6,12, 19, 26, 32, 37, 40), Intimate Behavior (2,7, 13,20,27,33,38) and
Disengaged Behavior (3,8,14,21). Computed mean was descriptively labeled under the pre-set
criteria for the school climate: Low and High. The Low has a mean score of 1.00 to 2.49,
while High has a mean score of 2.50 to 4.0. Since the school climate is a second-order
construct, the openness indices are computed accordingly. The degree of administrator openness
was measured through systematizing scores on categories, and by adding the sum of the directive
and restrictive scores from the supportive score. On the other hand, the degree of openness in
employee behavior was computed through systematizing the scores on categories and adding the
disengagement score from the sum of the collegial and intimate scores.

Formula for Computing Administrator - Employee Openness Administrator Openness


= ? (Mean Score of Supportive) + (4.00 Mean Score of Directive) + (4.00 Mean Score of
Restrictive)? / 3 Employee Openness =? (Mean Score of Collegial) + (Mean Score of Intimate)
+ (4.0 Mean Score of Disengaged)? / 3 The mean scores from the revised OCDQ were tested
against the variable job classification and sex used t-test. To measure the organizational health of
the MPSPC, the adapted Organizational Health Inventory (OHI) was be used. The computed
mean were descriptively labeled under the pre-set criteria for the school climate: Low and
High. The Low has a mean score of 1.00 to 2.49 while High has a mean score of 2.50 to
4.00. To determine the overall health of the school, the researcher added the mean score of the
seven domains and divided it by the number of domains. If the total mean score of the three
hierarchical school functions/ levels is from 1.00 to 2.49, then the school was labeled unhealthy
school; and when the total mean score is from 2.50- 4.00, the school is labeled healthy. The
mean scores of the revised OHI were tested against the following variables of job classification
and sex using t-test. The same procedure as in the school climate of this section was adopted
accordingly. And finally for the measurement of relationship between the organizational school
climate and organizational health the Pearson Product Moment Correlation was utilized.

Results and Discussion


The organizational school climate of MPSPC is described as closed. This closed organizational
school climate is brought by the administrators high supportive, low directive and low restrictive
behaviors and the employees high collegial, high intimate and low disengaged behaviors. High
supportive administrator behavior indicates that the administrators listen and receptive to the
employees ideas. They give genuine and frequent praises, they respect the competence of the
teaching and non-teaching staff. The administrators also afford their employees freedom to
execute their functions without close supervision and provide facilitating stewardship devoid of
bureaucratic trivia. On the other hand, findings on the employees behavior reveal that the
employees support open and professional behavior between and among them. The employees
exhibit high intimacy which means that they know each other well and are typically close
personal friends. Further, the employees cooperate and committed to their tasks.

The weighted means of the different behaviors were used to compute for the openness
indices of the administrator and employees. Findings reveal that the openness indices of the
administrators and employees are low. Hoy, Tarter and Kottcamp (1991) said that, if both
administrator and employee openness were low, then the organization reflects a closed climate.
The study show high supportive, low directive, low restrictive, high collegial, high intimate, and
low disengaged behavior that actually describes an open organizational school climate but
because the computation of the administrator and employee openness is both low this findings
lead to the conclusion that the organizational school climate of MPSPC is closed. The means of
the different dimensions of organizational school climate were closer to the borderlines of high
87

and low. The low openness indices of both the administrator and the employee shows that
though supportive, collegial and intimate behaviors were high, which are the desired behavior in
an open school climate, this behaviors needs to be improved so that the disengagement of
employees will be lowered. Taguiri and Litwin(1968) saw both collegial and intimate behaviors as
related in contrast to disengaged behavior in an open school climate. This coincides with the
findings of the study on employee behavior but collegiality and intimacy needs to be
strengthened to lower the disengagement of employees. On organizational school climate as
perceived by the respondents according to job classification. The administrators and the
employees manifested different perception on the dimensions of organizational school climate.
The administrators perceived directive behavior as high but the employees perceived it as low.
This means that the administrators perceived themselves as directive but the employees did not
agree. The study of Gomez (2012) describes directive administrator behavior as a behavior that
employs rigid strict supervision. This coincides with the findings of the study that the
administrators in MPSPC employs a close supervision on the activities of their employees. This
is supported by Cruz (1995) posited that in building the strong commitment of teachers toward
their job and other task, administrators must give a strong directive leadership in setting and
developing school goals. Facilitating communication and managing instruction is a tool for
creating a unity of purpose. According to Dr. Rexton F. Chakas, the President of MPSPC, he
claimed that he has to be directive in his management to provide direction and set clear
standards of performance and ascertain that policies are implemented. Directive leadership style
has minion than other leadership style in the context of time constraints and simplicity of
assessment evolution (Magsood 2013). The employees, on the other hand, seem not to perceive
their administrators as directive. This finding reveals that the employees understand the actions
of their administrators.

Despite the administrators constant monitoring and control on the activities down to the
smallest detail, the employees did not perceive their administrators as directive. Ms. Myla
Foman-eg, a staff from the Registrars Office said, I appreciate very much the supervision done by the
administrator because we are constantly reminded that we have to do our best in our job. This statement
agrees with Anderson (2008) who said that directive leadership is letting the people know
precisely what it is they need to do by making performance expectations very clear. On
organizational school climate perceived by the respondents according to sex, findings reveal a
non-significant result. This means that there is no significant difference on the perception of
organizational school climate when respondents are grouped according to sex. The female
respondents rated organizational school climate as lower than their male counterparts. This
implies that the two groups of respondents perceived organizational school climate according to
sex on the same level. The two groups of respondents both perceived their administrators to be
supportive but not directive and restrictive. They also looked at the employees behavior as
predominantly collegial but not intimate and disengaged. Thus according to sex, there was no
significant difference in their perception on the organizational school climate. This agrees with
Kanter (1977/1993) who contends that what appeared to be different between men and women
in organizations were not related to gender but to the work positions and the structure of
opportunity.

Findings of the study also revealed that the Organizational Health of Mountain Province
State Polytechnic College is healthy. The MPSPC effectively and efficiently meet the instrumental
needs of adaptation and goal achievements. The school explicitly meets the workers needs both
in social and normative integration. This implied that the school system mobilizes their resources
in achieving their goals and infusing common values into the work group (Hoy& Tarter, 1997).
Furthermore, the organizational health of MPSPC was divided into three levels which are the
institutional, managerial and technical. Institutional level of MPSPC organizational health as
88

measured by the institutional integrity links the school with its environment. This means that the
school conformed legality of the community and the community supports the endeavors of the
school. In the managerial level of the organizational health , the school monitors and supervised
both the internal administrative functions in the organization measuring its initiating structure,
consideration, administrative influence, and resource support. The MPSPC administrators
allocate resources and coordinate the work effort. They find ways to develop teacher loyalty,
trust and commitment.

In the technical level, MPSPC organizational health is very much concerned on the
teaching-learning process. The emphasis of morale and academic aspects were fully attained by
the organization. These indicators explain that the primary function of the school is to generate
educated students. The teachers and the administrators have the main responsibility for solving
the problems related to effective learning and teaching. Findings also revealed that on the
different dimensions of organizational health, institutional function which is measured by
institutional integrity was perceived by the respondents as low. This low perception of
respondents on institutional integrity showed that the respondents are sometimes besieged by
their unreasonable parental demands and the school is sometimes stroked by the caprice of the
public. This shows that are times that the parents, community and the other stakeholders of the
school has to interfere with matters involving the school and there are times that parents and
community demands are not pleasing to the respondents. In spite of the low institutional
integrity, the organizational health index of MPSPC is healthy. The administrators of MPSPC are
dynamic, merging in both taskoriented and relations-oriented behavior. This is evidenced by the
respondents being high in consideration and high in initiating structure. This means that the
administrators are supportive to their employees and yet they provide high standards of
performance.

In addition, the administrators have the capacity to persuade their superiors as


manifested by their ability to obtain what is needed for the effective operation of the school. The
teachers of MPSPC are consigned to teaching and learning. They set high but achievable
objectives for students, upholds high standards of performance and support a serious and
orderly learning surrounding. This is shown by the high academic influence of the respondents.
The resource support is high in MPSPC which is evidenced by the availability of the classroom
supplies, instructional materials and other supplementary materials. Further, the respondents
showed confidence to their peers, diligent in doing their work, and positively they associate with
the school. As the respondents being proud of their school manifest that the employees and
administrators high morale. Hoy, Tarter and Kotkamp (1991) posited that when the teacher
ascertain the school inhibiting from the pressure of vocal parents or public whim, teachers are
likely to feel certain that the educational mission of the school will go progress without
unwarranted parochial concern.

Initiating structure emanated as the dominant factor affecting the organizational health as
perceived by the respondents according to job classification. This behavior referred to any
administrator behavior that delineated the relationship between administrator and employees and
established distinct patterns of organization, specific means of communication and systematic
way of instruction. This shows that the administrator is equally task and achievement oriented. In
MPSPC, there are several meetings which act as avenues for discussions and presentation of
policies or rules and regulations. These are the faculty, non-teaching staff, academic council,
administrative council meetings and others which are facilitated by the chairperson, executive
dean, vice-presidents or the president.
89

In terms of the relationship among variables investigated in the study, results showed
that gender of the respondents did not affect the perception of the respondents on
organizational health. Results of Pearson r reveals that organizational school climate and
organizational health is not significantly correlated obtaining r-value of 0.044 against its critical r-
value of 0.210 at 0.05 level of significance. This implies that organizational school climate is not
correlated to the organizational health of the Mountain province State Polytechnic College.
However, there are specific dimensions of organizational school climate and organizational
health that were correlated. Supportive administrator behavior was weakly correlated to initiating
structure, consideration and academic emphasis. This finding was in consonance with Sinden,
Hoy, and Sweetland (2004), when they articulated that if supportive behavior discharge by school
administrators towards teachers generally executes respectful behavior along with trust anent to
the administrators of the school. Directive administrator behavior was weakly correlated with
consideration and academic emphasis and collegial employee behavior was weakly correlated to
morale and academic emphasis. Consideration was weakly correlated to supportive and directive
administrator behavior. Azzara (2001) pointed out that the most considerate administrators will
successfully foster a positive interpersonal relationship with the members of the organization is
contemplated the epitome of good leadership.

This study shows that a considerate behavior promotes supportive and directive
behaviors. Academic emphasis showed weak correlation to supportive, directive and collegial
behaviors. This shows that the quest for academic excellence still affects the organizational
climate and health of schools. Hoy and Tarter (1990) and De Villiers (2006) found correlation
between school climate and health of schools which is different from the findings of this
research that organizational school climate is not correlated to organizational health.

Conclusions
The MPSPC has a close school climate organization with a healthy organizational health. Sex was
not significant in the perception of respondents on the organizational school climate of MPSPC.
Job classification and sex was not significant in the perception of respondents on the
organizational health of MPSPC and the organizational school climate and organizational health
stands independently with each other in the case of MPSPC.

Recommendation
The Mountain Province State Polytechnic College should set a committee that will look into the
improvement of the organizational school climate of closed to open climate. Details of this
research could act as a baseline data in crafting the programs, activities, and policies to improve
the school climate of the school. All learning institutions and other sectors of organization
should adapt a proposed organizational health framework which could serve as the guide in
monitoring the health condition of the school and all others. The profile of the school that was
undesirable should undergo further diagnosis to find the real cause and thereby develop
strategies for improvement. The school climate and health of Mountain Province State
Polytechnic College could be improved and enhanced by engaging in a more team building
activities between and among employees.

References
Anderson, CS 1982. The Search for School Climate. Review of Educational Research, 52:368-420.
Azzara, J.R. (2001). Assessing School and Classroom Climate. A Consumers Guide. Portland,O.R.
Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.
Gomez, J. (2012). School Climate: Teacher and Principals Perception. Retrieved from
http://gomezja.weebly.com on February 15, 2015
Halpin, A. W., & Croft, D. B. (1963). The Organizational Climate of Schools. Chicago: Midwest
Administration Center of the University of Chicago.
90

Hoy, W. K., & Feldman, J. A. (1987). Organizational Health: The Concept and Its Measure. Journal of
Research and Development in Education, 20, Summer, 30-38.
Hoy, W. K., & Miskel, C.G. (1991). Educational Administration: Theory, Research and Practice (4th Ed).
New York: McGraw Hill.
Hoy, W. K., & Tarter, C. J. (1997). The Road to Open and Healthy Schools: A Handbook for Change:
Middle and Secondary School Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Pres. Hoy WK, Tarter CJ &
Kottkamp RB (1991). Open Schools/Healthy Schools: Measuring Organisational Climate.
London: Sage.
Kelley, R.C. (2005). Relationship between Measures of Leadership and School
Climate. Education 126 (1) 17. Lindahl, R. ( 2006). The Role of Organisational Climate and Culture in
the School Improvement Process: A Review of the Knowledge Base. Retrieved from:
http://cnx.org/content/m13465/1.1/ on August 20,2013.
Maslow, A. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370396.
Miskel, C., & Ogawa, R. (1988). Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction and Climate. In N. Boyan (Ed.),
Handbook of educational administration (pp. 41). New York: Longman
Miles, M. B. (1969). The Development of Innovative Climates in Educational Organizations. In
Educational Policy Research Center (pp. 1-32). Stanford: CA
Norton, S. M. (2008). Human resources administration for educational leaders. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Sinden, James, Wayne K. Hoy and Scott R. Sweetland (2004). Enabling School Structures: Principal
Leadership and Organizational Commitment of Teachers. Journal of School Leadership 14: 195
210.
Taguiri, R. (1968). The Concept of Organizational Climate. In R. Taguiri & G. Litwin (Eds.),
Organizational climate (pp. 12). Boston: Harvard University Press.
91

International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research


p-ISSN: 1694-2493
e-ISSN: 1694-2116
Vol. 15, No.4, pp. 91-101, IJLTER

Maximizing Organizational Leadership in Academic Setting

Warren L. Acain, MBM


warren.acain@gmail.com
ORCID No. 0000-0003-4293-9166
St. Peter College, Philippines

Abstract
Maximizing organizational leadership capacity in academic setting is connected on
transformational leadership which can be applied to the academic administrators which their
specific tasks is to communicate the clarity of the organizational vision and influence their faculty
members in terms of collaborative actions align with institutional objectives. Faculty members
participation in corporate productivity school activities as well maximize their teaching
competencies are very essential to future school operations. The study aimed to explore the
relationship between academic administrators transformational leadership and its role of faculty
members in maximizing the middle operations in the academic setting. Furthermore, the study
utilized a descriptive-correlational design. In deriving result, the weighted mean, T-test and
Pearson Product correlation at 0.05 Alpha were also employed. The data gathered were
statistically treated, analyzed, and interpreted through Microsoft Excel. Results revealed that the
deans agreed to communicate the clarity of the schools vision and provide mentoring
relationship in order to facilitate the faculty professional growth and undecided to work with
none collaborative faculty (OLA group, 2009). The faculty members agreed on the context of
wise utilization of their talent management in performing their job (Lewis, 2006). The
transformational leadership indicators of the academic administrators and its role of faculty
members in academic setting were non-significant. Therefore its a big challenge to the deans not
to be affected with the passive response of the faculty regarding work collaboration in academic
setting, but rather they need to be more proactive in the timely execution on the work
collaboration in line with an organizational commitment (Covey, 1992; Hercovitch & Meyer,
2002).

Keywords: academic setting, academic administrators, faculty, organizational leadership,


transformational leadership

Introduction
Organizational leadership is a team effectiveness of defining the organizational structure,
collaborative actions, delegation of authorities, and maximizing the organizational resources
parallel with the strategic academic leadership of higher institution specifically (Scott et. al., 2008)
maximizing organizational leadership capacity particularly in academic setting can be effective
through the foundations and timely effecting the transformational leadership of the human
capital in terms of intellectual capital, social capital, cultural capital and spiritual capital that can
deliver the expected total quality services among committed and competent academic personnel
in addressing the quality education to the students in the community align with organizational
philosophy-vision, mission and core values (Irving, J. A., & Longbotham, G. J. 2007; Cohen &
Soto, 2007; Safferstone, 2005). Diliello and Houghton (2006) stressed out that maximizing
92

organizational leadership capacity encourages academic administrators need to be more


innovative in performing their transformational leadership to their faculty members in a
supportive working environment. Sheinberg (2005) asserts that concern leaders are thinking with
strategic direction. This leadership is beyond the transactional leadership activities of academic
administrators which create purpose in a manner which justifies the team leadership (Goldman,
2001). Transformed organizational leaders need to realign their personal viewpoints with their
organizational philosophy, core values, norms, motivations, and interest in connection of the
specific tasks and duties (Bess and Goldman, 2001).

The academic operations in universities or college institutions are facing a lot of


pressures have realized the need to be more transformative. In schools where focus has been
achieved, teaching and learning, instruction, extension, and linkages becomes transformative for
every one (Sagor, 1992). Madlock (2008) emphasize that leaders must communicate their vision
to their subordinates. The overall leadership effectiveness is grounded on the clarity of the
communication skills in line with organizational purpose (Gilley, A., McMillan, 2009). The very
striking behavior of the academic leaders and faculty are their continuous affective
organizational commitment and the ownership of the vision (Nguni, S., Sleegers, P.,. 2006).
From a leadership perspective, vision is an ideal and unique image of the future (Kouzes and
Posner, 1995). Organizational purpose includes through mission, vision, strategy, goals, plans,
and task Amos & Klimoski (2014). The essence of organizational leadership to be more
influential increment over and above mechanical compliance with the routines directives of the
organizations (Klimoski, 2014). Non-routine events can signify the actual hindrance to
organizational leadership process. Cognitive requirements include creative problem-solving skills
and strategic thinking leadership that drives workable organizational change (Puccio, G. J.,
Mance, M., & Murdock, M. C. 2010).

Steinfield et al., (2008) pointed out that social capital required organizational leaders to
build the self-esteem and strong network of their diverse employees in the paperless working
environment. Academic executives need to adopt their specific functional organizational roles.
Furthermore the academic executives have big responsibility for maintaining good working
relationships to their subordinates and students (Kenny et al., 2012). The essence of teaching
efficacy is to assess the individual capabilities and sound judgments of the faculty in the academic
organization. Self-efficacy refers to the personal beliefs individuals that have capable of learning
and performing particular behaviors (Bandura, 2006). Individuals self-efficacy judgments differ
on three interrelated dimensions: magnitude, strength, and generalizability. Magnitude refers to
the level of task difficulty individuals believe they can attain. Self-efficacy strength refers to the
level of confidence individuals that can perform their specific tasks. Self-efficacy generalizability
indicates how much an individuals judgment is limited to a particular domain of activity. Self-
efficacy can enhance individual change readiness, commitment, and employee participation in
connection with maximizing the organizational leadership (Madsen et al., 2005).

Nurturing the organizational and individual trust is considered an essential action in


organizational leadership. However maintaining trust is challenging tasks (Savolainen, 2011).
Creating collaborative working relationships between administrators and faculty both can
depicts interpersonal influence (Yukl, 2010). Trust is interactive, collaborative management style
that nurtures innovations that can be applied in the academic organization (Savolainen, 2011).
School administrators can establish transforming professional development program for the
faculty that can facilitate the academic standards among diverse students through varied
outcome-based educational approaches and scholarly consultation (Reeves, D. B., 2012; Sursock,
2010). Mentoring and professional development programs for faculty members are regarded as
essentials components of faculty success in the school operations. Mentoring relationship can be
93

related with faculty ranking, future promotions, dealing with gender differences, and expected
job stability (Wasserstein, et al., 2007).

Darling-Hammond, L., et al., (2009) mentioned that acquired formal training of the
newly teachers mentoring program from an accredited institution can improve classroom
management and enhance teaching performance. Educational systems must rely on quality
instructional systems from the academic leadership and corporate productivity of its faculty with
good intentions for maintaining quality education in the community (Nakpodia, E. D., 2006). A
school, teachers productivity may be measure in terms of teachers performance (Schacter and
Thum 2004). Wenlisky (2001) suggest that teachers productivity may be evaluated in terms of
teaching performance in classroom. Shamaki, E. B. (2015) cited Davis and Wilson (2003)
research on effects of leadership on the teacher quality of life at work, they revealed that the
personally empowered faculty were more motivated to fulfill their specific tasks either in
curricular or co-curricular realms. Lumsden (1998) state that high teacher morale could have
positive effects on students attitude and learning, improve teacher morale not only made the
education more palatable to teachers, it made the process a richer and more effective learning
experience for students (Cooper, T. L., 2012).

The challenging responsibility of the administrators is to encourage their faculty to be


more adaptable to the global educational changes that addresses the students learning. The key to
any effective leadership is the ability to act timely in any complex situation. Subramanaim (2014)
pointed out that the important of studying leadership style is because of the significance in an
institutions success, and achievement of educational goal. James S. Dietz and Barry Bozeman
(2005) said that the higher outcome of productivity in intersectoral jobs in the United States of
America are access to new social networks and scientific and technical human capital endeavors.
Beechler, S., & Woodward, I. C. (2009) stated that global war of talent is based on scarcity state
of mind and action. The new paradigm shift of talent of war among the employees adopts more
on strategic, innovative, cooperative and generative approaches which can be described as
creative talent solutions in the human capital aspects in organizational leadership (Ulrich, 2006).
Competence means that individuals have the competencies that required the employees to be
more committed to their task in the organization. The talent of war represents four factors that
have big impact in retaining potential employees. These factors are namely global demographic
and economic trends; increasing mobility of people and organizations; transformational changes
to business environments, skills and cultures; and growing levels of workforce diversity.

Global demographic and economic trends with the increasing longevity and the
disproportionate size of the post-war baby boom generation are large demographic forces
driving an unprecedented shift in the age distribution of the general population it connects to the
labor pool supply (Kent, M. M., & Haub, C. 2005). With higher levels of sanitation and
healthcare, people born today can expect to live between 65 and 80 years in most countries,
compared to an average age of 18 for most of human history, and 50 at the turn of the 20th
century (DeNavas-Walt et al., 2008 from US Census Bureau).The demographic changes in the
borderless society is becoming more increasing economic integration across nation, reflectively it
has greater impacts on the supply and demand of employee talents (Severino, R., 2007).
Increasing mobility is refers to the globalization changes the mobility of people across permeable
geographic and cultural boundaries (Baruch et al., 2006). Inter-country and regional economic
and demographic differences also stimulate labor flows such as comparative gaps in real wage
rates and differences in labor-force age profiles related to higher education in Southeast Asia
(Lee, M. N., 2007). Transformational changes to business environments, skills and cultures are
focus on the companies that are hiring more workers for complex occupations which requires a
higher cognitive abilities either in academic organization or industry (Rae-Dupree, 2008;
94

Xenikou, A., & Simosi, M. 2006). Growing levels of workforce diversity is refers to those
companies operate in an increasingly globalized environment and must manage widely dissimilar
employee populations, markets, cultures and modes of work. People that are more informed
about employment options, opportunities, and markets, has more intensifying competition for
finding and hiring top talent (Singh, P., Gupta, S., & Sahu, K. 2014). Schein (1976) stressed out
that job satisfaction is an important indicator of the quality work life among employees in the
organization.

The Statement of the Problem


Academic administrators and faculty members faced increasing challenges in the middle
management operations in the higher institution of learning. Thus, this study aimed to
investigate the relationship between academic administrators transformational leadership and its
role of faculty members in maximizing the middle operations in the academic setting. To
accomplish the purpose of this study, the following research questions were posited: First, what
relationship exists between the deans task to communicate the clarity of the schools vision and
its role of faculty members in the context of corporate productivity. Second, what relationship
between the deans are undecided to work with none collaborative faculty and the wise utilization
of the faculty talent. Third, investigate the relationship between school administrators providing
mentoring relationship in order to facilitate the professional development of the faculty and job
importance in school operations.

Research Design of the Study


Educational challenges needs an instructional system to adhere the functional strong academic
leadership from the administrative functions, research, community extension services, and
teaching competencies calls for increased emphasis on maximizing organizational leadership
capacity in academic setting (Safferstone, 2005; Scott et. al., 2008). To investigate and meet the
purpose of this study, a quantitative research design was used. Quantitative research design was
used to independently examine the relationship of transformational leadership indicators of the
academic administrators and its role of faculty members in maximizing organizational leadership
capacity in the academic setting.

Significance of the Study


This study has significance contributions to both academic administrators and faculty members
in terms of maximizing the organizational leadership capacity in academic setting. Diliello and
Houghton (2006) emphasized that maximizing organizational leadership capacity encourages
academic administrators need to be more innovative in performing their transformational
leadership to their faculty members in a supportive working environment. Both academic
administrators and faculty members may find significance in the study as they upgrade their
educational qualifications and understand their roles in assessing the organizational systems
(Katz & Kahn 1978).

Method of Procedure
The quantitative method through survey and questionnaires was designed to examine the
relationship between academic administrators transformational leadership and its roles of faculty
members in terms of maximizing the organizational leadership in the middle management
operations in academic setting. The study utilized the adopted OLA (Organizational Leadership
Assessment) questionnaire that has been developed by Dr. Jim Laub of Palm Beach Atlantic
University. The questionnaires composed of two parts. Part I consisted of the administrators
transformational leadership in terms of clarity of vision, work together and mentor relationship.
Part II was on its role of faculty members in terms of high level productivity, best gift, abilities or
95

talent, and importance of job. There were thirty respondents of this study. There were seven
deans and twenty three faculty members in the academic setting.

Collection of Data
The researcher sought permission from Executive Officer for Academic Affairs in St. Peters
College through the letter of permission in terms of distributing the OLA questionnaires to
target respondents (deans and faculty).

Treatment of Data
Furthermore, the study utilized a descriptive-correlational design. In deriving results, the
weighted mean, T-test and Pearson Product correlation at 0.05 Alpha were also employed. The
data gathered were statistically treated, analyzed, and interpreted through Microsoft EXCEL
software.

Findings
The academic administrators has agreed that transformational leadership is to communicate the
clarity of the schools vision (Bess and Goldman, 2001; Bennis, 1997) and undecided to work
with none collaborative faculty (Darling-Hammond, L., et al., 2009). Academic administrators
were undecided on with none collaborative faculty (Hanna Shachar and Haddas Shmuelevitz,
1997; Morse, 2000). Deans were undecided in work collaboration because the actual response of
faculty members of organizational commitment can either supportive or resistant. If they
response is affirmative to organizational commitment it can support employee readiness
determinants toward organizational change process (Bouckenooghe, D., et al., 2008). In contrast
if they are not proactive to organizational commitment may encounter employee laxity in the
institutional directions (Schoorman, F. D, 2007). The faculty members has agreed on its role on I
am working at high level of productivity, In other words faculty members are encourage to
practice continuous on quality teaching performance in order to maintain the academic standards
in the school institutions Nakpodia, E. D., (2006); Schacter and Thum (2004); and Wenlisky,
(2001).

Faculty members have agreed that their role in the context of context of wise utilization
of their talent management in performing their specific jobs that nurtures as source of
developing and retaining the employees talent in the institution (Beechler, Schon, and Ian C.
Woodward, 2009). Faculty has agreed in terms of job importance of teaching is the moderator
between job satisfaction and life satisfaction (Rice, R. W., et al., 1985). Pearson correlation
statistics were employed to determine the significant relationship between Academic
administrators transformational leadership and its role of faculty members in academic setting.
The Research Hypothesis 01, no significant relationship would be found between academic
administrators transformational leadership tasks to timely communicate the clarity of the
schools vision and it role of faculty members in the context of corporate productivity. The
Research Hypothesis 02 stated that non-significant between deans undecided to work with none
collaborative faculty and the wise utilization of the faculty talent. Hypothesis 03 stated the no
significant relationship between school administrators providing mentoring relationship in order
to facilitate the professional development of the faculty and job importance in school operations
was rejected.

Conclusions and Implications of the Study


This study concludes that there is none fixed ownership of clarity of school future vision among
faculty members despites of their achieved high level of productivity in the institution which
affirmed the statement of Kantabutra and Sooksan, (2010). The deans task is to provide
mentoring relationship in order to facilitate the faculty professional development cannot
96

influence the specific job importance of the faculty with regards to present and future school
operations. These findings also affirmed the findings of Kram, (1983). Results of this study
implied that the deans need to constantly reorient their faculty members regarding their future
clarity of school vision and motivate them that their high level of corporate productivity must be
always congruent to school strategic direction. Therefore its a big challenge to the deans not to
be affected with the passive response of the faculty regarding work collaboration in academic
setting, but rather they need to be more proactive in the timely execution on the work
collaboration in line with organizational commitment. As said by Covey (1992); Hercovitch &
Meyer, (2002), deans notions must not be affected to the repudiation attitude of the faculty
members regarding mentor relationship related to work even they enrich their job importance.

References
Amos, B., & Klimoski, R. J. (2014). Courage Making Teamwork Work Well Group & Organization
Management. Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=Zaccaro+%26+Klimoski+%282014%29&btnG=&hl
=tl&as_sdt=0%2C5
Baruch, Y., Dickmann, M., Altman, Y., & Bournois, F. (2013). Exploring international work: Types and
dimensions of global careers. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(12), 2369-
2393. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09585192.2013.781435
Bess and Goldman (2001) Leadership ambiguity universities and K-12 schools and the limits of
contemporary leadership theory . Retrieved from
http://www.psycholosphere.com/Leadership%20ambiguity%20in%20universities%20and%20K
12%20.%20.%20.%20leadership%20theory%20by%20Bess%20&%20Goldman.pdf
Beechler, Schon, and Ian C. Woodward (2009) "The global war for talent." Journal f international
management, Retrieved from
http://bwl.univie.ac.at/fileadmin/user_upload/lehrstuhl_ind_en_uw/lehre/ss11/Sem_Yuri/JI
M-talent.pdf
Bandura, A. (2008). Longitudinal analysis of the role of perceived self-efficacy for self-regulated learning
in academic continuance and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, Retrieved from
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Roberta_Fida/publication/220023758_._Longitudinal_an
alysis_of_the_role_of_perceived_self-efficacy_for_self-
regulated_learning_in_academic_continuance_and_achievement/links/0046351da8c35744e0000
000.pdf
Bandura, Albert. "Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales." Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. Retrieved from
http://web.stanford.edu/dept/psychology/bandura/pajares/014-BanduraGuide2006.pdf
Brownell, M. T., Yeager, E., Rennells, M. S., & Riley, T. (1997). Teachers working together: What teacher
educators and researchers should know.Teacher Education and Special Education: The Journal of the
Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children. Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=Brownell%2C+Yeager%2C+Rennells%2C+%26+Ril
ey%2C+1997&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5
Cohen, D., & Soto, M. (2007). Growth and human capital: good data, good results. Journal of Economic
Growth. Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=human+capital+2007&btnG=&hl=tl&as_sdt=0%2C
5
Covey, Steven (1992). Principle centered leadership. Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com.ph
Cooper, T. L. (2012). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role. John Wiley &
Sons. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.ph/books?hl=tl&lr=&id=-
dFpqPNCoHUC&oi=fnd&pg=PT5&dq=The+main+tasks+of+the+Academic+Administrators
+&ots=CRXYAYS9uv&sig=K5e8NSr0hPhfdIymJC7YH8zRVZI&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q
=The%20main%20tasks%20of%20the%20Academic%20Administrators&f=false
97

Devos, G., Bouckenooghe, D., & Aelterman, A. (2008). Principals in schools with a positive school
culture. Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=Bouckenooghe%2C+D.%2C+et+al.%2C+2008%3B
+&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5lture. Educational Studies.
DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B. D., & Smith, J. C. (2008). US Census Bureau, current population
reports. Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States, 60-236.Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=US+Census+Bureau%2C+2008&btnG=&hl=tl&as_s
dt=0%2C5
Darling-Hammond, L., Wei, R. C., Andree, A., Richardson, N., & Orphanos, S. (2009). Professional
learning in the learning profession. Washington, DC: National Staff Development
Council.Retrievedfromhttp://www.ostrc.org/docs/document_library/ppd/Professionalism/Prof
essional%20Learning%20in%20the%20Learning%20Profession.pdf
Davis and Wilson (2003) Research the effects of leadership on the teacher quality of life at workRetrieved
from file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/21457- 24169-1-PB.pdf
DiLiello, T. C., & Houghton, J. D. (2006). Maximizing organizational leadership capacity for the future:
Toward a model of self-leadership, innovation and creativity. Journal of Managerial Psychology.
Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?hl=en&q=Diliello+and+Houghton+%282006%29+Ma
ximizing+Organizational+Leadership&btnG=&as_sdt=1%2C5&as_sdtp=
Dr. Jim Laub (2009) Organizational Leadership Assessment : dr. jim laub. Retrieved from
http://www.olagroup.com/Display.asp?Page=jimlaub
Fleishman, E. A., Mumford, M. D., Zaccaro, S. J., Levin, K. Y., Korotkin, A. L., & Hein, M. B. (1992).
Taxonomic efforts in the description of leader behavior: A synthesis and functional
interpretation. The Leadership Quarterly. Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?hl=en&q=+Fleishman+et+al.%2C+%281991%29+&bt
nG=&as_sdt=1%2C5&as_sdtp=
Friend, M., Cook, L., Hurley-Chamberlain, D., & Shamberger, C. (2010). Co-teaching: An illustration of
the complexity of collaboration in special education. Journal of Educational and Psychological
Consultation Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=Friend+%26+Cook%2C+2000+create+positive+wor
king+relationships+with+parents%E2%80%9D&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5
Gilley, A., McMillan, H. S., & Gilley, J. W. (2009). Organizational change and characteristics of leadership
effectiveness. Journal of leadership & organizational studies, 16(1), 38-47.Retrieved from http://cstl-
hcb.semo.edu/hmcmillan/Pubs/Gilley_McMillan_Gilley_2009.pdf
Herscovitch, L., & Meyer, J. P. (2002). Commitment to organizational change extension of a three
component model. Journal of applied psychology. Retrieved from
http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/87/3/474
Irving, J. A., & Longbotham, G. J. (2007). Team effectiveness and six essential servant leadership themes:
A regression model based on items in the organizational leadership assessment. International
Journal of Leadership Studies. Retrieved
fromhttp://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/ijls/new/vol2iss2/IrvingLongbotham/Ir
vingLongbothamV2Is2.pdf
Ibukun, W. O. (1997). Educational management: theory and practice. Ado-Ekiti: Green Line
Publishers.Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?hl=en&q=Ibukun+%281997%29+&btnG=&as_sdt=1
%2C5&as_sdtp=
James S. Dietz and Barry Bozeman (2005) Abstract from Academic careers, patents, and productivity:
industry experience as scientific and technical human capital. Retrieved from
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Barry_Bozeman/publication/222514921_Academic_care
98

ers_patents_and_productivity_industry_experience_as_scientific_and_technical_human_capital/l
inks/00b7d518baf554687d
Kantabutra, Sooksan (2010). What do we know about vision?. Leading Organizations: Perspectives For
New Era. Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=.Kantabutra%2C+Sooksan+%282010%29.++What
+do+we+know+about+vision%3F.+Leading+Organizations%3A+Perspectives++For+New+
Era.+&btnG=&hl=en&a
Kent, M. M., & Haub, C. (2005). Global demographic divide. Population Bulletin, 60(4), 1-24.Retrieved
from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?start=10&q=Global+demographic+and+economic+tre
nds+&hl=tl&as_sdt=0,5
Kenny, Richard F., Van Neste-Kenny, J. M., Burton, P.A., Park, C. L., & Qayyum A. (2012)Using self-
efficacy to assess the readiness of nursing educators and students for mobile learning. Retrieved
from http:// www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1221/2261
Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (1995). The leadership challenge: How to keep getting extraordinary things
done in organisations. Foreword by Tom Peters. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=Kouzes+and+Posner+%281995%29.+&btnG=&hl=
en&as_sdt=0%2C5
Klimoski, R., & Amos, B. (2014). To act as a leader. Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=+Klimoski+%282014%29&btnG=&hl=tl&as_sdt=0
%2C
Kram, K. E., & Isabella, L. A. (1985). Mentoring alternatives: The role of peer relationships in career
development. Academy of management Journal. Retrieved from
http://www.bu.edu/sph/files/2012/01/Kram_Mentoring-Alternatives.pdf
Lee, M. N. (2007). Higher education in Southeast Asia in the era of globalization. In International handbook
of higher education (pp. 539-555). Springer Netherlands. Retrieved from
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4020-4012-2_27
Lewis, R.E., & Heckman, R. J. (2006) Talent management: A critical review. Human Resource
Management review
Lumsden, L. (1998). Teacher Morale. ERIC Digest, Number 120. Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=Lumsden+%281998%29++teacher+morale+&btnG=&hl=e
n&as_sdt=0%2C5
Madlock, P. E. (2008). The link between leadership style, communicator competence, and employee
satisfaction. Journal of Business Communication, Retrieved from
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Paul_Madlock/publication/238335958_The_Link_Betwe
en_Leadership_Style_Communicator_Competence_and_Employee_Satisfaction/links/02e7e534
c408e49bf6000000.pdf
Madsen, S. R., Miller, D., & John, C. R. (2005). Readiness for organizational change: Do organizational
commitment and social relationships in the workplace make a difference?. Human Resource
Development Quarterly. Retrieved from
http://search.proquest.com/openview/c079764718a18256e493e43617aa3960/1.pdf?pq-
origsite=gscholar&cbl=36983
Meyer, J. P., Srinivas, E. S., Lal, J. B., & Topolnytsky, L. (2007). Employee commitment and support for
an organizational change: Test of the threecomponent model in two cultures. Journal of
Occupational and Organizational Psychology. Retrieved from
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Srinivas_Ekkirala/publication/200824508_Employee_co
mmitment_and_support_for_an_organizational_change_Test_of_the_three-
component_model_in_two_cultures/links/554441f90cf23ff716853c1e.pdf
99

Morse, S. S. (2003). Building academicpractice partnerships: The center for public health preparedness at
the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, before and after 9/11. Journal of Public
Health Management and Practice Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?start=10&q=Morse+(2000)+Educational+collaboration
+&hl=en&as_sdt=0,5
Nakpodia, E. D., 2006 Abstract from Work Environment and Productivity among Primary School
Teachers in Nigeria. Retrieved from
http://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/viewFile/72330/61259
Nguni, S., Sleegers, P., & Denessen, E. (2006). Transformational and transactional leadership effects on
teachers' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior in
primary schools: The Tanzanian case. School effectiveness and school improvement, 17(2), 145-177.
Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=affective+organizational+commitment+and+vision+
&btnG=&hl=tl&as_sdt=0%2C5
Puccio, G. J., Mance, M., & Murdock, M. C. (2010). Creative leadership: Skills that drive change. Sage
Publications. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.ph/books?hl=en&lr=&id=lF-
687006ckC&oi=fnd&pg=PR1&dq=Puccio,+G.+J.,+Mance,+M.,+%26+Murdock,+M.+C.+(20
10).+Creative+leadership:+Skills+that+drive++change.+Sage+Publications.&ots=IyU9fUxGU
8&sig=6wPi-JKLnk9RBvwsT8qpBmbDp0E&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
Rae-Dupree, J. (2008). When academia puts profit ahead of wonder. New York Times, Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=Rae-
Dupree%2C+2008&btnG=&hl=tl&as_sdt=0%2C5
Richard J. Klmoski (2016) Practicing Evidence-Based Education in Leadership Development Retrieved from
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279297214_Practicing_EvidenceBased_Education_in
_Leadership_Development
Rice, R. W., McFarlin, D. B., Hunt, R. G., & Near, J. P. (1985). Job importance as a moderator of the
relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction. Basic and Applied Social Psychology.
Retrieved from. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/ADA162105.pdf
Reeves, D. B. (2012). Transforming professional development into student results. Retrieved from
https://books.google.com.ph/books?hl=tl&lr=&id=EfZQBAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq
=professional+development+of+the+faculty+2012+&ots=ZSus65sFOv&sig=7zYDimPQWM
Td0NxlpuU87gmeTJg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
Robertson, A., & Abbey, G. (2003). Managing Talented People: Getting on with-and Getting the Best from-Your Top
Talent. Pearson Education. Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=Robertson+and+Abbey+%282003%29+also+focus+
on+the+best+and+the+brightest%2C+in+Managing+Talented+People&btnG=&hl=en&as_sd
t=0%2C5
Safferstone, Mark J. (2005) Organizational Leadership: Classic Works and Contemporary Perspectives.
Retrieved from
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264231171_ORGANIZATIONAL_LEADERSHIP
_CLASSIC_WORKS_AND_CONTEMPORARY_PERSPECTIVES
Sagor, Richard (1992) Transformational Leadership. ERIC Digest. Retrieved from
http://www.ericdigest.org/1992/leadership.htm-23k-Cached
Savolainen, T., & Hkkinen, S. (2011). Trusted to lead: Trustworthiness and its impact on
leadership. Open Source Business Resource, Retrieved from http://timreview.ca/article/429
Severino, R. (2007). The ASEAN developmental divide and the Initiative for ASEAN
Integration. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, 24(1), 35-44. Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=ASEAN+Integration+&btnG=&hl=tl&as_sdt=0%2
C5
100

Schein, E. H. (1976). Life/career considerations as indicators of quality of employment. Measuring work


quality for social reporting. Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?hl=en&q=Schein%2C+EH+%281976%29+&btnG=&a
s_sdt=1%2C5&as_sdtp=
Schacter, J., & Thum, Y. M. (2004). Paying for high-and low-quality teaching. Economics of Education Review.
Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=Schacter+and+Thum+2004++&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C
5
Sheinberg, S. (2005). Survival is optional: Only leaders with new knowledge can lead the
transformation. Transformation. Retrieved from
http://cflcs.com/docs/Survival%20is%20Optional_Daszko_Sheinberg.pdf
Scott, G., Coates, H & Anderson, M. (2008). Learning Leaders in times of change: Academic Leadership
capabilities for Australian higher education.
Steinfield, C., Ellison, N. B., & Lampe, C. (2008). Social capital, self-esteem, and use of online social
network sites: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=Stienfield%2C+Charles%2C+Nicole+B.+Ellison%2
C+and+Cliff+Lampe.+%E2%80%9C+Social+capital%2C+self-
esteem%2C+and+use+of+online+social+network+sites%3A+A+longitudinal+analysis.%E2%
80%9D+Journal+of+Applied+Development+Psychology.+&btnG=&hl=tl&as_sdt=0%2C5
Singh, P., Gupta, S., & Sahu, K. (2014). An Overview of Talent Management: Driver for Organizational
Success. Asian Journal of Management, 5(2), 240-245. Retrieved from
http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ajm&volume=5&issue=2&article=030
Subramanaim (2014) Transformational Leadership Style and Knowledge Management among University
Administrators in Malaysia: Examining the Moderating Effect of Organizational Structure
Retrieved from http://www.serialsjournals.com/serialjournalmanager/pdf/1407574698.pdf
Sursock, Hanne Smidt, and Howard Davies (2010). Trend 2010: A decade of change in European Higher
Education. Brussels: European University Association
Shachar, H., & Shmuelevitz, H. (1997). Implementing cooperative learning, teacher collaboration and
teachers sense of efficacy in heterogeneous junior high schools. Retrieved from Contemporary
Educational Psychology
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=Work+collaboration+with+teachers,&hl=tl&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1
&oi=scholart&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiqsYDb_dfKAhVCqqYKHX52A1YQgQMIHDAA
Shamaki, E. B. (2015) Influence of Leadership Style on Teachers Job Productivity in Public Secondary
Schools in Taraba State, Nigeria file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/21457-24169-1-
PB%20(1).pdf
Schoorman, F. D., Mayer, R. C., & Davis, J. H. (2007). An integrative model of organizational trust: Past,
present, and future. Academy of Management review, Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=%28Schoorman%2C+F.+D%2C+2007%29.&btnG=
&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5
Ulrich, D., & Smallwood, W. N. (2006). How leaders build value: Using people, organization, and other intangibles
to get bottom-line results. New York: Wiley. Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=Ulrich%2C+2006+talents+or+competence+&btnG=
&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5
Wasserstein, A. G., Quistberg, D. A., & Shea, J. A. (2007). Mentoring at the University of Pennsylvania:
results of a faculty survey. Journal of general internal medicine, Retrieved
fromhttp://www.uams.edu/facultyaffairs/word%20docs/Mentoring%20at%20the%20Universit
y%20of%20Pennsylvania-Results%20of%20a%20Faculty%20Survey.pdf
http://www.olagroup.com/
Xenikou, A., & Simosi, M. (2006). Organizational culture and transformational leadership as predictors of
business unit performance. Journal of managerial psychology. Retrieved from
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Athena_Xenikou/publication/228342914_Organizational
101

_culture_and_transformational_leadership_as_predictors_of_business_unit_performance/links/
0deec539aff5f74603000000.pdf
Yukl (2010). Leadership empathy, ethical leadership, and relations-oriented behaviors as Antecedents of
leader member exchange quality.
Zaccaro, S. J., Blair, V., Peterson, C., & Zazanis, M. (1995). Collective efficacy. In Self-efficacy, adaptation,
and adjustment (pp. 305-328). Springer US. Retrieved from
https://scholar.google.com.ph/scholar?q=%28Zaccaro+et+al.%2C+1995%29+communication
+&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5

The Author

Warren L. Acain born at Iligan City on September 7, 1972. He finished


Masters in Management major in Business Management and Comprehensive
Exam Passer in Doctorate in Management major in Human Resource
Management at University of San Jose-Recoletos, Cebu City. Comprehensive
exam passer also in Doctorate in Management major in Leadership and
Organization at Liceo de Cagayan University, Bachelor of Science in
Commerce major in Marketing at St. Michaels College, Iligan City. He is
regular faculty member of College of Business Administration, St. Peters College. He was
former Dean from Royal Christian College, Cebu City. He was former business and management
instructor in Liceo de Cagayan University, Royal Christian College, Cebu City, Iligan Medical
Center College and St. Laurence Institute of Technology, Iligan. He wrote and published one
research related to business. He presented one research article entitled Embracing the Usage of
Cellular Telephone in the 21st Century: Its Impact to Business in international conference held in
the Philippines namely; World Research Festival, who received some distinction like best in
talent and best dressed researcher (Diamond First Prize Award) and Best Oral Presenter and
Best in Powerpoint Presentation (Platinum Second Prize Award).
102

International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research


p-ISSN: 1694-2493
e-ISSN: 1694-2116
Vol. 15, No.4, pp. 102-107, IJLTER

Effects of Instructional Objectives on Mathematics Learning


among Selected College Students in LSU-Ozamis

Mark Premacio Laurente


Mindanao State University
Marawi City, Philippines
mark.laurente2012@gmail.com/mark_laurente@yahoo.com
09399069017

Abstract
This study attempted to answer the effect of instructional objectives on mathematics when
presented along with the study text or when not presented along the study text among selected
college students in La Salle University (LSU)- Ozamiz. Specifically it sought to answer whether
the presence of instructional objectives produces increased intentional learning or its absence will
decrease intentional learning and increase the latter learning as an effect. The findings of the
study are: the effect of instructional objectives on the performance of the experimental group
produces intentional learning; however, there is no significant increasing in their performance
level. The effect of not presenting instructional objectives on the performance of the control
group produces incidental learning; however there is no significant increase or decrease in their
performance level. Based on the foresighted findings, the following conclusions are drawn: the
effect of presenting mathematics instructional objectives increases the performances while the
effect in the absence of mathematics instructional objectives would ensure decreasing score. The
treatment is thought to elicit inspection behaviors, thus focuses the persons attention on the
important aspects of the content and producing intentional learning on the other hand the
absence of any specific objectives minimizes the attention of the learner in learning some
relevant aspects in the study text, thus, producing incidental learning. Intentional learning
increases when the teacher enhances students learning by letting them experience instructional
objectives in the teaching-learning processes.

Keywords: mathematics learning, incidental learning, intentional learning, instructional


objectives.

Introduction
Instructional Objectives are printed information about how to do, make, assemble, use, or
operate something (Encarta 2003). Orienting stimuli that are thought to elicit inspection
behaviors which in turn determine what is learned. These are the learning goals presented along
with/before the study text or not presented along with/before the study text. An instructional
program should be designed in response to the challenging situations that frequently reinforced
the success of learning and teaching outcomes (Psychology, 1990). An objective sets the
direction for the entire instructional processes. An instructional objective plays an important rule
not only in mathematics field of learning but also into other studies. Instructional objectives on
mathematics will help the learners recognize that that teaching is an art. Instructional objective is
103

also a powerful foundation in teaching with limitless applications. It will help the learners
demonstrate their competency in modeling mathematical competency both in complex
phenomena, problem solving, and decision making. Knowing the effects of instructional
objectives into mathematics learners help us know how to utilize the learning process in order to
further our progress in learning effectively. Instructional objectives refer to the objectives given
to the experimental group that serve as a hint in this study which are used to measure its effect
on intentional and incidental learning, thus, incidental learning and intentional learning are the
terms frequently mention since it is basically refer to the effect of the learning objectives.

Furthermore, instructional objectives as used in the study refers to the aims formulated
by the experimenters/researchers which are expected to be achieved at the end of the given time,
however, other consequences, that is, absence of instructional objectives may result to incidental
learning which is expected to be one of the effects in the absence of instructional objectives.
Intentional learning environment provide a self directed purpose in which goals and objectives
on what and how to learn were emphasized. On the other hand, incidental learning occurs when
the learners acquired knowledge and understanding in the learning environment. Effects of
instructional objectives on the two learning processes are the main purposes of the study in
which the researcher had attempted to find out for the conclusions.

Statement of the Problem


This study aimed to find out the effect of instructional objectives on mathematics learning of
selected college students in LSU-Ozamiz. It sought to answer the effect of using the instructional
objectives on the performance of experimental group; the effect of not using instructional
objectives on the performance of control group. The study also determines the relationship of
the respondents performance in math in which the experimental group were exposed to the
intentional learning and the control group is on incidental learning environment.

Research Design of the Study


This research paper made use of experimental methods with analysis which initiated cause and
effect relationship. To determine if one variable actually causes another, researchers conducted
an experiments. Those who experienced the treatment compose the experimental group and
those who do not make up or without treatment is the control group. Analysis and interpretation
of data involved the total number of observed respondents from experimental and control
group; with all the available data on hand, analysis and interpretation followed. This study
employed the separate groups design consisting of two groups: the experimental and the control
groups.

Significance of Study
The significance and importance of instructional objectives on mathematics in relation to
learning should never be under emphasizing. In this study, an attempt was made to seek the
effects of instructional objectives whether its presence along with/before the study text
produces increased intentional learning or its absence will decrease incidental learning and
increase the latter learning as an effect.

Method of Procedure
A sheet of paper containing questions to be answered by both experimental and control group
was made out of the given context to be read by both experimental and control group. The test
contains twenty-five (25) mathematics questions answerable by multiples choice; however, the
experimenters included some evaluation for the possible critic of the respondents regarding the
context. The test which they will be taking is directly referenced to the mathematics instructional
objectives that will be given to the experimental group as a treatment. The
104

experimenter/researchers took three (3) action words in formulating objectives (knowledge,


comprehension, application) out of six (6) of the Blooms Taxonomy in making mathematics
instructional objectives (IO).

Collection of Data
Research sample was forty (n=40) taken from the pool of the college students admitted during
the year 2015-2016 in La Salle University-Ozamiz City. The sample was obtained by selection
and randomization procedure. This was equally divided into experimental and control groups.
The original pool of the population is from the selected college population in La Salle University-
Ozamiz City. The experiment is projected into two (2) trials. The classroom number is divided
into two (2), one half will be again divided into two groups which will be the experimental and
control group so as to the other half classroom number. To control the intellectual level of the
subjects, randomization was done. Only one (1) room was used. The medium and the kind of
instruction used was the same for the two groups (experimental and control) both are exposed to
same study text, materials, the test, and has the same time limit for reading the study text and for
answering the questions. However, the two groups were exposed to different instructions since
only the experimental group learners received the treatment (instructional objectives). In the
experiment, only 10 students were selected and assigned to two (2) groups. There are ten (10)
students per group in each trial. Medium of instruction will be the same for the two groups as
well as the subject matter or the topic to be used including the materials and the test questions.
Sequence relevant variable is where the subject participants of groups experimental and control
will be subject to different conditions. The experimental group is given the instructional
objectives (treatment) and the control group is not given any treatment at all.

Treatment of Data
To determine the difference in mean scores between experimental and control Groups, the t-test
formula was used. a. Paired sample t-test. This was used to determine the significant difference
between the experimental & control group scores at 0.05 level of significance. b. Frequency and
Percentage. This was used to describe the profile of the respondents, c. Transmutation of scores
by standard deviation. This was used to show compute the equivalent grades of the specific score
for each respondents.

Findings
This study made use of experimental method. Although age and gender in this study are said to
be beyond the control of the experimenter, for the sake of considering factors that might affect
the gathered data, the experimenters tabulated the frequency distribution of the respondents
ages and gender as presented in table 1 and table 2.

Table 1 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents Age

Experimental Group Control Group


Age Frequency Percent Age Frequency Percent
15 1 5% 15 2 10%
16 5 25% 16 3 15%
17 13 65% 17 14 70%
18 1 5% 18 1 5%
Total 20 100% 20 100%

Table 1 shows the ages of the respondents belonging to the two groups. The tables illustrate the
findings that; Of the 20 respondents, experimental group has 1 or 5% is a 15 year old, 5 or 25%
105

are 16 years of age, aged 17 has 13 or 65% while aged 18 has 1 or 5% of the total population on
EG. Of the 20 respondents, control group has 1 or 5% was a 18 years of age, 2 or 10% were
aged 15, while 3 or 15% were 16, 14 or 70% belongs to age 17.

Table 2 Frequency Distribution of Respondents Gender


Experimental Group Control Group
Gender f Percent Gender f Percent
F 17 85% F 16 80%
M 3 15% M 4 20%
Total 20 100 20 100

Table 2 shows the sexes of the respondents belonging to the two groups. The table illustrates the
findings that; of the 40 respondents, 82.5% of the population comprises female, while there were
only 17.5% belongs to male.

Table 3 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents


Score in Math Test
Experimental Group
Scores
M f Percent Description
22-20 17 9 45 Very Good
19-17 16 7 35 Good
16-14 15 4 20 Satisfactory

The table above shows the class interval of the experimental group. The number of students
who got scores ranging from 16-14 are 4 or 20% which is describe as a satisfactory, 7 or 35% for
the scores 17-19 with a description of good, and 9 or 45% for the scores 20-22 is said to be in
very good condition. Experimental group has a high frequency than the control group, thus,
experimental group is better than the control group.

Table 4 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents


Score in Math Test
Control Group
Scores
M f Percent Description
22-20 17 8 40 Very Good
19-17 16 7 35 Good
16-14 15 5 25 Satisfactory

Table 4 shows the description of control group according to their score. As depicted in the table
many (40%) of the respondents were having a very good performance in math as measured by
the test in math.

Table 5 Weighted Mean Scores of Experimental and Control Group

Standard
Group Mean n Deviation Standard Error Mean
Experimental 18.8 20 2.28 0.511
Control 18.4 20 2.33 0.520
106

The table above shows that the mean for experimental group is 18.8 which is higher compare to
the mean of control group who got 18.4. The mean difference of experimental and control
group are 0.4. It shown in the table that 18.80 is good based on the items 25 for the
experimental group and 18.40 is satisfactory for the control group. The result implies that there
is just a little difference between experimental and control group since the population number is
small to compare.

Table 6 T-test Showing Significant Difference of Performance


Between Experimental and Control Group

T-test p-value Decision Significance

36.79 38 0.05 Reject H0 Highly Significant

T-test formula was used in the study instead of the z-test formula since the population number
of respondents is small. The gathered data revealed that experimental group performed better
than control group when an instructional objective is present in the stimulus. The t-value of the
experimental group is 36.795 while the t-value of the control group is 35.376. A computed t-test
value of 36.795 was obtained which is greater than the critical value of 1.645; since it is in the
critical region, the null hypothesis was then rejected at 0.05 level of significance. This result
revealed that despite of minimal difference of the means between the groups, its difference is not
negligible and shown to have significant difference. Thus, it implied that there is a significant
difference between the performances of the experimental group and control group when
instructional objectives is present along with the study text and it implies that the respondents in
the experimental group are better than the respondents in the control group.

Conclusion of the Study


The effect of presenting instructional objectives on mathematics increases performances while
the effect in the absence of instructional objectives would ensure decreasing scores. The
treatment (presence of instructional objectives) is thought to elicit inspection behaviors, thus,
focuses the persons attention on important aspects of the content and producing intentional
learning. On the other hand, the absence of any specific objectives minimizes the attention of
any person in learning some relevant aspects in the learning material, which then produces
incidental learning.

Students learn faster and retain most of the lesson longer when they actually see what
they are expected to learn. Based on the result, the null hypothesis was rejected which pointed
out that there is a significant difference on intentional learning (experimental group) when
instructional objectives are presented along with/ before the study text and with incidental
learning (control group) when instructional objectives are not presented along with/ before the
study text. With the t-values, it can be inferred that the variables cited in this study are highly
significant. The respondents in the experimental group are quiet better than the control group
based on their average means score. The generality of conclusion is only limited to forty (40)
college students in LSU, Ozamiz City during the year 2015-2016. The findings of this study bear
significant implication to the instructors/teachers and administration responsible for curriculum
making.
107

Furthermore, instructional objectives have significant difference in experimental and


control group. Experimental group is better than control group when instructional objectives are
presented along with/before the study text. There are possible reasons to consider for the
superiority of the former group; one is it could be expected that subjects instructed to go over
the given instructional objectives would induce rehearsal. Another is experimental group would
have a greater tendency to categorize material, to try to find devices that would facilitate
remembering and; it is expected that experimental group pay closer attention on relevant items
referenced to mathematics instructional objectives and not on non-relevant items, furthermore,
perhaps the mathematics instructional objectives given to the experimental group helped them to
understand the concepts they need to know and made them improve their performance in the
test. In general, overall retention tend to be greater when instruction or objectives are located
after than before the study text materials due to some factors such as review, repetition of
relevant material and practicing test-like events (Frase, 1968).

References
Amparo, Lardizabal (1991).Principles and Methods of Teaching. 3rd edition. Phoenix Publishing House.
Quezon City, Philippines.
Boud, D., and Feletti, G. (1997). The Challenge of Problem-Based Learning, 2nd edition, London.
Buch, N., and T. Wolf. (2000) Classroom Teaching through Inquiry. Journal of Professional Issues in
Engineering Education and Prcatice. Vol. 126. No.3, p. 105
Duch, B.J., Groh, S.E. and Allen, D.F. (2001). The power of problem-based learning. Sterling, Virginia.
Heflich, D., Dixon, J. and Davis, K. (2001). Taking it to the field: the authentic integration of
mathematics and technology in inquiry-based science instruction. Journal of Computers in
Mathematics and Sciece Teaching. Vol. 20, No.1, p. 99
Tretter, T., and M. Jones, Relationships between inquiry-based teaching and physical science
standardized test scores. School Science and Mathematics Association. Vol. 103, No. 7, 2003, p.345.

The Author

Mark Premacio Laurente is an educator, researcher, mathematician and


statistician. He graduated his Bachelor of Science in Mathematics from
the Mindanao State University, Marawi City, Philippines. He also finished
his Master of Science in Mathematics and Certificate in Statistics from the
same institution. He is also a passer of August 2007 Licensure
Examination for Teachers (LET) and April 2010 Civil Service
Examination. He is currently pursuing his Doctor of Philosophy in
Mathematics in Iligan Institute of Technology of the Mindanao State
University, Iligan City, Philippines. His research interests include mathematics, education, graph
theory, statistics, topology and algebra.
108

International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research


p-ISSN: 1694-2493
e-ISSN: 1694-2116
Vol. 15, No.4, pp. 108-120, IJLTER

Investigating the Macro Perspective Affecting the Passing Rate in


Board Examinations: A Take-off Point in Designing a Causal
Model

Milger A. Baang
bmilger@yahoo.com
Tagoloan Community College
Tagoloan, Misamis Oriental
09352619560

Abstract
Tagoloan Community College is now challenged with producing graduates who are globally
competitive, most especially graduates who are going to take board examinations. The study
aimed to investigate the factors affecting the board examination performance of TCC in the
board examinations. This study used the descriptive method of research, using a researcher-made
questionnaire, focused group discussion and guided interviews to gather data. With three sets of
respondents, adding up to a total of 147, it was found out that among the three courses
(Criminology, BEED and BSED), and in the four years that TCC took part in the board
examinations, the passing rate achieved was never below the National Passing Rate. The
performance of TCC can be said to have started unsatisfactorily, but has been improving to
render a good to a very good performance level. When the data gathered from all the sets of
respondents were summarized, it was found out that it was the internal and stable factors over
which the examinees can exercise an amount of control that affect their performance. It is the
Moving Automobile Causal Model that best fits and represents the factors that have direct
effect on the performance of TCC. Another model was also created, the Airplane Taking-Off
Model, to show all the attributions that are perceived by the respondents and are proven by
other researches to have bearing on the results of the board examinations. Two review programs
are proposed to be implemented by TCC.
Keywords: Passing Rate, Board Examinations, Causal Model

Introduction
Passing the licensure examinations given by the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) can
be one of the greatest achievements in a college graduates life. The examination is intended to
prove the graduates knowledge, progress, skills and qualifications in a particular profession.
Moreover, the performance of the graduates in an institution who take the licensure examination
determines the quality of education the school provides, which eventually guarantees the
efficiency and effectiveness of its graduates application of the things he or she has learned in his
or her chosen profession or career. It was also suggested in one of the authors readings that a
higher standard of performance of the instructional system and consequently, the performance
of the students in the licensure examinations reflects the institutions efficiency as well as the
intellectual capacity of the students that the school has cultivated in the span of time that the
109

students have remained in its portals. TCC is now challenged with producing graduates who are
globally competitive, most especially graduates who are going to take board examinations. In the
colleges course offerings, two departments are faced with the challenge of conquering the board
examinations: the College of Education and the College of Criminology. Moreover, this study
was conducted because the researcher has seen the JUST good turn-out of the licensure
examinations of board courses in the college which she is presently connected. It is worthy to
take note that licensure or board examinations are given by a nation to its people to ensure the
efficiency of a job, especially the jobs that play a crucial part not only to a particular industry, but
to the whole society, wherein the future of a nation is indeed at stake. In the authors case, she is
concerned that the reviewees will be the future teachers and policemen in the country and the
future of the exam-takers depends on their performance in the licensure examinations. The
author took into consideration the following Licensure Examinations for Teachers and
Licensure Examination for Criminologists for four consecutive years starting from 2009 to 2012.
This study focused on the PRC data from 2009 since this was the first time that the college
produced graduates to take part in the licensure examinations, and only up to 2012 because this
is the duration of the conduct of the authors study.

Table 1. Performance of TCC in the Licensure Examination for Criminologists

Year Takers Passed Failed Percentage


2009 15 6 9 46.4 %
2010 10 10 0 100 %
2011 23 21 2 90 %
2012 16 12 4 75 %
Source: PRC

Table 2. Performance of TCC in the Licensure Examination for Teachers

Year Course Takers Passed Failed Percentage


2009
BEED 48 9 39 19 %
BSED 19 7 12 36.84 %
2010
BEED 13 6 7 46.15 %
BSED 8 6 2 75 %
2011
BEED 36 20 16 55.56 %
BSED 14 9 5 64.29 %
2012
BEED 32 30 2 93.75 %
BSED 5 4 1 80 %
Source: PRC

Tables 1 and 2 show the performance of Tagoloan Community College (TCC) for four
consecutive years in the licensure examinations given by the Professional Regulation
Commission (PRC). The rate of passers is generally good, but not good enough if the school
wants to maintain and improve its standing and claim its provision of quality education at a lesser
110

price, for the residents of Tagoloan and its neighboring municipalities. Thus, this study aims at
determining the factors that have a great impact in predicting the outcome of the board
examinations and to create a review program that could enhance the performance of the board
courses of the said institution.

Theoretical Framework of the Study


The theoretical framework of this study is based on Wieners Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1974)
and Cronbach and Snows Aptitude Treatment Interaction Theory (Cronbach & Snow, 1989).
The Attribution Theory of Weiner outlines a method for scrutinizing and understanding
motivation and achievement in the academe, which is appropriate for the study at hand. In the
said model, the proponent outlined the processes through which learners form causal beliefs
(Weiner 1985, 2005). A basic assumed principle of the model is that learners are affected factors
found in the environment (characteristics of the learners home or school environment) and by
personal factors (past experiences and stock knowledge). The above-mentioned factors affect the
types of beliefs or attributions that learners are possible to make.

On the other hand, according to the Aptitude-Treatment Interaction (ATI) theory, there are
some instructional strategies (treatments) which are more or less effective for particular
individuals or groups only depending upon their specific abilities. ATI suggests that optimal
learning can be achieved when the instruction is exactly matched to the abilities of the learner.
Weiners Attribution Theory outlines the identification of the factors affecting the board
examination performance of Tagoloan Community College. Moreover, when these causal factors
are identified and a causal model is thus created, Cronbach and Snows Aptitude Treatment
Interaction (ATI) Theory will guide in the formulation of a review program that would ensure
the success and best board examination performance of Tagoloan Community College.

The framework of the study is anchored on the premise that success or failure of a student
taking an examination, particularly a board or licensure examination depends greatly on several
factors as perceived by the reviewers and the reviewees and those who have successfully passed
the examination already.

Statement of the Problem


This study aimed to examine and investigate the macro-perspective affecting the passing rate in
board examinations of Tagoloan Community College and create a causal model of students
board examination performance as a basis for a review program for board courses of Tagoloan
Community College.

Research Design
This study used the descriptive method of research with the use of quantitative and qualitative
research designs.. This study was conducted at Tagoloan Community College in Tagoloan,
Misamis Oriental. The respondents of this study are the fresh graduates of Bachelor of Science
in Criminology, Bachelor of Elementary Education and Bachelor of Secondary Education of
Tagoloan Community College for the School Year 2012-2013, who is undergoing review in
preparation for the licensure examinations on September and October for teachers and
criminologists respectively. The Review Instructors/Reviewers of the above mentioned courses
are also part of the respondents of the study. Additional respondents are the available Alumni of
Tagoloan Community College who have reviewed with the present Review
Instructors/Reviewers and have taken the Board Examination at least once and successfully
passed it.
111

Methods
Universal sampling was applied to the graduates of Bachelor of Science in Criminology, Bachelor
of Elementary Education and Bachelor of Secondary Education of Tagoloan Community
College for the School Year 2012-2013 who are undergoing review in preparation for the
Licensure Examinations for Teachers (LET) on September 2013, and Licensure Examinations
for Criminologists on October 2013. Thus, there were fifty-five (55) respondents from the
College of Criminology and sixty-one (61) from the College of Education, fifty-six (56) from
Bachelor of Elementary Education (BEED) and five (5) from Bachelor of Secondary Education
(BSED) Major in Filipino. The alumni who are also board passers from the above-mentioned
colleges and who were available during the conduct of this study were also made as respondents.
There were a total of twenty-four (24) alumni who participated in the study, five (5) from the
College of Criminology and twenty-one (21) from the College of Education; fifteen (15) BEED
graduates and four (4) BSED graduates. All of the Review Instructors/Reviewers of the above
mentioned courses were also part of the respondents of the study; six (6) reviewers for the
College of Criminology and only one (1) for the College of Education. The reviewers from the
College of Criminology are part of the departments teaching force; both fulltime and part-time.
However, for the College of Education, there was only one reviewer during the conduct of this
study. Previous review sessions from the past years provided three to five invited reviewers from
different HEIs; both state and private. Consequently, during the conduct of the study, only one
has committed to become the reviewer of the college, since the other lecturers had similar
commitments to other colleges, universities and review centers. In summary, there are one
hundred forty-seven (147) respondents.

Collection of Data
The instruments that were used in this study are researcher-made. A questionnaire was given to
the reviewees and board passers of Tagoloan Community College who all underwent review with
the current reviewers and took the board examination at least once. A guided interview was
further conducted with the reviewees and alumni to gain a deeper insight on the perceived
factors affecting the board examination performance. The reviewers for both the Criminology
and Education licensure examinations were also interviewed about what they think are the
factors that have great influence on the board examination performance. A Focused Group
Discussion (FGD) was conducted with the reviewers to further enhance the data collected from
the questionnaires and the guided interviews. The guide questions for the FGD were a product
of the brainstorming activities done by the researcher and her adviser.

Treatment of Data
Statistical techniques were used to analyze the results obtained from the gathered data. These
techniques include frequency counts, mean and percentage.The gathered data from the
questionnaires, the guided interviews and the focused group discussions were analayzed further
to understand the factors that affect the passing rate in the board examinations.

Findings
Among the three courses (Criminology, BEED and BSED) and in the four years that Tagoloan
Community College took part in the board examinations, the passing rate achieved by the
graduates of the college was never below the National Passing Rate for every year. The
performance of Tagoloan Community College in the board examinations can be said to have
started unsatisfactorily (having a Good performance rating only during the first year that TCC
took part in the board examinations, but has been improving to render a generally very good
performance level. Using Weiners Attribution Theory as basis, it was found out that according
to the reviewers; it is the unstable and internal factors which the reviewees can exercise a certain
112

amount of control that affect the board examination performance of Tagoloan Community
College.

On the other hand, according to the reviewees, it is also the unstable and internal factors over
which the reviewees can exercise an amount of control affect the board examination
performance of Tagoloan Community College. Moreover, according to the alumni board
passers, it is the external and unstable factors over which the reviewees do not have direct
control that affects the board examination performance of Tagoloan Community College.
When the data gathered from all the three sets of respondents of the study were summarized, it
was found out that it was the internal and stable factors over which the examinees can exercise
an amount of control that affect the board examination performance of Tagoloan Community
College.

However, when the data gathered from only the reviewees and alumni board passers were
analyzed, it was found out that they believe it is the external and unstable factors that are beyond
the control of the examinees that affect the board examination performance of Tagoloan
Community College.

The reviewer-respondents of the study adhere to the Catapult Causal Model.

Figure 1: The Catapult Model of the Reviewers

The reviewee-respondents of the study adhere to the Bi-Pedal Causal Model.

Figure 2: The Bi-Pedal Model of the Reviewers


113

The alumni board passer-respondents of the study adhere to the Wagon Causal Model.

Figure 3: The Wagon Model of the Alumni Board Passer

However, it is the Moving Automobile Causal Model that best fits and represents the factors
that influence or have direct effect on the board examination performance of Tagoloan
Community College.

Figure 4: The Moving Automobile Casual Model

Airplane Taking-Off Model, on the other hand, is also created to cover all attributions that
were mentioned by the respondents of this study and other factors mentioned by different
researches that are known to have an effect on the success or failure in the board examinations.
This causal model can be used and made as a basis in the creation of review programs across
different board courses among different colleges and universities.
114

Figure 5: The Airplane Taking-Off Model

Two improved and enhanced review programs are therefore proposed to be used or
implemented by the College of Education and College of Criminology taking into consideration
the identified factors that affect the passing rate in the board examinations.

Proposed Education Review Program

SUMMER (ENROLLMENT/ADMISSION OF FRESHMEN)


Entrance Examination
Evaluation of Grades in Senior Year in High School
Screening (Qualifying Interview)
FIRST YEAR FIRST SEMESTER
Taking of Subjects Prescribed in the Course Prospectus with Strict Adherence to the
Retention Policy
FIRST YEAR SECOND SEMESTER
Taking of Subjects Prescribed in the Course Prospectus with Strict Adherence to the
Retention Policy
SUMMER
Evaluation of Grades from Previous School Year
Students with Unsatisfactory Performances will be Advised to Shift
Seminar for Education Instructors on Current Trends & Issues
SECOND YEAR FIRST SEMESTER
Taking of Subjects Prescribed in the Course Prospectus with Strict Adherence to the
Retention Policy
SECOND YEAR SECOND SEMESTER
Taking of Subjects Prescribed in the Course Prospectus with Strict Adherence to the
115

Retention Policy
SUMMER
Evaluation of Grades from Previous School Year
Students with Unsatisfactory Performances will be Advised to Shift
Seminar for Education Instructors on Current Trends & Issues
THIRD YEAR FIRST SEMESTER
Taking of Subjects Prescribed in the Course Prospectus with Strict Adherence to the
Retention Policy
THIRD YEAR SECOND SEMESTER
Taking of Subjects Prescribed in the Course Prospectus with Strict Adherence to the
Retention Policy
SUMMER
Evaluation of Grades from Previous School Year
Students with Unsatisfactory Performances will be Advised to Shift
Seminar for Education Instructors on Current Trends & Issues
REFRESHER COURSE FOR INCOMING SENIOR STUDENTS
FOURTH YEAR FIRST SEMESTER

ACHIEVEMENT TEST for Graduating Students


(which will serve as Diagnostic Examination)

START OF INTENSIVE REVIEW PROGRAM


1 START OF THE LAST SEMESTER FOR GRADUATING STUDENTS
2
3 ORIENTATION MEETING FOR REVIEW SESSIONS TO BE
4 CONDUCTED
INTRODUCTION AND GIVING OF INITIAL REVIEW MATERIALS

5
6 PRACTICE TESTS TWICE A WEEK
7 150 ITEMS for each practice test
8 (PREFERABLY DURING WEEKENDS)
9 PRESENTATION OF PRACTICE TEST RESULTS
INDIVIDUAL DIALOGUES WITH REVIEWERS REGARDING
RESULTS
10
11
12 START OF CORE-CONTENT REVIEW SESSIONS
13 ONCE A WEEK (SATURDAYS)
14 ONE (1) SUBJECT PER DAY
15
16
17
WEEK 18 PREPARATION FOR GRADUATION
19
20 GRADUATION DAY
21 REST
116

22
23
24 REVIEW SESSIONS
25 TWICE A WEEK
26 CORE-CONTENT LECTURES WITH RIGOROUS PRACTICE TESTS
27 (PRE-TEST and POST-TEST per topic)
28 ONE (1) SUBJECT PER DAY

29 PRE-BOARD EXAMINATION
30 LAST FILING AT PRC
31
32
33
34 EVERYDAY REVIEW SESSIONS
35 TWO (2) SUBJECTS PER DAY
36 INTENSIFIED LECTURES WITH TEST SIMULATIONS,
37 PREDICTOR EXAMINATIONS, INCLUDING
38 IN-DEPTH RATIONALIZATION
39
40
41
42 FINAL COACHING
43 BRIEFING WITH PRC
44 EXAMINATION DAY

Proposed Criminology Review Program


SUMMER (ENROLLMENT/ADMISSION OF FRESHMEN)
Entrance Examination
Evaluation of Grades in Senior Year in High School
Screening (Qualifying Interview)
FIRST YEAR FIRST SEMESTER
Taking of Subjects Prescribed in the Course Prospectus with Strict Adherence to the Retention
Policy
FIRST YEAR SECOND SEMESTER
Taking of Subjects Prescribed in the Course Prospectus with Strict Adherence to the Retention
Policy
SUMMER
Evaluation of Grades from Previous School Year
Students with Unsatisfactory Performances will be Advised to Shift
Seminar for Education Instructors on Current Trends & Issues
SECOND YEAR FIRST SEMESTER
Taking of Subjects Prescribed in the Course Prospectus with Strict Adherence to the Retention
Policy
SECOND YEAR SECOND SEMESTER
Taking of Subjects Prescribed in the Course Prospectus with Strict Adherence to the Retention
Policy
SUMMER
117

Evaluation of Grades from Previous School Year


Students with Unsatisfactory Performances will be Advised to Shift
Seminar for Education Instructors on Current Trends & Issues
THIRD YEAR FIRST SEMESTER
Taking of Subjects Prescribed in the Course Prospectus with Strict Adherence to the Retention
Policy
THIRD YEAR SECOND SEMESTER
Taking of Subjects Prescribed in the Course Prospectus with Strict Adherence to the Retention
Policy
SUMMER
Evaluation of Grades from Previous School Year
Students with Unsatisfactory Performances will be Advised to Shift
Seminar for Education Instructors on Current Trends & Issues
REFRESHER COURSE FOR INCOMING SENIOR STUDENTS
FOURTH YEAR FIRST SEMESTER

ACHIEVEMENT TEST for Graduating Students


(which will serve as Diagnostic Examination)

START OF INTENSIVE REVIEW PROGRAM


1 START OF SECOND SEMESTER FOR GRADUATING STUDENTS
2
3 ORIENTATION MEETING FOR REVIEW SESSIONS TO BE
4 CONDUCTED
INTRODUCTION AND GIVING OF INITIAL REVIEW MATERIALS
5
6 PRACTICE TESTS TWICE A WEEK
7 (180 items each practice test)
8 (PREFERABLY DURING WEEKENDS)
9 PRESENTATION OF PRACTICE TEST RESULTS
INDIVIDUAL DIALOGUES WITH REVIEWERS REGARDING
RESULTS
10
11
12 START OF REVIEW SESSIONS
13 (CORE-CONTENT REVIEW)
14 ONCE A WEEK (SATURDAYS)
15 ONE (1) SUBJECT PER DAY
16
17
18 PREPARATION FOR GRADUATION
19
20 GRADUATION DAY
21
22 REST
23
WEEK 24
25
118

26
27 CORE CONTENT REVIEW LECTURES
28 WITH RIGOROUS PRACTICE TESTS
29 PRE-TEST AND POST TEST PER TOPIC
30
31 REVIEW SESSIONS
32 TWICE A WEEK
33 ONE (1) SUBJECT PER DAY
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43 PRE-BOARD EXAMINATION
44 FILING AT PRC
45 INTENSIFIED LECTURES WITH TEST SIMULATIONS,
46 PREDICTOR EXAMINATIONS, INCLUDING IN-DEPTH
47 RATIONALIZATION
EVERYDAY REVIEW SESSIONS
TWO (2) SUBJECTS PER DAY
48 FINAL COACHING INCLUSIVE OF EXAMINATION DAYS

Conclusions
Licensure examinations for teachers and criminologists provide a valuable framework against
which the law enforcement and teaching practice can be measured and certified. The
professional license serves as the passport to practice the two professions. The board
examinations are very important examinations, as ones career may well depend on its outcome.
This of course is a worry for the administration, faculty, reviewers and reviewees of an institution
like Tagoloan Community College.

Passing the Licensure Examination for Teachers and Licensure Examination for Criminologists
bring prestige not only to the passers or to their families but also to the school where they study.
And an understanding why examinees fail the board examinations is an excellent way of
recognizing and avoiding the most common pitfalls and traps. The reviewers, reviewees and
alumni board passers differ in perspective as to what are the factors that affect the board
examination performance of Tagoloan Community College. Nevertheless, the disparity and
diversity of their identified factors present an opportunity to improve the passing rate of the
reviewees since more and varied factors were surfaced and seen in a new light. The perceived
factors, whether internal or external, stable or unstable, or controllable or uncontrollable must be
given equal attention and focus.

The reason behind making attributions is to gain a relative control over ones environment, and
this can be done by explaining delving deeper into the causes behind attitudes, behaviors and
environmental phenomena. In a way, attributions give a certain amount of predictability to our
lives and guide us in making the right decisions and taking the correct courses of action, and
119

coping with consequences of our decisions and actions. Similarly, knowing the factors affecting
the board examination performance will enable Tagoloan Community College to predict and act
upon the aspects that need to be improved in order to ensure a one hundred percent passing rate
in the board examinations every time.

Recommendations
Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, it is recommended that:
1. To achieve a one hundred percent passing rate for Tagoloan Community College in the
board examination every time, the admission and retention policies of the College of
Education and College of Criminology should be strictly implemented and followed
through to ensure that there will be quality entrant-students and future graduates for the
said colleges. It is to be taken note that, although the passing rate of TCC was never
below the national passing rates, the school always target for a one hundred percent (100
%) passing rate.
2. To maintain an excellent performance level for TCC, there is a need to strengthen and
enrich general education teaching. The members of the faculty must be given
opportunities for professional growth by pursuing higher degrees. Tagoloan Community
College should provide regular faculty trainings and seminars in various academic fields
scholarly strengthening and development.
3. Professional Education Subjects, Criminology Major Subjects and other areas of
specialization should be given the same amount of attention and importance in
instruction of the undergraduate level.
4. The Professional Regulation Commissions (PRC) learning competencies to be tested in
the licensure examinations must be visibly and clearly stated in the course outline and the
Outcomes-Based Education Teaching Learning Plan of the faculty members in all
subject areas. This is so, because it has been found out that the foundation of the
examinees or the quality of education that they receive in college is a major determinant
in the results of the PRC-conducted board examinations.
5. The proposed review programs formulated in the course of this study should be
implemented by the College of Education and College of Criminology.
6. Attendance to the proposed review sessions must be forcefully encouraged to strengthen
the likely positive results in the board examinations.
7. A follow-up investigation to this study is recommended with the inclusion of other
relevant variables for further analysis.

References
Cronbach, L.J. (1975). Beyond the two disciplines of scientific psychology. American Psychologist, 30(2),
116-127.
Cronbach, L.J, & Snow, R.E. (1977). Aptitudes and instructional methods. New York: Irvington.
Graham, S. (1997). Using attribution theory to understand social and academic motivation in African-
American youth. Educational Psychologist, 32(1), 2134.
Snow, R. E. (1989). Aptitude-treatment interaction as a framework for research on individual differences.
In P. L. Ackerman, R. L. Sternberg, & R. Glaser (Eds.), Learning and individual differences:
Advances in theory and research (pp. 13-59). New York: Freeman.
Snow, R. E. (1992). Aptitude theory: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Educational Psychologist, 27(1), 5-
32.
Snow, R. E. (2002). Remaking the Concept of Aptitude Extending the Legacy of Richard E. Snow. Mahwah, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Weiner, B. (1974). Achievement motivation and attribution theory. Morristown, N.J.: General Learning Press.
Weiner, B. (1980). Human Motivation. NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
120

Weiner, B. (1985). An attribution theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92,
54873.
Weiner, B. (1986). An attributional theory of motivation and emotion. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Weiner, B. (1987). Motivation from an attributional perspective and the social psychology of perceived
competence. In A. J. Elliot and C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of Competence and Motivation (pp.73
84). New York: Guilford.
Weiner, B. (2005). Social motivation, justice, and the moral emotions: an attributional approach. Mahwah, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

The Author

Milger A. Baang was born at Cagayan de Oro City on December 22, 1985.
She finished her PhD in Educational Management with academic
distinction at Capitol University, her Master of Arts in English at Central
Mindanao University, and her Bachelor of Arts in English at Central
Mindanao University as Cum Laude. She is currently the head of the
English Department of Tagoloan Community College, Tagoloan, Misamis
Oriental, Philippines.