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North American University

Education Department
M.Ed. in Educational Leadership / M.Ed. in Curriculum and Instruction
EDUC 5324 Integrating Technology into Education

Name: Bilal Uygur Date: 9/25/2017

Cite the reviewed article in APA format:
Chang, I-Hua. (2012). The effect of principals' technological leadership on teachers'
technological literacy and teaching effectiveness in Taiwanese elementary. Journal of
Educational Technology & Society, 15(2), 328-340.


Research Questions (if research questions are not specifically mentioned, what is the
theoretical background or overarching theme):
The present study specifically examines the following two research questions:
a- What are principals perceptions of the importance of technology?
b- Do principals perceptions of technology differ by years of experience and gender?

Purpose of the research:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships among principals technological
leadership, teachers technological literacy, and teaching effectiveness.


What is the methodology for the research or approach used to understand the issue?
Provide information regarding the following:
A convenience sample of 310 principals from a large metropolitan area in the southwest
region of the United States. The sample consisted of 126 males and 184 females. A range of
years of experience was present with 104 participants having 0-3 years of experience, 82
participants having 4-7 years, 55 participants having 8-11 years, 32 participants having 12-15
years, and 31 participants having greater than 15 years of experience.

The questionnaire was administered by graduate students in the Educational Leadership
program at a major, urban doctoral-granting university located in the south central region of
the U.S. As part of the principals certification course requirements, students were trained on
how to administer the instrument and required to interview a specific number of current
public school principals. The survey instrument was designed specifically for this purpose and
included both qualitative and quantitative questions.
Analysis of the interview data began with a process of data reduction. The participants
responses were read several times to become familiar with the data. The data was then
coded into meaningful categories. Once the categories were established, another researcher
independently coded a 10% sample of responses to determine the consistency of the coding.
The inter-coder reliability results revealed a high level of agreement (Cohens kappa = .94).

Data Collection Methods/Data Source:

The target population consisted of 1,000 teachers randomly selected from 100 elementary
schools within the following six metropolitan cities in Taiwan: Keelung City, Taipei City,
Hsinchu City, Taichung City, Tainan City, and Kaohsiung City. These cities are located in the
northern, central, and southern parts of the island respectively, and this sample is indicative
of the broader teaching population of Taiwan. The survey was randomly sent to the Director
of Academic Affairs Division of each elementary school. Then, the Director randomly selected
the teachers based on the cover letter sent to the school. The survey asked teachers to
evaluate the principals role in leading and facilitating technology use, teachers technological
literacy and teaching effectiveness in their schools. The respondents in this study were
teachers (i.e., tenured teachers, mentor teachers, teachers serving as administrators and
directors) reporting to their principals. To encourage the return rate, follow up thank you
postcards and personal contacts were made until a satisfactory percentage of participants
completed the questionnaire. Of the 1,000 questionnaires distributed, 60.5% were returned.
Table 1 displays the demographic characteristics of the respondents. Demographic variables
provide a descriptive profile of those individuals who responded to the survey.
Data Analysis:

This research empirically investigated the relationships among principals technological

leadership, teachers technological literacy, and teaching effectiveness and tested the
structural equation model (SEM). SPSS was used to calculate scale reliabilities (the Cronbachs
alpha) and to perform factor analyses. The final SEM model was done with LISREL.


Findings or Results (or main points of the article):

Results indicate that both gender and years of experience influence how principals perceive
the functions of technology in their schools. This could affect the technology leadership of
principals, which may influence the success of technology implementation in schools. The
results generally showed that technology leadership had a significant, positive correlation
with net usage (how frequently teachers and students used email and the internet),
technology integration (how much teachers integrated technology into classroom practices),
and student tool use (how often students used a computer to complete academic work). This
suggests that administrators need to become technology leaders in their schools by using
technology themselves, developing technology policies, and providing funding and training
for new technology (Anderson & Dexter, 2005). Chang (2012) surveyed 605 elementary
teachers from Taiwan on their perceptions of their principals as a technology leader, along
with teachers' technology literacy and overall teaching effectiveness. The results indicated
that technology leadership by the principals increased technology literacy for the teachers.
Principal technology leadership and technology literacy also improved teaching effectiveness.
These findings suggest that principals should establish and implement technology plans for
their school and become technology leaders in order to increase teachers' technology literacy
and teaching effectiveness (Chang, 2012). Table 1 displays the overall results of principals
perceptions of their major functions of technology.

Conclusions/Implications (for your profession):

From my understanding, the more the society such as educators especially administrators
learn how to use technology to education efficiently, the more efficient the educators will
take advantage of using technology in education. But, it is not that easy to get used to it. To
use technology into education efficiently, technology users need to receive training regarding
the use of technology. Therefore, they will be able to take use of using technology into
education. Another important thing for school leader is that they have to keep up the latest
technology. Otherwise, it will be hard for them to help the teacher to learn and apply into
education. Moreover, as a matter of fact, according to the article, using technology and keep
up with technology is a matter of vision. Scholl leaders should expand their horizon about
technology. And they need to put their effort on the usage of technology into education. So
they can support their teacher. Another important thing that educators bear in mind that the
usage of technology will help students and teachers to share their data, management,
resources, which helps with student learning.
In conclusion, by receiving training educator can have knowledge of using technology into
education. So, educators will be able to implement technology in their schools. Therefore,
teachers and students will take advantage of these opportunities of benefits of technology.


Students Reflections (changes to your understanding; implications for your school/work):

I will try to implement the usage of technology in my class a lot. I will take advantage of it a
lot than previous years with the help of principal or other educators who are good at
technology. In my school, students already use technology. But I think as teachers, we have a
lot of things learn how to use technology efficiently. The reason is that students like to use
technology. To me, I need to learn the usage of technology as much as I can to help students
with learning a lot.