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12

Lateral Earth Pressure:


At-Rest,Rankine, and Coulomh

Retaining structurcssuchas retaining walls,bascmentwalls,and bulkheadsare com-


monly encountercdin foundation engineeringas thcy support slopesof earth masses.
Proper designand construction of thesestructuresrequire a thorough knowledgeof
thc lateral forcesthat act between the retaining structuresand the soil massesbeing
retaincd.These lateral forccs arc causedby lateral earth prcssure.This chapter is de-
votcd to the study oI the various earth pressuretheories.

12.1 At-Rest, Active, and Passive Pressures


Consider a massof soil shown in Figurc. l2.la. The massis bounded by a .frictionless
wall of height AB. A soil element located at a depth z is subjectedto a vertical effec-
tive prcssurerrj,and a horizontal efTectivepressureoj,. There arc no shearstresseson
thc vcrtical and horizontal planesof the soil element. Let us define the ratio of oj, to
a l , a s a n o n d i m e n s i o n aql u a n t i t v K , o r

C,r
K - - (12.1)
(f,'

Now, three possiblecasesmay arise concerningthe retaining wall: and they are
described

Case 1. If the wall AB is static- that is, if it does not move either to the right or to
the left of its initial position - the soil masswill be in a state of stallc equilibrium. In
that case,rrj, is referred to as the ut-rest earth pressure,or

K: K,,:% (r2.2)
o',,

where K,, - at-rest earth pressure coefficient.

364
12.1 At-Rest,Active, and Passive pressures

At-rest pressure Activepressure


+l Al, l+
' l A ' A C '

c,,
I
:

I
t",,t;
I
r
-:.. : K,,c',,=6',,
H

I .,-{'Lo'ri're'

Pitssivepressurc

x l - , ' + o ' t a n0 '

(c,

Figure 12'1 Del\nitionof at-rcst.active,and passivepressures


(Note:WallAB is frictionless)

Case 2' If the frictionlesswall rotates sufficientlyabout its bottom to a position of


A'B (Figure l2.lb), then a triangular soil massABC' adjacentto the wall will reach
a state of plastic equilibrium and will fail sliding down the plane BC,. At this time,
the horizontal effective stress,oj,: o'u, will be ref'erred to as active pressare.Now.

K:Ku:4-4 (12.3)
a" a"

where K,, : active earth pressure coefficient.

Case 3. If the frictionless wall rotates sufficiently about its bottom to a position
,4"8 (Figure 12.7c), then a triangular soil mass ABC" will reach a state of plastic
Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure:At-Rest, Rankine,and Coulomb

=
u

Passivepressure.oj,

At-rest pressure.oir

+
Wall tilt

Figure 12.2 Yariatictn ol thc magnitude of lateral earth pressure with wall tilt

Table 12.1 Typical Values of L.L,,lH and LL,,lH

Soil type LL"IH LLelH

Loose sand 0.(x)l 0.(D2 0.01


Dcnse sand 0.000-5-0.00r 0.005
Soft clay 0.02 0.04
StilTclay 0.01 0.02

equilibriunt and will fail sliding upward along the plane BC". The horizontal effec-
tive stressat this time will be oi, : rr',, the so-calledpassivepressure.In this case,
oi. a,u
K _ K ', : , : , (r2.4)
a,' 0,,

where K,, : passiveearth pressure coefflcient


Figure 12.2showsthe nature of variation of lateral earth pressurewith the wall
t i l t . T y p i c a l v a l u e so f L , L , , l H( L L , , : A ' A i n F i g u r e 1 2 . 1 b )a n d L L p I H ( L L r : A " A i n
Figure 12.1c) for attaining the active and passivestatesin various soils are given in
Table 12.1.

AT.RESTLATERALEARTHPRESSURE

12.2 Earth Pressureat Rest


The fundamental concept of earth pressure at rest was discussedin the preceding
section. In order to define the earth pressure coefficient Kn at rest, we refer to Fig-
12.2 Earth Pressureat Rest 367

v /r-

I
I! t-
H
I
o'n= K,,Yz

It=t'+o'tan0'

Figure 12.3 Earth prcssLrrc


at rcst

urc 12.3,which showsa wall A Il rctaining a dry soil with a unit weight of 'l'hc wall
7.
i s s t a t i c .A t a d c p t h z ,

Vcrtical eflectivestrcss: o',,: yz,

HorizcrrrtalelTectivestress: oi, : K,,yz

So

oi.
K,, : -
: at-rcst earth prcssurccoefficient
(f,,

For coarse-grainedsoils. the cocfficient of earth pressureat rest can bo esti-


m a t e d b y u s i n gt h e c m p i r i c z rrl c l a t i o n s h i p( J a k y ,l 9 4 a )

K,:1-singl' (1 2 . s )

where d' : drained friction angle.


While designinga wall that may be subjcctedto latcrerlearth pressureeltrcst.
one must take care in evaluatingthe value of K,,. Sherif, Fang,and Sherif (19g4),on
the basis of their laboratory tests,showed that Jaky's equation [<.trK,,
tEq. (12.-s)]
givesgood resultswhen the backlill is loose sand.However. for a densesand backfill.
Eq. (12.5) may grosslyunderestimatethe lateral earth prcssureat rest. This under-
estimation results becauseof the processof compaction of backlill. For this reason.
they recommended the designrelationship

K " : ( 1 * s i n@ ). l : * r (12.6)
-
L /.I(mrnl J
ls.s

where y,1 : actual compacted dry unit weight of the sand behind the wall
: dry unit weight of the sand in the looseststate (Chapter
7,l1.rn; 2)
Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure:At-Rest, Rankine,and Coulomb

1
I
T l - . ' + o ' t a nQ
Unit weight
_ I

Figure 12.4 Distributionol lateralcarthpressure


at-rcston a wall

For finc-grained,normally consolidatcdsoils, Massarsch(1979) suggestedthe


following cquation for K,,:
I P r( % \ l
+ 0.421-ur]
K,,:0.44 (12.1)

For overconsolidatedclays,thc coeflicient clf carth pressureat rcst can be ap-


p r o x i m a t e da s

: Krl,tnrtully.nn..lidor"d.;.\,m
Ko(overconsolidatcd) (r2.8)

'l'he
whcre OCR : ovcrconsolidationratio. ovcrconsolidationratio was dellned in
Chapter 10as
pressure,tri
Preconsolidatior-r
OCR: ( r 2.e)
Presentelfective overburden pressure,oi,

Figure 12.4showsthe distribution of lateral earth pressureat rest on a wall of


height H retaining a dry soil having a unit weight of 7. The total force per unit length
of the wall, P,,.is equal to the area of the pressurediagram, so

P,,: lK,,yH2 (12.10)

12.3 Earth Pressureat Rest for Partially Submerged Soil


Figure 12.5ashows a wall of height FL The groundwater table is located at a depth
111below the ground surface, and there is no compensating water on the other side
of the wall. For z < Hr,the lateral earth pressureat rest can be given as oi,: K,,yz.
The variation of o'1,with depth is shown by triangle ACE in Figure 12.5a.However,
for z > H1 (i.e.,below the groundwatertable), the pressureon the wall is found from
the effective stressand pore water pressure components via the equation
effective vertical pressure : o',,: lHr + y'(z - Ht) Q2J'D
12.3 Earth Pressureat Restfor Partially Submerged Soil

I
H1

I
l Saturatedunit weight
of soil = yr"r

( t
'Ht)-l

i
H1

I
I
I l<-- K,,(1lHt+y'H)+y,,,H2 +l
Figure 12.5
Distribution of earth
pressureat rest for partially
submergedsoil

where T' : 7,,,t y?{r: the effectiveunit weight of soil. So the effectivelateral pres-
sure at rest is
o'1,: K,,o',,: K,,lyHt + y'(z - Hr)l (12.12)
The variation of cj, with depth is shown by CEG B in Figure 12.5a.Again the
lateral pressurefrom pore water is

u: - H)
y,,,,(z (12.13)
The variation of a with depth is shown in Figure 12.5b.
Hence, the total lateral pressurefrom earth and water at any depth z > l'1, is
equal to
o1: Op -t U

: K,lyH, + y'(z - Hr)) t y,,,(z- H,) (r2.14)


The force per unit length of the wall can be found from the sum of the areas of
the pressurediagramsin Figures 12.5aand 12.5band is equal to (Figure 12.5c)

(12.1s)
Area Area Areas
ACE CEFB EFG ancl IJK
370 Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest,Rankine,and Coulomb

Example12.1
Figure 12.6ashowsa l5-ft-high retainingwall. The wall is restrainedfrom yield-
ing.Calculatethe lateralforce Puperunit lengthof the wall.Also,determinethe
location of the resultantforce,

o'/, (lb/ftl ) u (lb/ft2)

)und water table


Sand
c'- 0
Q'= 30'
Y,ur= 122.4lb/fir

Figure 12.6

Solution
K , , = I - S i n f ' : 1 - s i n 3 0: 0 . 5

AtZ:0: a L = A ; c ' n = O ' ,u * - 0


At z : 10ft: ai = (10)(100)* 10001b/ft2
o'1,: Kor|* (0.5X1000): 500lb/ftz
u = O
At z : 15 ft: (r! * (10)(100)+ (5)(122.4* 62.4)= 13001b/ft2
o'1,: Koo'o: (0.5X1300): 6501b/ft2
u - (5)(y,,) = (5X62.4)= 312lblf*

The variations of oi and u with depth are shownin Figures 12.6band 1"2'6c.
: * + Area$ + Area 4
" Area 1 Area 2
Lateral force P^ $
or $
/r\ /t\ /t\
p,: (i + ( i )tsif:tzl
+ ( ; )(s)(1s0)
+ (sxs00)
)lroylsooy
\ L , / \ L / \ L /

- 2500+ 2500+ 375+ ?80= 6155lblft


12.4 Lateral Pressureon Retaining Walls from Surcharges-Based on Theory of Etasticity 371

The locationof the resultant,measuredfrom the bottomof the wall,is


) momentof pressurediagramaboutC
z:
or
l0\ /s\ / \ \
T, ; t
(2soo)(s + txoor(|)+ (3?s)(,;,1
+ ( 7 8 0 ) ( ;I
\ J./
= 4.7lft r
6155

12.4 Lateral Pressureon Retaining Wallsfrom


Surcharges-Basedon Theiry of Etasticity
Point-Load Surcharge
The equations for normal stressesinside a homogeneous,elastic,and isotropic me-
dium produced from a point load on the surfacewerc given in chapter 9
[Eqs. (9. l0),
( 9 . 1l ) a n d 9 . 1 2 1 .
We now apply Eq. (9. 10) to determinc the lateral pressureon a retaining wall
causedby the concentratedpoint load Q placedat the surfaceof the backfill as shown
in Figure r2.1a.lf the load Q is placed on the plane of the sectionshown,we can sub-
stitute y : 0 in Eq. (9.10).Also, assumingthat ,p : 0.-5,we can writc

,
rrt-
o /3x,2\
(t2.16)
2n\ /J /
where L : f7 g x : mH and z : nH inroEq. ( 12.16),we have
+ Z'z.Substitutin

, 3Q m2n
tlr,: ^ - (12.n)
" 2rHt (^t - ,,)"

The horizontal stressexpressedby Eq. (12.11)does not include the restrainingeffect


of the wall. This expressionwas invesrigatedby Gerber (1929) and Spangler( l93g)
with large-scaletests.on the basisof the experimentalfindings,Eq. (12.11)has been
modified as follows to agreewith the real conditions:

For m > 0.4,


1.77Q mznz
o,n : (12.l 8)
nz @f +Ef
For m * 0.4,

, 0.28Q n2
oa: (12.19)
H z ( 0 1 6+ , r f
Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure:At-Rest, Rankine,and Coulomb

q
, r = m HI
l*-*=,nn-l l..<+l
Y +

l+"
l
H
Y
:
l

ll r'
, f .
(b)

l. rril-J+ nt:+l
loacl =
t t l ,, Strip
// qlUrtI arcll
.: ' / , .

Figure 12.7
Latcral pressureon a retaining
wall due to a (a) point load,
( b ) l i n c l o a d ,a n d ( c ) s t r i p l o a d

Line-Load Surcharge
Figure 12.7bshowsthe distribution of lateral pressureagainstthe vertical back face
of the wall causedby a line-load surchargeplaced parallel to the crest.The modified
f o r m s o f t h e e q u a t i o n s[ s i m i l a rt o E q s . ( 1 2 . 1 8 )a n d ( 1 2 . 1 9 )f o r t h e c a s eo f p o i n t - l o a d
surcharge]for line-load surchargesare, respectively,

4q rnzn - ^ .{
(r'h: llor
' m > u.41
q
(t2.20)
rrH (mz+ ,t)' ;'
and
0.203q n
CL= (for m o 0.4) (r2.2r)
H (oEl?r
where ? : load per unit length of the surcharge.
12.4 Lateral Pressure on Retaining Walls from Surcharges-Based on Theory of Elasticity 373

Strip-Load Surcharge
Figure 12.7eshows a strip-load surcharge with an intensity of q per unit area located
at a distance rr , from a wall of height H. on the basis of the theory of elasticity, the
horizontal stressat a depth z on a retaining structure can be siven as

,',,:#@-sinBcosza) (12.22)

The angles a and B are defined in Figure 72.1c.For actual soil behavior (from the
wall restraining effect). the precedingequation can be modified to

Zs - sinp cos2a)
o'h: ;G (12.23)
n

The nature of the distribution of oj, with depth is shown in Figure 12.lc.The force p
per unit length of the wall causedby the strip load akrne can be obtained by inte-
gration of oj, with limits of z from 0 to H.

Example12.2
Considerthe retainingwall shownin Figure12,8awhere H : l0 ft. A line load of
800 lb/ft is placedon the ground surfaceparallelto the crestat a distanceof 5 ft
from the backfaceof the wall.Determinethe increasein the lateralforceper unit
lengthof the wall causedby the line load.Use the modifiedequationgivenin Sec-
tion12.4.

oi, (lb/lir)

,-Theorctical
.{ shape

800tb/ri ". :\6!16l


I

l+)u.+l
I 2
I
l
t . ^ . .
' - - - ' - - - , OU.tr
' " I

1l r T
: 4 t
c

a
O 6 t 4 | .\t.^)

H= l0ti
a l

iI 5
,
r
I

,lr!,:
t ) \ 6 i' _ .
t "

Figure 12.8
374 Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure:At-Rest, Rankine,and Coulomb

Solution
We are given l/ : 10 ft, q : 800lb/ft, and

*:4:0.5 > 0.4


1L)
So Eq. (12.20) will apply:

. 4q m2n
on:
rrH Qrf;W

Now the following table can be prepared:

n = zn 4 q m2n
,H 1m2+ n2)2 o't llbllizl
0 101.86 0 0
0.2 101.86 0.595 60.61
0.4 101.86 0.595 60.61
0.6 101.86 0.403 41.05
0.8 101.86 0.252 25.67
1.0 i01.86 0.16 16.3

Refer to the diagramin Figure 12.8b.


Area no,

(j)t'lr*'ut) = 6o'61
rb/rt
= r2r.2z
(|)rrlt*.ut + 60.61) tbtrt
= 101.66
(])o,*o.ut + 41.0s) rb/rt
= 66.72tbtrt
(i)trxrr.* + 2s,67)
= 41.e7tbtrl
(f;)elt t.u, + 16.3)
Toral= 392.18lb/ft
- 390lb/ft

RANKINE'SLATERALEARTHPRESSURE

12.5 Rankine's Theory of Active Pressure


The phrase plastic equilibrium in soil refers to the condition where every point in a
soil mass is on the verge of failure. Rankine ( 1857)investigated the stressconditions
in soil at a stateof plasticequilibrium. In this sectionand in section 12.6,wedeal with
Rankine's theory of earth pressure.
12.5 Rankine'sTheory of Active Pressure

+lAr!-
A ' A -2c',[9,
-
T--*--
Unit weight of soil = T l-l
lf=c'+o'tanQ' T
a",
e)I
I a

I
I
t
l-l
yzK,,- 2c'l K,,
(c)

1
o '
E
6

*
'.h
(\

q r"o; \,' 6 ' , , N o r m a ls t r e s s


\

\
\ ,,\, I
/,v./

(h)

Figure 12.9 Rankine's active carth pressure

Figure 12.9ashows a soil massthat is bounded by a frictionlesswall, AB, that


extends to an infinite depth. The vertical and horizontal effective principal stresses
on a soil element at a depth z are o'o and oi,, respectively.As we saw in Section 12.2,
if the wall ,48 is not allowed to move, then o'1,: K,,a',,.The stress condition in the
soil element can be represented by the Mohr's circle a in Figure 12.9b. However, if
the wall AB is allowed to move away from the soil mass gradually, the horizontal
principal stresswill decrease.Ultimately a statewill be reachedwhen the stresscon-
dition in the soil element can be represented by the Mohr's circle b, the state of plas-
tic equilibrium, and failure of the soil will occur. This situation represents Rankine's
active state, and the effective pressure oi on the vertical plane (which is a principal
plane) is Rankine's active earth pressure.We next derive oi in terms of y, z, c' , and $'
from Figure 12.8b

:
CD CD
slnd
AC AO+OC
376 Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest,Rankine,and Coulomb

But
cu - oo
CD : radius of the failure circle :

AO : c' cot $'


and

o' I o'..
oc: "
2
So
a',, - c'r,

2
s i nS ' :
*- t -2,' ,a t t ' "
1v,co.(t, +"'

<f' . q+4sinrp': ry
c'cos

I - sind' (r'
o',r: o',,, - 2 c ' cos (12.24)
* ,.r* I *sinS'
But
U,,, - vcrtical cf'fbctivcoverburden pressure

I - sin rf'
: t a n- '/( 4 5 - dt )' \
I *sin{'
and

c o sd '
- t a n/ ( 4 5- 6 ' \
l +,*d , )
Substitutingthe precedingvaluesinto Eq. (12.24),we gel

-
cL: yztan'?(+s *
+) zc'tun(+r 5) (r2.2s)
t
The variation of o'owith depth is shown in Figure 12.9c.For cohesionlesssoils,
c':0and

^/ d'\
au-c',,tan'(4.5-t) (12.26)

The ratio of oj, to oi, is called the coefficient ctf Rankine's active earth pressure
and is siven bv
12.6 Theory of Rankineb Passive Pressure 377

(ra
K -o : - , = t ? n ,' ([ 4, -5 - d'\
| (r2.27)
oo \ 2/

Again, from Figure 12.9b we can see that the failure planes in the soil make
-r (45 + g' l2)-degree
angleswith the direction of the major principal plane - that is,
the horizontal. These are called potential slip planes and are shown in Figure 12.9d.
It is important to realize that a similar equation for a" could be derived based
on the total stressshearstrengthparameters- that is, r, : c * o tan S. For this case,

oo: r2,""(* - * z,t^"(as


* (12.28)
9) !)

12.6 Theory of Rankine3 Passive Pressure


Rankine'.spassivestatecan be explainedwith the aid of Figure 12.10.A B is a friction-
l e s sw a l l t h a t e x t e n d st o a n i n f i n i t ed e p t h ( F i g u r e 1 2 . 1 0 a )T. h e i n i t i a l s t r e s sc o n d i t i o n
on a soil element is representedby the Mohr'.scircle a in Figure 12.l0b. If the wall is
gradualfyprzshedinto the soil mass,the cffectiveprincipal stressoi, will increase.Ul-
timately the wall will reach a situation where the stresscondition for the soil element
can be expressedby the Mohr\ circle b. At this time, failure of the soil will occur.
This situation is referred to as Rankine'spttssivestote.The lateral earth pressurerri,,
which is the maior principal stress,is called Rankine'spassiveearth pressure.From
Figure 12.10b,it can be shown that

o'p: o.'otunt(+s
. *
+) ,r' ,^n(ot. +)
: wun?(+t. + zc'tan(t . (12.2e)
*) +)
The derivationis similarto that for Rankine'sactivestate.
Figure12.10c showsthe variationof passivepressure with depth.For cohesion-
lesssoils(.' : 0),
"/ d'\
o'r: o',,tan'(4-5*
t )
or

2 : *,: tan,(+s
. +) (12.30)

Ko (the ratio of effectivestresses)in the precedingequationis referred to as the


coefficientof Rankine'spassiveearthpressure.
378 Chapter 12 LateralEarth Pressure: At-Rest,Rankine,and Coulomb

--+-lALl<-
A A '
1'

1
1
z

I
I
=-l=-- I
tzxr-------l
2r'lE,
(c)

o',, I
I

passiveearth pressure
Figure 12.70 Rankine'.s

'
The points D and D on the failure circle (see Figure 12.10b) correspondto the
+(45 - O'12)'
slip planes in the soil. For Rankine's passivestate, the slip planes make
degree angleswith the direction of the minor principal plane - that is, in the horizon'
tal direction. Figure 12.10dshows the distribution of slip planes in the soil mass.

12.7 Yielding of Wall of Limited Height


We learned in the preceding discussionthat sufficient movement of a frictionlesswall
extending to an infinite depth is necessaryto achieve a state of plastic equilibrium'
However, the distribution of lateral pressure against a wall of limited height is very
much influenced by the manner in which the wall actually yields. In most retaining
walls of limited height, movement may occur by simple translation or, more fre-
quently, by rotation about the bottom.
r 12.7 Yielding of Wall of Limited Height 379

LLa
l**]-t,,+l

45 E
2

f'\
H
I
I
I

45-q

Figure 72.1? Rotationof frictionless


wall aboutthe bottom

For preliminary theoreticalanalysis,let us considera frictionlessretaining wall


representedby a plane AB as shown in Figure l2.l1a. If the wall ,4_Brotates suffi-
ciently about its bottom to a position A' B, then a triangular soil mass,4BC, adjacent
to the wall will reach Rankine's activestate.Becausethe slip planesin Rankine'sac-
tive statemake anglesof + (45 + O' 12)degreeswith the major principal plane,the soil
massin the stateof plasticequilibrium is bounded by the planeBC, ,which makes an
angle of (45 + 0'12) degreeswith the horizontal. The soil inside the zoneABC, un-
dergoesthe same unit deformation in the horizontal direction everywhere,which is
equal to LL,,lLu. The lateral earth pressure on the wall at any depth z from the
ground surfacecan be calculatedby using Eq. (12.25).
In a similar manner! if the frictionless wall,4B (Figure lz.rlb) rotates suffi-
c i e n t l y i n t o t h e s o i l m a s s t o a p o s i t i o n A " B , l h e n t h e t r i a n g u l a r m a s s o fs o i l A B C ,
will reach Rankine's passivestate. The slip plane BC" bounding the soil wedge that
is at a state of plastic equilibrium will make an angle of (45 - g,12) degreeswith the
Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest,Rankine,and Coulomb

horizontal.Every point of the soil in the triangular zoneABC" will undergo the same
unit deformation in the horizontal direction, which is equal to LLpl Lr,. The passive
pressureon the wall at any depth z can be evaluatedby using F'q. (12.29).

12,8 Diagrams for Lateral Earth Pressure


Distribution against Retaining Walls
Backfill-Cohesionless Soil with Horizontal Ground Surtace
Active Case Figure 12.12ashows a retaining wall with cohensionlesssoil backfill
that has a horizontal ground surface.The unit wcight and the angle of friction of the
soil are y and rf' , respectively.
For Rankine'sactivestate,the earth pressureat any clepthagainstthe retaining
wallcan be given by Eq. (12.25):
o',,: K,,yz, (lVote:c' : 0.)

P,,
+
U
3
I
l+ (,yH+l

Failurewedge

v
H a H

tI t_
ll r 3y
l +
--->l
l-<-- K,,yH
(b)

soil backfill
distributionagainsta retainingwall for cohensionless
Figure 12.12 Pressrtre
with horizontalgroundsurface:(a) Rankinebactivestate;(b) Rankine'spassivestate
12.8 Diagrams for Lateral Earth PressureDistribution against Retaining Walls 381

Note that ai increaseslinearly with depth, and at the bottom of the wall, it is

o',,: K,1H (12.31)

The total force per unit length of the wall is equal to the area of the pressuredia-
gram, so

P,,: !K,,yHz 02.32)

Passive Case The lateral pressuredistribution againsta retaining wall of height H


for Rankine'.spassivestate is shown in Figure 12.12b.The lateral earth pressureat
a n y d e p t h z [ E q . ( 1 2 . 3 0 ) c, ' : 0 ] i s

o',, - K,,IH (12.33)

The total force per unit length of thc wall is

P , ,- ) K g H t 1tz.z+1

Ba ckf i I I - Parti a Ily Subm erged Cohen si o n I ess


Soil Supporting a Surcharge
Active Case Figure l2.l3a shows a frictionless retaining wall of height 11 and a
backfill of cohensionlesssoil. The groundwater tablc is located at a depth of H, be-
low the ground surface.and the backfill is supporting a surchargepressureof q per
unit area. From Eq. (12.27),the effectiveactive earth prcssure at any depth can be
given by

{r'r,-- K,,rr',, (12.35)

where rr',,and o',, - the effective vertical pressure and lateral pressure, respectively.
Atz-0.

o.-o',,:q (12.36)
and

o',,: K.q (t2.31)


A t d e p t hz : Ht,

ol,: (q + vH,) ( 12.38)


and

c',,: K,,(e+ yHt) 02.39)


At depthz: H,
a|,: (Q * yH, * y'Hz) 02.40)
and
o',,: Ko(e + yHt * y'H) (12.4f)
wherel' : y,nt- 7,.. The variationof oi with depth is shownin Figure 72.13b.
382 Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest,Rankine,and Coulomb

Surcharge= r7
4r+;
d ' I
I
1 1
v
a

ll
IT
I qK,,l<--

ln
|4 l
1,[l
l[]n N
l l + + l l<___>l++l
K,,(q+yHt+"{'H)) Y".Hz Krlg + yHt) Ka!',H2+\",H2
(b) (c) (d)

activeearth pressuredistributionagainsta retainingwall with


Figure 12.13 Rankine'.s
cohcsionless
partiallysubmerged soilbackfillsupportinga surcharge

The lateral pressure on the wall from the pore water between z : 0 and H1 is
0, and for z ) H1, it increaseslinearly with depth (Figure L2.13c).At z : H,
u: Y',,'H2

The total lateral pressure diagram (Figure 12.13d)is the sum of the pressuredi-
agrams shown in Figures 12.13band 12.13c.The total active force per unit length of
the wall is the area of the total pressure diagram. Thus,

+ tr(x,y' + y,,)H3
Pu: K,,qH+ lx,yul * K,,yH1H2 (2.42)
12.8 Diagrams for Lateral Earth PressureDistribution against Betaining wails

IT H,

II I
H t
I
I H.

I
II
I
Hl

I K , , t y H1+ q t

II \
H
H2
t.\
II
|<-+|+--------------- l
n
l . \
l<------------+l l<------------+l<-_-_____+l
qKn Kr(.yH1+y'H2) "1,Hz K,,(q+ yH11 Kry'Llz+\*Hz
(b) (c) (d)

Figure 12.14 Rankine'spassiveearth pressuredistributionagainsta retainingwall with


partially submergedcohesionless
soil backfillsupportinga surcharge

Passive Case Figure 72j4a shows the same retaining wall as was shown in Fig-
ure r2.l3a. Rankine'.spassivepressure at any depth against the wall can be given by
Eq. (12.30):
o', : Kr{r'r,
Using the preceding equation, we can determine the variation of o! with depth,
as shown in Figure 12.14b.The variation of the pressure on the wall from water with
depth is shown in Figure 72.74c.Figure12.14dshowsthe distribution of the total pres-
sure ao with depth. The total lateral passiveforce per unit length of the wall is the area
of the diagram given in Figure 10.11d,or
po: KoeH + lxoyHl * KorHtHz+
+(Kfl, + y_)HZ O2.43)
Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure:At-Rest, Rankine,and Coulomb

4-s + I2
, ?'---..----.-

t
I
+
?.

l+l ll l<---------------l
K,t\H 2r'{K, K,,yH - 2c'{l{,,
(b) (c) (d)

Figure 72.15 Rankine'sactiveearth pressuredistributionagainsta retainingwall with co-


hesivesoil backfill

Backfill- Cohesive Soil with Horizontal Backfill


Active Case Figure 12.75ashows a frictionless retaining wall with a cohesive soil
backfill. The active pressure against the wall at any depth below the ground surface
can be expressedas [Eq. (12.25)l

oL: KoYz- 2f K-c'

The variation of Koyz with depth is shown in Figure 12.15b,and the variation
ot2{K-c'with depth is shown in Figure 12.75c.Note that 2ffic' is not a function
12.8 Diagrams for Lateral Earth PressureDistribution against Retaining Walts 385

of "1,'hence,Figure 12.15cis a rectangle.The variation of the net value of oj, with


depth is plotted in Figure 12.15d.Also note that, becauseof the effect of cohlsion,
ai is negative in the upper part of the retaining wall. The depth 2,,at which the ac-
tive pressurebecomesequal to 0 can be found from Eq. (12.2-5)as

K,,y2,,, 2fK,c'' - 0

(12.44)
v{K
For the undrained condition - that is, rl.r: 0, K,, : tan245 : l, and c : c,,
(undrained cohesion)- from Eq. (12.28),

a -
LLrt

(12.4s)
v

s o . w i t h t i m e , t e n s i l ec r a c k sa t t h c s o i l - w a l li n t e r f a c ew i l l d e v e l o pu p t o a d e p t h 2 , , .
Thc total activeforce pcr unit length of thc wall cernbe found from the area of
t h e t o t a l p r e s s u r ed i a g r a m( F i g u r e l 2 . l - 5 c l )o, r

P,, : \ K,,yl12 - 2\,fK,,c''H (12.46)


Forthe@:0condition,

P,,-lyII2-2c,,H (1) 41\

For calculation of the total activc force, common practice is to take the tensile
cracks into account. Becauseno contact existsbetween the soil and the wall up to a
depth of z.(,after the devclopment of tensile cracks,only the active pressuredistri-
h u t i o n a g a i n s i l h e w a l l b e l w e ezn- 2 l l ( y V K , , ) a n c l 1 / ( F i g u r cl 2 . l . 5 d ) i s c o n s i d e r c d .
In this case,

p " = l ( K , y -Hz f f i t , )'\( o _ _ ? + )


v\/K,,/
.,r2
: $K"yHz- 2t/I{,c'H + 2:* :, (12.48)
v $
Forthe@:0condition.

-2
P,: jyHz - 2cuH + 2!]t (r2.4e)
386 Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest,Rankine,and Coulomb

t \
i \
H
\

\
6r

+l
*l z,'r.@l* K,,yH
(a) (b)

Figure 12.16 Rankine'spassiveearth pressuredistribution againsta retaining wall with


cohesivesoil backfill

Passive Case Figure I2.l6a shows the same retaining wall with backfill similar to
that consideredin Figure 12.I5a.Rankine'spassivepressureagainstthe wall at depth
z can be given by lE.q. (12.29)l

o',,: Kryz+2t/Krc'

Atz:0,

o'p:2lKpc' (12.s0)

andat z: H,

o'o: KrlH + 2f Krc' (12.s1)

The variationof o',,withdepthis shownin Figure|2.t6b. The passiveforceper


unit length of the wall can be found from the areaof the pressurediagramsas

ru: iKotHz + 2{\c'H $2.s2)

For the d : 0 condilron, Kr: 1 and

Pr: lyHz * 2c,,H (12.s3)


12.8 Diagrams for Lateral Earth PressureDistribution against Retaining Walls 387

Example12.3
An 6 m high retainingwall is shownin Figure 12.17a.Determine
a. The Rankineactiveforceper unit lengthof the wall and the locationof
the resultant
b. The Rankinepassiveforceper unit lengthof the wall and the rocationof
the resultant

T
I
6m
Y =l 5 k N / m r
0 ' =3 o '
c'=0

(a)

70.2kN/m
T
t
l<___+l Figure 12.17
2 3 . 4k N / r n 2 Diagramsfor
l.+346.-5 kN/m2-->l determiningactive,
(b)
and passiveforces

Solution
c' : 0, to determinetheactiveforce.we canuseEq. (12.27):
a. Because
o|: Koa| = K,TZ
l-sind'_ 1-sin36
^ -" _ :o)(t
l*sinS' l*sin36
A t 3 : 0 , 0 ' o = 0 ;a t e = 6 m ,
a| = (0.26)(15)(6)- 23.4kN/m2 r*
t
The pressuredistribution diagramis shownin Figure 12.ffib.The active
force per unit lengthof the wall is as follows:
P" = i(6){23.4) : 70.2kN/m
Also,
6m
:2m
1
Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest,Rankine,and Coulomb

h. To determinethe passiveforce,we are giventhat c' : 0. So,from


E q .( 1 2 . 3 0 ) .
rr'o: Kocr|= KrTz

/<,:1+##-i+##:385
Arz:o,c'r-0;atz:6m,
on : (3.85)(lsX6):346'5 kN/m2
The pressuredistributiondiagramis shownin Figure 12.17c.The passive
force per unit lengthof the wall is
Pp : i(6x-r46s) : 103e.5kN/m
Also.

z:ry:2m

Exa mp l e1 2 .4

For the retainingwall shownin Figure 12.18a,determinethe force per unit width
of the wall for Rankine'sactivestate.Also lind the locationof the resultant.

y - 16kN/m3' ll.:' : .
T 1.j,,,^-^..-,,
urounq- " :
Jnt i"" Q = rtr
L:'!' watertable I
+ .: r c =" I
:
"T
3 rn ffl '-i,,=l8kN/nrr
T,or * +
;.ifri.; ;;.
0'= 3.5'
il:r::ri
yI ;i;i!il r.'= 0

t
3rn

I
i
3m
+
+l rol<- +l 1 3 . 10 < - 3 6 . 1+ l
l+29.+3+l
--->l 19.67l<-
(b) (d)

Figure 1Z 18 Retaining wall and pressurediagramsfor determining Rankine'sactive


earth pressure.(Note:Theunits of pressurein (b), (c), and (d) are kNlm')
12.8 Diagrams for Lateral Earth PressureDistribution against Retaining Walls 389

Solution
Giventhat c' : 0, we known that oL = Koa,,,.
For the upperlayerof the soil,Rank-
ine'sactiveearth pressurecoefficientis

K q, , : Ku-\ ", , - l - s i n 3 o ' - l


| *sin30. 3

For the lower layer,

Ko: Ko(z\:1 ;'l'11, : o.2jr


I -l_ sln -t-)"

At z = 0, oL: 0. At z : 3 m (just insidethe bottom of the upperlayer),aj, :


3 x 16 : 48 kN/m2.So

o',: Kr,1yr',,:{ x 48 : 16kN/m2


Again,at z - 3m (in the lowerlayer),a',,: 3 x 16 : 48 kN/mz,and

ou: Kuplo',,:(0.271)X (48) : 13.0kN/m2


Ate=6m.

o", = 3 x 16 + 3(18* 9.81)= 72.-57kN/m2


t
7,,,
and

o',,= Ku121o',,
= (0.271)x (12.57)= 19.67kN/m2

The variation of oj, with depth is shownin Figure 12.lBb.


The lateralpressuresdue to the pore waterare asfollows:
At7=g' u-0
Ate=3m: u=0
A t z : 6 m : u = 3 x T u , : 3 X 9 . 8 1= 2 9 . 4 3 k N / m 2
The variation of u with depth is shownin Figure r2.1&c,and that for ou (total ac-
tive pressure)is shownin Figure 12.18d.Thus,
p ": (i x3 x1 6 + :24+ 3e.0 + s4i1s:117.15kN/m
) 3 (1 3 .0+)(+X3X36.1)
The locationof the resultantcan be found by taking the &romentaboutthe
bottom of the wall: :

+J). ,' o(i). '-


z+(z
"(i)
117.15
: 1.78m
Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest,Rankine,and Coulomb

Example12.5
A frictionlessretaining wall is shownin Figure l2.Iga.Determine the activeforce,
Po,afterthe tensilecrackoccurs.

q = 15kN/m:

r
+ +
t t
l *
l -6.64 kN/m2

l-l

I
6 m
I T= 16.5kN/rn:
Q'=26"

I c'= l0 kN/m2

I
I --+l
l*lt.qz tN/rnr

(r) rD,

Figure12.19(a)Frictionless wall;(b)activepressure
retaining diagram
distribution

Solution
Giventhat$' - 26o,wehave
I * s i n f ' : 1 - s i n 2 6:
K' = u'3e
lTlin7 1 + r,"26
FromEq. \12.25).
oL: Koo'o'2c'{K
Atz:0,
oL: (0.39X1s)- (2X10)\639 : -6.64kN/m2

Atz:6m,
oi = (0.3e)lr5+ (6X16.5)l - (2x10)1rc:39
: 31.e7kNlmz ij
distributio"otu**1';;*T;rttuure
Thepressure r$lu' Fromthisdiagram",{
* - = j I

z 6*z '.$
.:
o r ;
I * 1.03m 'i$
l

After the tensilecrackoccurs,


:
p": l(6 - z)(3r.97) :79.215
: |1+.st112t.9't) kN/m rf
I
12.8 Diagrams for Lateral Earth pressure Distribution against Retaining
watts

Example12.6
A frictionlesrr:Tj.ning.Iall-isshownin Figure 12.20a.
Find the passiveresistance
(Po)on the backfilland the locationof the resultantpassiveforce.
q = l0 kN/m2

I
llJl
1m
I Y = l5 kN/mj
$'=26"
r" = 8 kN/ml

I
I l++l+ 1 . 5 3 . k6N / r n 2+ l
- 51 . 2k N / n r 2
(b)

Flgure 12.20 (a) Frictionlessretainingwall; (b) passivepressuredistribution


diagram
Solution
Giventhat$' : 26o,it followsthat
I + s i n d '_ 1 * s i n 2 6 _
"
*- _ ) <A
" 1-sind' l-sin26"
FromEq. (12.29),
u'o: Ko{ro+ 2f4c'
=
At e 0, aL : 10kN/m2;thus,
o, = (2.56)(rA)+ 2\/736(S) : 25.e+ 25.6* 5t.2kN/m2
Again,at z = 4 m,c'o: (10+ 4 x15) = 70kNlm2.So
o', = (2.56)(70)
+ 2\A36(8) : 20+.S
kN/m2
Thepressure distributiondiagramis shownin Figure1z.z0b.The
passive resist-
anceperunit widthof thewallis asfollows: i
$
Po= gLZ)(4) + t(4x1s3.6): 204.8+ 307.2=ku kN/m
locationof theresultantcar befoundby takingthemomentof thepres-
sure1l*
dragramaboutthebottomof thewall.Thus.

_ (5r,(:) * jr'rrurror(f
)
t : F : j m
392 Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest,Rankine,and Coulamb

12,9 Rankine Active and Passive Pressure


with Sloping Backfill
In Sections12.-5through 12.8,we consideredretaining walls with vertical backs and
horizontal backfills. In some cases,however, the backfill may be continuously slop-
ing at an angle a with the horizontal as shown in Figure 12.21for activepressurecase.
l n s u c h c i r s c s t. h e d i r e c t i o n o f R a n k i n e ' sa c t i v eo r p a s s i v ep r e s s u r e sa r e n o l o n g e r
horizontal. Rather, they are inclined at an angle a with the horizontal. If the backfill
', : 0, then
is a granular soil with a drained friction angle <f and c'
o'rr: YzKu

where

K, : Rankine'sactivepressurecoefficient

cosa- Vcos2a-cos26'
= cosa (12.s4)
cosd+ \,6P;:
"*?

The activeforce per unit length of t h c w a l l c a n b c g i v e n a s


l ^
P,,
'
: :2 K,,vH' (12.ss)
The finc of action of thc resultantactsat a distanceof H 13measuredfrom the bottom ''
of the wall. Table 12.2givesthe values of K,, for various combinations of a and f
In a similar manner, the Rankine passive earth pressure for a wall of height H
with a granular sloping backfill can be representedby the equation
P, : ltH2 K,, (12.s6)

Frictionless

Figure 12.21
Frictionlessverticalretainingwall with
slopingbackfill
12.9 Ranking Active and Passive Pressure with Sloping Backfilt

Table 12.2 Valuesof K,, [Eq. (12.54)l


Q' (des) --+
I a (degl

U 0.361 0.333 0.307 0.283 0.260 0.238 0.217


.5 0.366 0.337 0.311 0.286 0.262 0.240 0.219
10 0.380 0.350 0.32r 0.294 0.270 0.246 0.225
15 0.409 0.373 0.34r 0 . 3 1I 0.283 0.258 0.235
20 0.461 0.4t4 0.374 0.338 0.306 0.277 0.250
25 0.573 0.494 0.434 0.385 0.343 0.307 0.275

Table 12.3 PassiveEarth PressureCoefficient,f,, IEq. (12.57)l


Q' (des) -->
J a (deg)

0 2.770 3.000 3.2-55 3.537 3.u52 4.204 4.599


-5 2.715 2.943 3 . 19 6 3.476 3.7uu 4.136 A <)1
10 2.551 2.775 3.022 3.295 3.5gr3 3.937 4.316
1,5 2.281 2.502 2.740 3.003 3.293 3.61-5 3.977
20 t . 9 l1 3 2.132 l. _11)I 2.612 2.8rJ6 3.lrig 3.526
25 1.434 1.664 1.1394 2.135 2.394 2.676 2.987

where

cosrr + V!.rt'" ..f d


Kr, : cos a (12.s7)
cos., - \4;t:*?
is the passiveearth pressurecoefficient.
As in the casc o[ the active forcc, the resultant force P,, is inclined at an anslc
'H13
a with the horizontal and intersectsthe wall at a distanceof measuredfrom the
bottom of the wall. The valuesof K, (passiveearth pressurecoefficient)fbr various
valuesof a and (t' are given in Table 12.3.

c'-S'Soil
The preceding analysiscan be extended to the determination of the active and pas-
sive Rankine earth pressurefor an inclined backfill with a c'-rf' soil. The details of
the mathematicalderivation are given by Mazindrani and Ganjali (rggi).For a c'-$'
backfill, the active pressure is given by
o'" : yzK,, : yz.Ki cosa ( 12.58)
:
whereKu Rankineactiveearth pressurecoefflcientand
K..
K;:
*r"
(r2.se)
The passivepressureis givenby
o',, : TzKo : yzK", cosa (r2.60)
whereKo : Rankinepassiveearth pressurecoefficientand
A'
K'i,: ::! (12.61)
' cos.Y
394 Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest,Rankine,and Coulomb

Also,
1
K " " ,K '' : , : \
cos-@

c o s 2 a+ 2 ( { ) . o r 4 ' sin rf '


\yz /
' t
" o ( ) ' . o r ' a ' , B ( - ) . o r ' a s i n@ .' o , 4 ' l
{. \yz/ \yz/ . i) '
(12.62)

Table 12.4 Variationof K'1,and K'i,*


c'
yz
a
(deg) K';IK; 0.025 0.05 1.0

u <b': 15"
0.-stt8t3 0.-5504 0 . 51 2 1 0.4353 -0.1785 -0.9459
0
0 1.6984 1;7637 1.828'l 1.9590 3.0016 4.3048
0.6069 0.-5658 0.5252 0.4449 -0.1804 -0.9-518
-5
-5 t.6477 I . 71 5 6 r.7830 L9169 2.9709 4.2782
0.673rJ 0.6206 0.570'7 0.4'769 -0.1861 -0.9696
l0
I0 r.4841 1.-5641 1.640u 1.7882 2.8799 4.1993
1.0000 0.1762 0.6u34 0.5464 (\.1962 - 1.0000
1-5
15 1.0000 1.2506 t.3702 1.5608 2.732t 4.0718

b ,b':20"
0.4903 0.45-53 0.4203 0.3502 -0.2099 -0.9101
0
o 2.0396 2 . 1 lI 0 2.1824 2.3252 3.4678 4.8959
K'i, 0.5015 0.4650 0.4287 0.3,565 -0.2t19 -0.9155
-5
5 K';, 1.9940 2.0669 2.1396 2.2846 3.4353 4.8669
K":, 0.5394 0.4974 0.4564 0.3'767 -0.2180 -0.9320
It)
10 K';, L8539 1.9323 2.0097 2.1622 3.3392 4;7812
-0.228t -0.9599
1-s K"" 0.6241 0.5666 0.-5137 0.4165
15 K';, 1.6024 1.6962 1.7856 1.95-56 3.1831 4.6422

c 6' :25"
0.4059 0.3140 0.3422 0.2'784 -0.2312 -0.8683
U
0 2.4639 2.5424 2.6209 2.7779 4.0336 s.6033
0.4133 0.3805 0.3478 0.2826 -0.2332 -0.8733
5
5 2.4r95 2.4989 2.5782 2.1367 3.9986 5.5713
0.4376 0.4015 0.3660 0.2960 -0.2394 -0.8884
l0
10 2.2854 2.3680 2.4502 2.6]35 3.8950 5.4765
0.4860 0.4428 0.4011 0.3211 -0.2503 -0.9140
t5
15 2.0575 2.1474 2.235'7 2.4090 3.7264 5.3228
(continued)
12.9 Ranking Active and Passivepressure with Stoping Backfitl

Table 12.4 gives the variation of K'/ and Ki with at,c,llz, and 0, .
For the active case,the depth of the tensile crack can be given as

2c'
(r2.63)
I

Table 12.4 (continued\


c'
yz
a
(des) K:tK; 0.0 0.05 0.1 1.0
d $' :30"
0 0.3333 0.3045 0.2756 0.2179 -0.2440 -0.8214
0 3.0000 3.0866 J.t t3z 3.3464 4.7321 6.4641
5 0.3385 0.3090 0.2795 0.2207 *0.2460 -0.tt260
-5 2.9543 3.0416 3.1288 3.3030 4.6935 6.4282
l0 0.3549 0.3233 0.2919 0.2297 -0.2522 ,0.8399
l0 2.8176 2.9070 2.9961 3.1737 4.5794 6.3218
15 0.386r 0.3502 0.3150 0.2462 -0.2628 -0.8635
1-5 2.5900 2.6836 2.7766 2.9608 4.3936 6.1489
e Q' :35'

U 0.2710 0.2450 0.2r t39 0 . 16 6 9 -0.2496 *0.7'/01


0 3.6902 3.7862 3.8823 4.0744 '7.5321
5.6172
5 0.2746 0.2481 0.2217 0.1688 -0.2-515 -0.7744
5 3.6473 3.1378 3.8342 4.0271 '7.4911
5.-s678
10 0.2861 0.2581 0.2303 0.1749 -0.2575 -0.7872
10 3.4953 3.5933 3.6912 3.8866 s.4393 7.3694
15 0.3073 0.2764 0.2459 0.1860 -0.2678 -0.8089
15 3.2546 3.3555 3.4559 3.6559 5.2300 7.1715
f Q' :40'
0 Ki, 0.2174 0 . 19 4 1 0.1708 0.1242 -0.2489 -0.7152
0 K'; 4.-5989 4.7061 4.8134 5.0278 6.7434 8.8879
5 K'; 0.2200 0.1964 0.1727 0.1255 -0.2507 -0.7190
5 K'; 4.5445 4.6521 4.7597 4.9747 6.693-5 8.8400
10 Ki 0.2282 0.2034 0.r787 0.1296 -0.2564 -0.7308
10 K'; 4.3826 4.4913 4.5999 4.8168 6.5454 8.6980
15 K'; 0.2429 0.216I 0.1895 0.r370 -0.2662 -0.7507
15 K';, 4.1168 4.2275 4.3380 4.5584 6.304\ 8.4669
* After Mazindrani and Ganjali (1997)
Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest,Rankine,and Coulomb

Example12.7
Refer to Figure 12.21- on page392.Giventhat H = 6.1m, a - 5o,f = 16'5kNlm',
6' - 20o,c' : 10 kN/m2, determinethe Rankine activeforce Pnon the retaining
wall after the tensilecrackoccurs.
Solution
From Eq. (12.63),the depth of tensilecrackis

2c' 1 * sind' (2X10)/T + stn20


1* sinf' 1 6 . -Vs l - s i n 2 0
So
Atz:0: o',:0
Atz:6.1 m: o'u: yzK'lcosa
c' l0
,," : (ra5x6t,: o'l
From Table 12.4,forat = 5" andc'lyz: 0.1,the magnitudeof Kii : 0.3565.So
oi, : (16.5)(6.1 5") - 35.t5kN/m2
)(0.3565)(cos
Hence,

r": - 2,,)(35.75)
= - r.t3)(3s.i5)
- 78.tkN/m
)rn lrc.t

THEORY
COULOMB'SEARTHPRESSURE

Morc than 200 ycars ago, Coulomb (1116) presenteda theory for active and passive
earth pressurcsagainst retaining wetlls.In this thcory, Coulomb assumedthat the
failurc surfacc is a planc. The wull .f'rictionwas tzrkeninto consideration.The follow-
ing sectionsdiscussthe generalprinciplesof the derivation of Coulomb'searth pres-
sure theory for a cohesionlessbackfill (shear strength defined by the equation 11=
c' tan $').

12.10 Coulombb Active Pressure


Let AB (Figure 12.22a)be the back face of a retaining wall supporting a granular
soil, the surfaceof which is constantlysloping at an angle a with the horizontal. BC
is a trial failure surface.In the stability considerationof the probable failure wedge
ABC, the following forces are involved (per unit length of the wall):
12.10 Coulomb'sActive Pressure 397

iI
90-0+cr

W
9 0 + e + 6B + 0
4,,-,6
II
t1
+
-Y
\ r
'
r90+e-
l I p-0
D \

\-

(a) (b)

Figure 12.22 C.<tulomb'.s


activcprcssurc:
(a) trial lailurewcdgc;(b) lirrcepolygon

l. tr44 the weight of the soil wedge.


2. F, Lheresultant of the shcar and normal forces on the surfaceof failure. BC.
T h i s i s i n c l i n e da t a n a n g l c o f { ' t o t h e n o r m a l d r a w n t o t h c p l a n e B C .
3. P,,,the active force per unit length o1'thewall. The clirectiono1 P,,is inclined at
a n a n g l e6 t o t h e n o r m a l d r a w n t o t h e l ' a c eo f t h e w a l l t h a t s u p p o r t st h e s o i l .6 i s
t h c a n g l eo f f r i c t i o n b e t w e c nt h e s o i l a n d t h c w a l l .

The force triangle lor the wedgc is shown in Figure l2.z2b. From the law of
sincs.we havc

J,, (12.64)
s i n ( 9 0 + 0 + 6 -F + 4 t ' ) sin(B 4t')

sin(B- rf')
P,,:
s i n ( 9 0 + 9 + 6B
- +O')
W (r2.6s)
The pre.cedingcquation cernbe written in the form

cos(0- B)cos(0* a)sin(B-


e"- )tn.lcos2Flsin(B
* a)sin(90+ g + D -
r/')
rt oot
B + O'))
where 7 : unit weight of the backfill.The valuesof y, H, 0, a,6, ,and 6 are constants.
and B is the only variable. To determine the critical value of 6 for maximum p.,. we
have

dP." : 0
(r2.61)
dp
398 Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest,Rankine,and Coulomb

Table 12.5 Valuesof K, [Eq. (12.69)]for 0 : 0o,a : 0o


6 6eg) --+
.l-d' (deg) 10 15

28 0.3610 0.3448 0.3330 0.3257 0.3203 0.3186


30 t r.-r-t-tJ 0.3189 0.3085 0.3014 0.2973 0.2956
32 0.3073 0.2945 0.2853 0.2791 0.2755 0.2745
34 0.2827 0.21t4 0.2633 0.2579 0.2549 0.2542
36 0.2596 0.249'7 0.2426 0.2379 0.2354 0.2350
38 0.2379 0.2292 0.2230 0.2190 0.2169 0.2167
40 0.2t74 0.2089 0.2045 0.2011 0.1994 0.1995
42 0.1982 0.1916 0.1870 0.1841 0.1828 0.1831

After solvingEq. (12.67),when the relationship of B is substituted into Eq.


(12.66),we obtain Coulomb's active earth pressureas

Po: lKoyH2 ( 12.68)

whereK,,is Coulomb'sactivecarth pressurecoefficientand is givenby

6,: , " o t ' ( d ' , l f ) ,, , , , , ' , - . - u 02.69)


gcos(6 ol)sin(q' t)
cos2 ' L I * .,/sin(9-+
+ 0)l l'
c o s ( 6 + d ) c o s ( O- d ) J
\

Note that when d - 0', g - 0", and 6 : 0", Coulomb's activeearth pressureco-
eflicient becomesequal to (1 - sin rb')l(1 + sin {'), which is the same as Rankine's
earth pressurecoefficientgiven earlier in this chapter.
-
The variation of the valuesof K,, for retaining walls with a vertical back (0 0')
anclhorizontal backfill (a : 0") is given in Table 12.5.From this table, note that for
a given value of @', the effect of wall friction is to reduce somewhat the active earth
pressure coefficient.

12.11 GraphicSolution for Coulomb'sActive Earth Pressure


An expedient method for creating a graphic solution of Coulomb's earth pressure
theory was given by Culmann (1875). Culmann'ssolution canbe used for any wall fric-
tion, regardlessof irregularity of backfill and surcharges.Hence, it provides a power-
ful technique for estimating lateral earth pressure. The steps in Culmann's solution
of active pressure with granular backfill (c' : 0) are described next, with reference
to Figure I2.23a:

1. Draw the features of the retaining wall and the backfill to a convenient scale.
- -
2. Determine the value of ry'(degrees) : 90 0 6, where 0 : the inclination of
the back face of the retaining wall with the vertical, and 6 : angle of wall friction.
12.11 Graphic Solution for Coulombb Active Earth Pressure

(b)

Figure 12.23 Culmann's solution for active carth rrressure

3. Draw a line BD that makes an angle d' with the horizontal.


4. Draw a line BE that makes an angle r/ with line B D.
To consider some trial failure wedges,draw lines BCt, BC2, BC., . . ., 8C,,.
6. F i n d t h e a r e a so f A B C t , A B C 2 , A B C j , . . . , A B C , , .
7. Determine the weight of soil, w, per unit length of the retaining wall in each of
the trial failure wedgesas follows:
W1: (Area of ABC,) x (7) x (1)
W2: (Areaof ABC) x (7) x (1)
: (Rr"u of ABC.) x (7) x (1)
%

W,: (Area of ABC,) x (7) x (1)


8 . A d o p t a c o n v e n i e n tl o a d s c a l ea n d p l o t t h e w e i g h t sW , , W r , W 3 , . , W n d e t e r -
mined from step 7 on line BD. (Note: Bc1 : W1, Bcz: W2, Bc1 : Wt, . . .,
Bc,,: Wo)
9. Draw cp\, c2c'2, c{\, . . ., c,,c'nparallel to the line BE. (Note: c\, c2,cj, . . . , c,,,
are located on lines BCt, BC2, BCr, . . ., BC,, respectively.)
10. Draw a smooth curve through points c1,c2,c\, . . ., c',. This curve is calleclthe
Culmann line.
11. Draw a tangent B'D' to the smooth curve drawn in step I0. B,D,is parallel to
line BD. Let c'"bethe point of tangency.
12. Draw a line coc'oparallel
to the line BE.
13. Determinethe activeforce per unit lengthof wall as
P, : (Lengthof coc) x (Load scale)
14. Draw aline Bc'oC,,.ABC, is the desired failure wedge.
Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure:At-Rest, Rankine,and Coulomb

Note that the constructionprocedure entails,in essence,drawing a number of


force polygons for a number of trial wedges and flnding the maximum value of the
active force that the wall can be subjected to. For example, Figure 12.23bshows the
force polygon for the failure wedge,4BC, (similar to that in Figure 12.22b),in which

l4z: weight of the failure wedge of soil .48C,,


P,, : active force on the wall
F - the resultant of the shear and normal forces acting along BC,,
B - LC,,BF (the angle that the failure wedge makes with the horizontal)

Thc force triangle (Figure 12.23b)is simply rotated in Figure I2.23a and is rep-
, cp\, '..,
r e s e n t e db y t h e t r i a n g l e B c , , c i ,S. i m i l a r l y ,t h e f o r c e t r i a n g l e sB c l c !, B c 2 c 2B
B c , , c ' ,c, o r r e s p o n dt o t h e t r i a l w e d g c sA B C t , A B C 2 , A B C ; , . . . , A B C , , .
The prcccding graphic pKtcedurc is given in a step-by-stepmanner only to fa-
cilitatc basic understanding.These problems can be easily and cffectivelysolvedby
thc use ol computcr programs.
Thc Culmann solution provides us with only the magnitude of the activeforce
per unit length of the retaining wall - not with the point of application of the resul-
tant. Thc analytic procedure usedto find the point of applicationof the resultantcan
bc teclious.For l.hisreason.an apprcximatc method, which does not sacrif,cemuch
accuracy,can be used.This n-rethodis demonstratedin Figure 12.24,in whichABC
is the failurc wedge determined by Culmzrnn\ method. O is the center of gravity of
the wedgeABC. lf trline OO' is drawn parallel to the surfaceof sliding,BC, the point
of intersectionof this line with the back face of the wall will give the point of appli-
cation of P,,.Thus, P,,actsat O' inclined at angle6 with the normal drawn to the back
face o[ thc wall.

()
a

----/o'
p

Figure 12.24 Approximate method for finding the point of application of the resultant
active fbrce
12.11 Graphic Solution for Coulomb's Active Earth Pressure 401

Example12.8
A 15-ft-high retaining wall with a granular soil backfill is shown in Figure 12.25.
Giventhat y : 100lblft3,6' : 35',0 : 5o,and6 = 10'.determinethe activethrust
per foot lengtho[ the wall.

Solution
For this problem,,lt : 90 * 6 - 6 : 90o* 5" * 10" : 75'. The graphicconstruc-
tion is shownin Figure12.25.The weightsof the wedgesconsideredare asfollows:
Wedge Weight (lbl

ABCl = 3,916
'(4.38X17.S8)(100)
ABC2 3,e16 - 6,106
+ t; (2.36X18.56)l(100)
ABC3 6,106 : 8,2e5
+ l+(2.24)(1e.s4)l(100)
ABC4 8,29s : 10,486
+ ti Q.rr)(20.77)l(100)
ABCs 10,486 = 12,67
+ [, (1.e7)(22,2U](100) 5

-l2.sri 2.s ft | 2..5li I


I.el<------>l
cr tcl+ tcs

17.-5

II
v=90-0-6=7s"
Weight ( 1000lb)
I
|-_-_-
1 2 3 4 5
Length(fi)
0=5" Fl--_-

1 2 3 4 5

Figure 12.25 Culmannssolutionfor determiningactivethrust per unit lengthof wall


Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure:At-Rest, Rankine,and Coulomb

In Figure12'25
rq : z,gtota
Bc'z: 6'106lb
aq : S,Z9S
tU
Bq : 10,4861b
nct : lZ,OlSrc
The activethrust per unit lengthof the wall is 4,090lb.

12,12 Active Force on Retaining Walls


with Earthquake Forces
Coulomb's analysisfor activeforce on retaining walls discusscdin Section 12.I 0 can
be convenicntly extendcd to include earthquarkcforces.To do so, let us considera
retaining wall of height H with a sloping grttnulur bucklillas shown in Figure 12.26a.
Lct the unit weight and thc friction trngleof the granular soil retained by the wall be
equaf to y and$' , respectivcly.Also, let 6 be the anglc of friction betweenthe soil and
the wirll. AtlC is a trial ferilurewedge.The forces acting on the wcdge are as follows:
1 . W e i g h t o f t h e s o i l i n t h e w e d g c ,W
2. Resultant of thc shear and normal forceson the failurc surfaceBC, F

v
q
6

(a) (b)

Figure 12.26 Active force on a retaining wall with earthquake forces


12.12 Active Force on Retaining Walls with EarthquakeForces 403

3. Active force per unit length of the wall, P,,,.


4. Horizontal inertial force, k,,W
Vertical inertial force, k,,W

Note that

Horizontal component of earthquake acceleration


(12.70)
g

Vertical component of earthquake acceleration


t . -
(t2.11)

where g : accelerationdue to gravity.


The force polygon demonstrating these forces is shown in Figure 12.26b.The
dynamic activeforce on the wall is the maximum value of P,,,,exerted by any wedge.
This value can be exprcssedas

p,": LyHr(I * k,,)K1, (t2.12)

where

- a *
@')sin(@' p) 'l'oI t
c o s 2 g c o s B c o s+
( d0 +
0 + p)cos(0* ot) ) I
(t2.13)

and

F:,""-'(#?) (12.74)

Note that with no inertia forccs from earthquakes.B is equal to 0. Hence, K',,: K,,
as given in Eq. (12.69).Equations (12.72) and (12.73)are generallyreferred to as the
Mononobe-Okabe equation.s(Mononobe. 1929,Okabe, 1926).The variation of Kj,
with 0 - 0' and k,, : 0 is given in Table 12.6.
Consideringthe activeforce relation given by Eqs. (12.72)through (12.74),we
find that the term sin (@' - q - B) in Eq. (12.13) has two important implications.
First, if rp' - -
B < 0 (i.e.,negative),no real solution of Ki is possible.Physically,
"
this implies that an equilibrium condition will nr,tterisl. Hence, for stability, the lim-
iting slope of the backfill may be given as

cr=o'-E (t2.ts)
Table 12.6 Valuesof rKi,[Eq. (12.73)lwith 0 : 0" and k, : g
6'@eg)
kh 6 {deg} a (deg) 28 30 35 40 45

0.1 0.427 0.39"7 0.328 0.268 0.2t7


0.2 0.-508 0.473 0.396 0.382 0.2'70
0.3 0.611 0..569 0.478 0.400 0.334
0.4 0.753 0.697 0.581 0.488 0.409
0.5 1.00-5 0.890 0.'716 0.-596 0.500
0.1 0.451 0.423 0.341 0.282 0.227
0.2 0.-554 0 . 5l 4 0.421 0.349 0.285
0.3 0.69i) 0.635 0.522 0.431 0.356
0.4 0.942 0.825 0.653 0.-s35 0.442
0.5 0.8-55 0.673 0.551
0.1 0.497 0.457 0.371 0.21)r) 0.238
0.2 0.623 0.570 0.461 0.37,5 0.303
0.3 0.n56 0.74tt 0.58-s 0.4'72 0.383
0.4 0.7u0 0.604 0.4u6
0.5 0.1309 0.624
0.1 ,bl2 0.396 0.368 0.306 0.2.53 0.207
0.2 0.4u5 0.452 0.380 0.3I9 0.267
0.3 0.604 0.563 0.474 0.402 0.340
0.4 0.778 0.7Itr 0.-599 0.508 0.433
0.5 l.ll5 0.912 0.771 0.64u 0.-552
0.1 ,bl2 0.42tt 0.396 0.326 0.26t3 0.2Itt
0.2 0.537 0.491 0.4t2 0.342 0.2n3
0.3 0.699 0.640 0.526 0.438 0.361
0.4 t.025 0.881 0.690 0.56u ('t.4'75
0.-5 0.962 0.752 0.620
0.1 tf l2 l0 0.472 0.433 0.352 0.285 0.230
0.2 0.66
I 0.562 0.454 0.371 0.303
0.3 0.90u 0.7130 0.602 0.4tt7 0.400
0.4 0.u-57 0.6.56 0.531
0.-5 0.944 0.722
2 ,
0.1 ;-')E 0.393 0.366 0.306 0.256 0.212

0.2 0.486 0.454 0.3u4 o.326 0.276


0.3 0.612 0.572 0.4u6 0.416 0.357
0.4 0.t301 0.740 0.622 0.-s33 0.462
0.-5 t.177 1.023 0.819 0.693 0.600
2 ,
0.1 ;-)E 0.427 0.39-5 0.327 0.27| 0.224

0.2 0.541 0.-501 0.4u1 0.35t) 0.294


0.3 0.714 0.6-55 0.-541 0.455 0.386
0.4 1.073 0.921 0.722 0.600 0.509
0.5 1.034 0.812 0.679
2 ,
0.1 ;-)E t0 0.472 0.434 0.3-54 0.290 0.237

0.2 0.625 0.570 0.463 0.381 0.317


0.3 0.942 0.rJ07 0.624 0.509 0.423
0.4 0.909 0.699 0.573
0.5 t.037 0.800
12.12 Active Force on Retaining Walls with Earthquake Forces 405

For no earthquake condition. F : 0'; for stability, Eq. (12.75) gives the familiar
relation

a=0' (12.76)
Second,for horizontalbackfill,a : 0', for stability,

B=o' (12.77)
Because F : tan-t[kt,l(I - k,)), for stability, combining Eqs. (12.74) and (12.77) re-
sults in

k,, = (I k,,)tanS' (12.18a)


Hence.the criticalvalueof the horizontalacceleration
canbe definedas
knk : (l - k,)tan S' (12.18b)
where kr,(.,): critical of horizontal acceleration(Figure 12.21).

Location of Line of Action of Resultant Force, Pu,


Seedand Whitman (1970)proposeda simple procedure to determine the location of
the line of action of the resultant, P,,".Their method is as follows:

1. Let

Pur: P,,+ 4P,,,. (12.7e)


where f, : Coulomb's active force as deterntinedfrom Eq. (12.68)
LPu": additional active forcc causedby the earthquake effect

2. Calculate P,, IEq. ( l2.6lJ)].


3. Cafculate P,,"lBcl.(12.72)1.
4. Calculate LPu"- Pu"- Pu.

0.5

S o i l f r i c t i o na n g l e ,Q ' ( d e g )

Figure 12.27 Criticalvaluesof horizontalacceleration(Eq. 12.78b)


Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure:At-Rest, Rankine,and Coulomb

ll l
H
3
Y
I

Figure 12.28 Locati<lnof thc linc of actionofP,,,,

5. According to Figure 12.28.P,,will act at a distanccof H/3 from the baseof the
wall. Also, AP,,,,will zrctat a distanceof 0.6H from thc baseof the wall.
6. Calculate thc location of P,,,,as
/ H \
4 , {; l + 4P,,,,(0.611)
( 12.80)
Pu"

whcrc ? - distanceof thc line of action of P,,,,from the baseof the wall.
Note that thc line o1 action of P,,,.will be inclined zrtan angle of 6 to the normal
drawn to the back l'nccof the retaining wall. It is very important to realize that this
mcthod of determining P,,,,is approximate and does not actually model the soil
dynamics.

E xa mp l e1 2 .9

For a retainingwall with a cohesionlesssoil backfill.7 = 15.-5kN/m3,d' = 30o,6=


: - : : :
15', 0 0o,rv 0", H 4 m, k.u 0, and kn 0.2.DetermineP,". Also determine
the locationof the resultantline of actionof Po"- that is, ?.
$olution ;i
To determinePn",we useEq. (12.72): ;
q
p"": !ryH,(l- k,,)K'"

We are giventhat $' = 30"and 5: 15",so


6
6:t
12.13 Puufor c'-cf' Soil Backfill 407

Also, 0 * 0o,d = 0o,kh: 0.2.From thesevaluesand Table 12.6,wefind that the


magnitudeof Ki is equalto 0.452.Hence,
- 0x0,4s2)
p"": i(1s.5x4),(1 : 56.05
kN/m
We now locatethe resultantline of action.From Bq. (12.68),
Po* lK,,yH2
'
For f - 30oand 6 : 15o,K" : 0.3014(Table12.5),so
P, : +(0.3014X15.5X4)'z= 37.37kNtm
Hence,APo": 56.05- 37.3'1= 18.68kN/m. From Eq. (12.80),
/a\
,"(+) + ^P,"(0.6H)
(37.37) . (18.68X2.4)
[r,) - 1.69m
1 . * r
Pu" 56.05

12.13 P",for c'-O' Soil Backfill


The Mononobe-Okabc cquation for estimating P,,,.frtr cohesionlessbackfill de-
s c r i b e di n S c c t i o n 1 2 . 1 2c a na l s o b e e x t c n d e dr < 'ct ' - < f 's o i l ( P r a k e r s a h n d S a r a n ,1 9 6 6 ;
S a r a ne r n dP r a k a s h ,1 9 6 1 3F) .i g u r e 1 2 . 2 9s h o w sa r e t a i n i n gw a l l o f h e i g h tH w i t h a h o r -
i z o n t a l c ' - r f' b a c k f i l l . ' l ' h ed e p t h o [ t e n s i l cc r a c k t h a t m a y d e v e l o pi n a c ' - r ! ' s c l i lw a s
g i v c n i n E q . ( 1 2 . 4 4 )a s
2c'
Y\FK,
where K,, : tan2(45- ,b'l2).

T
. :i.

II f
I
a
'
H t:'
Il , '
lI '{
j . I
Figure 12.29 Trtal failure wedge behind a retaining wall with a c'-{" backfill
Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest,Rankine,and Coulomb

Refering to Figure 72.29 the forces acting on the soil wedge (per unit length of
the wall) are as follows:

1. The weight of the wedge ABCDE, W


2. Resultant of the shear and normal forces on the failure surface CD, F
3. Active force, P,,"
4. Horizontal inertia force, kr,W
5. Cohesiveforce along CD, C - c(CD)
6. Adhesive force along BC, C' - .( BC )

It is important to realize that the following two assumptionshave been made:

1. The vertical inertia force (k,,trV)has bccn takcn to be zero.


2. The unit udhesionalong the soil-wall interface (BC) has been taken to be
equal to the cohesion(c) of the soil.

Considering these forces,we can shclwthat

P , , ,-, y ( F I - Z , , ) t N ' , , , c ' ( H 2,,)N',,, (12.81)


where

:gu_':99 r ,q4 !9!r (12.82)


s i n ( a '+ 5 )

[ ( n + 0 . - 5 ) ( t a n*0 t a ni ) + n 2 1 a n g ] [ c o +
s (, lr ' ) + k r , s i n (+i q 5 ' ) ]
N",, ( 12.83)
s i n ( 4 ' +6 )
in which

11'-0+i+(b' (t2.84)
2,,
n : ( 12.8s)
H - 2.,,

The values of lVj,, and Nj,, can bc dctcrmincd by optimizing each coefficientsepa-
rately. Thus, Eq. (12.81)givesthe upper bound of P,,".
For the static condition, ki, : 0. Thus,

P , , " : y ( H - Z , , ) t N u -- c ' ( H - Zu)Nu, (12.86)

The relationships for N,,. and N., can be determined by substituting k7,: 0 into
E q s . ( 1 2 . 8 2 )a n d ( 1 2 . 8 3 ) .H e n c e ,

cos4' sec0 * cos@'secr


1V,,- Nl,. (12.81)
sin(4'+ 6)
0.5)(tan0 * tani) * n2tan g]cos(l+ @')
(12.88)
/t s i n ( 4 '+ 6 )
The variations of -Ay'o,.,
N,r, and tr with $' and 0 are shown in Figures 12.30 through
12.33.
12.13 Pu"for c'-g, Soil Backfitt 409

a
r 3.0
'6

o 2.5

E 2.0

I.5

1 . 0i

20 25 30 3-5 40 15
0'(deg)

Figure 12.30 Yariation of N,,, : N i , , w i t h t [ ' a n d 0 ( b a s e c l


on prakash and Saran, 1966, and
Saran and Prakash, l96lt)

I.0

5 0.u
a
-
. 9 :
E (.,.t)
o

/ o.t:
c
?
d n )
I! ".4

0 '
0 l0 |5 20 25 30 3-5 40 45
Q'(deg)
Figure 12.31 Yariation with @, and 0 (n:
_o^f
_{:,, 0.2) (based on prakash and Saran, 1966,
and Saran and Prakash.196g)
410 Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest,Rankine,and Coulomb

l.(-)
;
t :
I n=o
: ]
0.ti

z
'5
0.6
E

e=20'
t5'
3 0.4
t0"
E 5'

0.2

-2(P -'4

0 -s r0 15 20 2.s 30
0'(dcg)

Figure 12.32 Yarialion of N,,, with r!' and 0 (rr : 0) (based on Prakash and Saran, 1966,
and Saran and Prakash.196iii)

2.0

t.9
|0"
Lu

1.1

1.6
:'t.i /11"
)'
20
0"

; l (0"
l
.20
l" l.s '0'
ozo
{ |0'
t.4
2f
-0'
1.3
10"
20"
1.2
o.ro{
l.l
0.05'
I
0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0
Angleof internalfiiction,$'
', and 0 (based on Prakash and Saran, 1966,and
Figure 12.33 Yariation of tr with k,,, rf
Saran and Prakash. 1968)
12.14 Coulomb's PassivePressure 411

Example12.10
For a retainingwall, the following are given:
H : 28 ft c' : 21.}lblftz
g - *10" y:1181b/ft3
6' : 20" kn: 0.1
Determinethe magnitudeof the activeforce,Po".
$olution
From Eq. (12.44),
2c' 2c (2)(210)
-/
'o: : - 5'08ft
,rKo: 17 .:--?T -( l r s ) t a n---70\
r t a n [ 4 5- T ( 4- ;s
) )
From Eq. (12.85),
'" * 5'08
n: : o'22 - o'2
17 - zr, 28 - 5.oB
From Eqs. (12.81),(12.87),and (12.88),
P,,"* l(H * z,)2(IN,,7)* c'(H - zu)Nu,
For 0 : I0", O' : 20",kt, = 0.1,and n o 0.2.
Nn,: 1..67 (Figure 12.30)
: 0.375 (Figure12.31)
A4,r,
),: 1.17 (Figure12.33)
Thus,
p,, : (118X28- s.0S)11..17
x 0.375)- (210X28* s.08X1.67)
: 1901"60lb/ft

12.14 Coulomb's PassivePressure


Figure 12.34ashows a retaining wall with a sloping cohensionlessbackfill similar to
that consideredin Figure 12.22a.The force polygon for equilibrium of th ewedgeABC
for the passivestate is shown in Figure 12.34b.P,, is the notation for the passiveforce.
Other notations used are the same as those for the activecase (Section 12.10).In a
procedure similar to the one that we followed in the activecase[Eq. (12.68)],we get

Pr: \KryHz (2.8g)


412 Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure:At-Rest, Rankine,and Coulomb

Y ....'

(b)

Figure 12.34 Coulomb'spassivepressure:(a) trial failurewedge;(b) force polygon

where K, : Coulomb's passiveearth pressure coefficient, or

cosz({'+ o)
Ko= (12.e0)

For a frictionlesswall with the verticalbackfacesupportinggranularsoil back-


frllwithahorizontalsurface(thatis,0:0o,a:0o,and5:0'),Eq.(12.90)yields
l+sind' -/ d'\
Kr: : t a n - [ o t* ,
r - sina' /
12.15 PassiveForce on Retaining Walls with EarthquakeForces 413

Table 12.7 Valuesof Ku [Eq. 12.90]for 0 : 0', a : 0'


6 (deg) -+

I q5'(deg) 15

l5 1.698 1.90t) 2.130 2.405 2.135


20 2.040 1.,) t -) 2.636 3.030 3.525
25 2.464 2.rJ30 3.286 3.85.5 4.591
30 3.000 3.-506 4.143 4.9'77 6.105
-1f 3.690 4.39t) - s . l30 6.8-54 8.324
40 4.600 5..59t) 6.946 8.870 rt.772

This relationship is the same as that obtained for the passiveearth pressurecoeffi-
cient in Rankine'.scase,given by Eq. (12.30).
The variation of K,, with 95'ancl 6 (for 0 : 0' and a : 0") is given inTable 12.1.
We can see frclm this table that for given value of f ', the value of Kn increaseswith
the wall friction.

12.15 PassiveForce on Retaining Walls


with Earthquake Forces
Figurc 12.3-5 shows the failurc wedge analysisfor a passiveforce againsta retaining
wall of height H with a granular backlill and earthquake forces.As in Figure 12.25,
the failure surfaceis assumedto be a plane. P1,"is the passiveforce. All other nota-
tions in Figure 12.35are the samc as those in Figure 12.26.Following a procedure
similar to that used in Section 12.12,(atLerKarrila, 1962) we obtain

Pr,,: )tH2(l - k,)K'p (r2.e1)

el

Figure 12.35
Passiveforce on a
retaining wall with
earthquake forces
414 Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest,Rankine,and Coulomb

i z 3

Figure 12.36
Variationol Ki, with kl,for
0'(cleg) k,, - tt : 0 : 6 - 0

where
cos2(4'+o-B)
K',,: ,)
sin(D+<i')sin(d'
"-p)
cos(6-d+B)cos(a-9)
(12.e2)
'/ k,, \
i n w h i c h B - t a n( ; - " , I
\ I l(/. /

Figure 12.36shows a plot of Ki, with @' for various valuesof k, (for k,,: a =
0:6:0).

12.16 Summary and General Comments


This chapter covers the general topics of lateral earth pressure, including the
following:

1". At-rest earth pressure


2. Active earth pressure- Rankine's and Coulomb's
Problems 415

3. Passiveearth pressure- Rankine's and Coulomb's


4. Pressureon retaining wall due to surcharge(basedon the theory of elasticity)
5. Active and passiveearth pressure,which includesearthquake forces.This is an
extensionof Coulomb's theory

For design,it is important to realize that the lateral activepressureon a retain-


ing wall can be calculated using Rankine's theory only when the wall moves salj?-
ciently outward by rotation about the toe of the footing or by deflection of the wall.
If sufficientwall movement cannot occur (or is not allowed to occur) then the lateral
earth pressurewill be greater than the Rankine activc pressureand sometimesmay
be closer to the at-rest earth pressure.Hence, proper selectionof the lateral earth
pressurecoefficientis crucial for safeand proper design.It is a generalpracticeto as-
sume a value for the soil friction angle (@') of the backfill in order to calculatethe
Rankine activepressuredistribution, ignoring the contribution of the cohesion(c').
The general range of ry''uscd for the design of retaining walls is given in the follow-
ins table:
Soil friction
Soil type angle, d' (deg)

Soft clay 0-l-5


Compacted clay 20-30
Dry sand anclgravcl 30-40
Silty sancl 20-30

In Section 12.5,we saw thzrtthe lateral earth pressurc on a retaining wall is


greatly increasedin the prescnceof a water table above the base of the wall. Most
retaining walls are not designcdto withstand full hydrostaticpressure;hence,it is im-
portant that adequatedrainagefacilitiesare provided to ensure that thc backllll soil
does not bccome fully saturated.This can be achievedby providing weepholesat
regular intervals along the length of the wall.

Problems
12.7-12.6 Assumingthat the wallshownin Figure12.37is restrainedfrom yield-
ing,find the magnitudeand locationof the resultantlateralforccper unit
width of the wall.
6',
12.1 10ft I t0 tb/fc 32'
12.2 12fr 98 lb/fc 28'
12.3 18ft 100lb/ft3 40"
12.4 3m 17.6kN/mr 36'
t2.5 4.5m 19.95kN/m3 42"
12.6 5.-5m 17.ttkN/m3 37'

72.7 Consider a 5-m-high retaining wall that has a vertical back face with a hori-
zontal backfrll. A vertical point load of 10 kN is placed on the ground surface
at a distance of 2 m from the wall. Calculate the increase in the lateral force
on the wall for the section that contains the point load. Plot the variation of
416 Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest,Rankine,and Coulomb

Sand

Unit weight = y (or dcnsily = p)


H a

I
c'=0
6 (angleof wall fiiction) = $

I Figure 12.37

thc pressureincreasewith depth. Use the modified equation given in Sec-


tion 12.4.
12.8-l2,ll Assume that the retaining wall shown in Figure 12.37is frictionless.
For each problem. determine the Rankine active force per unit length of the
wall, the variation of activeearth pressurcwith depth, and the location of
the resultant.
Problem H d'(degl y
l2.x 1 5[ l .10 I 0 5l b / f r l
12.9 lu fl 32 100Ib/ftl
12.10 4m 36 Iu kN/rnl
l2.ll 5m 40 l7 kN/mr

12.72-12J4 A retaining wall is shown in Figure 12.38.For each problem, deter-


mine the Rankine activeforce, P,,,per unit length of the wall and the loca-
tion of the resultant.
o\
(degl
+i
(deg)
" fz q

12.t2 l0 ft 5fr l0-5lb/ft'' 122lb ltit3 30 30 0


12.t3 20 ft 6ft n0 rbifc l26lb/fc 34 34 300rb/fc
12.14 6m 3m 1 5 . 5k N / m r 1 9 . 0k N / m 3 30 36 l-5kN/m2

Sttrcharge= q

I t r t
lffi
A
I sant
Ht It
I Qr

tffi
''' =tt
| Ground water table
V v
:

lffi
Sand
y2 (saturatedunit weight)
Q:
c'2=0

Figure 12.38
Problems 417

12.15 A 15-ft-high retaining wall with a vertical back face retains a homogeneous
saturated soft clay. The saturated unit weight of the clay is 122 lb lft3. Labora-
tory testsshowedthat the undrained shear strength c,,of the clay is equal to
350 Ib/ft2.
a. Make the necessarycalculationsand draw the variation of Rankine'sac-
tive pressureon the wall with depth.
b. Find the depth up to which a tensile crack can occur.
c. Determine the total activeforce per unit length of the wall before the ten-
sile crack occurs.
d. Determine the total activeforcc per unit length of the wall after the tensile
crack occurs.Also find the location of the resultant.
1 2 . 1 6 R e d o P r o b l e m 1 2 . 1 -a5s s u m i n gt h a t t h e b a c k f i l l i s s u p p o r t i n ga s u r c h a r g eo f
200tbtf(.
12.17 A 5-m-high retaining wall with zrvertical back face has a r:'-{' soil for back-
fill. For the backfill, y : 19 kN/m3, c' - 26 kN/m2, and r/,' : 16".Considering
the cxistenceof thc tcnsile crack, dctcrmine the active lorce P, on the wall
for Rankineb activestatc.
12.18 For thc retaining wall shown in Figurc 12.39,deterrnir.rcthe activeforce P,
f o r R a n k i n e ' .sst a t e .A l s o , l i n d t h c p o s i t i o no f t h e r c s u l t a n t .A s s u m c t h a t t h e
tensile crack exists.
p : 2 1 0 0 k g / m r , Q - 0 " , ( : : ( : ! t: 3 0 . 2k N / m r
1 2 . 1 9 R e p e a tP r o b l c m l 2 . l B u s i n gt h e f o l l o w i n gv a l u c s :
p - 1 9 5 0k g i m 3 ,d ' - l t i " . t ' ' : 1 9 . 4k N / m :
12.20-12.23 Assume that the rctaining wall shown in Figure 12.37is frictionless.
For each problcm, cleterminethc Rankine passivcf'orceper unit length of
t h e w a l l , t h e v t r r i a t i o no l l a t er a l p r c s s u r ew i t h d c p t h . a n c lt h e l o c a t i o no f t h e
resultant.
Problem H d'(deg) y

t2.20 lJlr -l+ ll0lb/li'


t2.21 l0 fr 36 1 0 5l b / l ' r r
12.22 .5nt 3-5 l4 kN/rn'
t2.23 4m 30 l5 kN/nr''

1 2 . 2 4 F o r t h e r e t a i n i n gw a l l d e s c r i b e di n P r o b l e m 1 2 . 1 2c, l e t e r m i n et h e R a n k i n e
pnssivcforce per unit lcngth of the wall and the location of the resultant.

II
6.5rn
Clay

( ,(

I
a,a
d e n s i t y= P

I Figure 12.39
418 Chapter 12 Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest,Rankine,and Coulomb

I
' l ' r
i l l
' t
' t "
*l !* Sand
0- 10":
H I Unitwcight= y (ordensity= p)
, r"=0
',
0' = 36'
6 (wallll'iction)

Figure 12.40

12.25 For the reteriningwall describedin Problcm 12.13,detcrmine the Rankine


passiveforcc per unit lcngth of the wall and the location of the resultant.
12.26 A retaining wall is shown in Figurc 12.40.The hcight of the wall is 5 m, and
t h e u n i t w e i g h t o f t h c s a n db a c k l i l l i s l t t k N i m r . U s i n g C o u l o m b ' se q u a t i o n ,
calculatc the activeforcc P,,on thc wall for the following valuesof the angle
of wall lriction:
a. 5 - llJ'
b. 6:24"
C o m m e n t o n t h e d i r e c t i o na n d l o c a t i o no f t h e r e s u l t t r n t .
12.27 Ref erring to Figure I 2.41, dctermine Coulombh activc force P,,per unit
lcngth of thc wall for thc following cascs:
a . I t : l - 5f t , B - [ J - 5 o ,:n l , H r - 2 0 t t . y : l 2 t { l b / f t r , q 5 '- 3 8 ' , 6 : 2 0 "
b . H - 1 t 3f t . B : 9 0 o n . : 2, Ht - 22lt,y : ll6lblf(,0' : 34',5 : lJ'
c. H : - 5 . 5 r r i , p - [ J 0 " , r : l , H r : 6 . 5 m , 7 : l 6 l 3 t ) k g / m r , d ': 3 0 ' , 6 : 3 0 "
Usc Culmann\ g r a p h i cc o n s t r u c t i o np r o c e d u r c .

. I

I
I
* - - - - - J
. t l

Cllhcsionlesssoil

U n i t w e i g h t- y ( r l r d e n s i t y= p )
t ' =0
H
0'
6 ( a n g l eo f w a l l f r i c t i o n )

R z
Y,/'

Figure 12.41
References 419

12.28Refer toFigure 72.26.GiventhatH - 6 m,0 - 0",a:0o, y: 15kN/mr.


6' : 35",6 - 2136' , kn - 0.3, and ft,,: 0, determine the activeforce P,,,,per
unit length of the retaining wall.
L2.29 Refer to Problem 12.28.Determine the location of the point of intersection
of the resultant force P,,"with the back face of the retaining wall.
12.30 Repeat Problem 12.28with the following Values:H - 10 ft. f, : 10",a : 10',
7 : 1 1 0 l b l f t 3 , O '- 3 0 ' , 6 : 1 0 " k. n : 0 . 2 5 , a n d k , : 0 .
1 2 . 3 1R e f e r t o F i g u r e 1 2 . 2 9 . G i v e n t h a t L-I 6 m , 0 - 1 0 " ,< b ': 1 5 " , c ' : 2 0 k N / m 2 ,
y : 1 9 k N i m 3 , a n d / c 7:, 0 . t 5 , u s i n gt h e m e t h o d c l e s c r i b e d
i n S e c t i o n1 2 . 1 3 ,
determine Pn,,.Assume that the depth of tcnsile crack is zero.
s: l0 ft,0 - -5',6' -20".
1 2 . 3 2R e p e a t P r o b l e m1 2 . 3 1 w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g V a l u eH
c' : 200lblft2, y : 100lb/ftr, anLlkr, : 0.2-5.

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