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Building Management System

Article August 2012

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Waqar Tariq
Universiti Putra Malaysia
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ASIAN JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCES & TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 2, ISSUE 2. SEPTEMBER 2012

Building Management System for


IQRA University
Waqar Tariq, Abid Mustafa, Zahid Rasool, S.M.Haseeb, S.Mubarak Ali, Ashad Mustafa, Shujat Khan, Saad
Irfan Warsi

Abstract In the world of today, a major change in technology


can be seen as an advantage, a number of different fields from
industrial & communication to household application can be
automatically controlled. This paper presents a building
management system (BMS) that has been designed for Iqra
University using AT89C52, which is the key module in order to
perform the controlling and automation. The main area of this
BMS focuses on switching and controlling of the power
input/output, beside this security and HVAC process has also
kept as a main concern in this system.
Index TermsAT89C52, BMS, and HVAC

I. INTRODUCTION
In this era, where energy management is the concern of
everyone, the buildings are being constructed in a manner to
provide maximum comfort and ease to the people with Figure 1 Building Management System [8]
minimum energy utilization. This whole thing is only possible
with the help of controlling devices that are to be installed in a
building during construction. This controlling can be of any
type, from simple switching on and off of the lights, to water Building
motor control and many more. Therefore main idea of Management
designing this system is to automate these operations of the System
plant in most resourceful manner [1-3]
Besides controlling, security factor has also been kept in
Automation &
concern with password protection. Cameras, fire alarms
systems, main gate security and main gate barrier automation Optimization Monitoring Controlling
has been kept at priority in this system. Another features
which is required in a multiple story building is elevator,
Figure 2 Functions of basic Building Management System
which can also been found in our system.
A BMS example system shown in figure 1 is a A. Background:
computerized system that analyses the specific necessities of a Building Management system have been introduced to this
particular building by controlling the associated plant installed world in 1970, initially it was started with very limited
in it and helps save the energy [5]. The devices installed features but within time a lot of changes and modifications
outside the buildings are connected with panels which can be had been made, started with the controlling of power and
switch on or off over different sets of instructions. lightening to heating and cooling of a building together with
The working of BMS is totally based on the input in a form the alarm system as a further modification in order to provide
of information by the devices such as sensors, once the maximum security. Intrusions can be easily monitored with
information is collected it can be processed with the help of the help of closed circuit television CCTV [9].
controller that will further instruct the system to perform a
specific task, in this BMS, switching on and off of the plant B. Characteristics
can be controlled in the same manner, plant can be set to a Building Management System is based on the controlling of
respective temperature in order to provide heating and cooling temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide inside the building,
with respect to the temperature outside the building. [2] basic functions of BMS can be seen in figure 2 the priority is
given to maintain a specific temperature in a building by
controlling the heating and cooling, which is done by
The authors are associated with Iqra University Engineering Project Lab.
operations of fan, ventilation and damper. Beside this
Corresponding author: sashad@iqra.edu.pk.
minimization of carbon dioxide followed by increase in
oxygen has also been kept as an important feature.

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ASIAN JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCES & TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 2, ISSUE 2. SEPTEMBER 2012

This building management system is mainly designed to The electronic circuit of microcontrollers, power supplies
manage and supervise the following activities: sensors and R.F. modules, can be glimpsed in the attached
1. Electrical Distribution Panels figures other components may be considered as secondary for
2. Lighting Control counter a computer is setup to view the orders coming from
3. Air Conditioning System the table, software implemented for monitoring i.e. visual
4. Fire Alarm & Fire Fighting basic.
5. Public Address
6. CCTV System Monitoring A. Design Phase
7. Elevators The first and initial step is to build a model to apply the
8. Access Control, Parking Access, Intrusion Detection building management system. The building of Iqra
9. PABX Universitys main campus was selected (see figure 3) and a
10. UPS prototype made up of metal sheets was designed. The model
11. Water Consumption measurement is 5*6 Feet.
Some of the major advantages of this system include good
control of internal comfort conditions, possibility of individual The prototype consist of 20 metal sheets latter connected to
room control, effective monitoring and targeting of energy each other to form a complete three story large building with
consumption, improved plant reliability and life, save time and 56 windows, gates, lifts, corridors, walk trough gates, main
money during the maintenance, control Of building, central or entrance with barriers. The Building was designed in 20 pieces
remote control and monitoring of building, remote Monitoring the electronic components can be mounted easily and enable
of the plants (such as AHU, Fire pumps, plumbing pumps, smooth movement, transportation and placement of building.
Electrical supply, STP, WTP etc.) The building was sprayed painted in the last phase of model
designing.
II. METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE B. Implementation Phase
The project consists of hardware (Prototype with The Building structure is equipped with electronic circuits,
mechanical and electrical components) intended to exhibit a power supplies, controller, sensors, and DC motors. To
complete management system of a building manifested in eliminate the possibilities of hardware damage everything is
dummy building model, For this purpose we chose Iqra needed to be secured in their right places.
Universitys main campus model. The building was
C. Testing Phase
completely made up of steel, a 5X6 steel sheet is used to
model and a DC motor is interfaced with the microcontroller. Testing of this project has been made after every single
The design of entire Building defined the complete aspects of modification made; this project is composed of different area,
a Building Management System. tested individually and brought together to make a complete
system.

Figure 3 Complete Prototype with BMS

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ASIAN JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCES & TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 2, ISSUE 2. SEPTEMBER 2012

III. HARDWARE DESIGN


The Hardware of this Building Management System has
been designed in such a manner that can carry out all the
operations and instructions discussed in the paper.
A. Structural Design
The structure of the building is separated into different
groups which are based on the requirements, the base, is made
up of strong and heavy metal in order to support to the
structure of the heavy metallic building.
The DC motor installed should be capable enough to
produce power with the aim of carrying the entire weight of
Elevators. Figure 4 depicts the card, parking barriers and
digital gate locker.
Figure 5 Light Switches
B. Mechanical Consideration
Mechanics is one of the important aspects to be considered
as majority of the system has components completely based on
mechanical implementations.

Figure 4 Enterance gate digital lock and card parking


barriers
C. Electronic Components
Microcontroller has been used, as it has the mail role in this
system in order to control the devices connected, beside
controller transistor has also been used in order to control
switching the connection between the two has been made by
connecting the base of a transistor to the controllers output
pin, this makes the switching easy. Controller usually needs
5V dc in order to operate therefore for that a regulate IC 7805
has also been installed in order to provide fix 5v dc output.
LEDs and LCD has been kept in this system in order to
perform their respective tasks, such as LEDs are used to show
illumination of each room together with its controlling from
main supply. Whereas for Security processing and Passwords
LCD has been used.
MAX232 has been used for counter receiver circuit to as a
level converter. Since RS-232 is not compatible for TTL logic
circuits therefore we have used this MAX232 IC to convert
the signal into TTL logic [6]. Two 12V dc electromechanical
relay of 12Vdc have been used by in the motor driver circuit
as a switch.
.

Figure 6 BMS Circuit PCB1

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ASIAN JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCES & TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 2, ISSUE 2. SEPTEMBER 2012

Buzzer is used; its a simple transducer which is capable


enough of converting the electrical signals into sound. It is
switched on as soon as any intrusion takes place, for example
if a sensor detects fire, controller will immediately send a
signal to buzzer.
The communication between the system and computer has
been possible by using RS-232 protocol which basically
transmits and receives data serially. DC gear motors have also
been installed in order to drive the elevators and motors via
controller. Switches of building a light is shown in figure 5.

IV. CONCLUSION
In this paper a Building Management System (BMS), is
introduced, that is able to provide comfortable working
environment in an efficient way [3]. AT80C52 is the core
component used on every part of the project, elevators, gates,
barriers, and the BMS itself. Mechanical design was
incorporated as prototype needs proper shape and to make it
look pleasant [7].

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Iqra
University for providing technical research environment.

REFERENCES
[1] Swarnalatha P, Building Management System Using Windows
Communication Foundation And XAML International Journal of
Engineering and Technology Vol.3 (2), 2011, 95-99
[2] Ler, Eng Loo, Intelligent Building Automation System. Faculty of
Engineering and Surveying
[3] Byron A. Ellis, Building Automation Systems. THE JETHRO
PROJECT
[4] Hamid Reza Naji, Intelligent Building Management Systems using
Multi Agents: Fuzzy Approach International Journal of Computer
Applications (0975 8887) Volume 14 No.6, February 2011.
[5] Lighting control saves money and makes sense". Daintree Networks.
http://www.daintree.net/downloads/whitepapers/smart-lighting.pdf.
Retrieved 2009-06-19
[6] Texas Instruments Dual EIA-232 Drivers/Recivers MAX 232,
http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/max232.pdf
[7] Atmel, 8-bit Microcontroller with 8K Bytes Flash AT89C52
http://www.atmel.com/Images/doc0313.pdf
[8] Dr. CHAN Lok Shun Apple Building Management System
http://personal.cityu.edu.hk/~bsapplec/building.htm
[9] Technical Facilities Solutions Building Management Systems
http://www.tfsmanagement.com/Building-Management-Systems.php

Figure 7 BMS Circuit PCB2

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