Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

Submitted to:- Submitted by

Dr. Rajesh Singhal Amit Kachroo


Dept. of Civil Engineering ,RTU,Kota Bhagirath Gehlot
Khindaram Prajapat
Kushal Prajapat
Rajat Pandit
Saurabh Gupta

Department of Civil Engineering,


Rajasthan Technical University, kota-324010
`

Department of Civil Engineering,


Rajasthan Technical University, Kota-324010

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that

Mr. Amit Kachroo (13EUCCE007)


Mr. Bhagirath gehlot (13EUCCE019 )
Mr. khindaram Prajapat (13EUCCE048)
Mr. kushal Prajapat (13EUCCE054)
Mr. Rajat Pandit (13EUCCE094)
Mr. Saurabh Gupta (13EUCCE106)

have submitted the Project report on the title PRACTICAL STUDY OF GEOLOGICAL
INVESTIGATIONS OF DAM SITE in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of
Bachelor of Technology (Civil Engineering). The report has been prepared as per the prescribed
format and is approved for submission.

Signature of Head Signature of Guide

Dr. B.P.Suneja Dr. Rajesh Singhal


Professor & Head professor
Dept. of Civil Engg. Dept. of Civil Engg.
RTU, Kota-324010 RTU, Kota-324010

i
`

Acknowledgement

A project is a golden opportunity for learning and self-development we consider ourselves very
lucky and honored to have so many wonderful people lead us through this seminar report.
Keeping this in view; it would be unfair on my part if we dont mention few. we express our
sincere gratitude to professor Dr. Rajesh Singhal who in spite of being so busy with duties, took
time out to hear, guide and keep me on correct path. His guidance and knowledge helped us to
learn different type of projects worldwide. The help and guidance given by him time to time
shall carry us a long way in journey of life on which we are about to embark.
We would like to express our deep sense of gratitude to project coordinator Dr. P.K. Aggrawal
and Head of Department civil engineering Dr. B.P.Suneja whose guidance, monitoring and
constant encouragement with us throughout this project.
Last but not least there were so many people who shared valuable information that helped in
successful completion of this project.

Date:- 19 /4/2017

Name Signature
Mr. Bhagirath gehlot
Mr. Rajat Pandit
Mr. kushal Prajapat
Mr. khindaram Prajapat
Mr. Amit Kachroo
Mr. Saurabh Gupta

ii
`

ABSTRACT

DPR stage geotechnical-investigation for a 23 m high and 2.730 km long earthen cum masonry
dam across Ahu and Kanthari Rivers near village Rajgarh (2437: 7658'. 54 D/16) in Jhalawar
district has been carried out. It includes 2.532 km long non-overflow earthen dam on the either
side of 198 m long overflow masonry/spillway across Kanthari River a tributary of Ahu River.

The investigation includes:-


(a) Detailed geological mapping, covering an area of about 724 km2 on 1:15000 scale,
(b) Bore hole cores logging aggregating a total length of 118.0 m
(c) Conducting 13 numbers of percolation test in one of the seven numbers drilled holes.
(d) Interpretation and analysis of surface and sub-surface geological data have been.

The geological Investigation has revealed that basaltic flow of Deccan Trap constitutes the major
rock mass in the foundation of the proposed Rajgarh Medium Irrigation Dam site. Structurally
the rocks are horizontally to sub-horizontally dispose closely space jointed with thin to
moderately thick of soil cover.

An exploratory borehole has explored the masonry section of the Rajgarh dam site. It reveals that
the depth to bedrock varies from 0.00 m to 5.00 m. Foundation rocks consist of a thick pile of
dense porphyritic basalt. The water percolation test conducted in the borehole has indicated
pervious to highly pervious nature of the subsurface bedrock and it does not improve with depth.

Due to topographical conditions, divide walls between the spillway/masonry section and the
earthen sections would be required. it has been suggested that divide walls should be designed
properly considering all the parameter as considered at spillway/ masonry section and final
foundation grade will be decided during the time of execution after examining the nature of the
foundation strata.

iii
`

CONTENTS

ABSTRACT iii

CHAPTER -l
1. Introduction and history 2-3

CHAPTER -2
2. Physical features 4
2.1 Location of Site
2.2 Catchment Area

CHAPTER 3
3. Salient features of Rajgarh dam project 5-7

CHAPTER 4
4. Regional geology 8-14
4.1 Geology of the area 8
4.2 Sub Surface exploration 9
4.3 Exploratory bore hole 9-14

CHAPTER 5
5. Geological feature and their implications on engineering proposals 15-17
5.1 Masonry section (RD 442.00m 640.00m) 15
5.2 Left earthed section (RD0.0m to 440.20m) 16
5.3 Right earth section (RD 640.00m to 2730.0m) 17

CHAPTER 6
6. Inspection notes by geological survey of India 18-19
6.1 Introduction 18
6.2 Matter of discussion 18
6.3 Suggested treatment by GSI for COT 19

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 20-21

ANNEXURE I i - ix

REFERENCE 22

1
`

CHAPTER -l

RAJGARH MEDIUM IRRIGATION PROJECT

Introduction and History

The Rajgarh Irrigation Project is proposed at the 500 meter U/S of continence Point of Ahu River
and Kanthari River near village Rajgarh, Tehsil: Pachpahar of Jhalawar District. The Ahu River
is a tributary of river Kali Sindh, which further joins Chambal River. It originates near Agar
town of Madhya Pradesh State and after flowing about 38.5 kms. in Madhya Pradesh it forms
boundary of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh in a length of about 10.0 kms. Thereafter the river
enters in Rajasthan and covers about 109.5 Kms. Distance before meeting the river Kali Sindh
near village Gagraun of Jhalawar District. The distance covered by Ahu River up to proposed
dam site is about 83 kms against its total length of 158 kms up to its confluence with Kali Sindh
River; The river Ahu having sizeable catchment in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan is lying
untapped except for some very small tanks in its catchment.
Jhalawar district is situated in south east of Rajasthan State. It is a border district and is
surrounded by Kota district of Rajasthan in northwest and border of Madhya Pradesh State in
rest of the periphery. The Vindhyan ranges passes through this district and some portions of the
land are hilly and rocky. The total area of the district is 632426 hectare (1572092 Acres) and out
of this 459022 Hectare (1 133784 Acres) land is culturable but only 29958 Hectare (73923
Acres) of land is under cultivation. Though number of rivers flow through this district viz. Kali-
Sindh, Ahu, Parwan, Ujar, Piplad, Chappi, Kiasri, Chandrabhaga, Rewa and Chachami etc. But
only 45968 hectare (113540 Acres) is under Irrigation presently and out of this only 990 hectare
(2445 Acres) is irrigated by reservoirs and canals and rest by wells. Before independence this
district was divided in two states i.e. Kota and Jhalawar and some proposals for irrigation
scheme were considered by the erstwhile rulers of the both states but none of them materialized
except for some small scheme and village tanks perhaps because of lack of interest by the rulers
and non-availability of required technical personnel and financial resources. After independence
the Government considered the feasibility of some scheme viz. Parwan pick up weir, Kali Sindh
pick up weir, Bhim Sagar Irrigation Project, Moondliya Kheri irrigation Project etc. And took
them in hand for construction. Still a lot of water is left unharnessed and going to waste. Rajgarh
Project was identified about two decades ago but due to one reason or other, the survey work of
project could not be started so far. In February 1979 a separate circle was created for formulation
of Major and Medium Projects in Kota, Bundi, Jhalawar and Sawai Madhopur district of
Rajasthan with a separate division for Jhalawar district only. Since then the work on formulation
of the project has been taken up and the survey work of scheme has been done in 2006 and
Project estimate is finalized after clearance of hydrology from CWC. The project when
completed will go a long way in providing irrigation facilities in Jhalawar district and help in
increasing the food grain production, which is badly needed to meet the growing demand of the
nation.
The proposed project will ensure the utilization of water of Ahu and Kanthari river for irrigation
the lands D/S on the left side only whereas the right side area is proposed to be irrigated by

2
`

another project. The total catchment area up to dam site is 588 Sq. Kms out of which free
catchment area in Rajasthan of Ahu river is 194 Sq.Kms. & Kanthari River is 72 Sq.Kms (Total
266 Sq.Kms. in Rajasthan). The catchment area of Ahu river in Madhya Pradesh is 322 Sq.Kms.
and only 10% of this area i.e. 32.20 Sq.Kms. has been taken into account. Then the total
catchment area comes to 298.20 Sq.Kms.
The Project DPR based on B.S.R.2006 costing Rs. 9840 Lacs was prepared & submitted to
C.W.C. meanwhile CWC. has approved Hydrology of Project with minor changes as stipulated
on previous DPR. The present Detailed Project report has been prepared based on current BSR.
Year 2011. In order to economize the cost of Project, the size, number of gates & length of over
flow has been modified. The GCA. 7536.09 Hect, CCA. 6826.94 Hect, ICA 8568 Hect. of 25
villages of pachpahar Tehsil of Jhalawar district. Storage 58.29 Mcum are unchanged. The
irrigation benefits of the project will go mostly to the people who are economically backward.
10.00 Mcum water will be utilized for drinking water supply by PHED.
The inhabitants are hardworking and poor class people. It is expected that they will adopt
intensive cultivation after the introduction of canal irrigation. The soil of command is suitable for
more or less, all kinds of crops and the people of the area are enthusiastic for receiving canal
irrigation. Thus the introduction of canal leading to extensive cultivation is bound to prosper the
cultivators and contributes towards production of additional food grains. The submergence of the
proposed reservoir will be in Rajasthan only. The Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan Boundary is 35
kms. on the U/S side of proposed dam line and the river bed level at the boundary is 407.32
(Bank level NSL) meter whereas the FTL and MWL of proposed Raj garh dam are 379.20 meter
and 379.80 meter respectively.

3
`

CHAPTER -2

PHYSICAL FEATURES

2.1 Location of Site


The proposed site of dam is located near village Rajgarh of Pachpahar Tehsil of Jhalawar district.
The dam site is in south-south west of Jhalawar and about 68 kms.(41 miles) from it. The site is
approachable by following route.
From Pachpahar railway station, this is situated on Delhi Bombay route WR. as well as on state
highway No. 19 (it is Tehsil head quarter and about 48 kms. from Jhalawar). From Pachpahar 14
kms distance is to be covered on Pachpahar-Dag road (State highway No. 19) up to village
Mishroli from where Katchha route of 6 Kms. Up to village Rajgarh.
The latitude and longitude of the dam site are 2414'30" and 7552'30" respectively.

2.2 Catchment Area

The Gross catchment area of proposed Rajgarh Irrigation Project is 588 Sq-Km.) (227.11 Sq.
miles) out of which 266 Sq. km (102.74 Sq. miles) lie in the Rajasthan state (194Sq.Kms. of Ahu
river and 72 SqKm. of Kanthari River) and is totally free whereas the gross catchment area in
Madhya Pradesh is 322 Sq. Km.
The critical study of G.T. Sheet reveals in respect of catchment area laying under Madhya
Pradesh State that not more than 25% area can be tapped through minor Irrigation scheme and
for medium irrigation scheme no suitable site is available. Even if it is presumed that Madhya
Pradesh may utilize the water potential of Ahu river's catchment are lying in their territory
through even uneconomical and financially unviable schemes, no structure can be constructed by
them on the last 10 kms of the main course of river, for the reason that in this reach the river it
self constitutes the boundary of the two states i.e. that of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Even in
the upper portion, the dam site will be far away from border so as to have adequate command for
irrigation and thus good part of catchment area.

4
`

CHAPTER 3

SALIENT FEATURES OF RAJGARH DAM PROJECT

The salient features of the project as provided by the project authority are as under:

S.No. Item Unit Remark

1. Gross Catchment Area 588.0 km2

2. Free Catchment Area 588.0 km2

3. Intercepted catchment area NR

4. Free catchment area in M.P. 322.0 km2 All in MP


194 km2 of Ahu & 72
5. Free catchment area in Rajasthan 286.0 km2
Km2 of Kanthari Rivers.
6. Weighted average annual rainfall 810.00 mm

7. Weighted average annual rainfall 900.00 mm


Expected average annual
8. 0.234 Mcum
Monsoon yield per km2
Total Annual estimated yield Considering total
75% dependent yield 114.93 Mcum Catchment area of
(for total catchment) Km2
9.
75% dependent yield Yield from Rajasthan
(for total catchment Raj. 58.29 Catchment area + 10%
+ 10 % MP) MP
10. Gross storage capacity 58.29 Mcum
(i) Used for irrigation
11. Live storage capacity 43.43 Mcum
43.43 Mcum
(ii) For drinking water
12. Dead storage capacity 14.86 Mcum
10.00Mcum
13. Total length of dam 2730.00 m

14. Length of overflow 198.00 m

15. Length of earthen dam 2532.00 m

5
`

Expected annual irrigation in Normal


16. 8541 Hectare
Year

17. Expected annual bed cultivation 220 Hectares

18. Flood fit 0.60 m

6036.48
19. Maximum flood discharge
Cumecs

20. Total width of earthen dam 6.0 m

21. Maximum water level 379.80 m

22. Full tank level 379.20 m

23. Free board 3.30 m

24. Top bund level 382.50 m

25. Canal sluice sill level 374.00 m

U/S slope of earthen bund /


26. 3:1 / 1:1.
Spillway

D/S slope of earthen bund /


27. 2.25:1 / 0.8:1
Spillway

28. Life of reservoir 100 years

29. Crest level of spillway 373.20 m

30. Deepest riverbed level 369.50 m

Height of the structure from


31. 23 m
deepest riverbed level

6
`

Command

Cropping season
Annual Kharif Rabi Hot
(June Oct.) (Nov.-feb.) (March-May)
Averge 8568 3992 4576
80% dependable
ETO (mm)

Annual yield calculated at the proposed site

Gross
(a) Maximum 180.78 MCum
(b) Minimum 24.74 MCum
(c) Average 85.54 MCum
(d) Dependable (per cent) 58.43 MCum

7
`

CHAPTER 4

REGIONAL GEOLOGY

In Jhalawar area rocks are exposed of the Bhander Group belonging to the Vindhyan Super
group of Upper Proterozoic age and Deccan Trap of Upper Cretaceous to Lower Eocene age.
The older unit Comprises pink sandstone of the Bundi Hill Formation and variegated shale
intercalated with siltstone/ sandstone of Sirbu Formation. This unit is overlain by different
basaltic flows of Deccan Trap with intertrappeans beds. The stratigraphic succession of the area
is given below (Gaikwad, et al 1984):
RecentSub recent

Deccan Trap Upper Cretaceous to Soil and Alluvium


Lower Eocene Basaltic Flows with
intertrappeans beds

Unconformity

Vindhyan Upper Sirbu Shale Variegated calcareous and sandy clay


Supergroup Proterozoic Formation shale with intercalation of sandstone/
(Bhander Group) Bundi Hill sandstone Siltstone
Formation Pink, hard, massive sandstone

Geological mapping of the area (Gaikwad et at 1984) depicts four basaltic flows designated as
flow Nos. IV, V, VI & VII in ascending order. The flow No. IV is compound pahoehoe type
while rests of the flows are 'aa types of Sirbu Shale Formation of Vindhyan Super group
underlie them. Only one Flow is exposed in and around the dam site, which is 'aa type,

4.1 GEOLOGY OF THE AREA

Detailed geological mapping of an area about 7.24 sq km on 1:15000 scale (plate II) along the
2,730 km long proposed dam site across the river Ahu and Kanthari was carried out. This
includes up to 1.35 km 1.2 km downstream and c upstream distances from the dam axis. The
geological mapping was arrived out to delineate the distribution of the bedrock and
alluvial/overburden o and to, study the structural features, Although, in general the area is
covered alluvial, at places isolated outcrops have been observed. These com rise a sub-
horizontal sequence of lava flows of Deccan Trap Only one flow is exposed in the study area in
and around the project site. The exposed thickness of this flow is more than 24 m.
On the left side of the Kanthari River, the rock is exposed with thin cover of the overburden/soil
at places. Between then Kanthari and Ahu Rivers alluvium soil is exposed deposited by these
rivers. It consists of silty / clayey and sandy soils mix with pebble; and grit. The thickness of this
alluvium is about 5 to 12 m. Further on the right side of Ahu River alluvium and soil is present
which are under cultivation. The thickness of alluvium / soil is 0.5 m to 4 m (Plate-Ill).

8
`

The major part of rock of the study area is under thin to thick cover of alluvium I soil and it is
predominantly exposed in the riverbed and nala sections. It is hard, fresh, fine grained, slightly
weathered at the surface, dark gray in color, strong and fractured with closely space joints. The
joint planes are coated with chlorite and iron stain at places. The important joint sets recorded in
this flow in and around project area are given below:

No. Strike Amount Direction of Spacing Aperture / Infilling Remarks


of dip dip (m) Opening Material
1. E-W 80-90 Due North 0.1 to 0.8 1-3 mm Nil
2. N10 to 80-90 Northwesterly 1 to 2 2- 15 mm Chert /
15E- Southeasterly Calcite
S10 to
15W
3. N25 to 60-90 Southeasterly 0.1 to 0.6 1-5 mm Chert at
45E Places
S25 to
45W
4. N60 to 75 75-90 Northwesterly 0.5 to 1.5 2- 15 mm Chert
E Calcite
S 60 to 75
W
5. N70 to 75-90 Northwesterly/ 0.1 to 1.2 0.5 -5 Calcite
80W Southeasterly mm
S70 to
80E
6. N65 W 65-90 Southeasterly 0.2 -0.5 Chert
S 65E mm Calcite

4.2 SUB SURFACE EXPLORATION:

The proposed dam site has been explored by seven numbers of NX size bore holes in order to
evaluate the sub- surface rock/ overburden conditions. The boreholes cores have been logged and
data analyzed. The details of drilling are depicted in the plate IV-X.

The summarized account of these explorations as follows:

V.1. EXPLORATORY BORE HOLE:

V.1.a) Bore hole No. RMIP/MD/1 (on the right flank of Ahu river proposed earthen dam
non- overflow section ) at R D 2510 m

Collar elevation / ground elevation : 379.20 m .


Total depth 16.0 m (RL 363.20 m ) to 0.0m to 0.5 m (RL 379.2 m to 378.7 m )
Overburden consisting of irregular boulders, pebbles of basalt set in fine grained sand, silt,
clayey and minor concentration of calc kankar. Between 3.5m to 4.0 m (RL 374.7 m - 375.2
m) is weathered seam filled with weathered basalt , iron stains. Between 0.5 4.0 m (RL 378.7

9
`

375.2 m) Porphyritic basalt, which is highly fractured, jointed, slightly to moderately


weathered , fine grained and dark grey in colour. While the rock mass between 4.0 m and 16.0 m
(RL 375.2 m -363.2 m) is fine grained , hard, fresh , ver strong and fractured with closely space
joints. The joint planes show the presence of chlorite material. The CR% and RQD% with
respect to depth (RL) are under :-

DEPTH (RL) in m CORE RECOVERY % RQD %


0.5 4.0 ( 378.7-375.2 ) 6 - 38 Nil
4.0 12.6 (375.2 366.6 ) 16 -51 Nil
12.6 14.1 ( 366.6 365.1 ) 70 6
14.1 16.0 (365.1 363.2 ) 40 -54 Nil

Water percolation test indicates that the sub surface permeability characteristics are mainly
dilation. At some places laminar and turbulent nature at flow (plate-IV) are also observed. The
equivalent permeability value has been worked out to be of the order of 14 to 17 lugeons. Nature
of the joints is not improved with respect to the depth of the hole. So, it need to be improved by
grouting.

V.1.b) Bore hole No. RMIP/MD/2 (on the right flank of Ahu River-proposed earthen dam
non-overflow section) at R D- 1740 m.

Collar elevation/ground elevation: 370.40 m.


Total depth -16.40 m (RL 354.00 m) to0.0 m to 1.1 m (RL 370.4 m to 369.3 m)

Overburden consisting of irregular boulders pebbles of basalt set in fine grained sand, silt, clayey
and minor concentration of calc-kankar. 1.1 - 3.6 m (RL 369.3- 366.8 m) Porphyritic basalt is
highly fractured, jointed, slightly to moderately weathered, fine grained and dark grey color
while the rock mass between 3.6 m and 16.4 m (RL366.8 m - 354.5 m) is fine grained, hard,
fresh, very strong and fractured with closely space joints. The joint planes show the presence of
chlorite material. The CR% and ROD% with respect to depth (RL) are given as under:

DEPTH (RL) in m CORE RECOVERY% RQD%


1.1 - 3.6 (369.3 - 366.8) 0 - 15 Nil
3.6 - 6.9 (366 8-363.9) 47 - 65 Nil - 7
6.9 - 16.4 (363 9-354.5) 65- 100 18 - 62

Water percolation test indicates that the sub-surface permeability characteristics are mainly
laminar and dilation_ At some places turbulent nature of flow (plate-V) is also observed The
equivalent permeability value has been worked out to be ot the order of 12 to 16 lugeons. Nature
of the joints is not improved with respect to the depth of the hole So, it needs to be improved by
grouting.

10
`

V.1.c) Bore hole No. RMIP/MD/3 (in the Ahu River proposed earthen dam non- overflow
section ) - R D -1220 m

Collar elevation /ground elevation 361.71 m.


Total depth -15.10 m (RL 346.60 m). 0.0m to 3.0 m (RL 361.7-358 7 m) highly fractured,
jointed, slightly weathered, fine grained and dark grey porphyritic basalt is present. The
core recovery ranges from 55% - BO% but RQD% is nil. Between 3.0 -15.10 m (RL
358.7-346.6 m) the basalt is a fine grained, hard, fresh and fractured with closely spaced
joint. The joints are showing presence of chlorite along the joint planes.

The CR% and RQD% with respect to depth (RL) are given as under:

DEPTH (RL) in m CORE RECOVERY% RQD%


3.0-7.0 (358.7 - 354.7) 47 - 63 8 35
7.0-10.1 (354.7-351.6) 77 - 84 31 38
10.1-15 1 (351.6-346.6) 38 - 87 14 - 28

Water percolation test indicates that the sub-surface permeability characteristics are mainly
laminar. At some places dilation nature of flow (plate-VI) is also observed, The equivalent
permeability value has been worked out to be of the order of 14 to 15 lugeons. Nature of the
joints is not improved with respect to the depth of the hole. So, it needs to be improved by
grouting.
V.1.d ) Bore hole No. RMIP/MD/4 (in the Ahu River 75 m downstream side of the hole no 3
earlier proposed spillway darn 75 0 m overflow section) R D-1220 m with d/s distances 75.0m
Collar elevation/ground elevation 361.20 m Total depth - 10 00 m (RL 351.20 m)
0.0-2 25 m (RL 361.2-358.95 m) the rock type is highly fractured jointed, slightly weathered fine
grained and dark grey porphyry basalt. The core recovery ranges from 40% - 53% but RQD% is
nil Between 2.25-10.0 m (RL 358.95-351.2m) the basalt is a fine grained hard, fresh and
fractured with closely spaced joint. The joints are showing the presence of chlorite along the
joint planes.

The CR% and RQD% with respect to depth (RL) are given as under:-

DEPTH (RL) in m CORE RECOVERY% RQD%


2.25-3.95 (358.95-357.25) 78 45
3.95-5.2(357.25-356.0) 56 Nil
5.2-10.0 (356.0-351.2) 66-94 16-45

Water percolation test indicates that the sub-surface permeability characteristics are mainly
laminar. At some places dilation to turbulent nature of flows (plate-V11) are also observed. The
equivalent permeability value has been worked out to be of the order of 15 lugeons. Nature of the
joints is not improved with respect to the depth of the hole. So, it needs to be improved by
grouting.

11
`

V.1.e) Bore hole No. RMIP/MD/5 (in between Ahu and Kanthari Riversproposed spillway
dam overflow section) at RD 880m.

Collar elevation/ground elevation: 374.40 m.


Total depth -17.20 m (RL 357,20 m). 0.0 m to 12.50 m (RL 374.4 m to 361.9 m)

Overburden consisting of irregular boulders/blacks, pebbles of basalt set in fine grained sand, silt
clayey and minor concentration of calc-kankar but part of the overburden material is clayey/silty
sand of fluvial deposit of two Ahu and Kanthari Rivers. Between 12.5 - 13.5 m (RL 361.9 m
360.9 m) weathered porphyritic basalt while between 13.5 m 17.2 m (RL 360.9- 357 2 m)
highly fractured, jointed, slightly weathered. fine grained and dark grey is also porphyritic basalt
with closely space jointed. The joints are showing the presence of chlorite material along the
joint planes. The core recovery ranges from 13% - 62% but ROD% varies from nil - 8%
Water percolation test indicates that the sub-surface permeability characteristics are mainly
laminar At some places turbulent nature of, flow (plate-VII) is also observed. The equivalent
permeability value has been worked out to be of the order of 16 to 20 lugeons. Nature of the
joints is not improved with respect to the depth of the hole. So, it needs to be improved by
grouting.

V.1f) Bore hole No. RMIP/MD/6 (in the Kanthari River 15 m downstream side of the dam
axisproposed spillway dam overflow section) at R D 580 m with d/s distances 15.0 m.

Collar elevation/ground elevation: 363.40 m.


Total - 20.20 m (RL 343.20 m )

0.0 m - 3.30 m (RL 363.40 m - 360.10 m) is highly fractured, jointed, slightly weathered; fine
grained and dark grey porphyritic basalt with closely spaced joints. The joints are showing the
presence of chlorite and iron stain along the joint planes. The core recovery ranges from 68% to
85% and RQD is nil to 8%. Between 3.30m - 20.20 m (RL 360.10 m - 343.20 m) the basalt is
fine-grained, hard, fresh and fractured with closely to moderately spaced joints. The joints are
showing the presence of chlorite-along the joint planes.

The CR% and RQD% with respect to depth (RL) are given as under:

DEPTH (RL) in m CORE RECOVERY% RQD%


3.3-4.5( 360.1-358.9) 87 10
4.5-9.5(358.9-353.9) 85-90 27-56
9.5-14.0(353.9-349.4) 85-89 60-65
14.0-15.5(349.4-347.9) 77 41
15.5-18.6(347.9-344.8) 42-75 Nil -18
18.6-90.2(344.8-343.2) 70 45

Water percolation test indicates that the sub-surface permeability characteristics are mainly
laminar. At some places dilation nature of flow (plate-IX) is also observed. The equivalent
permeability value has been worked out to be of the order of 12 to 16 lugeons. Nature of the

12
`

joints is not improved with respect to the depth of the hole. So it needs to be improved by
grouting.

V.1.g) Bore hole No. RMIP/MD/7 (on the left flank of Kanthari River - proposed earthen darn
non-overflow section) at RD -160 m.

Collar elevation/ ground elevation: 379.20 m.


Total depth - 23.10 (RL 356.10 m).

0.0 m to 0.5 m (RL 379.2 m to 378.7 m) - Overburden consisting of irregular boulders pebbles of
basalt set in fine grained sand, silt, clayey and minor concentration of calc-kankar, 0.5 - 8.0 m
(RL 378.7 m 371 2 m) the rock is highly fractured, jointed, slightly weathered, fire grained
and dark grey porphyritic basalt with closely spaced joints. The joints are showing the presence
of chlorite and iron stain along the joint planes. The core recovery ranges from 20% to 35% and
RQD is nil.
Between 8.0 m - 23.1 m (RL 371.2 rn - 356.1 m)- the basalt is fine-grained, hard, fresh and
fractured with closely to moderately spaced joints. The joints are showing the presence of
chlorite along the joint planes.

The CR% and RQD% with respect to depth (RL) are given as under: -

DEPTH (RL) in m CORE RECOVERY% RQD%


8.0 - 17.0 (371.2 - 362.2) 15 - 34 Nil
17.0 - 21.0 (362.2 - 358.2) 51 - 68 38 - 45
21.0 - 23.1 (358.2 356.1) 42 - 87 Nil - 17

Water percolation test indicates that the sub-surface permeability characteristics are mainly
laminar. At some places turbulent and dilation nature of flows (plate-X) are also observed The
equivalent permeability value has been worked out to be of the order of 14 to 18 lugeons. Nature
of the joints is not improved with respect to the depth of the hole So, it needs to be improved by
grouting.

13
`

A total of 6 (six) rock core samples have been collected for determining their mechanical
properties. The laboratory test result and suggested foundation grades are enclosed in the table
below.

TABLE SHOWING THE MECHANICAL PRPERTIES OF THE CORE SAMPLE


OF RAJGARH MEDIUM IRRIGATION DAM SITE

Sample No. RD Depth Sp. Water Void Density UCS Rock type
(M) Slab Gr. absorption ratio (gm/cc) (kg/cm2)
(m) %
RMIP/MD/2/A 1740 6.4-6.5 2.9 1.001 0.030 2.89 1855.9 Porphyritic
basalt
RMIP/MD/2/B DO 11.61- 2.9 1.179 0.035 2.85 1509.2 Porphyritic
11.75 basalt
RMIP/MD/3/A 1220 4.0-4.2 2.9 0.946 0.028 2.86 193.7 Porphyritic
basalt
RMIP/MD/3/B DO 5.8- 2.9 0.935 0.028 2.88 560.8 Porphyritic
5.93 basalt
RMIP/MD/6/A 580 4.86- 2.9 0.923 0.027 2.87 356.9 Porphyritic
D/S 5.0 basalt
15
RMIP/MD/6/B DO 13.88- 2.9 .0793 0.023 2.87 193.7 Porphyritic
14.0 basalt

14
`

CHAPTER 5

Geological feature and their implications on engineering proposals

5.1 MASONRY SECTION (RD 442.00m 640.00m)

The rock masses observed at the spillway section of the dam the foundation is sequence of
Deccan traps lava flow. The geological L-section (plate-III) illustrates the anticipated geology of
the foundation grade.
The rock in general is slightly weathered to fresh, closely to moderately space jointed and
fractured at places. The masonry section b/w RD442.00m and 640.00m has been explored
presently by one no. of bore hole in order to determine nature and quality of sub surface mass
condition. The details sub surface exploration carried out presently have been incorporated in
plate no. IV.
The detailed geological L-section (plate-III) prepared along the dam axis b/w RD 442.0m and
640.0m as part of L-Section from RD 0.0m to 2730.0m has been described under.
The thickness of the overburden/the depth of the bed rock show moderate variation ranging b/w
0.0m and 5.0m. the limit of weathering extends up to a depth varying from 3.50m to 7.70m.
Hence bedrock suitable for foundation of masonry section is available at 5.50m to 8.75m depth.
The foundation rock of masonry section observed as lava flows of Deccan traps and its
differentiation structurally, they are almost horizontally (dip up to 5 degree) disposed and closely
spaced jointed with highly to moderately fracture are considered a major structural discontinuity
in the design evaluation /foundation treatment of the proposed masonry section.
The bore hole RMIP/MD/6 (d/s 15m for proposed spillway) has been drilled. The detailed
geological section along the dam axis through bore hole has been depicted and depth of
overburden/ bedrock /weathering and tentatively foundation depth is also demarcated.
The water percolation test conducted in the bore hole indicates that the nature of subsurface flow
condition is mainly laminar flow at some places ,dilation nature of flow is also observed but it
does not improve at depth.so it indicate that the open nature of joints and fractured rock extend
below the depth of the drilled bore holes. Hence the equivalent permeability value has been
worked out to be of the order of 12 to 16 lugeons.
The depth of permeable strata/ grout ability of foundation rock has been establish by the bore
hole and it needs to be plugged by cement grouting up to the depth 16m (RD 347.4m )in order to
control the anticipated seepage /leakage along the joints ,fracture planes and other structure
discontinuity. The final spacing and rows for grouting curtain can be decided during the time of
execution by putting test holes. However two rows of grout curtain at 3 m c/c up to 16m (RL
347.4m) has been tentatively suggested as the subsurface strata is highly permeable.

15
`

5.2 LEFT EARTHED SECTION (RD0.0m to 440.20m)

The rock mass consisting at the foundation of the left earthen section is a sequence of Deccan
traps lava flows. The geological logging of the bore hole illustrates the anticipated geology of cut
of trench (COT).
The rock in general is moderately weathered to fresh and fractured at places with closely spaced
joints. The left earth section (RD 0.0m to 442.0m) has been explored presently by one no of bore
hole in order to determine the nature and quality of subsurface rock mass condition. The details
of the subsurface exploration carried out presently are in cooperated in plate no. X.
The detailed geological L- section prepared along the dam axis b/w RD 0.0m and 442.0m ( left
earthen section)as a part of L-section from RD 0.0m to 2730m is described as under
The thickness of overburden / the depth to the bed rock shows moderate variation ranging b/w
0.0m and 0.5m. The limit of weathering extends to a depth varying from 5.50m to 6.0m.hence
bed rock suitable for cut off trench of left earthen section is available at 1.50m to 2.5m depth.
The foundation rock for COT of left earthen section is basaltic flows of Deccan trap. They are
almost horizontally (Dip up to 5 degree) disposed and closely spaced jointed with highly
fractured and are considered a major structural discontinuity in the foundation treatment of the
proposed earthen section.
The water percolation test conducted in the bore hole indicates that the nature of subsurface flow
condition is mainly laminar flow while turbulent and dilation nature of flow at some places is
also observed but permeability does not improve at depth.so, it indicate that the open nature of
joints and the fracture rock extends below the depth of the drilled bore hole. Here the equivalent
permeability value has been worked out to be of the order of 14 to 17 lugeons.
The depth of permeable strata /grout-ability of COT foundation rock has been establish by these
bore holes and these need to be plugged by cement grouting up to the depth H/2 in order to
control the anticipated seepage /leakage the final spacing and rows for curtain grouting can be
decided during the time of execution by putting test holes. However two rows of curtain grout at
3m c/c up to H/2 has been tentatively suggested as the subsurface strata are highly permeable.

16
`

5.3 RIGHT EARTH SECTION (RD 640.00m to 2730.0m)

The rock mass consisting at the foundation of the right earthen section is a sequence of lava
flows of Deccan traps. The logging of the bore hole (plate-IV to plate-VIII) illustrates the
anticipated geology of the COT.
The rock in general is moderately weathered to fresh and fractured at places with closely spaced
joints. The right earthed section (RD 640.0m to 2730.0m) has been explored presently by 5 Nos.
of bore holes in order to determine the nature and quality of the sub surface rock mass condition.
The details of the subsurface exploration carried out are incorporated in plate no. III to VIII.THE
detailed geological L-section prepared along the dam axis b/w RD640.0m and 2730.0m ( left
earthen section ) as a part of L section from RD 0.0m to 2730m is as under
The thickness of overburden / depth to the bed rock shows modarete variation ranging b/w 0.0m
and 12.5m.the limit of weathering extends to a depth varying from 5.50m to 14.0m. hence bed
rock suitable for cutoff trench of earthen section is available at 1.5m to 13.0m depth.
The foundation rocks of COT for the right earthen section are Deccan traps, the are almost
horizontally (dip up to 5 degree) disposed and closely spaced jointed with highly fractured and
are considered a major structural discontinuity in the foundation treatment of the proposed
earthen section.
The water percolation test conducted in these bore holes indicate that the nature of the subsurface
flow condition is mainly laminar and dilation flows while turbulent nature of flow at some places
is also observed but permeability does not improve at depth( plate IV to plate VIII).SO , it
indicate that the open nature of joints and fractured rock extents below the depth of these drilled
bore holes. Here the equivalent permeability value has been worked out to be of the order of 12
to 20 lugeons.
The depth of permeable strata /grout ability of COT foundation rock has been establish by these
bore holes and these need to be plugged by cement grouting upto the depth H/2 b/w RD 1900.0m
and RD 2730.0m while b/w RD 640.0m and RD 1900.0m cement grouting varies from the
depth 10.0m to 20.0m( as open nature of rock is exposed in the river and nala section), in order
to control the anticipated seepage / leakage along the joints , fractured plane and other structural
discontinuity . The final spacing and rows for grouting curtain can be decided during the time of
execution by putting test holes.
It has also been seen that the TBL (top bund level )of the proposed dam is at RL 382.5m whereas
the highest NSL (normal surface level ) on the left abutment of the masonry / spillway section is
at RL 369.656m and on the right abutment it is at RL 366.641m . Thus divide wall b/w the
masonry /spillway section and the earthen sections would be required on both the flanks
/abutments.

17
`

CHAPTER 6

INSPECTION NOTES BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA

6.1 INTRODUCTION

A 23 m high and 2.730 km long earthen cum concrete darn (198 m long across kanthari River)
across Ahu and Kanthari Rivers, 500 m upstream of their confluence near village Rajgarh
(2414'30"N, 7552'30"E) in Jhalawar District, Rajasthan, to impound 58.29 mcum of water with
a reservoir spread of 1386.96 ha. at FRL, 379.20 m to irrigate 8541 hectares (21106 Acres) of
land in Pachpahar Tehsil of Jhalawar district through a network of left bank canals. The dam site
area exposes Deccan basaltic flows along river bed and is covered with fairly thick soil cover on
flanks. Construction activity of the dam is in full swing, Cutoff Trench (COT) on left flank has
been excavated from Ch. 150 m to Ch. 470 m. logged on 1: 200 scale found suitable and
approved for filling and filled up to NSL, left and right wing walls, across Kanthari River has
been mapped, approved and being covered. Excavation for stilling basin and main drain is
complete and the reach between Kanthari River and Ahu River is yet to be excavated. The COT
on the right flank of Ahu River from Ch. 1145m to 1270 m, Ch. 1305 m to 1500 m and Ch. 1710
m to Ch. 1890 is logged, approved and filled with impervious material, and beyond this, COT is
yet to be excavated. The COT from Ch. 1500 to Ch. 1710 has been logged on 1:100 scale found
suitable and approved for filling.
The site inspection was carried out by Shri. Debasis Bhattacharya, Superintending Geologist,
Engineering Geology Division, GSI, Jaipur, Shri K.D. Sandu, Superintending Engineer, W.R.
Circle, Jhalawar, Shri. H. S. Kardam, Executive Engineer and Shri Sarangi. Rajgarh Medium
Irrigation Division, Jhalawar and took field traverses in stilling basin area, main dam and COT
on the right flank of Ahu river on 14-05-2015 and discussed site problems.

6.2 Matter of discussion

The excavated COT from RD 1230m to RD 1275 is in positive cutoff of more than 2m in almost
fresh columnar jointed basalt. from RD 1275m to RD 1440 m excavated COT on partial cutoff
exposing about 3.50m thick the big boulders of basalt in sandy silt overlain and underlain by
about 1m to 2.50m thick salty clays.in this reach unit (big boulders mixed with sandy silt )
pinches out at RD 1380m about 1.5m below the NSL from RD1380.0m to RD 1710.0m the
excavated COT exposes semi consolidated gravels mixed with sand overlain by the pile of silty
clays and silty clays varying in thickness from 0.50m to 4.50m which are also impervious. From
RD 1710.0m to RD 1820.0m the excavated COT is in positive cutoff more than 2.00m exposing
almost fresh basalt with moderately weathered slightly open at the surface , closely spaced joint
planes.
The bore hole drilled at RD 1350.0m encountered rock at RL 360m with water level at RL
361.50m whereas the bore hole at RD 1530.0m intersected rock at 359.40m (almost the bed
level of Ahu River ) with water level at RL 363.30m.

18
`

6.3 SUGGESTED TREATMENT BY GSI FOR COT

It is suggested to provide well compacted impervious u/s clay blanket up to six times of H max.
That is 20m b/w RD1160.00m to RD 1890.00m apart from cement grouting as suggested by GSI.
the upstream impervious clay blanket , if provided will substantially increase the path of
percolation and completely check the charging of unconfined aquifer present b/w RD 1130m and
RD 1710.00m by Ahu river and its tributary at RD 1770.00m
Similar conditions are likely to be encountered on the left flank COT of Ahu river.so, treatment
is suggested for left bank COT after excavation of COT up to H/2 + 0.6m depth.
During discussion the suggestion of providing upstream impervious clay blanket was discussed.
But it was also felt that this treatment will not make the reservoir 100% water tight and some
water seepage is anticipated, therefore entire COT should be excavated up to bed rock level. It
was also suggested to check semi consolidated gravel bed exposed at excavate COT is day
lighting in the reservoir or d/s, specially along the nala intersecting the COT at RD 1770m.
The GSI also suggested to carry out test curtain grouting in 36m section excavated COT bed
through six grout hole spacing.at 6.00m, up to RL 359.0m, in two rows staggered pattern to
check the grout ability of gravel conglomerate before filling up the COT the post grout
permeability is less than 3lugeons the COT can be filled with impervious clay.

19
`

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

DPR (detailed project report) stage geotechnical investigation for a 23 m high and 2.730km long
earthen cum masonry dam across Ahu and Kanthari rivers near village Rajgadh in jhalawar
district has been carried out. It includes 2.532km long non overflow earthen dam on either side
of 198m long overflow masonry spillway across Kanthari River a tributary of Ahu River. This
project will irrigate 8541 hect. Of land in pachpahar tehsil of jhalawar through a network of
canals.
The investigation includes
1. Detailed geological mapping, covering an area of about 7.24km sq.
2. Bore hole cores logging aggregating a total length of 118.0m.
3. Conducted 13 percolation test in one of the 7 nos. drilled holes.
4. Interpretation and analysis of surface and sub-surface geological data have been attended.
Basaltic flow of Deccan trap constitute the major rock mass in the foundation of the proposed
Rajgadh medium irrigation dam site .structurally the rocks are horizontally to sub horizontally
disposed , closely spaced joint with thin to moderately thick of soil cover.
The thickness of the overburden / the depth of the bed rock shows minor variation ranging b/w
0.0m and 0.5m in the left earthen section. Hence the bedrock suitable for COT of earthen section
is available at 1.50m to 2.5m depth.
While in the right earthen section the thickness of the overburden/the depth to the bed rock
shows moderate variation ranging b/w 0.0m and 12.5m. the limit of weathering extends to a
depth varying from 5.50m to 14.0m.hence bedrock suitable for COT of rignt earthen section is
available at 1.5m to 13m depth.
The masonry section of the Rajgadh dam site has been explored by one number of exploratory
bore hole.it reveals that the depth to bed rock varies from 0.00m to 5.00m foundation rock
consist of a thick pile of dense porphyritic basalt.
The water percolation test conducted in these bore hole have indicated pervious to highly
pervious nature of subsurface bed rock. A permeable stratum does not improve at depth and
indicated that the open nature of joints and fractured rocks extends below the depth of these
drilled bore holes.
The tentative foundation grade of masonry section in general shows slight variation b/w a depth
of 5.50m and 8.75m (RL 357.90m) on the available fresh, hard and compact basalt. At the
proposed foundation grade basaltic rocks are hard and competent with laboratory:-

1. Compressive strength 356.9kg/cm2


2. Specific gravity 2.9
3. Water absorption 0.23%
4. Density 2.87gm/cc

The sub surface studies reveal that the proposed masonry section b/w RD 442.0m and
640.0m is geologically feasible.
In masonry section curtain grouting to a depth of 16.0m (RL 347.4m at 3.0m c/c in staggered two
rows for jointed and fracture basalt has been suggested to make the strata monolithic and control
the anticipated seepage /leakage.

20
`

In left earthen section the depth of permeable strata/ grout ability of COT foundation rock has
been established by the bore hole which needs to be plugged by cement grouting upto the depth
of H/2 in order to control the anticipated seepage / leakage along the joints , fracture plans and
other structural discontinuity.
In right earthen section the depth of permeable groutablity of COT foundation rock has been
established by these bore holes which need to be plugged by cement grouting upto depth H/2 b/w
RD 1900.0m and RD 2730.0m while b/w 640.0m and RD 1900.0m the cement grouting varies
from the depth 10.0m to 20.0m in order to control the anticipated seepage / leakage along the
joints fractured and other structural discontinuity.
The final spacing and rows for curtain grouting can be decided during the time of
execution by putting test holes. However two rows of curtain grout at 3.0m c/c up to H/2 has
been tentatively suggested as the sub surface strata are highly permeable.

Due to topographical conditions, divide walls b/w the spillways/ masonry secton and the earthen
section would be required. It has been suggested that devide wall should be designed properly
considering all the parameter as consider at spillway/ masonary section and final foundation
grade will be decided during the time of execution after examining the nature of foundation
strata.

21
`

ANNEXURE I
Maps &Terminology

22
`

Terminology & Acronyms


Deccan Trap- The Deccan Traps are a large igneous province located on the Deccan
Plateau of west-central India (1724N, 7374E) and one of the largest volcanic
features on Earth.
Porphyritic basalt - Porphyritic is an adjective used in geology, specifically for igneous
rocks, for a rock that has a distinct difference in the size of the crystals, with at least one
group of crystals obviously larger than another group.
Vindhyan ranges- The Vindhya Range (pronounced [ndy]) is a complex,
discontinuous chain of mountain ridges, hill ranges, highlands and plateau escarpments in
west-central India.
Proterozoic age- extending from 2500 Ma to 541 Ma (million years ago), and is the most
recent part of the Precambrian Supereon. It is subdivided into three geologic eras (from
oldest to youngest): the Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, and Neoproterozoic.
Upper Cretaceous -The Upper Cretaceous is the last geological epoch in the Cretaceous.
It began 100.5 million years ago, and ended 66 million years ago.
Lower Eocene age -The Eocene Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a
major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in
the Cenozoic Era.
Pahoehoe -The first and most obvious difference is that pahoehoe flows are smooth
down to a scale of a few mm. Instead of consisting of only 1-2 large flow units, a
pahoehoe flow consists of thousands on thousands of small flow units called toes. Each
toe is usually <30 cm thick, 1-2 m long, and 30-50 cm wide.
Lugeon It is a unit devised to quantify the water permeability of bedrock and
the hydraulic conductivity resulting from fractures; it is named after Maurice Lugeon, a
Swiss geologist who first formulated the method in 1933. More specifically,
the Lugeon test is used to measure the amount of water injected into a segment of the
bored hole under a steady pressure; the value (Lugeon value) is defined as the loss of
water in liters per minute and per meter borehole at an over-pressure of 1 MPa.
RQD- Rock Quality Designation
COT-Cut Off Trench
TBL -Top Bund Level
NSL -Normal Surface level.
CWC- Central Water Commission
BSR- Basic Schedule Rate
GCA- Gross Command Area
CCA- Culturable Command Area
DPR Detailed Project Report
PHED Public Heath Engineering Department

23
`

REFERENCE
1.) GEOLOGOCAL SURVEY OF INDIA-

24