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DRAFT DOCUMENT

Petroleum Refining 101

Victor A. Alva, PhD. 2017


DRAFT DOCUMENT

OBJECTIVES
Provide awareness of the following:
1) The two fundamental principles of hydrocarbon chemistry that we take
advantage of to add value and make money
2) How our refinery processes use those principles to put hydrocarbon
molecules in the right place, and
3) How our refinery strategy ties in

.
BASIC PREMISES FOR A REFINERY

Why do you want to build this refinery (Strategic Considerations)


Which crude and feedstocks will be processed ?
What products should be made ?
What product quality specifications have to be met ?
What economic data should be taken for economic evaluation in the
design: feedstock prices, product values, utility costs, tax and
depreciation rules, exchange rates etc. ?
What is the location of the refinery (impacts construction and
operational logistics) ?
Where are the markets for the products (product logistics) ?
Is power and/or natural gas and/or fresh water from outside
available ?
What environmental regulations have to be met ?
etc
DRAFT DOCUMENT

GENERAL REFINERY LAYOUT


ISOM
C3=C4=iC4
Lt. Gaso ALKY
Isomerate

Alkylate

Naphtha HDU CRU Reformate


(HT) (CCR)

Kero + LGO DHT Jet/Diese


(HT) l
iC4

HGO
HCU Syn-Jet/Diesel
OP
Cutterstock
CCU Cat Gasoline
FL.D/VGO (FCC)
Cracked Pitch
Gas Oil
Pitch Coke

Coker LGO
Pitch
COKER

4
REFINERY FLOW SCHEME : HYDROSKIMMING REFINERY

Removal of Sulfur LPG


Butane
LPG
Naphtha

N aphtha Hydro
Crude Reformer Mogas
Crude Treater
Distilling Hydro
Unit Kero / Gasoil Desulf. Kero
Unit Gasoil/Diesel
Long Residue (LR)
Fuel Oil

Note: May not be a standalone refinery, but can represent the


last barrels processed in a more complex refinery
REFINERY FLOW SCHEME : SEMI-COMPLEX REFINERY

LPG

LPG
Naphtha

N aphtha Hydro
Crude Reformer Mogas
Crude Treater
Distilling Hydro
Unit Kero / Gasoil Desulf. Kero
Unit Gasoil/Diesel
Cracked
N aphtha
Fuel Oil

Long Residue (LR) Thermal Cracked G O


Gasoil
Cracked Residue
Unit
COMPLEX REFINERY WITH FCC

LPG

LPG
Naphth
a
N aphtha Hydro
Crude Reformer Moga
Crude Treater s
Distilling Hydro
Unit Kero / Gasoil Desulf. Kero
Gasoil/Diese
Unit l
Fuel Oil
Long Residue (LR) Hydro
Treater
Alkylation
FCC
Vacuum Gasoline
Distilling Waxy Distillate Cat-Cracking
LC O
Unit (VGO) Unit
H C O / Slurry

Short Residue (SR)


FROM CRUDE QUALITY TO MARKET DEMAND
FULLY-COMPLEX REFINERY

LPG
LPG
Naphtha Reforming Naphtha
Isomerization
Kero Mogas
H2
Gasoil
Hydro- Desulfurization
Kero

Fuel
(Long Waxy Cat Cracking / Gasoil/
High Diesel
Residue) Distillates Hydrocracking
Vacuum
Distillatio Fuel
Short
n Visbreaking /
Residue
Coking / Hycon
DRAFT DOCUMENT

HYDROCARBONS CONSIST OF CARBON & HYDROGEN KNOW THEM

There are key concepts to understand to guide good


hydrocarbon use decisions:

Carbon Number, measured by boiling point

Hydrogen content, measured by density

There is a Right Molecules, Right Place logic to routing


streams by boiling point and proper use of hydrogen.

9
DRAFT DOCUMENT

REFININGS 5 KEY VALUE LEVERS TARGETED TO MAXIMIZE MARGIN

feed flexibility

volume expansion

distillate & non-commodity yields

energy efficiency

utilisation
DRAFT DOCUMENT

THREE PRIMARY REFINING PROCESSES

In simple terms, the processes we operate in our refineries can be grouped


into one of three main types:

Distillation / Separation
Physical separation of molecules by boiling point

Conversion
Breaking large molecules into smaller ones

Treating
Removing contaminants or modifying molecules to meet product specifications

In some cases, an operating unit applies two or three of these types of


processes.
1
1
DRAFT DOCUMENT

CRUDE OIL CLASSIFICATION

Density (API Gravity or Specific Gravity)


141.5
Light: > 34 API or < 0.85 S G API 131.5
spgr
(Condensates are >45 API or < 0.802 S G ) spgr
141.5
131.5 API
Medium: 34 to 20 API or 0.85 to 0.934 S G
Heavy: < 20 API or > 0.934 S G

5.0

Sulfur 4.5 Athabasca


Bitumen
4.0
Low (Sweet) < 1 % wt Maya

Crude Sulfur, pct wt


3.5

High (Sour) > 1 % wt 3.0 Arab Hvy


2.5 Arab Med

2.0 Mars
Arab Lt
WTS
Chemical composition 1.5
SJV Heavy
1.0 Loreto
ANS
Paraffinic 0.5 Brent WTI
LLS
Naphthenic - Bakken

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Aromatic Crude Gravity, deg API

1
2
DRAFT DOCUMENT

TYPICAL CRUDE FRACTIONS / PROPERTIES

API Gravity 37.7 39.2 31.4 30.5 20.3 13.9


Sulfur, %wt 0.40 0.50 0.95 2.45 3.75 1.35
TAN 0.05 0.25 0.10 0.15 0.10 3.50

100

Volume 90
Fractions 80

70
Naphtha - 60
Kero 50

Diesel 40

Conv Feed 30

20
Pitch
10

Brent W TI N orth Arab Maya SJV


Slope Medium Heavy
DRAFT DOCUMENT

FOUR KEY HYDROCARBON TYPES


Formula
6-carbon
Basic Structure
example

Only single bonds between


carbon atoms
Paraffin C 6 H 14 fully saturated

One or more double bonds


between carbon atoms
un-saturated or hydrogen deficient
Olefin C 6 H 12 Does not exist in crude oil,
produced in refinery cracking processes

Naphthene C 6 H 12 Cyclic, but no double bonds

Cyclic with multiple double bonds


Aromatic C6H6 very hydrogen deficient
DRAFT DOCUMENT

GENERAL BEHAVIORS OF HYDROCARBON TYPES

Paraffins
Stable to decomposition.
Straight chain low octane, isomers higher octane.

High carbon number crack with temperature and catalyst.

Olefins
Relatively unstable; double bond can be saturated .
Not in conventional crude oil. Produced by chemical reaction/cracking.

Naphthenes
Stable
Good catalytic reformer feed stock.
Neither really good nor really bad for gasoline and diesel product.
DRAFT DOCUMENT

GENERAL BEHAVIORS OF HYDROCARBON TYPES

Aromatics
Stable. Does not crack (ring open) easily. Need catalyst and H 2 .
Often has paraffinic side chains that crack off.

High octane. Benzene, toluene, xylene are gasoline boiling range aromatics
that are also petro-chemical feed stocks.

Crude oil will also have hetero compounds which are those containing
chemically bound non hydrocarbon (sulfur, nitrogen, nickel, vanadium, oxygen).
DRAFT DOCUMENT

BOILING POINTS EACH FINISHED PRODUCT INCLUDES A RANGE

C3 C4 C6 C 10 C 15 ~C 2 0 ~C 3 0 # Carbon atoms

Diesel Pitch (Short Residue)

Jet Fuel Vacuum G as O il


C onversion Feeds
G asoline

Naphtha
LPG

100 200 300 400 500 650 1050 F Boiling


point
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 C

Distillation is the refinery process that separates streams according to boiling range.
Ranges overlap, allowing for optimization based on current product values.
DRAFT DOCUMENT

DENSITYINCREASES AS HYDROGEN CONTENTDECREASES; LARGER


MOLECULES HAVE LESS HYDROGEN (HIGHER DENSITY)
Six Carbon Atoms Ten Carbon Atoms

Hydrogen Hydrogen
Basic Structure Formula Density pct wt Formula Density pct wt

Paraffin C 6 H 14 0.66 16.3 C 10 H 22 0.73 15.5

Olefin C 6 H 12 0.68 14.3 C 10 H 20 0.75 14.3

Naphthene C 6 H 12 0.78 14.3 C 10 H 18 1.02 13.0

Aromatic C6H6 0.88 7.7 C 10 H 8 1.14 6.3


DRAFT DOCUMENT

CRACKINGBIGMOLECULESINTOSMALLERMOLECULES
RESULTS IN A VOLUME EXPANSION

Lets look at a simple example

Start with a long, paraffin Break it into seven pieces

(hexadecane) C16 Paraffin = C16H34 CH4 Methane


CH4 Methane
Apply ENERGY CH4 Methane
(e.g. heat)
C2H6 Ethane
C2H4 Ethylene (Olefin)
C3H6 Propylene (Olefin)
The sum of the pieces must have the same
C6H6 Benzene (Aromatic)
number of carbon and hydrogen atoms as
the molecule we started with C16H34

Next, we will do some math to calculate the mass and volume balances,
based on the above molecule balance
DRAFT DOCUMENT

CRACKING VOLUMEEXPANSION
By cracking a big molecule into seven smaller molecules, we end up with 2% additional
volumeFREE BARRELS available to sell:

Volume Density Mass H content


kbd pct API sp gr mln lb/d pct wt pct mln lb/d
Hexadecane 20.0 100.00 52.2 0.777 5.44 100.00 15.0 0.82

Methane (FOE) 4.2 20.8 0.795 1.16 21.2 25.1 0.29


Ethane (FOE) 2.5 12.3 0.839 0.72 13.3 20.1 0.15
Ethylene (FOE) 2.3 11.6 0.830 0.67 12.4 14.4 0.10
Propylene 5.5 27.7 139.8 0.522 1.01 18.6 14.4 0.15
Benzene 6.1 30.6 29.9 0.877 1.88 34.5 7.7 0.14
Total Product Yield 20.6 103.0 5.44 100.0 0.82
(0.00) (0.00) 0.00

This is a very simplistic example. Our conversion units


LINK TO KEY VALUE LEVER
typically have substantial volume expansion (sometimes
referred to as gain). Averages for process units in USA: volume expansion

Cat Cracker 18% We generally buy/sell by volume,


Hydrocracker 20% so volume expansion is a key to our
margin generation
Delayed Coker 12%
DRAFT DOCUMENT

TWO KEY BOILING POINT THRESHOLDS EVIDENT IN MARKET PLACE

C3 C4 C6 C 10 C 15 ~C 2 0 ~C 3 0 # Carbon atoms

Diesel Pitch (Short Residue)

Jet Fuel Vacuum G as O il


C onversion Feeds
G asoline

N aphtha Key boiling point


LPG thresholds

100 200 300 400 500 650 1050 F Boiling


point
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 C

Distillation is the refinery process that separates streams according to boiling range
Conversion processes change molecule size to move across these thresholds
Cat Cracking, Hydrocracking, Thermal Cracking, Coking
DRAFT DOCUMENT

RIGHT MOLECULES, RIGHT PLACE: BOILING POINTS

Molecules that boil at less than 650 0 F are already the right size for
inclusion in high value products, such as gasoline or diesel;
So, dont need to crack them further in an CCU or HCU
Cracked stocks may need some additional processing, such as hydrotreating to
saturate olefins or to remove sulfur.

Molecules that boil in the 650 0 F to 1000 0 F range are of medium value;
Much higher than pitch, less than gasoline or diesel;
So, should be routed to a conversion unit like CCU or HCU; to break them into
smaller molecules that will boil in the gasoline or diesel range

Get some volume expansion along the way


DRAFT DOCUMENT

RIGHT MOLECULES, RIGHT PLACE: BOILING POINTS

Molecules that boil higher than 1000 0 F are of low value;


So, should be routed to a residue conversion unit like a Delayed
Coker or Visbreaker;

If a DCU or VBU is not available, theses streams are routed to fuel oil
blending
Cutterstock is used to blend residual fuel to density and viscosity
specifications
Cutterstock selection:
should be of low boiling range (i.e. low density, to minimize volume required)
have low hydrogen content (i.e. lower alternate value).

Exception:
some straight run1000+ molecules from a low metals crude may also have low carbon
content and be suitable as CCU feed.
DRAFT DOCUMENT

Distillation / Separation
Right Molecule, Right Place
DISTILLATION IS USED IN ALMOST EVERY PROCESS UNIT

Primary Work-up
Distillation Sections
Naphtha Stabilizing
crude oil CDU Reforming
Straight run
Middle
Distillates products
Treating Stripping

Long Residue

Flashed Cracking Fractionation


HVU Distillates
Converted
products
Short Residue Residue
(pitch) Fractionation
Conversion

RESTRIC TED
CRUDE DESALTER

June 2013 26
Crude Oil Atmospheric Column
Distillation

Vacuum Column

June 2013 27

Projects & Technology Downstream


Technical
RESTRICTED
DRAFT DOCUMENT

CONVERSION PROCESSES
Carbon Concentration or Hydrogen Addition
Right Molecule, Right Place
DRAFT DOCUMENT

TYPES OF CONVERSION PROCESSES

The lighter products we desire to make have a higher hydrogen content


than our conversion feeds (i.e. molecules boiling higher than 650F)

We have a few basic process technology options:


a) Carbon Rejection (or Concentration) make low hydrogen content
molecules (i.e. coke), increasing the hydrogen content of the products
above the hydrogen content of the feed, or

b) Hydrogen Addition (i.e. pump hydrogen into the molecules) saturate


olefins created by cracking, minimizes coke formation
DRAFT DOCUMENT

CARBON REJECTION/CONCENTRATION PROCESS

Thermal Conversion
Coking (Residue) 25
Visbreaking (Residue) Dry Gas
20 Bubble size

Hydrogenation
represents
C3 / C4 mass yield

Hydrogen Content, %wt


Catalytic Conversion 15 Cat
Gasoline
Cat Cracking (VGOs, some residue) Vacuum
10 Gas Oil
Lt Cycle Oil

5 Slurry Oil
C racking
Major Considerations Coke
0
Yield controlled by starting hydrogen 0 20 40 60
content
Average Carbon Number (Atoms per Molecule)
Liquid product properties function of
depth of conversion Carbon concentrates in Coke,
Metals, nitrogen critical to catalytic activity allowing for hydrogen in light products
DRAFT DOCUMENT

HYDROGEN ADDITION PROCESS

Hydrocracking
Low hydrogen content distillates
25
Vacuum Gas Oils
20 Dry Gas Hydrowax

Hydrogenation
Hydrogen Content, %wt
Hydroconversion (Residue) C3/C 4
15
Diesel
H-Oil at Convent Vacuum
10 Lt Naphtha Gas Oil
LC-Fining at Scotford Upgrader Hvy
Naphtha
5 Bubble size
represents
Cracking mass yield

Major Considerations 0
0 10 20 30 40
Yields for a given conversion are fairly
constant, only H 2 uptake changes Average Carbon Number (Atoms per Molecule)

Liquid product properties are also fairly All products have higher hydrogen
constant.
content than the feed
Ideal for taking low hydrogen content material
from carbon concentrating processes
DRAFT DOCUMENT

RIGHT MOLECULE, RIGHT PLACE: HYDROGEN

Higher hydrogen content streams (straight-run, hydrocracker


sources)
Feed to carbon rejection/concentration units like CCU, Coker, or
Olefin Plant

Lower hydrogen content streams (CCU, Coker)


Feed to hydrogen addition units like Hydrocracker or high-pressure
hydrotreater

Dont give away hydrogen


avoid use of high hydrogen content streams as cutterstock in
residual fuel blending
FCC SCHEMATIC
Reactor vessel

Regenerator
Cyclones x2
Cyclones

Stripping
Section

Air grid Riser Reactor

Feed nozzles
Solids Flow

Vapours/Air Lift Pot


Flow

Standpipes Slide valves


FCC UNITS

RESTRICTED
FCC WORK-UP SECTION

RESTRICTED
THERMAL GASOIL UNIT (TGU)

Combitower
Naphtha minus

TC Gasoil

Vacuum
Cyclone Flasher

Long
residue
Distillate
Furnace
Residue
Furnace

Thermally
cracked
residue
THERMAL GASOIL UNIT

Combitower Vacuum
Flasher

Soaker
Cyclone

21
Coking

Delayed Coking
Most common of coking technologies

Liquid feed cracks to lighter products + coke in a large drum (long


residence time)
Coke which is produced accumulates in drum

Drums are taken off line and coke removed via HP water cutting

Fluid coking (Flexicoking)


Liquid feed is sprayed onto a bed of hot coke particles

Coke bed fluid and is partially burned to provide heat for process

25
TYPICAL COKER YIELDS & PRODUCT QUALITIES

Approximate yields Sponge

C4 & lighter gas ~ 8 - 12 wt%


Liquids ~ 60 - 65 wt %
Naphtha ~ 15 - 17 %
Distillate~ 21 - 23 %
Gas oil ~ 24 - 25 %

Coke = ~ 30 wt % (~ Feed CCR + 10 wt%)


Shot
Primary Upgrading - FlexiCoker

Essentially same as fluid coker but


additional step to completely gasify
the excess coke.
No excess coke produced.
Justification dependant on NG
pricing

34
DRAFT DOCUMENT

ENABLING PROCESSES
Molecular Rearrangement
Refinery Engines & Enablers
DRAFT DOCUMENT

MOLECULAR REARRANGEMENT
These process units are necessary and important parts of the refinery, but
dont drive molecules across the boiling point value thresholds.
Catalytic Reformers
convert low octane paraffins to higher octane aromatics
By-product of making a cyclic molecule is hydrogen that can be used
in hydrotreating or hydrocracking

Isomerization
Convert straight chain paraffin molecule to a branched molecule
Increases octane rating of the stream, but also increases vapor
pressure

Hydrotreating
Remove sulfur and nitrogen from streams to protect catalyst of next
process unit or to meet product specifications.
HYDROPROCESSING DEFINITIONS (W.R.T.
CONVERSION)
N aphtha

Hydrotreating - no intentional conversion


HDS
Feed (naphtha, kerosene, diesel) just needs cleaning up
Sulfur removal, but also nitrogen, oxygen, aromatic n
N aphtha
saturation

Different
VGO

Hydrocracking with intentional


conversion HCU
Conversion of feed into lighter products
Includes hydrotreating of feed
N aphtha
Kerosene
Diesel
HYDROPROCESSING SEVERITY
Hydroprocessing
Approximate Severities of Operation
100

80

HCU
%Conversion

60

40

VGO HDT Residue


20

HDS

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Pressure, bar 100 bar ~ 1450 psia
200 bar ~ 2900 psia
HYDROTREATING PROCESS
Recycle gas

HP
bleed
H2 make-up HPS
Wash LP
off-gas
oil
Quench LPS

Feed Product
HYDROTREATING CATALYST

1/2 Active Cage Traps

3/16 Trilobe Extrudate Arsenic Trap

1/4 Cylinder Traps

3/16 Cylinder Traps

5/32 Cylinder Traps

1/8 Cylinder Traps

3/16 Trilobe Cobalt Molybdenum Catalyst

1/8 Trilobe Cobalt Molybdenum Catalyst


5/32 Trilobe Nickel Molybdenum Catalyst
1/8 Ceramic Balls

1/2 Ceramic Balls

1/4 Ceramic Balls


Stabilizer Furnace

Reactor
Typical Hydrotreater:

(in this case a CFH)


HYDROCRACKER
Pressure (psia) Recycle gas Gas
Fractionator
Temp. (oF)
Make-up Compresso
C4-
hydrogen r

Furnace HP Separator Naphtha

Reactors
Kero
1100-2000
Waxy
distillate LP Separator Gasoil
feed 650 - 800

Desulfurization Recycle
Denitrification
Cracking
Hydrogenation
product separation 2 reactors
ISOMERIZATION PROCESS
TC-naphtha Tops
C4 minus + Isom
HC-
H2S
naphtha

S
S P
T L
N aphth HDT I Control of
A
a minu T
B Tops FBP
s

Kero
N aphth Platformer
a
CDU

Light Platformate
SEMI-REGENERATIVE REFORMER(SR)

20 - 28 bara 500 o C
500 o C 500 o C
Hydrogen-rich
Recycle gas
gas

440 o C 470 o C Separator


499 o C

Reactors and heaters

Liquid product
to stabilizer
Feed/effluent heat exchanger
Recycle gas
Naphtha feed compressor
SEMI-REGENERATIVE
SEMI-REGENERATIVE REFORMER(SR)
REFORMER UNIT
HYSOMER UNIT
245-260 o C
475-500 oF 10-25 bar
150-350 psi

Reactor Recycle
gas

Separator
Furnace

Liquid product

Feed/effluent heat exchanger Recycle gas


Make-up compressor
Tops
hydrogen
Projects & Technology Downstream Technical March 53
2013

RESTRICTED
ADSORBERS AND 1 HYSOMER REACTOR
REFINERY UTILITY SYSTEMS
Utility Systems Refinery Process Units
BOILER A BOILER B BOILER C BLR A BLR B BLR C $/tSRF $m/yr
Efficiency 89% 87% 85% Fuel Oil, tSRF/h 7.7 7.9 0.0 TBD #VALU
Blowdown %
Blowdown 7.00 t/hr
7% 7%
7.00 t/hr
7%
0.00 t/hr
Natural Gas, tSRF/h
0 0 0 280 0.0
E!
Import NG
Outlet H3136 kJ/kg 3136 kJ/kg 3136 kJ/kg Other refinery Fuel Oil, tSRF/h 0.3 Electricity(STG) 3.8 MW $/MW $m/yr
Fired duty 85.5 MW 87.4 MW 0.0 MW Electricity(Import)14.2 50 6.2
TOTAL Electricity Use MW
18.0
100.0 t/hr 100.0 t/hr 0.0 t/hr
Total SOxbubble, t/yr 2785 TOTAL Fuel for Steam
MW
+ Power Import
#VALUE!
Fuels
HPS 80.0 barg
400 C
200.0 t/hr 20.0 t/hr 60.0 t/hr 60.0 t/hr 30.0 t/hr 30.0 t/hr
3136 kJ/kg

PROCESS
Efficiency 32%
Out H 3033 kJ/kg 1 ST
36%
2919 kJ/kg 2 STs
45%
2674 kJ/kg 2 STs
~
128 kJ/kg
94.16 t/hr Import
Output 1.7 MW 3.6 MW 3.8 MW 124.16 t/hr
40.0 t/hr

Condensers P
-0.78 barg
Electricity
MPS 20.0 barg
235 C
120.0 t/hr
2857 kJ/kg 10.0 t/hr 40.0 t/hr 40.0 t/hr 30.0 t/hr
40%
PROCESS 2741 kJ/kg MPS MPS HPS
4 STs
50.0 t/hr 1.3 MW Users Users Users

LPS 3.5barg
165 C
920 kJ/kg OWS 1321 kJ/kg
HP steam
206.4 t/hr
2782 kJ/kg
214.0 t/hr
82.0 barg
27.3 t/hr 35.0 t/hr 130.0 t/hr

40.85 t/hr
MP steam
108 C 458 LPS LPS
kJ/kg VENT Users Users 5.59 t/hr 83.31 t/hr
0.32 barg 34.41 t/hr

70 C OWS
LP steam
452 kJ/kg
108 C
0.000 C 14.10 t/hr Demi water
PROCESS 184.2 t/hr #######

Condensate

Cooling Water Instrument Air


Plant Air BFW
CW supply
CW return
Hot Oil or Industrial gases
Hot water Nitrogen
Instr. Air, N2

Sour water Sour water


Effluent
Treatment
Effluent water
If the power fails
..

the lights go out 5/15/2013


6

Shell Global Solutions International BV RESTRICTED


Except for
one..

5
7

5/15/2013

Shell Global Solutions International BV RESTRICTED


PROCESS WATER- WASTE WATER INTEGRATION
BFW , cooling water
system

Waste Water Treatment


Shell Global Solutions International RESTRIC TED
BV 9
DRAFT DOCUMENT

SUMMARY

Maximizing refinery margin is about putting the right molecules in the


right place.

Knowing the carbon and hydrogen content of a stream is critical to


understanding the best place to route that stream

Emphasis is on creating the most value, not necessarily running the


highest rate. Sometimes those drivers align, but it is important to know
the constraints.

Every refinery has a unique configuration or type of feed. Work with


your local Economics & Scheduling team to identify opportunities to
maximize hydrocarbon margin generation.
DRAFT DOCUMENT

Q &A
DRAFT DOCUMENT

Operating refineries in the USA- WWW.EIA.GOV

Less refineries over time.

61
DRAFT DOCUMENT

Operating refineries in the USA- WWW.EIA.GOV

But bigger.

62