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Simulating an AC Motor Drive

Introduction
DynamicBraking
ModulationTechniques
Open-LoopVolts/HertzControl
Closed-LoopSpeedControlwithSlipCompensation
Flux-OrientedControl
DirectTorqueControl
Example:ACMotorDrive

Introduction
Inthissection,youwilllearnhowtousetheACdrive modelsoftheElectricDrives
library.First,wewillspecifythetypesofmotors,converters,andcontrollersusedinthe
sixACdrivemodelsofthelibrarydesignatedAC1toAC6.TheAC1,AC2,AC3,and
AC4modelsarebasedonthethree-phaseinductionmotor.Thismotorhasa
three-phasewindingatthestatorandawoundrotororasquirrel-cagerotor.The
squirrel-cagerotorconsistsofslotsofconductingbarsembeddedintherotoriron.The
conductingbarsareshort-circuitedtogetherateachendoftherotorbyconducting
rings.TheAC5modelisbasedonawoundrotorsynchronousmotor,andtheAC6
modelusesapermanentmagnetsynchronousmotor.Themodelsofthesethreetypes
ofmotorsareavailableintheMachineslibrary.TheseACmotorsarefedbyavariable
ACvoltageandfrequencyproducedbyaninverter.Thetypeofinverterusedinthesix
ACdrivemodelsisavoltagesourceinverter(VSI)inthesensethatthisinverterisfedby
aconstantDCvoltage.Thisconstantvoltageisprovidedbyanuncontrolleddiode
rectifierandacapacitor(capacitiveDCbusvoltage).

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Dynamic Braking
WhentheDCbusisprovidedbyadioderectifier,thedrivedoesn'thaveabidirectional
powerflowcapabilityandthereforecannotperformregenerativebraking.IntheAC1,
AC2,AC3,AC4,andAC6models,abrakingresistorinserieswithachopperensures
thebrakingofthemotor-loadsystem.Thisbrakingschemeiscalleddynamicbraking.It
isplacedinparallelwiththeDCbusinordertopreventitsvoltagefromincreasingwhen
themotordecelerates.Withdynamicbraking,thekineticenergyofthemotor-load
systemisconvertedintoheatdissipatedinthebrakingresistor.

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Modulation Techniques
TheVSIinvertersusedintheACdrivemodelsofthelibraryarebasedontwotypesof
modulation,hysteresismodulationandspacevectorpulsewidthmodulation(PWM).
Thehysteresismodulationisafeedbackcurrentcont rolmethodwherethemotorcurrent
tracksthereferencecurrentwithinahysteresisband.Thefollowingfigureshowsthe
operationprincipleofthehysteresismodulation.Thecontrollergeneratesthesinusoidal
referencecurrentofdesiredmagnitudeandfrequencythatiscomparedwiththeactual
motorlinecurrent.Ifthecurrentexceedstheupperlimitofthehysteresisband,the
upperswitchoftheinverterarmisturnedoffandthelowerswitchisturnedon.Asa
result,thecurrentstartstodecay.Ifthecurrentcrossesthelowerlimitofthehysteresis
band,thelowerswitchoftheinverterarmisturnedoffandtheupperswitchisturnedon.
Asaresult,thecurrentgetsbackintothehysteresisband.Hence,theactualcurrentis
forcedtotrackthereferencecurrentwithinthehysteresisband.
Operation Principle of Hysteresis Modulation

Thefollowingfigureshowsthehysteresiscurrentcontrolmodulationscheme,consisting
ofthreehysteresiscomparators,oneforeachphase.Thistypeofclosed-loopPWMis
usedinAC3andAC5models.
Typical Hysteresis Current Controller
Thespacevectormodulationtechniquediffersfromthehysteresismodulationinthat
therearenotseparatecomparatorsusedforeachofthethreephases.Instead,a
referencevoltagespacevectorVSisproducedasawhole,sampledatafixedfrequency,
andthenconstructedthroughadequatetimingofadjacentnonzeroinvertervoltage
spacevectorsV1toV 6andthezerovoltagespacevectorsV0,V 7.Asimplifieddiagram
ofaVSIinverterisshownbelow.Inthisdiagram,theconductionstateofthethreelegs
oftheinverterisrepresentedbythreelogicvariables,SA,SB,andSC.Alogical1
meansthattheupperswitchisconductingandlogical0meansthatthelowerswitchis
conducting.
Simplified Diagram of a VSI PWM Inverter
TheswitchingofSA,SB,SCresultsineightstatesfortheinverter.Theswitchingstates
andthecorrespondingphasetoneutralvoltagesaresummarizedinInverterSpace
VoltageVectors .Thesixactivevectorsareanangleof60degreesapartanddescribea
hexagonboundary.Thetwozerovectorsareattheorigin.
ForthelocationoftheVSvectorshowninInverterSpaceVectorVoltages,asan
example,thewaytogeneratetheinverteroutputistousetheadjacentvectorsV1and
V2onapart-timebasistosatisfytheaverageoutputdemand.ThevoltageVScanbe
resolvedas

whereVaandV barethecomponentsofVSalongV1andV 2,respectively.Considering


theperiodTc duringwhichtheaverageoutputshouldmatchthecommand,wecanwrite
thetimedurationsofthetwostates1and2andthezerovoltagestateas

Inverter Space Voltage Vectors

State SA SB SC Inverter Space


Operation Voltage
Vector

0 1 1 1 Freewheeling
1 1 0 0 Active
2 1 1 0 Active
3 0 1 0 Active
4 0 1 1 Active
5 0 0 1 Active
6 1 0 1 Active
7 0 0 0 Freewheeling

Inverter Space Vector Voltages

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Open-Loop Volts/Hertz Control


TheACmachinestatorfluxisequaltothestatorvoltagetofrequencyratiosince

where

therefore

SincethemotorisfedwithavariableACsourcevoltageandfrequency,itisimportantto
maintainthevolts/Hzconstantintheconstanttorqueregionifmagneticsaturationisto
beavoided.Atypicalvolts/Hzcharacteristicisshownbelow.Noticethatthestraightline
hasasmallvoltageboostinordertocompensateforresistancedropatlowfrequency.
Open-loopvolts/Hzcontrolisusedwithlow-dynamicsapplicationssuchaspumpsor
fanswhereasmallvariationofmotorspeedwithloadistolerable.TheAC1modelis
basedonanopen-loopvolts/Hzcontroller.
Volts/Hz Characteristics with Compensation at Low Frequency
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Closed-Loop Speed Control with Slip Compensation


Inthistypeofcontrol,aslipspeedcommandisaddedtothemeasuredrotorspeedto
producethedesiredinverterfrequency.API-basedspeedregulatorproducestheslip
command.Thedesiredinverterfrequencygeneratesthevoltagecommandthrougha
volts/Hzcharacteristicsuchastheoneshownabove.TheAC2modelisbasedona
closed-loopspeedcontrolthatusesvolts/Hzandslipregulation.

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Flux-Oriented Control
TheconstructionofaDCmachineissuchthatthefieldfluxisperpendiculartothe
armatureflux.Beingorthogonal,thesetwofluxesproducenonetinteractiononone
another.AdjustingthefieldcurrentcanthereforecontroltheDCmachineflux,andthe
torquecanbecontrolledindependentlyoffluxbyadjustingthearmaturecurrent.AnAC
machineisnotsosimplebecauseoftheinteractionsbetweenthestatorandtherotor
fields,whoseorientationsarenotheldat90degreesbutvarywiththeoperating
conditions.YoucanobtainDCmachine-likeperformanceinholdingafixedand
orthogonalorientationbetweenthefieldandarmaturefieldsinanACmachineby
orientingthestatorcurrentwithrespecttotherotorfluxsoastoattainindependently
controlledfluxandtorque.Suchacontrolschemeiscalledflux-orientedcontrolorvector
control.Vectorcontrolisapplicabletobothinductionandsynchronousmotors.Wewill
seenowhowitappliestoinductionmotors.
Consideringthed-qmodeloftheinductionmachineinthereferenceframerotatingat
synchronousspeed ,

where

Thefield-orientedcontrolimpliesthatthe componentofthestatorcurrentwouldbe
alignedwiththerotorfieldandthe componentwouldbeperpendicularto .This
canbeaccomplishedbychoosing tobethespeedoftherotorfluxandlockingthe
phaseofthereferenceframesystemsuchthattherotorfluxisalignedpreciselywiththe
daxis,resultingin

and

whichimpliesthat

andthat

Italsofollowsthat

TheanalogywithDCmachineperformanceisnowclear.Theelectrictorqueis
proportionaltothe component,whereastherelationbetweentheflux andthe
componentisgivenbyafirst-orderlineartransferfunctionwithatimeconstant / .
Youcannotdirectlymeasuretherotorfluxorientationinasquirrel-cagerotorinduction
machine.Itcanonlybeestimatedfromterminalmeasurements.Analternativewayisto
usethesliprelationderivedabovetoestimatethefluxpositionrelativetotherotor,as
shown.Thelattercontrolschemeiscalledindirectfield-orientedcontrolandisusedin
theAC3model.
Rotor Flux Position Obtained from the Slip and Rotor Positions

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Direct Torque Control


Thefield-orientedcontrolisanattractivecontrolmethodbutithasaseriousdrawback:it
reliesheavilyonpreciseknowledgeofthemotorparameters.Therotortimeconstantis
particularlydifficulttomeasureprecisely,andtomakemattersworseitvarieswith
temperature.
Amorerobustcontrolmethodconsistsfirstinestimatingthemachinestatorfluxand
electrictorqueinthestationaryreferenceframefromterminalmeasurements.The
followingrelationsareused
Theestimatedstatorfluxandelectrictorquearethencontrolleddirectlybycomparing
themwiththeirrespectivedemandedvaluesusinghysteresiscomparators.Theoutputs
ofthetwocomparatorsarethenusedasinputsignalsofanoptimalswitchingtable.The
followingtableoutputstheappropriateswitchingstatefortheinverter.
Switching Table of Inverter Space Vectors

S(1) S(2) S(3) S(4) S(5) S(6)

1
1 0
-1
1
-1 0
-1

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Example: AC Motor Drive


Inthisexample,youwillbuildandsimulatethesimpleinductionmotordrivesystemin
InductionMotorDriveExampleCircuit.
Induction Motor Drive Example Circuit
Thisstep-by-stepexampleillustratestheuseoftheAC4modelwitha200hpinduction
motorparametersetduringtorqueregulation.TheAC4blockmodelsaDTCdrive.
Duringthisexample,themotorisconnectedtoafananditsreactiontotorquestepsis
simulated.
Inthistutorial,youlearnabout
GettingtheAC4ModelfromtheElectricDrivesLibrary
ConnectingtheAC4ModeltoaVoltageSource
ConnectingtheAC4ModeltoaMechanicalLoad
DefiningtheSetPoint
SettingtheFixed-StepSimulationEnvironment
SettingtheFixed-StepSimulationEnvironment
SettingtheHighPowerDriveParameterSet
SettingtheMotorInertiaValue
SettingtheBrakingChopperResistanceValue
SettingtheDCBusInitialVoltageValue
SettingtheAC4ControllerParameters

Getting the AC4 Model from the Electric Drives Library


1. Openanewwindowandsaveitasac_example .
2. OpentheElectricDriveslibrary.Youcanopenthelibrarybytyping
electricdrivelib intheMATLABCommandWindoworbyusingthe
SimulinkLibraryBrowser.TheAC4modelislocatedinsidetheACdriveslibrary.
CopytheAC4blockanddropitinthe ac_example window.
AC4 Model Inside the Drives Library
Connecting the AC4 Model to a Voltage Source
AswiththeDCexample,youmustnowconnecttheAC4blocktoapropervoltage
source:
1. OpentheElectricalSourceslibraryandcopytheThree-PhaseSourceblockinto
yourcircuit.ConnectthevoltagesourceoutputsA,B,andCtotheAC4A,B,
andCinputs,respectively.
Inthisexample,wewillbedrivinga200hpinductionmotorof460Vnominal
armaturevoltageand60Hznominalfrequency.AsspecifiedintheDCexample,
thevoltagesourceamplitudeandfrequencyvaluesneededforeachdrivemodelof
theElectricDriveslibrarycanbefoundinthereferencenotes.Thenominalvalues
ofthecorrespondingmotorsarealsoincluded.Thefollowingtablecontainsthe
valuescorrespondingtotheAC4200hpmodel.
AC4, 200 HP Drive Specifications

Drive Input Voltage

Amplitude 460V

Frequency 60Hz

Motor Nominal
Values
Power 200hp

Speed 1800
rpm

Voltage 460V

WewillthussettheACsourcevoltageamplitudeandfrequencyvaluesto460V
and60Hz,respectively.
2. SettheACsourcephase-to-phasermsvoltagevalueto460V,andthefrequency
to60Hz.NametheACsource 460 V 60 Hz .
Inordertorepresentareal-lifethree-phasesource,youmustspecifycorrect
sourceresistance RandinductanceLvalues.Theproceduretodeterminethese
valueshasbeendiscussedaboveinthestep-by-stepexampleConnectingthe
DC3ModeltoaVoltageSource.Followingthisprocedure,youdeterminea
resistancevalueof0.0056andaninductancevalueof0.15mH.
3. SettheACsourceresistancevalueto0.0056andtheinductanceto0.15mH.

Connecting the AC4 Model to a Mechanical Load


TheMec_TinputoftheAC4blockrepresentstheloadtorqueappliedtotheshaftofthe
inductionmotor.Inthiscase,theloadtorqueisopposedbyafan.Thistypeoftorqueis
typicallyaquadraticfunctionofthespeed,asshownin Equation4-5:

(4-5)

where isthespeedinrad/sand isthespeedinrpm.Youwillnowbuildsucha


load.
Tocomputethemechanicalloadtorque,thespeedoftheinductionmotorisneeded.As
discussedintheDCexample,thespeedvaluecanbeobtainedfromtheMotoroutput
vectoroftheAC4model.Asshown,theMotorvectoriscomposedofthemoutput
vectoroftheinductionmotor.
Motor Vector
Inordertoextractmotorvariablevaluesfromthisvector,theMachineMeasurement
Demuxblockisneeded.ThisblockislocatedintheMachineslibrary.
1. OpentheMachineslibrary.CopytheMeasurementDemuxblockinto
ac_example .Select asynchronous machine intheMachine Type field
andextracttherotorspeed.
Toobtaintheloadtorque,thespeedvaluemustbemultipliedbytheconstant K
ofEquation4-5(thespeedishereinrad/s).
2. Buildthesubsystemofthefollowingfigureandnameit Fan.
Fan Block

TheconstantKshouldbeimposedsothatatnominalspeed,themotordevelops
nominaltorque.ThistorquecanbedeterminedusingEquation4-4.Usingthis
equationwefindanominalvalueof790N.m.Finally,Equation4-5givesusaK
valueof0.022.
3. SettheconstantvalueKto0.022.
4. ConnecttheinputandoutputoftheFanblocktotheMotoroutputvectorand
Mec_TinputoftheAC4block,respectively.Yourschematicshouldnowlooklike
thefollowing:
Building the Example Circuit

Defining the Set Point


Wemustnowdefinethesetpoint(SP)inputofAC4.Duringthisexample,wewill
controltheinductionmotor'storqueandimposeaseriesoftorquesetpoints.Aseriesof
setpointscanbedefinedwiththehelpoftheTimerblock.
1. OpentheControlBlockssectionoftheExtralibraryandcopytheTimerinto
ac_example .ConnecttheblocktothesetpointinputoftheAC4modeland
nameitTorque reference .
TheTimerblockgeneratesasignalchangingatspecifiedtimes.Duringthis
example,wewillgeneratethefollowingtorqueseries:
Torque Set Point Series

t (s) Torque Set


Point (N.m)

0 0

0.02 600

0.25 0

0.5 -600

0.75 0

2. SettheTime fieldoftheTimerblockto[0.02 0.25 0.5 0.75] .Setthe


Amplitude fieldofthetimerblockto [600 0 -600 0] .

Visualizing Internal Signals


YoumustnowusetheAC4modeloutputstovisualizeinterestingsignalswithascope.
Supposeyouneedtovisualizethefollowingsignals:
Themotortorquevalueandsetpoint
Themotorspeed
Themotorfluxmodulus
Themotorstatoriccurrents
TheDCbusvoltage

Notethatallmodelinput-outputdescriptionscanbefoundinthecorresponding
referencenotes.AllmotorvariablevaluescanbereadviatheMotorvector.TheConv.
vectorcontainsallconverterrelateddata.TheCtrlvectorincludesallreferencesignals
andothercontrolvalues.
Aswedidforthefanblock,wewillusetheMachineMeasurementDemuxblocktoread
themotorvariables.FortheConv.andCtrlvectors,wewilluseSelectorblocksofthe
SimulinkSignalRoutinglibrary.
ThecontentsoftheConv.vectorcanbeeasilydeterminedbyaddingaMultimeterblock
tothemodel.TheDCbusvoltage,namedUDC: AC4/Rectifier_3ph ,isthe10th
signalofoutputvectorConv.
Multimeter Window

Followingtheinput-outputdescriptionofthereferencenotes,thetorquereferencesignal
isthethirdsignalofoutputvectorCtrl.
1. Buildthesubsystembelowinordertoextractalltheneededvisualization
signals.Namethesubsystem Signal Selector .
Signal Selector Subsystem
IntheMachineMeasurementDemuxblock,selectthefollowingsignals:stator
currents(ia,ib,ic),statorfluxes,rotorspeed,andelectromagnetictorque.The
rad2rpmblockshownabovecontainstheconstant30/ inordertoconvertthe
rotorspeedissuedbytheMachineMeasurementDemuxblockfromrad/sto
rpm.AReal-ImagtoComplexblockandaComplextoMagnitude-Angleblock
areusedtocomputethemagnitudeofthefluxvector.
2. Copyascopetoyourmodel.Itwillbeusedtodisplaytheoutputsignalsofthe
SignalSelectorblock.Openthe Scope Parameters dialogbox.Onthe
General tab,setthenumberofaxesto 5,setthesimulationtimerangeto
auto,anduseadecimationof25.CleartheLimit Data Points to last check
boxontheData historytab.ConnectthefiveoutputsoftheSignalSelector
blocktotheinputsofthescope.

Setting the Fixed-Step Simulation Environment


Alldrivemodelsofthelibraryarediscretemodels.Inordertosimulateyoursystem,you
mustnowspecifythecorrectsimulationtimestepandsetthefixed-stepsolveroption.
RecommendedsampletimevaluesforDCdrives,ACdrives,andmechanicalmodels
canbefoundintheRemarkssectionsofthecorrespondingblockreferencepages.The
recommendedsampletimefortheAC4modelis1s.
1. OpentheSimPowerSystemslibraryandcopyaPowerguiblockinto
ac_example .OpenthePowergui,click Configure Parameters ,andinthe
Powerguiblockparametersdialogboxset Simulation type toDiscrete .Set
thesampletimeto1s.
Yourcircuitshouldnowlooklike InductionMotorDriveExampleCircuit.
2. OpentheSimulation/Configuration Parameters dialogbox.Selectthe
fixed-step ,Discrete (no continuous states) solveroption.Setthe
stoptimeto 1sandthefixed-stepsizeto Ts.

Beforesimulatingyourcircuit,youmustfirstsetthecorrectAC4internalparameters.

Setting the High Power Drive Parameter Set


AsexplainedintheDCexample,manydrivemodelsoftheElectricDriveslibraryhave
twosetsofparameters:alowpowersetandahighpowerset.Bydefault,allmodelsare
initiallyloadedwiththelowpowerset.TheAC4modelparameterscurrentlyloadedin
ac_example arethoseofa3hpdrive.

Younowsetthehighpowerdriveparameters,whicharethoseofa200hpdrive.Todo
this,youusethe LoadbuttonoftheuserinterfaceasspecifiedintheDCexample:
1. Opentheuserinterfacebydouble-clickingtheAC4block.Theinterfaceisshown
below:
AC4 User Interface
2. Toloadthe200hpparameters,clicktheLoadbutton.
3. Selectthe ac4_200hp.mat fileandclick Load.
The200hpparametersarenowloaded.

Setting the Motor Inertia Value


Youmustnowsetthemotorinertiavalue.Notethattheinertiavaluescurrentlyspecified
ineachACandDCmodelare"no-load"inertiasthatonlyrepresenttheinertiaofthe
rotor.Ifthemotoriscoupledtoaload,thesevaluesmustbeincreasedbytheload
inertias.Inthiscase,thecurrentvalueoftheinertiaamountsto3.1kg*m^2.Assume
thatthecombinedinertiaofthemotorandthefanamountsto10kg*m^2.Notethatthe
useofaflexibleshaftconnectedbetweenthemotorandthefanwouldallowdecoupling
ofthemotorandloadinertias.Inthatcase,theinertiavalueoftheAC4blockwouldonly
bethesumoftherotorandshaftinertias.
1. IntheAsynchronous Machine sectionofthedialogbox,changetheinertia
valueto10kg*m^2.
2. ClickOKtoapplythechangesandclosethedialogbox.

Setting the Braking Chopper Resistance Value


Thethree-phaseinverteroftheDTCsystemisfedbyaDCvoltageproducedbya
three-phasedioderectifier.Acapacitorlocatedattheoutputoftherectifierreducesthe
DCbusvoltageripples.Abrakingchopperblockhasalsobeenaddedbetweenthe
rectifierblockandtheinverterblock,inordertolimittheDCbusvoltagewhenthemotor
feedsbackenergytothedrive(shownbelow).Thisenergyis"burned"througha
resistancewhentheDCbusvoltageistoohigh.
Braking Chopper

TheparametersofthebrakingchopperareavailableintheConverters and DC bus


sectionofthedialogbox,asshownbelow:
Converters and DC Bus Section of the User Interface
ThebrakingchopperparametersarecurrentlysettolimittheDCbusvoltagetoabout
700V.RegardingthepowerPtobedissipatedandtheDCbusvoltagelimit ,you
canusethefollowingequationtosetthechopperresistancevalue:

Aresistanceof3.3 willdissipate200hpat700V.

Setting the DC Bus Initial Voltage Value


NoticethattheDCbuscapacitancehasalargevaluetoreduceDCvoltageripplesto
smallvalues.TheAC4modeldoesnotincludeaDCbuscapacitorpreloadsystem.If
youstartthesimulationwithtoosmallaninitialbusvoltage,toohighinitialcurrentswill
bedrawnfromtherectifiertochargethecapacitor.Thesehighcurrentvaluescould
damageareal-lifesystem.YoumustthussetaninitialDCbusvoltagevaluetoavoid
suchcurrents.Thisinitialbusvoltageshouldbeequaltotherectifiedpeakvalueofthe
ACsource.IftheACvoltagesourceamplitudeisequalto460V,therectifiedDCbus
voltageobtainedwithacapacitorwouldbeabout V.
1. Double-clickthePowerguiblocklocatedatthetoplevelofac_example .Click
theInitial States Setting button.Setthe Uc_AC4/Braking chopper/Cbus
valueto650V.Click ApplyandthenClose.
Setting the DC Bus Initial Voltage Value

Setting the AC4 Controller Parameters


ThecontrolsystemofAC4hastwomainparts,aspeedcontrollerandatorqueandflux
controller(DTC).Informationonthesetwopartscanbefoundinthecorresponding
referencenotes.Tohaveaquickideaoftheinternalstructureofthedrivecontrol
system,aschematicisavailableinsidetheuserinterfaceofthemodel.Let'sopenthe
schematicsrelatedtotheAC4model.
1. Opentheuserinterface.ClicktheControllersectionandthenthe Schematic
button.Youshouldseethecontrollerschematicsshown.
Controller Schematics of the User Interface
Thespeedcontrollerconsistsofasimpleproportional-integralregulator.The
parametersofthiscontrolleraretheproportionalandintegralgains,thespeed
rampvalues,thelow-passfiltercutofffrequency,thetorquereferencelimits,and
thesamplingtime.Inthisexample,wewillonlycontrolthemotortorque;the
speedcontrollerisnotused.RefertoSettingtheDC3ControllerParametersand
SimulationResults formoredetailsonhowtotrimaPIcontroller.
RegardingtheDTCcontroller,thereisnotmuchtotrim.Asyoucanseebelow,
theparametersarethetorqueandfluxbandwidths,theinitialmachineflux,the
maximumswitchingfrequency,andtheDTCcontrollersamplingtime.Allthese
parametersarealreadytrimmedandshouldnormallynotbemodified.
Controller Section of the User Interface

Thedefaultregulationmodeisspeedregulation.Inordertohavetorque
regulation,youmustchangetheregulationmodeinthe Controllersectionofthe
userinterface.
2. IntheControllersectionoftheuserinterface,select Torque regulation for
theRegulation type field.Click OKtoapplythechangesandclosethedialog
box.

Thecircuitisnowreadyforsimulation.

Simulation Results
Thesimulationresultsareshownbelow.
Simulation Results
Observethemotor'sfasttorqueresponsetothetorquesetpointchanges.From0.02s
to0.25s,thefanspeedincreasesbecauseofthe600N.maccelerationtorque
producedbytheinductionmotor.Att=0.25s,theelectromagnetictorquejumpsdown
to0N.mandthespeeddecreasesbecauseoftheloadtorqueopposedbythefan.Att
=0.5s,themotortorquedevelopsa-600N.mtorqueandallowsbrakingofthefan.
Duringbrakingmode,powerissentbacktotheDCbusandthebusvoltageincreases.
Asplanned,thebrakingchopperlimitstheDCbusvoltageto700V.Att=0.75s,the
electromagnetictorquejumpsbackto0N.mandthespeedsettlesaround-10rpmand
decreasestoward0rpm.Noticethatthefluxstaysaround0.8Wbthroughoutthe
simulation.Thefluxandtorqueoscillationamplitudesareslightlyhigherthan0.02Wb
and10N.mrespectivelyasspecifiedintheuserinterface.Thisisduetothecombined
effectsofthe15sDTCcontrollersamplingtime,thehysteresiscontrol,andthe
switchingfrequencylimitation.
Itisinterestingtovisualizetherotatingfluxproducedbythestator.Todoso,useaXY
scopefromtheSinkslibrary.
1. OpentheSinkslibrary.
2. CopyanXYscopeinsidetheSignalSelectorblockof ac_example .
3. Connectthescopeasshown.
4. Runanewsimulation.
Adding a XY Graph to Visualize the Rotating Statoric Flux

ThefollowingfigureshowsthesimulationresultsoftheXYscope.Therotatingfieldis
clearlyvisible.Itsmodulusisabout0.8Wbanditsbandwidthisslightlybiggerthan0.2
Wb.
Rotating Statoric Flux
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SimulatingaDCMotorDrive MechanicalModels

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