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Annotated Bibliography

Does censorship in the media affect the news cycle?

Nicholas Czarnecki

Professor Malcolm Campbell

UWRT 1104

October 18, 2017


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Annotated Bibliography

Atkins, Larry. Skewed. Prometheus Books, 2016. Print.

This source is book that talks about what people should know and think about media bias.

Some of the major points that the book makes are about advocacy journalism, why

todays media landscape is polarizing and confusing, mainstream media bias, and how

people can become more savvy and objective news and media consumers. One of the

main questions the author poses at the beginning of the book in the introduction is does

the mainstream media have a liberal bias. This is interesting because it directly relates

back to another source I have that talks about how liberal biases influence the news,

which was published by The New York Times. Having two sources both talk about the

same topic helps to support my topic because it shows that multiple different authors and

writers recognize the same things. Another major point that is book talks about is

advocacy journalism. A type of journalism that is non-objective because the writer is

supposed to establish their perspective from the very beginning that why the writing

cannot be confused with propaganda. The author talks about whether or not this type of

journalism is taking over the media in the United States and the potential effects of that.

The author is also able to tie examples of advocacy back to multiple different election

campaigns and talk about how the media helped to influence these elections through this

type of journalism that some could possibly consider bias. While I have not finished

reading the book yet it has already provided me information that I find quite useful and

valuable to being able to support my topic and the argument I am trying to make.
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Bennett, Philip, and Moises Naim. 21st-Century Censorship. Columbia Journalism Review , 5

Jan. 2015, http://archives.cjr.org/cover_story/21st_century_censorship.php. Web. 13

October 2017.

This webpage article published by the Columbia Journalism Review is about censorship

that occurs right now in the twenty-first century. The authors talk about how censorship

is used by foreign countries to try and control the news. Some of these countries that are

trying to control the media include Pakistan, Venezuela, China, Turkey, Russia, Hungary,

Ecuador, Kenya, and Iran. The authors say that these governments are trying to control

their citizens by censoring what they read, watch, and hear. The article gives very

detailed descriptions of how each of these countries is censoring its media. For example,

in Venezuela the government is using shell companies and phantom buyers to purchase

news outlets such as newspapers and other media sources. Then they force the reporters

to write and talk about things that support the government, and the reporters have little

choice other to comply or they will lose their jobs or be sued. In Turkey the President has

been criticized for jailing reporters and for using tax investigations and fines to punish

news outlet that report things that hurt the governments image. In China the government

maintains something known as the Great Firewall which blocks anything that the

Chinese government does not approve of, an example of this is foreign news outlets.

There are many more examples of censorship from multiple different countries in this

article. This article is a great example of how censorship affects people all around the

world, and really shows that this a global problem and not just something that happens

here in the United States, but something that affects people everywhere.
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Carney, Timothy P. Liberal News Bias Has a Serious Effect. The New York Times, 21 Dec.

2015, https://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2015/11/11/why-has-trust-in-the-news-

media-declined/liberal-news-media-bias-has-a-serious-effect. Web. 18 October 2017

This article addresses the fact that media bias does exist in the news. The author talks

about how bias in the media is dangerous and can cause distrust and hostility between the

media, and the public. The author focuses on reporters and news outlets that support a

mainly left-winged political bias. One of the authors main points is that this political bias

is scares a large number of conservatives. Another point the author makes is that this bias

is dangerous and bad for democracy, and if it is bad for democracy it is bad for society.

The author talks about how conservatives feel alienated in news rooms, which leads to a

mainly left-winged news cycle. This is likely to create distrust between the public and the

media because the public is only getting one side of the story. This also can affect

elections, political policy foreign and abroad, and many other things. The point is that if

people are given biased news they are more likely to conform to that belief. The author

even has a line where he says, For instance, Bill Keller, after years as a New York

Times columnist taking largely liberal stands, became The Times' executive editor. the

reason this is interesting is because this article was published by The New York Times on

their website. The point is that the New York Times just openly admitted to having a

politically biased writer on its staff as the executive editor. Now it says in a brief

statement before the article that the author is a senior political columnist for the

Washington Examiner, but the fact is that The New York Times openly admits to being
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politically bias. While this article is a very brief piece of writing there is a lot more to it than just

the amount of words.

Tucker, Duncan. Journalists in Mexico under Threat from Cartels, Government and Even Each

Other. Index On Censorship, 13 Apr. 2017,

https://www.indexoncensorship.org/2017/04/journalists-mexico-threat-cartels-

government-even/. Web. 18 October 2017

This article addresses censorship in Mexico, a country where the news is not only

censored but fabricated. The author talks about how journalists that live in Mexico are in

danger frequently because they are constantly being threatened by the cartels and even

the police. In a country like Mexico where is a large amount of crime, corruption, and

violence it can be difficult for journalists and the media to get out the real news. Most

times the news outlets and the journalists are being threatening to only put out news

stories that favor the cartels or the corrupt government. Putting out an article about recent

unrest in the country like Alberto Escorcia did will more than likely get the writer a large

amount of threats. Alberto was forced to make plans to flee from Mexico because he

feared for his life. All of that because he wrote an article that put a spotlight on a situation

that someone did not want people to look out, that sure sounds like censorship to me.

When riots broke in response to the President of Mexicos twelve percent approval

ratings, the news was fabricated, and mass hysteria occurred. This caused over 20,000

small businesses to temporarily close due to the fear of looting because of the public

unrest. This censorship is an example of how politics influences mainstream media, and

this article also proves that censorship, and politics go hand and hand together and not in

a good way.
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