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# Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part Eleven

In Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part Two ", I indicated the lightning
protection design process involves a number of design steps as in Fig.1.

## Step#1: Characteristics of the Structure to Be Protected

Explained in above Article
Step#2: Risk Assessment Study

## Methods Of Calculations For Risk Assessment Study

The risk assessment study can be done by (4) different methods as follows:

## 1- Manual Method (equations and tables method),which will be explained as

per:
IEC 62305-2,
NFPA780.

2-Software Method,
3- Excel Sheets Method,
4-Online Calculators Method.

First: Manual Method (Equations And Tables Method) as per IEC 62305-2

The Manual Method (Equations and Tables Method) for Calculations of Risk Assessment Study as per IEC
62305-2 can be reviewed in the following Articles:
Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part Two
Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part Three
Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part Four
Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part Five
Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part Six

First: Manual Method (Equations And Tables Method) as per NFPA 780

The Manual Method (Equations and Tables Method) for Calculations of Risk Assessment Study as per IEC
62305-2 can be reviewed in the following Articles:

## Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part Seven

Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part Eight
Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part Nine
Second: Software Method For Performing The Risk Assessment Study

## As we see in the previous Articles of the First Method: Manual Method

(Equations and Tables Method) that the Manual Method is time-consuming
and not always easy to apply the procedures and data given.

## Hence, most of the lightning designers use various types of software to

perform the Risk Assessment Study. I will explain some of these software
programs which are:

S/N Program By
1 StrikeRisk V5.0 Furse Company
Faculty of Engineering- Aristotle University
2 RAPAL
of Thessaloniki
3 Riesgo Applicationes Tecnologicas Company

Today, I will explain the first software: Strike Risk V5.0 as follows.

I explained the first software: StrikeRisk V5.0 in Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection
Systems Part Ten ".

Today, I will explain the Second software: RAPAL for performing the Risk Assessment Study: Software
Method.

## Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems

Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part One

RAPAL Software

## First: Why using RAPAL Software?

RAPAL is one of the most useful software programs, using risk analysis in
accordance with IEC 62305-2:2006, for the evaluation of the necessity for lightning
protection of structures and connected services.
The software (RAPAL), developed in Visual Basic, runs as a Microsoft Windows
application and features a user-friendly graphics interface.
The application software is a useful tool for engineers and can also be used for
educational purposes in high voltage engineering courses.

When you run the software after installation the start window will appear which gives

## 1. the authority that produces this software: Faculty of Engineering- Aristotle

University of Thessaloniki - Greece,
2. the followed international standard: IEC 62305-2:2006
Click IEC 62305-2:2006 button to begin using RAPAL software.

## This program consists of (7) main windows which are:

1. Structure's Dimensions,
2. Structure's Attributes,
3. Environmental Influences,
4. Conductive Electric Service Lines,
5. Protection Measures,
6. Type Of Loss,
7. Results.

Notes:

## Each one of these main windows includes some sub-windows.

Each main and sub-main window includes some boxes for data
selection/entry.

## This window divided to (2) sub-windows as follows:

1. Basic Structure,

## 1.1 Basic Structure Sub-window

In this sub-window, select the type of the basic structure from the following types:

## Type Of The Basic Structure Defining Parameters

Rectangular with a flat roof (Fig.1) Enter width (W), length (L) and
height (H) all in meters
Rectangular with a piched gabled
Enter width (W), length (L), height 1
roof(Fig.2)
(H1) and height 2 (H2) all in meters
Cylindrical (Fig.3) Enter diameter (D) and height (H) all
in meters
Complex with a known collection Enter Ad/b and Am all in square
area (Fig.4) meters

Where:
Ad/b is the collection area of the isolated structure.
Am is the collection area of flashes striking near the structure. (Extends to a line
located at a distance of 250 m from the perimeter of the structure).

Fig.1
Fig.2
Fig.3
Fig.4

Also in this sub-window, answer the question: Does an adjacent structure exist?

## If you select You will be go to Adjacent structure sub-

Yes window
If you select You will be go to Structure's Attributes
No Window

Note: this sub-window will appear only if you select yes as answer for the question: Does
an adjacent structure exist? In above Basic Structure Sub-window.
In this sub-window, select the type of the adjacent structure from the following types:

## Type Of The Adjacent Structure Defining Parameters

Enter width (W), length (L) and
Rectangular with a flat roof (Fig.5)
height (H) all in meters
Rectangular with a piched gabled Enter width (W), length (L), height 1
roof (Fig.6) (H1) and height 2 (H2) all in meters
Enter diameter (D) and height (H) all
Cylindrical (Fig.7)
in meters
Complex with a known collection
area (Fig.8)

Where:

Fig.5
Fig.6
Fig.7
Fig.8

## 2- Structure's Attributes Window

Structure's Attributes Window

In this window, we have (3) boxes, each box represent a different parameter as follows:

Selected
Parameter Box Name Box Selections
Value
Explosive 1
Parameter rf in Risk of physical High 0.1
table C.4, IEC damage (include Ordinary 0.01
62305-2 fire) Low 0.001
None 0
Parameter KS1 in Structure Poor 1
page 109, IEC screening Average 0.2
62305-2 effectiveness Good 0.01
Parameter KS3 in Unscreened 1
internal wiring
Table B.5, IEC
type Screened 0.1
62305-2
Note: when you make a selection, the value of the parameter appears in
the right corner of the box (for example: selection of ordinary, a value of
0.01 appears)

## Environmental Influences Window

In this window, we have (4) boxes, some of these boxes represent different parameters
as follows:

Selected
Parameter Box Name Box Selections
Value
0.25
Lower than
Similar in 0.5
Factor Cd/b in
Basic structure height
Table A.2, IEC
location factor Isolated 1
62305-2
structure
2
Exposed hilltop
Urban and tall 0
buildings
Factor Ce in Table 0.1
Environmental Urban
A.5, IEC 62305-2
factor 0.5
Suburban
1
Rural
0.25
Lower than
Similar in 0.5
height
Table A.2, IEC structure
Isolated 1
62305-2 location factor
structure
2
Exposed hilltop
Notes:
when you make a selection, the value of the parameter appears in
the right corner of the box (for example: selection of isolated structure, a
value of 1 appears)
Box of Adjacent structure location factor will appear only if you
select yes as answer for the question: Does an adjacent structure exist? In
above Basic Structure Sub-window.

## Box Selection Data Entry Note

Lightning ground flash Enter value of Ng in
density (Ng) flashes/km/year
Thunderstorm days per Enter value of Td in
year (Td) days/year
Ng / Td for Greek Select location and you can
This selection for
counties view the isokeraunic map of
Greece only
Greece
4- Conductive Electric Service Lines

## This window includes (4) sub-windows as follows:

1. Power line 1,
2. Power line 2,
3. Telecommunication line,
4. Other services.

## Power Line 1 Sub-Window

This sub-window include some boxes which differ according to your selection from:

## Box#1: Type of Service to the Structure,

Box#2: Type of external cable.

## Box#1 Box#2 Selected

Box name Parameter Box selection
selection selection value
factor Ct in No
presence of 1
Table A.4 in transformer
transformer
IEC62305-2 Transformer 0.2
Uw = 1.5 kV
(Electronic)
types of Uw = 2.5 kV
apparatus (electrical
(existing in the - user) -
building) Uw = 4 kV
Uw = 6 kV
(electrical
network)
Unknown -
the resistance move the
of the cable sliding bar
-
screen RS1 (Lkm) to choose
the right
value
Screened No protection
1
measure
shielding
0.6
wires one
conductor
shielding
0.4
Protection Parameter Kp1 wires two
measure in Table D.2 in conductor
IEC62305-2 Lightning
protective 0.1
cable duct
Lightning
protective 0.02
cable
shielding
0.01
wires steel
tube
factor Ct in No
presence of 1
Unscreened Table A.4 in transformer
transformer
IEC62305-2 Transformer 0.2
move the
Length of
sliding bar
service
to select
section in
the right
Screened meters
Service line value
or -
parameters move the
Unscreened Height of
sliding bar
service
to select
conductors in
the right
meters
value

## Box#1 Box#2 Selected

Box name Parameter Box selection
selection selection value
factor Ct in No
presence of 1
Table A.4 in transformer
transformer
IEC62305-2 Transformer 0.2
Uw = 1.5 kV
(Electronic)
types of Uw = 2.5 kV
apparatus (electrical
(existing in the - user) -
building) Uw = 4 kV
Uw = 6 kV
(electrical
network)
Unknown -
the resistance move the
of the cable sliding bar
-
screen RS1 (Lkm) to choose
Buried the right
Screened value
cable
With shield in
contact with 1
characteristics parameter Kd1
the soil
of the shielded in Table D.1 in
With shield
line IEC62305-2
not in
0.4
contact with
the soil
No protection
1
measure
Protection Parameter Kp1 shielding
0.6
measure in Table D.2 in wires one
IEC62305-2 conductor
shielding
0.4
wires two
conductor
Lightning
protective 0.1
cable duct
Lightning
protective 0.02
cable
shielding
0.01
wires steel
tube
factor Ct in No
presence of 1
Unscreened Table A.4 in transformer
transformer
IEC62305-2 Transformer 0.2
move the
Length of
sliding bar
service
to select
section in
the right
Screened meters
Service line value
or -
parameters move the
Unscreened
sliding bar
Resistivity of
to select
soil in .m
the right
value

Note:

If you select None from box#1, no additional data is required then click next to go to
the next sub-window.

Also in this sub-window, answer the question: Does an additional power line exist?

## You will be go to a sub-window called Power

If you select Yes
Line 2
You will be go to a sub-window:
If you select No
Telecommunication line

## 4.2 Power Line 2 Sub-window

Power Line 2 Sub-window

The same as in 5.1 Power Line 1 Sub-window, the only difference is in the name of the
following parameters:

## Box#2 Parameter for Power Parameter for

Box name
selection Line 1 Power Line 2
Parameter Kp1 in Parameter Kp2 in
Protection
Table D.2 in Table D.2 in
measure
IEC62305-2 IEC62305-2
Screened parameter Kd1 in parameter Kd2 in
characteristics
Table D.1 in Table D.1 in
of the shielded
IEC62305-2 IEC62305-2
line

Note:
The sub-window Power Line 2 will not ask you for existing of additional power line (max.
number of permitted power lines =2).
4.3 Telecommunication Line Sub-Window

## Telecommunication Line Sub-Window

Same as Power Line 1 Sub-Window except there is no question for additional lines.

## 4.4 Other Services Sub-Window

Other Services Sub-Window

Move the sliding bar to select the appropriate number of other services.

## 5- Protection Measure Window

Protection Measure Window

## This window includes (5) boxes as follows:

Selected
Parameter Box Name Box Selections
Value
No protection
1
measure
Electrical insulation
Parameter PA in of exposed down 0.01
Touch up and
Table B.1 in IEC conductor
Step voltage
62305-2 Effective soil
0.01
equipotentialization
Warning notices 0.1

Parameter PB in No LPS 1
Table B.2 in IEC Class of LPS
62305-2 Class IV 0.2
Class III 0.1

Class II 0.05

Class I 0.02

No protection 1

## Class III IV 0.03

Parameter PSPD in
Surge protection
Table B.3 in IEC Class II 0.02
(SPD)
62305-2
Class I 0.01
Better protection
0.003
characteristics
No measures 1
Parameter rp in
Fire protection
Table C.3 in IEC Manual system 0.5
provisions
62305-2
Automated system 0.2
Agricultural,
0.01
concrete
Parameters ra and Marble, ceramic 0.001
ru in Table C.2 in Type of surface
Gravel, Moquette,
IEC 62305-2 0.0001
carpets
Asphalt, linoleum,
0.00001
wood

## 1. Type 1- loss of human life sub-window

2. Type 2- loss of essential public service sub-window
3. Type 3- loss of cultural heritage sub-window
4. Type 4- economic loss sub-window

## 6.1 Type 1- Loss of Human Life Sub-Window

Type 1- Loss of Human Life Sub-Window

## This sub-window includes (4) boxes as follows:

Selected
Parameter Box Name Box Selections
Value
No special
1
hazards
Low panic level 2
Average panic
5
level
Parameter hz1 in
Special hazards
Table C.5 in IEC High panic level 10
to life
62305-2
Evacuation
5
difficulties
Environmental
20
hazards
Contamination
50
risk
Parameter Lt1 in Persons inside
0.0001
Table C.1 in IEC the building
Type of structure
62305-2 Persons outside
0.01
the building
Hospitals,
hotels, civil 0.1
buildings
Industrial,
commercial, 0.05
Parameter Lf1 in
Life loss due to school
Table C.1 in IEC
fire Public
62305-2
entertainment,
0.02
churches,
museums
Other structure 0.01

No relevant 0
Parameter Lo1 in
Life loss due to
Table C.1 in IEC Hospitals 0.001
overvoltage
62305-2
Potentially
0.1
explosive

## 6.2 Type 2- Loss of Essential Public Service Sub-Window

Type 2- Loss of Essential Public Service Sub-Window

## This sub-window includes (2) boxes as follows:

Selected
Parameter Box Name Box Selections
Value
No service exist 0
Parameter Lf2 in
Services lost due Gas, water supply 0.1
Table C.6 in IEC
to fire
62305-2 TV,
Telecommunication, 0.01
Power supply
No service exist 0
Parameter Lo2 in
Services lost due Gas, water supply 0.01
Table C.6 in IEC
to Overvoltages
62305-2 TV,
Telecommunication, 0.001
Power supply
6.3 Type 3- Loss of Cultural Heritage Sub-Window

## This sub-window includes one box as follows:

Selected
Parameter Box Name Box Selections
Value
No heritage
Parameter Lf3 in 0
Culture heritage value
page 123 in IEC
lost due to fire Irreplaceable
62305-2 0.1
value

## 6.4 Type 4- Economic Loss Sub-Window

Type 4- Economic Loss Sub-Window

## This sub-window includes (5) boxes as follows:

Selected
Parameter Box Name Box Selections
Value
No special
1
hazards
Parameter hz4 in
Special hazards Environmental
Table C.5 in IEC 20
to economics hazardous
62305-2
Contamination
50
risk
No relevant 0
Hospital,
Parameter Lf4 in
Economic loss industrial,
Table C.7 in IEC 0.5
due to fire museum,
62305-2 agricultural
Hotel, school,
0.2
office, church,
public
entertainment,
economic
building
Other structures
0.1

No relevant 0

## Explosive risk 0.1

Hospital,
industrial,
office, hotel, 0.01
Parameter Lo4 in Economic loss economic
Table C.7 in IEC due to
building
62305-2 overvoltage
Museum,
agriculture,
school, church, 0.001
public
entertainment
Other structure 0.0001

No shock risk 0
Parameter Lt4 in Step/touch
Table C.7 in IEC potential loss Livestock inside 0.0001
62305-2 factor
Livestock
0.01
outside
1 in 10 1 in 10

1 in 100 1 in 100

1 in 1000 1 in 1000

1 in 10000 1 in 10000

1 in 100000 1 in 100000
Parameter Rt4 Tolerable risk of
economic loss
5 in 10 5 in 10

5 in 100 5 in 100

5 in 1000 5 in 1000

5 in 10000 5 in 10000

5 in 100000 5 in 100000
7- Results Window

## 1. Calculated parameters sub-window,

2. Calculated risks for structure sub-window,
3. Calculated risks for services sub-window.

## Box name Contents Meaning

The collection area of the isolated
structure
The collection area of the adjacent
structure
The collection area of flashes striking
near the structure. (Extends to a line
Am
located at a distance of 250 m from the
perimeter of the structure)
the collection area of flashes striking the
AI(pl1)
Power line 1
Collection Areas the collection area of flashes to ground
Ai(pl1)
near the Power line 1
the collection area of flashes striking the
AI(pl2)
Power line 2
the collection area of flashes to ground
Ai(pl2)
near the Power line 2
the collection area of flashes striking the
AI(tlc)
telecommunication line
the collection area of flashes to ground
Ai(tlc)
near the telecommunication line
Number of dangerous events for the
ND
structure
Number of dangerous events for an
NDa
the average annual number of dangerous
NM
events due to flashes near a structure
the average annual number of dangerous
NL(pl1)
events due to flashes to a power line 1
The average annual number of dangerous
Average annual Nl(pl1)
events due to flashes near a power line 1
number of
dangerous events the average annual number of dangerous
NL(pl2)
events due to flashes to a power line 2
The average annual number of dangerous
Nl(pl2)
events due to flashes near a power line 2
the average annual number of dangerous
NL(tlc) events due to flashes to a
telecommunication line
The average annual number of dangerous
Nl(tlc) events due to flashes near a
telecommunication line

## 7.2 Calculated Risks for Structure Sub-Window

Calculated Risks for Structure Sub-Window

## This sub-window includes (4) boxes as follows:

Loss of
Loss of essential public Loss of cultural Economic loss
human life
services box heritage box box
box
RA1 RB2 RB3 RA4
RB1 RC2 RV3 RB4
RC1 RM2 RC4
RM1 RV2 RM4
RU1 RW2 RU4
RV1 RZ2 RV4
RW1 RW4
RZ1 RZ4
Notes:
The tolerable risk values are indicated beside each calculated risk value
for comparison.
if the value of the calculated risks is indicated in red color, so this value
exceed the limit of tolerable risk and more protection measures are required by
clicking "back to protection measures" button.
While the green color means that the value of the calculated risk is within
limit of tolerable risk and no more protection measures are required.
You can print these results by clicking "print" button.

## Power Line Telecommunication

Power Line 2 box
1 box Line box
RB2(1) RB2(2) RB2(3)
RC2(1) RC2(2) RC2(3)
RV2(1) RV2(2) RV2(3)
RW2(1) RW2(2) RW2(3)
RZ2(1) RZ2(2) RZ2(3)
RB4(1) RB4(2) RB4(3)
RC4(1) RC4(2) RC4(3)
RV4(1) RV4(2) RV4(3)
RW4(1) RW4(2) RW4(3)
RZ4(1) RZ4(2) RZ4(3)

Calculated
Indirect Total Tolerable
risk for each Direct strike + =
strike Risk risk
box
Loss of public
services
Economic loss
Notes:
if the value of the calculated risks is indicated in red color, so this value
exceed the limit of tolerable risk and you need to go back to services lines by
clicking "back to services lines " button.
While the green color means that the value of the calculated risk is within
limit of tolerable risk and no more protection measures are required.
You can print these results by clicking "print" button.

## Third: End/Exit RAPAL Software?

When all the calculated risk results become within limits of tolerable risk in
the two sub-windows calculated risks for structure and calculated risks for
services, so you can click exit to end the program season.

Note:

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