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Proposal (The effect of teaching listening by using songs to seventh grade

students in SMPN 1 Kandangan academic year 2013/2014)

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, the researcher will explain about background of the problem,
identification of the problem, limitation of the problem, formulation of the problem, objective
of the problem, significance of the problem and definitions of key term.

A. Background of The Problem


English language is an important part of world, because by using a language we can
communicate and express our ideas. English is taught integrated within the four skills,
namely reading, speaking, listening, and writing, considering the language components such
as vocabulary, structure, and pronunciation. As pointed out by Demirel (2004; p.1), in the
development of basic language skills in the teaching of modern foreign languages, it should
have knowledge in the language acquisition process, the view of following a natural order is
quiet common. Its mean that a person learning a second or foreign language will first hear,
then talk and then learn how to read and write. Young beginners need to start with plenty of
listening practice, and opportunities to listen to rich input will naturally lead to speaking
tasks.
Listening is one of the skill in teaching English. It is a receptive skill which a delivered
by the audio and audiovisual media. Actually, teaching English has some skills that must be
learned. They are divided into two classes; productive skills and receptive skills. Productive
skill consist of writing and speaking skills. Receptive skill consist of listening and reading
skills. Productive skills, the student must be able to produce their knowledge in writing and
speaking. In receptive skills, the student got knowledge from listening and reading forms.
Listening is very important to young learner because it is the receptive use of language,
and the goal is to make sense of the speech, the focus is on meaning rather than language
(Cameron 2001). So it is indeed the most basic skill in any language learning process, be it
language acquisition or foreign language learning. In fact, listening skill becomes ever more
important in the case of teaching modern foreign languages to young learners, as it will be
discussed throughout this article.
Much students said that English is a difficulties lesson. It is shown that the difficulty of
their learning English comes from their listening. There are several prediction students
problems in English lesson, first is less hear in English, in fact there are much students bored
when listening to a narration or dialog as they attempt to understand the meaning of new
words or phrases in context from their teacher the students cant understand the meaning of
some words to their teachers without look up the dictionary.
Some people think that listening is passive because children do not need to produce
sounds when they are listening. However, listening is not a passive activity. Learners can and
should be actively engaged in listening tasks and activities. But here, the researcher want to
reforms positive effect in teaching listening using songs for seventh grade. There are some
reasons why the researcher choose songs as media in teaching listening. The first, songs will
be hearing different forms of intonation and rhythm. The second, songs will make the
students relax and fun. Two reasons of speech perception portray listeners as having very
different roles. In the first view, listeners play a passive role and simply recognize and decode
sounds, and in the second view, listeners play an active role and perceive sounds by accessing
internal articulation rules to decode speech (Crystal 1997). Whether speech perception is
active or passive, or a combination of both, Phillips (1993) says that listening tasks are
extremely important in the primary school setting, providing a rich source of language data
from which children begin to build up their own ideas of how the foreign language works.
This knowledge is a rich source that young learners draw on to produce language.
Linse (2005) also considers the teaching of listening skills as foundational to the
development of other language skills. We should, however, be aware that any kind of
listening comprehension activity needs to be well guided with clear aims. To this end, Ur
(1996) argues that a listening purpose should be provided in the definition of a pre-set task.
The definition of a purpose (a defined goal, as in the wake up example) enables the listener
to listen selectively for significant information. Providing the students with some idea of what
they are going to hear and what they are asked to do with it helps them to succeed in the task;
it also raises motivation and interest. The fact that learners are active during the listening,
rather than waiting until the end to do something, keeps the learners busy and helps prevent
boredom.
According to the syllabus on Junior High School also use songs as media in teaching
listening, these are nucleus competence and basic competence in Kurikulum 2013 for seventh
grade :
Nucleus Competence :
KI 1: Menghargai dan menghayati ajaran agama yang dianutnya
KI 2 : Menghargai dan menghayati perilaku jujur, disiplin,
tanggungjawab, peduli (toleransi, gotong royong), santun,
percaya diri, dalam berinteraksi secara efektif dengan
lingkungan sosial dan alam dalam jangkauan pergaulan dan
keberadaannya.
KI 3 : Memahami pengetahuan (faktual, konseptual, dan prosedural)
berdasarkan rasa ingin tahunya tentang ilmu pengetahuan,
teknologi, seni, budaya terkait fenomena dan kejadian tampak
mata.
KI 4 : Mencoba, mengolah, dan menyaji dalam ranah konkret
(menggunakan, mengurai, merangkai, memodifikasi, dan
membuat) dan ranah abstrak (menulis, membaca, menghitung,
menggambar, dan mengarang) sesuai dengan yang dipelajari di
sekolah dan sumber lain yang sama dalam sudut pandang/teori.
Basic Competence :
3.11 Memahami fungsi sosial dan unsur kebahasaan dalam lagu.
4.14 Menangkap makna lagu.

Based on the information above, it shows that song is the fun strategy to the learning
activity and the associative power between the melody and the content of the word reinforce
the attainment of the language to be internalize. Song is one of cooperative learning method
that have many advantages in teaching listening. So songs are excellent means through which
children have fun and at the same time acquire language. Here we would like to prove the
effect teaching listening by using songs by gathering the data from the seventh grade students
of SMPN 1 Kandangan by giving a test.
Instead of doing your usual listening comprehension out of the course books, do a song
instead. Get your students thinking about the subject and do any pre-teaching of vocabulary
as necessary. As with standard listening comprehension, there are a variety of exercises that
you can do with songs: true or false, matching exercises, open comprehension questions, etc.

B. Identification of The Problem


Based on the background of the problem above it can conclude that nowdays, English
became the famous and international language in the world. Indonesia include English on the
Junior High School program as the primary levels, to prepare the young generation became
ready with the era blooming. The students in Junior High School should be able to use
English in their classroom. Before that, listening is important to make easy to understand
about the material, moreover listening using song. Songs can also help to improve listening
skills because they provide students with practice listening to different forms of intonation
and rhythm. One advantage of using songs in the young learner classroom is their flexibility.
Songs can be used for a number of purposes and there are many reasons why songs can be
considered a valuable pedagogical tool. In common way, the students listening to a narration,
dialog or tell story. It will make bored for students, but we use the strategy to develop in their
listening. And we choose teach listening to the students by using song.

C. Limitation of The Problem


Based on the identification of the problem above, the students felt bored to the lesson
because of the teacher used monotonous strategy and monotonous materials in teaching
listening. Therefore, the researcher limited the problem to focus on the teaching listening
using songs. It was hope that it could increase the student motivations.

D. Formulations of The Problem


Based on the limitation of the problem, the researcher define that the aim of this
research is :
1. Is there the effect of teaching listening by using songs to seventh grade students in SMPN 1
Kandangan academic year 2013/2014?
2. How is the effect of teaching listening by using songs to seventh grade students in SMPN 1
Kandangan academic year 2013/2014?

E. Purposes of The Problem


Based on the problem formulated above, the researcher define that the aim of this
research are :
1. To find that there is the effect of teaching listening by using songs to seventh grade students
in SMPN 1 Kandangan academic year 2013/2014.
2. To measure the effect of teaching listening by using songs to seventh grade students in
SMPN 1 Kandangan academic year 2013/2014.

F. Significant of The Problem


It is expected that the result of the study give benefit to :
1. The writer :
The researcher expected this research can use as reference to other writer.
2. The English teacher :
Encouraging teacher can find the best method of teaching listening to the students.
3. The students :
The researcher expected that this research can useful to develop and implement the students
listening skills by the effect of teaching listening.

4. School
As an input the developing of science related to the teaching listening using songs.

G. Definition of Key Term


1. Listening
Listening tasks are extremely important in the primary language (foreign language)
classroom, providing a rich source of language data from which the children will begin to
build up their own idea of how the language works. This knowledge forms a base or resource
which they will eventually draw on in order to produce language themselves.
2. Song
Songs are important teaching tools in creating a safe and natural classroom ethos and
therefore may prove to be helpful in overcoming feelings of shyness and hesitation on the
part of the learners. Because having a look to the learning characteristics of foreign learners
will reveal that young children need to develop a strong emotional attachment to their
teacher.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. Theoriticall Framework
Before the researchers talk further, we want to explain our variables include this
research such as, the definition of listening, songs, and teaching listening using songs.
1. Definition of Listening
a. Cameron, (2001) states that listening is the receptive use of language, and since the goal is to
make sense of the speech, the focus is on meaning rather than language.
b. Saroban (1999) state that listening is the ability to identify and understand what others are
saying.
According to the arguments above, the researcher conclude that listening is make sense
of the meaningful sounds of language by using context and our knowledge of language in
the world. Learners have to be able to understand the main idea of what is said as well as
specific details.
They also need to check any predictions they have made; and understand the
speakers meaning, emotions, and opinions.

2. Definition of Song
a. Cullen (1998, 1999) state that songs are significant teaching tools in teaching English foreign
language because, as most teachers find out, students love listening to music in the language
classroom and they often hold strong views about music.
b. Claudia, S. S (2010) state that songs as a language learning tool are only recently being
recognized as a methodology to be used in the foreign language classroom on all levels.
According to the arguments above, it can be conclude that song is a language learning
tool in teaching English foreign language, it use to motivate students and create a relaxing
with the result that the students interest with listening song as a methodology in the language
classroom. One advantage of using songs in the foreign learner classroom is their flexibility.
Songs can be used for a number of purposes and there are many reasons why songs can be
considered a valuable pedagogical tool.
In this research, the researcher use two songs entitle Shadow by Austin Mahone and
Let It Go by Demi Lovato. The researcher choose these songs because the songs are very
easy listening, familiar, not too fast and slow. It is hoped that students will enjoy with all
songs.

3. Definition of Teaching Listening


Listening strategies are techniques or activities that contribute directly to the
comprehension and recall of listening input. Listening strategies can be classified by how the
listener processes the input.
However, the teaching of the listening skill has been long overlooked in English
language teaching. Teaching listening is one of the duties that have to be conducted by
teachers of English to develop to the students listening ability in English. Listening is a skill
that tends to get neglected for various reasons.
Linse (2005) also considers the teaching of listening skills as foundational to the
development of other language skills. We should, however, be aware that any kind of
listening comprehension activity needs to be well guided with clear aims. To this end, Ur
(1996) argues that a listening purpose should be provided in the definition of a pre-set task.
The definition of a purpose (a defined goal, as in the wake up example) enables the listener
to listen selectively for significant information. Providing the students with some idea of what
they are going to hear and what they are asked to do with it helps them to succeed in the task;
it also raises motivation and interest.

4. Definition of Teaching Listening Using Song


In teaching foreign language learners, there is often a transfer of materials and activities
from general primary practice because primary practice has some genuinely good techniques
and ideas that work well with children. One of the techniques teaching listening is songs.
Besides, songs are considered as appropriate for age related language learning and hence are
referred as good practice and central to early language teaching.
In teaching listening process, there need readiness to prepare the material especially
songs and teacher as facilitator should accommodate their students by finding out some
interesting ways of teaching, in order to songs more meaningful and enjoyable. Overall, there
seems to be general agreement among scholars and teachers that a three-staged approach is
the most effective way to present songs. These stage are pre-teaching, while-teaching, and
post-teaching.
From explanation above, teaching process will be very helpful for teacher. It is the
teachers task to use appropriate of listening teaching, its mean that teaching listening is very
importance and the teacher should use appropriate technique to teach listening, in order to
motivate and help the students in learning process.

B. Review of Related Literature


1. Claudia, S. S (2010), THE EFFECTS OF SONGS IN THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE
CLASSROOM ON TEXT RECALL AND INVOLUNTARY MENTAL REHEARSAL.
The purpose of this research entitled The Effects Of Songs In The Foreign Language
Classroom On Text Recall And Involuntary Mental Rehearsal was to find out show the
value of music as a teaching tool and to provide further insight into the topic by adding to the
research knowledge. This research studied the effect of song on text recall, and the
occurrence of the din in the foreign language classroom. The effects of foreign language
instruction with added songs is examined in three principal areas: (1) the listening ability to
recall song lyrics heard through song versus recall of the same song lyrics heard through text
passages, (2) the students delayed recall of song, and (3) the occurrence of the din (song din)
for students exposed to songs as compared to the amount of din occurrence for students
exposed to song. The instrument was questionnaires and cloze tests through songs. The
population of this research was 94 students; 33 male and 61 female students with ages
ranging from 17 to 41 with a mean age of 22 and the sample was entire population which was
divided into three groups: group A, the music group listened to a commercially recorded
song in Spanish. Group B, the text group listened to the same song in the format of
recorded speech. For each of the songs, a native speaker of the same gender and nationality as
the songs recording artist was used to record the spoken lyrics. Group C served as the
control group. Treatment occurred at the same intervals for all classes. Students were able to
view the words of the song during class time, and were aided in the comprehension of the
lyrics, but were not allowed to take written lyrics out of the classroom. The data of this
research were collected by giving questionnaire and cloze test. The results of the data
analysis showed with precent that group A get 67%, group B get 33%, and group C get 78%.
2. Koto-Ku (2007), TEACHING LISTENING SKILLS AND USING SONGS IN CLASS
FOR SEVENTH GRADE. The researcher can find the purpose of this research entitled
Teaching Listening Skills And Using Songs In Class For Seventh Grade that listening for
pleasure. It means that the students can feel enjoy and interesting when teaching listening is
going on. Through songs, the learners capacity for learning will be expanded and whereby
unexpected results will be produced.

C. Rationale
Based on the references that researcher got, the researcher conclude that there are any
influence of using songs with the listening ability.
Songs
RESEARCHER GIVES THE MATERIAL RELATED TO SONGS AND AND
STUDENTS ENJOY THE PROCESS OF LEARNING

GIVE THE STUDENT TEST BY USING SONG

DRAWING CONCLUSION

Song is be able to entertain student and also make the process of learning fun, enjoy
and it throw away the boredom. Song can motivate students to make their study more active.
Using songs in classrooms can successfully bring positive effect through providing a
harmonious classroom, reducing students anxiety, fostering their interests and motivating
them to learn the target language. Students will regard English songs as part of entertainment
rather than work and thus find learning English through songs amusing and relaxed. And the
researcher will see about how large the effect of using songs in SMPN 1 Kandangan Kediri
using test, and after it researcher will make the conclusion about the effect of using song for
student. If the conclusion like the statement above in review of related literature it means
students are be able to communicate using English acceptable because their listening is
adding.

D. Hypothesis
A hypothesis is a statement of the research assumption about the relationship between
two variables that the researcher plans to test within the framework of the researcher study
(Kumar, 1993: 9). The hypothesis of this study was prepared as a approximation answer the
research problem stated previously. In this case the alternative hypothesis ( Ha ) as read
follow:
There is effect teaching listening using songs to the seventh grade in SMPN 1
KANDANGAN.
While, the null hipothesis (Ho) of this research is There is no effect teaching listening
using songs to the seventh grade in SMPN 1 KANDANGAN

CHAPTER III

A. Research Identification Variable


There are two kinds of variables in this research, the first variable as the Independent
Variable (which has influence to dependent variable) is songs (X) and the second variable as
the dependent variable (variable that depend on independent variable) is Teaching Listening
(Y).
According to Suharsimi Arikunto (1988 : 88), mentions that Variabel yang bervariasi
menjadi objek penelitian. A vary variable become an fine object to be put in and being
observed. Related to this point, Sugiyono (2009 : 61), defines variable as a values of person,
object, or activities which has specification and variation that has been decided by the
researchers to conclude it after being learned.
According the theory and review related research we can found that:
Songs is one of visual aid media that the researchers believe will get the effect in
teaching listening, because the media is intersting also educated for teaching young learners
like seventh grade of junior high school.
Teaching listening is one of the duties that have to be conducted by teachers of English
to develop to the students listening ability in English. Listening is a skill that tends to get
neglected for various reasons.

B. Technique And Research Approach


1. Research Technique
This research use experiment research. Where the researcher look for the effect of
teaching listening using songs to the seventh grade of students in SMPN 1 Kandangan Kediri.
Research Design for this research is :
a. Identify two variables that may give any influences, in this research the variables of this
research are songs and teaching listening.
b. Select a sample
In this research, the researcher takes sample from the population of the research, in this case
are the Students VII grade of SMPN 1 Kandangan Kediri
c. Select a method of measurement
d. Collect necessary data
2. Research Approach
This research is conducted by using Quantitative Research approach, because this research
study will specify the number of participants from a defined population and present data to
find the impact of using songs for teaching listening.

C. Place and Time of The Research


This research was conducted in SMPN 1 Kandangan Kediri at the first semester of
academic year 2014/2015, based on the consideration that this school had been accepted the
curricula of 2013 on their teaching materials
Here is the tabulation based on the research :
Sept November
No October 2014
Activity 2014 2014
.
1 2 3 4 4
Composing the
1. researcher / submission
the title
2. Pre-test
3. Giving treatment
4. Post-test
Getting the writing
5.
Scoring

D. Population And Sample


Population is a group of individual that have one or more characteristic that interesting
to be studied. Sample is a part of population which represents the population. These two
things are the main part of this research to get the research to get the final result.
1. Population
The population of this research is the seventh grade of SMPN 1 Kandangan Kediri which
have eight class per-grade and the total number of each class are 40 students.
2. Sample
In order to make it easier and clearer in conducting research, the writer take a 10 % of the
population or 40 students as the sample by using Random sample, where we take the sample
randomly.

E. Research Instrument And Technique Of Collecting Data


This research use syllabus, songs, listening scoring rubric and lesson plan, and in
lesson are pretest, whilst test, and post test activities and the explanation like bellow :
1. Pretest
Pretest is a test which is conducted before the treatment. Pretest is used to measure the
listening ability of the students before they treated using songs. The result of this test will
inform the researcher how deep the students listening and how large song gives any
influences in learning listening.

2. Treatment
In this research, researcher will apply the song in the classroom. The researcher will
explain to the students about using how to use songs. Then, the researcher will also explain
the rule of how using songs which is going to apply , there are:

a. First, divide the class in to several numbers of teams then researcher will prepare some
envelopes consider how many teams in the class. Each envelope contain a title of song and
singer. And the students will expand it by looking for the title of song related to the singer in
the pictures.
b. The researcher ask each team to sing a row like train. One row in each team.
c. The researcher play a song and there is not ready songs lyric. Each team name list the title of
song.
d. Each team will compete and by looking for the title of song with gender of music as much as
they can do in five minutes.
e. The researcher provide listening cloze (sometimes called cloze dictations or partial
dictations) require the test-taker to listen a song.
f. The researcher give the tasks that simply provide a one-word in song lyrics.
3. Post Test
After students are treated, the researcher will give them the same test and the purpose
of the test is to measure how large the song gives any influences to the students listening
ability.

SCORING RUBRIC
The rubric for students of listening ability there are :
Giving the highest score, that is 10 if the students demonstrate understanding of all hear
through song. The students can find and retrieve information from the song. The students use
indentation, headers, number, etc to listen the music. Most, if not all part of speech and/or
synonyms are identified correctly. Giving score 5 if the students demonstrates understanding
of most words through song. Most sentences demonstrate correct use of the word and reveal
the words meanings. some parts of speech and/or synonyms are identified. Giving score 3 if
the students demonstrates some understanding of the songs; avoid writing down every single
words the song lyrics. Parts of speech and/or synonyms are identified rarely.

F. TECNIQUE ANALYSIS DATA


The effect of technique is technique to analyse the hyphothesis in this research.
Whether the one variables gives any influences to another or not.
In the influence technique, the variables will treat and the result of the pretest and
postest will be comparedd. The score as the result of pretest and post test compare using
statistical formula called T-test. This research show T-score = 11,3252>t-table 5%=2,861 and
t-table=2,093.
The pattern of the t-test is :

Where :
Md : mean from the differenciate of pre-test and post-test (post test-pre test)
Xd : Deviation of each subject (d-Md)
X2d : sum of square deviation
N : sample
d.b : determined by N-1
CONCLUSION

By conducted this research we hope that this research will be give any beneficial for

all of students, teachers, institution, and also for the researcher.

We also hope that this reseachh will be accepted by our lecturer, Mr. Kusen. So we

can conduct this research and finnaly we can know the effect of teaching listening using

songs.

This research proposal also conducted to give any motivation, and knowledge, also

come aspect of reference for the others researcher.

We are realize that this proposal is not perfect, we hope that any comment or critique

will be give from another in order to make it better in the next research proposal