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111.

The scissors jack supports a load P. Determine the axial P

force in the screw necessary for equilibrium when the jack
is in the position u. Each of the four links has a length 2 L and
is pin-connected at its center. Points B and D can move
horizontally.

C D

SOLUTION A B

x = 2L cos u, dx = - 2L sin u du u

y = 4L sin u, dy = 4L cos u du

dU = 0; - Pdy - Fdx = 0

-P(4L cos u du) - F( - 2L sin u du) = 0

F = 2P cot u Ans.
.
.
114.

The spring has an unstretched length of 0.3 m. Determine C

the angle u for equilibrium if the uniform links each have a
mass of 5 kg.

0.6 m

SOLUTION
B
Free Body Diagram: The system has only one degree of freedom defined by the 0.1 m D
independent coordinate u. When u undergoes a positive displacement du, only the k = 400 N/m
A E
spring force Fsp and the weights of the links (49.05 N) do work.

Virtual Displacements: The position of points B, D and G are measured from the
fixed point A using position coordinates xB , xD and yG , respectively.

xB = 0.1 sin u dxB = 0.1 cos udu (1)

xD = 210.7 sin u2 - 0.1 sin u = 1.3 sin u dxD = 1.3 cos udu (2)

VirtualWork Equation: When points B, D and G undergo positive virtual

displacements dxB , dxD and dyG , the spring force Fsp that acts at point B does
positive work while the spring force Fsp that acts at point D and the weight of link
AC and CE (49.05 N) do negative work.

However, from the spring formula, Fsp = kx = 4003210.6 sin u2 - 0.34

= 480 sin u - 120. Substituting this value into Eq. (5) yields

134.335 sin u - 576 sin u cos u + 144 cos u2 du = 0

Since du Z 0, then

u = 15.5 Ans.

and u = 85.4 Ans.

.

.
.
.
.
mass 50 kg

50 (9.81) N = 490.5 N

490.5

245.25 N .
1110.

The thin rod of weight W rest against the smooth wall and
floor. Determine the magnitude of force P needed to hold it
in equilibrium for a given angle u. B

SOLUTION l

Free-Body Diagram: The system has only one degree of freedom defined by the
independent coordinate u. When u undergoes a positive displacement du, only the
weight of the rod W and force P do work.

Virtual Displacements: The weight of the rod W and force P are located from the
fixed points A and B using position coordinates yC and xA, respectively A
P

1 1
yC = sin u dyC = cos udu (1)
2 2

Virtual-Work Equation: When points C and A undergo positive virtual displacements

dyC and dxA, the weight of the rod W and force F do negative work.

Substituting Eqs. (1) and (2) into (3) yields

Wl
aPl sin u - cos u b du = 0
2

Since du Z 0, then

Wl
Pl sin u - cos u = 0
2
W
P = cot u Ans.
2
1111.

Determine the force F acting on the cord which is required

to maintain equilibrium of the horizontal 20-kg bar AB.
Hint: Express the total constant vertical length l of the cord
in terms of position coordinates s1 and s2. The derivative of s2
F
this equation yields a relationship between d1 and d2. s1

SOLUTION A B

FreeBody Diagram: Only force F and the weight of link AB (98.1 N) do work.

Virtual Displacement: Force F and the weight of link AB (98.1 N) are located from
the top of the fixed link using position coordinates s2 and s1 . Since the cord has a
constant length, l, then

VirtualWork Equation: When s1 and s2 undergo positive virtual displacements ds1

and ds2 , the weight of link AB (98.1 N) and force F do positive work and negative
work, respectively. 20 (9.81) = 196.2 N

196.2 - 4F = 0

F = 49.1 N Ans.
.
1113.

Each member of the pin-connected mechanism has a mass

of 8 kg. If the spring is unstretched when u = 0, determine
the angle u for equilibrium. Set k = 3000 N>m a nd
M = 100 N # m.
M
A
k
u

300 mm B

SOLUTION
300 mm
y1 = 0.15 sin u u
D
y2 = 0.3 sin u 300 mm C

or u = 54.8 Ans.
1114.

Each member of the pin-connected mechanism has a mass

of 8 kg. If the spring is unstretched when u = 0, determine
the required stiffness k so that the mechanism is in
equilibrium when u = 25. Set M = 0. M
A
k
u

300 mm B

SOLUTION
300 mm
y1 = 0.15 sin u, y2 = 0.3 sin u u
D
dy1 = 0.15 cos u du, dy2 = 0.3 cos u du 300 mm C

1115.

The service window at a fast-food restaurant consists of glass

doors that open and close automatically using a motor which
supplies a torque M to each door. The far ends, A and B, a a a a
move along the horizontal guides. If a food tray becomes u u
stuck between the doors as shown, determine the horizontal
C M A B M D
force the doors exert on the tray at the position u.

SOLUTION
x = 2a cos u, dx = - 2a sin u du

dU = 0; -M du - F dx = 0

M
F = Ans.
2a sin u
1116.

If the spring is unstretched when u = 30, the mass of the

cylinder is 25 kg, and the mechanism is in equilibrium when
u = 45, determine the stiffness k of the spring. Rod AB
slides freely through the collar at A. Neglect the mass of the k
rods. A

B 0.6 m
SOLUTION
Free-Body Diagram: When u undergoes a positive virtual angular displacement of du, u
the dash line configuration shown in Fig. a is formed. We observe that only the spring 0.45 m
force Fsp and the weight W of the cylinder do work when the virtual displacement C
takes place.
Virtual Displacement: The position of the point B at which WD and Fsp act is
specified by the position coordinates xB and yB, measured from the fixed point C.

xB = 0.45 sin u dxB = 0.45 cos udu (1)

yB = 0.45 cos u dyB = - 0.45 sin udu (2)

VirtualWork Equation: In this case Fsp must be resolved into its horizontal and
vertical component, i.e. (Fsp)x = Fsp cos f and (Fsp)y = Fsp sin f. Since (Fsp)x and W
and act towards the negative sense of their corresponding virtual displacements, their
work is negative. However, (Fsp)y does positive work since it acts towards the positive
sense of its corresponding virtual displacement. Thus,

dU = 0; - Fsp cos fdxB + Fsp sin fdyB + (- WdyB) = 0 (3)

Substituting W = 25(9.81) = 245.25 N, Eqs. (1) and (2) into Eq. (3), we have

- Fsp cos f(0.45 cos udu) + Fsp sin f( -0.45 sin udu) - 245.25( -0.45 sin udu) = 0
du A 110.3625 sin u - 0.45Fsp( cos u cos f + sin u sin f) B = 0

Using the indentity cos (u - f) = cos u cos f + sin u sin f, the above equation can
be rewritten as

du A 110.3625 sin u - 0.45Fsp cos (u - f) B = 0

Since du Z 0, then

245.25 sin u
Fsp = (4)
cos (u - f)

AB = 20.452 + 0.62 - 2(0.45)(0.6) cos u

= 20.5625 - 0.54 cos u

x = 20.5625 - 0.54 cos 45 - 20.5625 - 0.54 cos 30

= 0.1171 m
1116. (continued)

The magnitude of Fsp computed using the spring force formula is therefore

Fsp = kx = 0.1171 k

0.6 - 0.45 cos 45

tan f =
0.45 sin 45
f = 41.53

Substituting u = 45 and the results for Fsp and f into Eq. (4), we have

245.25 sin 45
0.1171 k =
cos(45 - 41.53)
k = 1484 N>m = 1.48 kN>m Ans.
1117.

If the spring has a torsional stiffness of k = 300 N # m>rad k 300 Nm/rad

and it is unstretched when u = 90, determine the angle u
when the frame is in equilibrium.
B

0.5 m
0.5 m
M 600 Nm
SOLUTION
u
Free-Body Diagram: When u undergoes a positive virtual angular displacement of A C
du, the dash line configuration shown in Fig. a is formed. We observe that only
couple moment M and the torque M sp developed in the torsional spring do work
when the virtual displacement takes place. The magnitude of M sp can be computed
using the spring force formula,

p
Msp = k(2a) = 300 c 2a - u b d = 300(p - 2u)
2

p
Virtual Displacement: Since a = - u, then
2
da = - du (1)

VirtualWork Equation: Since M and M sp act towards the negative sense of their
corresponding angular virtual displacements, their work is negative. Thus,

dU = 0; - Mdu + 2( -Mspda) = 0 (2)

Substituting M = 600 N # m, Msp = 300(p - 2u), and Eq. (1) into Eq. (2), we have

-600du - 2[300(p - 2u)]( - du) = 0

du[-600 + 600(p - 2u)] = 0

Since du Z 0, then

-600 + 600(p - 2u) = 0

u = 1.071 rad = 61.4 Ans.
1118.

A 5-kg uniform serving table is supported on each side by 250 mm 150 mm

pairs of two identical links, AB and CD, and springs CE. If
the bowl has a mass of 1 kg, determine the angle u where the
table is in equilibrium. The springs each have a stiffness of
k = 400 N>m and are unstretched when u = 90. Neglect E
A C k
the mass of the links.

250 mm
u u
SOLUTION D
B
Free -Body Diagram: When u undergoes a positive virtual angular displacement of
du, the dash line configuration shown in Fig. a is formed. We observe that only the 150 mm
spring force Fsp, the weight Wt of the table, and the weight Wb of the bowl do work
when the virtual displacement takes place. The magnitude of Fsp can be computed
using the spring force formula, Fsp = kx = 400 A 0.25 cos u B = 100 cos u N.
Virtual Displacement: The position of points of application of Wb, Wt, and Fsp are
specified by the position coordinates yGb, yGt, and xC, respectively. Here, yGb and yGt
are measured from the fixed point B while xC is measured from the fixed point D.
yGb = 0.25 sin u + b dyGb = 0.25 cos udu (1)
yGt = 0.25 sin u + a dyGt = 0.25 cos udu (2)
xC = 0.25 cos u dxC = -0.25 sin udu (3)
Virtual Work Equation: Since Wb, Wt, and Fsp act towards the negative sense of
their corresponding virtual displacement, their work is negative. Thus,
dU = 0; -WbdyGb + A - WtdyGt B + A -FspdxC B = 0 (4)

1 5
Substituting Wb = a b(9.81) = 4.905 N, Wt = a b(9.81) = 24.525 N,
2 2
Fsp = 100 cos u N, Eqs. (1), (2), and (3) into Eq. (4), we have
-4.905(0.25 cos udu) - 24.525(0.25 cos udu) - 100 cos u( -0.25 sin udu) = 0
du A -7.3575 cos u + 25 sin u cos u B= 0
Since du Z 0, then
- 7.3575 cos u + 25 sin u cos u = 0
cos u( - 7.3575 + 25 sin u) = 0
Solving the above equation,
cos u = 0 u = 90 Ans.
- 7.3575 + 25 sin u = 0
u = 17.1 Ans.
1119.

A 5-kg uniform serving table is supported on each side by 250 mm 150 mm

two pairs of identical links, AB and CD, and springs CE. If
the bowl has a mass of 1 kg and is in equilibrium when
u = 60, determine the stiffness k of each spring. The springs
are unstretched when u = 90. Neglect the mass of the links. E
A C k

250 mm
u u
SOLUTION D
B
Free -Body Diagram: When u undergoes a positive virtual angular displacement of
du, the dash line configuration shown in Fig. a is formed. We observe that only the 150 mm
spring force Fsp, the weight Wt of the table, and the weight Wb of the bowl do work
when the virtual displacement takes place. The magnitude of Fsp can be computed
using the spring force formula, Fsp = kx = k A 0.25 cos u B = 0.25 k cos u.
Virtual Displacement: The position of points of application of Wb, Wt, and Fsp are
specified by the position coordinates yGb, yGt, and xC, respectively. Here, yGb and yGt
are measured from the fixed point B while xC is measured from the fixed point D.
yGb = 0.25 sin u + b dyGb = 0.25 cos udu (1)
yGt = 0.25 sin u + a dyGt = 0.25 cos udu (2)
xC = 0.25 cos u dxC = -0.25 sin udu (3)
Virtual Work Equation: Since Wb, Wt, and Fsp act towards the negative sense of
their corresponding virtual displacement, their work is negative. Thus,
dU = 0; -WbdyGb + A - WtdyGt B + A -FspdxC B = 0 (4)

1 5
Substituting Wb = a b(9.81) = 4.905 N, Wt = a b(9.81) = 24.525 N,
2 2
Fsp = 0.25k cos u N, Eqs. (1), (2), and (3) into Eq. (4), we have
-4.905(0.25 cos udu) - 24.525(0.25 cos udu) - 0.25k cos u(-0.25 sin udu) = 0
du A -7.3575 cos u + 0.0625k sin u cos u B = 0
Since du Z 0, then
- 7.3575 cos u + 0.0625k sin u cos u = 0
117.72
k =
sin u
When u = 60, then
117.72
k = = 13 6 N>m Ans.
sin 60
1120. The Nuremberg scissors is subjected to a
horizontal force of P = 600 N. Determine the angle u for E
equilibrium. The spring has a stiffness of k = 15 kN>m and u
is unstretched when u = 15. 200 mm
A
B
k
200 mm

D
C P
1121. The Nuremberg scissors is subjected to a
horizontal force of P = 600 N. Determine the stiffness k of E
the spring for equilibrium when u = 60. The spring is u
unstretched when u = 15. 200 mm
A
B
k
200 mm

D
C P
1122.

The dumpster has a weight W and a center of gravity at G.

Determine the force in the hydraulic cylinder needed to
hold it in the general position u.

G
b
d
a

SOLUTION

s = 2a2 + c2 - 2a c cos (u + 90)

= 2a2 + c2 + 2a c sin u
1 c
ds = (a2 + c2 + 2a c sin u)- 2 ac cos u du

y = (a + b) sin u + d cos u

dy = (a + b) cos u du - d sin u du

dU = 0; Fds - Wdy = 0
1
F(a2 + c2 + 2a c sin u)- 2 ac cos u du - W(a + b) cos u du + Wd sin u du = 0

W(a + b - d tan u)
F = a b 2a2 + c2 + 2a c sin u Ans.
ac
1123.

The crankshaft is subjected to a torque of M = 50 N # m.

Determine the horizontal compressive force F applied to
400 mm
the piston for equilibrium when u = 60. 100 mm

M
SOLUTION
(0.4)2 = (0.1)2 + x2 - 2(0.1)(x)(cos u)

0 = 0 + 2x dx + 0.2x sin u du - 0.2 cos u dx

dU = 0; -50du - Fdx = 0

For u = 60, x = 0.4405 m

dx = - 0.09769 du Ans.

( -50 + 0.09769F) du = 0

F = 512 N Ans.
1124.

The crankshaft is subjected to a torque of M = 50 N # m.

Determine the horizontal compressive force F and plot
400 mm
the result of F (ordinate) versus u (abscissa) for 100 mm
0 u 90.
u

M
SOLUTION
(0.4)2 = (0.1)2 + x 2 - 2(0.1)(x)(cos u) (1)

0 = 0 + 2x dx + 0.2x sin u du - 0.2 cos u dx

0.2x sin u
dx = a b du
0.2 cos u - 2x

dU = 0; -50du - Fdx = 0

0.2x sin u
-50du - Fa b du = 0, du Z 0
0.2 cos u - 2x

F =
0.2x sin u

0.2 cos u ; 20.04 cos2 u + 0.6

x = , since 20.04 cos2 u + 0.6 7 0.2 cos u
2

x =
2

500 20.04 cos2 u + 0.6

F = Ans.
(0.2 cos u + 20.04 cos2 u + 0.6) sin u
1125.

Rods AB and BC have centers of mass located at their

midpoints. If all contacting surfaces are smooth and BC has C
a mass of 100 kg, determine the appropriate mass of AB
required for equilibrium.

A
1.5 m

0.75 m
SOLUTION B

1m 2m
x = 1.25 cos f; 3 - x = 2.5 cos u

1.25 sin f df = - 2.5 sin u du

0.75 1.5
1.25a b df = - 2.5a bdu
1.25 2.5

0.75df = -1.5du

df = -2du

1.25
y1 = a b sin f
2

y2 = 1.25 sin u

dy2 = 1.25 cos u du

dU = 0; -m(9.81)dy1 - 981dy2 = 0

- m(9.81)(0.625 cos f df) - 981( 1.25 cos u du) = 0

1 2
-m(9.81)(0.625)a b ( - 2du) - 981(1.25)a bdu = 0
1.25 2.5

[m(9.81) - 981]du = 0

m = 100 kg Ans.
1126. If the potential energy for a conservative one-
degree-of-freedom system is expressed by the relation
V = (3y3 + 2y2 - 4y + 50) J, where y is given in meters,
determine the equilibrium positions and investigate the
stability at each position.
1127.

If the potential function for a conservative one-degree-of-

freedom system is V = 18x3 - 2x2 - 102 J, where x is
given in meters, determine the positions for equilibrium and
investigate the stability at each of these positions.

SOLUTION
V = 8x3 - 2x2 - 10

dV
= 24x2 - 4x = 0
dx

124x - 42x = 0

x = 0 and x = 0.167 m Ans.

d2V
= 48x - 4
dx2

d 2V
x = 0, = -4 6 0 Unstable Ans.
dx2

d 2V
x = 0.167 m, = 4 7 0 Stable Ans.
dx2
1128.

If the potential function for a conservative one-degree-of-

freedom system is V = (12 sin 2u + 15 cos u) J,where
0 6 u 6 180, determine the positions for equilibrium and
investigate the stability at each of these positions.

SOLUTION
V = 12 sin 2u + 15 cos u

dV
= 0; 24 cos 2u - 15 sin u = 0
du

2411 - 2 sin2 u2 - 15 sin u = 0

48 sin2 u + 15 sin u - 24 = 0

Choosing the angle 0 6 u 6 180

u = 34.6 Ans.

and

u = 145 Ans.

d2V
= - 48 sin 2u - 15 cos u
du2

d2V
u = 34.6, = - 57.2 6 0 Unstable Ans.
du2

d 2V
u = 145, = 57.2 7 0 Stable Ans.
du2
1129. If the potential energy for a conservative one-
degree-of-freedom system is expressed by the relation
V = (24 sin u + 10 cos 2u) J, 0 u 90 , determine the
equilibrium positions and investigate the stability at each
position.

.
1130.

If the potential function for a conservative one-degree-of-

freedom system is V = 110 cos 2u + 25 sin u2 J, where
0 6 u 6 180, determine the positions for equilibrium and
investigate the stability at each of these positions.

SOLUTION
V = 10 cos 2u + 25 sin u

For equilibrium:

dV
= - 20 sin 2u + 25 cos u = 0
du

1 -40 sin u + 252 cos u = 0

25
u = sin-1 a b = 38.7 and 141 Ans.
40

and

u = cos-1 0 = 90 Ans.

Stability:

d2V
= - 40 cos 2u - 25 sin u
du2

d2V
u = 38.7, = - 24.4 6 0, Unstable Ans.
du2

d2V
u = 141, = - 24.4 6 0, Unstable Ans.
du2

d 2V
u = 90, = 15 7 0, Stable Ans.
du2
1131.

Determine the angle u for equilibrium and investigate the 600 mm

stability of the mechanism in this position. The spring has a
stiffness of k = 1.5 kN>m and is unstretched when u = 90.
A
The block A has a mass of 40 kg. Neglect the mass of k
the links. B D
F

450 mm
SOLUTION u
C u E
Potential Function: With reference to the datum, Fig. a, the gravitational potential
energy of block A is positive since its center of gravity is located above the datum.
Here, y = (0.45 sin u + b) m, where b is a constant. Thus,

Vg = mgy = 40(9.81)(0.45 sin u + b) = 176.58 sin u + 392.4 b

1 2
The eleastic potential energy of spring BF can be computed using Ve = ks , where
2
s = 0.45 cos u m. Thus,
1
Ve = (1500)(0.45 cos u)2 = 151.875 cos2 u
2

Equilibrium Configuration: Taking the first derivative of V, we have

dV
= 176.58 cos u - 303.75 cos u sin u
du

dV
Equilibrium requires = 0. Thus,
du
176.58 cos u - 303.75 cos u sin u = 0
cos u(176.58 - 303.75 sin u) = 0
cos u = 0 u = 90 Ans.
176.58 - 303.75 sin u = 0
u = 35.54 = 35.5 Ans.
dV
Stability: We can write = 176.58 cos u - 151.875 sin 2u. Thus, the second
du
derivative of V is

d 2V
= - 176.58 sin u - 303.75 cos 2u
d 2u
d2V 2
At u = 90, = - 176.58 sin 90 - 303.75 cos 180 = 127.17 7 0
d2u u = 0
= 127.17 7 0 Stable Ans.
d2V 2
At u = 35.54, = - 176.58 sin 35.54 - 303.75 cos 71.09
d2u u = 35.54
= - 201.10 6 0 Unstable Ans.
1132.

The spring of the scale has an unstretched length W

of a. Determine the angle u for equilibrium when a weight W
is supported on the platform. Neglect the weight of the
members. What value W would be required to keep
the scale in neutral equilibrium when u = 0? L L

SOLUTION
L L
Potential Function: The datum is established at point A. Since the weight W is u u
above the datum, its potential energy is positive. From the geometry, the spring
stretches x = 2L sin u and y = 2L cos u.

V = Ve + Vg
a
1 2
= kx + Wy
2
1
= (k)(2 L sin u)2 + W(2L cos u)
2
= 2kL2 sin 2 u + 2WL cos u

dV
Equilibrium Position: The system is in equilibrium if = 0.
du

dV
= 4kL2 sin u cos u - 2WL sin u = 0
du

dV
= 2kL2 sin 2u- 2WLsin u = 0
du

Solving,

W
u = 0 or u = cos-1 a b Ans.
2kL

d2V 2
Stability: To have neutral equilibrium at u = 0, = 0.
du2 u - 0

d 2V
= 4kL2 cos 2 u - 2WL cos u
du2

d 2V
2 = 4kL2 cos 0 - 2WLcos 0 = 0
du2 u - 0

W = 2kL Ans.
.
.

.
.

The uniform beam has mass M. If the

contacting surfaces are smooth, determine
the angle T for equilibrium and investigate
the stability of the beam when it is in this
position. The spring has an unstretched
length of G.
Units Used:
3
kN 10 N

Given:
M 200 kg kN
k 1.2
m
G 0.5 m
l 2m
Solution:
l
M g
1
sin T  k l cos T  G
2
V
2 2
l
M g cos T  k l cos T  G l sin T
d
V V' 0
dT 2

d2 l
M g sin T  k l sin T  k l cos T  G l cos T
2 2
V V''
dT
2 2

There are 2 equilibrium points

l
Guess T 30 deg Given M g cos T  k l cos T  G l sin T 0
2
T1 Find T T1 36.4 deg Ans.

l
Guess T 60 deg Given M g cos T  k l cos T  G l sin T 0
2
T2 Find T T2 62.3 deg Ans.

Check Stability

l
M g sin T 1  k l sin T 1  k l cos T 1  G l cos T 1
2 2
V'' 1
2
l
M g sin T 2  k l sin T 2  k l cos T 2  G l cos T 2
2 2
V'' 2
2

1136.

Determine the angle u for equilibrium and investigate the

stability at this position. The bars each have a mass of 3 kg
and the suspended block D has a mass of 7 kg. Cord DC has
a total length of 1 m. 500 mm 500 mm

u u
A C

SOLUTION 500 mm

l = 500 mm
l
y1 = sin u
2 D
y2 = l + 2l(1 - cos u) = l(3 - 2 cos u)

V = 2Wy1 - WDy 2

= Wl sin u - WD l(3 - 2 cos u)

dV
= l(W cos u - 2WD sin u) = 0
du
W 3(9.81)
tan u = = = 0.2143
2WD 14(9.81)

u = 12.1 Ans.

d2V
= l( -W sin u - 2WD cos u)
du2

d 2V
u = 12.1, = 0.5[-3(9.81) sin 12.1 - 14(9.81) cos 12.1]
du2

1137.

Each of the two springs has an

unstretched length G. Determine the mass
M of the cylinder when it is held in the
equilibrium position shown, i.e., y = a.

Given:

a 1m

b 500 mm

G 500 mm

N
k 200
m

Solution:

2
k 2 2
V 2 y b G  Mgy
2

dV
2k 2
y b G
2 y  Mg
dy 2 2
y b
Set y a

Guess M 1 kg

Given

2k
2
y b G
2 y  Mg 0
2 2
y b

1138.

A homogeneous block rests on top of the cylindrical b

surface. Derive the relationship between the radius of the
cylinder, r, and the dimension of the block, b, for stable b
equilibrium. Hint: Establish the potential energy function
for a small angle u, i.e., approximate sin u L 0, and
cos u L 1 - u2>2.

r
SOLUTION
Potential Function: The datum is established at point O. Since the center of gravity
for the block is above the datum, its potential energy is positive. Here,
b
y = a r + b cos u + ru sin u.
2

b
V = Wy = W c a r + b cos u + ru sin u d 
2

u2
For small angle u, sin u = u and u = 1 - . Then Eq.  becomes
2

b u2
V = WB ar + b 1 - + ru2 R
2 2

ru2 bu2 b
= Wa - + r + b
2 4 2

dV
Equilibrium Position: The system is in equilibrium if = 0.
du

dV b
= W ar - b u = 0 u = 0
du 2

d2V
Stability: To have stable equilibrium, 2 7 0.
du2 u = 0

d2V b
2 = W ar - b 7 0
du2 u = 0 2

b
ar - b 7 0
2

b 6 2r Ans.
1139.

The uniform rod AB has a mass M. If

spring DC is unstretched at T = 90 deg,
determine the angle T for equilibrium and
investigate the stability at the equilibrium
position. The spring always acts in the
horizontal position due to the roller guide
at D.

Units Used:

3
kN 10 N

Given:
M 80 kg a 1m

kN
k 2 b 2m
m
Solution:

a  b
M g
1
sin T  k a cos T
2
V
2 2

a  b
M g
k
cos T  a sin 2T
d 2
V' V
dT 2 2

d2 a  b
M g sin T  k a cos 2T
2
V'' V
dT
2 2

Equilibrium
a  b
Given M g
k 2
Guess T 30 deg cos T  a sin 2T 0 T1 Find T
2 2
a  b
Given M g
k 2
Guess T 70 deg cos T  a sin 2T 0 T2 Find T
2 2
Check Staibility
a  b
M g sin T 1  k a cos 2T 1
2
V'' 1
2
a  b
M g sin T 2  k a cos 2T 2
2
V'' 2
2
T1 36.1 deg V'' 1 1.3 kN m Unstable Ans.

1140.

A spring with a torsional stiffness k is attached tothe pin at

B. It is unstretched when the rod assembly is in the vertical
position. Determine the weight W of the block that results
in neutral equilibrium. Hint: Establish the potential energy L
2
function for a small angle u, i.e., approximate sin u L 0, and
cos u L 1 - u2>2.
A

L
SOLUTION 2
k
Potential Function: With reference to the datum, Fig. a, the gravitational potential B

energy of the block is positive since its center of gravity is located above the datum. Here, L
2
L 3
the rods are tilted with a small angle u. Thus, y = cos u + L cos u = L cos u.
2 2 C
u2
However, for a small angle u, cos u 1 -.Thus,
2
3 u2 3WL u2
Vg = Wy = W a Lb a 1 - b = a1 - b
2 2 2 2

The elastic potential energy of the torsional spring can be computed using
1
Ve = kb 2, where b = 2u. Thus,
2

1
Vg = k(2u)2 = 2ku2
2

The total potential energy of the system is

3WL u2
V = Vg + Ve = a 1 - b + 2ku2
2 2

Equilibrium Configuration: Taking the first derivative of V, we have

dV 3WL 3WL
= - u + 4ku = u a - + 4k b
du 2 2

dV
Equilibrium requires = 0. Thus,
du
3WL
ua - + 4kb = 0
2
u = 0

Stability: The second derivative of V is

d2V 3WL
= - + 4k
du2 2

d2V 2
To have neutral equilibrium at u = 0, = 0. Thus,
du2 u = 0
3WL
- + 4k = 0
2
8k
W = Ans.
3L

Note: The equilibrium configuration of the system at u = 0 is stable if

8k d2V 8k d2V
W< a 2 > 0 b and is unstable if W > a < 0b.
3L du 3L du2
11 41.

Each bar has a mass per length of m0. Determine the angles T
and I at which they are suspended in equilibrium. The contact
at A is smooth, and both are pin con-nected at B.

Solution:

atan
1
TI
2

V 
3l 3l l l l
m0 cos T  l m0 cos I  m0 l cos I  sin I
2
4
2 2 4

2 2
9m0 l m0 l
sin T  m0 l sin I  cos I
d 2
V 0
dT 8 8

Guess T 10 deg I 10 deg

1
atan
9 1
sin T  sin I  cos I
Given TI 0
2 8 8

T T 9.18
Find T  I deg Ans.
I I 17.38
1142.

The small postal scale consists of a counterweight W1,

W2
connected to the members having negligible weight.
Determine the weight W2 that is on the pan in terms of the
angles u and f and the dimensions shown. All members are
pin connected. a f

u
SOLUTION b a
f
y1 = b cos u
W1
y2 = a sin f = a sin (90 - u - g)

V = -W1y1 + W2y2

= -W1 b cos u + W2 a sin (90 - u - g)

dV
= W1 b sin u - W2 a cos (90 - u - g)
du

b sin u
W2 = W1 a b Ans.
a cos f
1143.

If the spring has a torsional stiffness k = 300 N # m>rad and is

unwound when u = 90, determine the angle for equilibrium
if the sphere has a mass of 20 kg. Investigate the stability at 300 mm
this position. Collar C can slide freely along the vertical guide. D
Neglect the weight of the rods and collar C.

C 300 mm

SOLUTION
u k
Potential Function: With reference to the datum, Fig. a, the gravitational potential B
energy of the sphere is positive its center of gravity is located above the datum. Here,
y = (0.3 sin (u>2) + 0.6 sin (u>2))m = (0.9 sin (u/2)). Thus,
A 300 mm
Vg = mgy = 20(9.81)(0.9 sin u>2) = 176.58 sin (u>2)

1
The elastic potential energy of the torsional spring can be computed using Ve = kb 2,
2
p
where b = - u. Thus,
2
2
1 p
Ve = 300 - u = 150u2 - 150pu + 37.5p2
2 2
The total potential energy of the system is

Equilibrium Configuration: Taking the first derivative of V, we have

dV
= 88.29 cos (u/2) + 300u - 150p
du
dV
Equilibrium requires = 0, Thus,
du

88.29 cos (u/2) + 300u - 150p = 0

Solving by trial and error, we obtain

u = 1.340 rad = 76.78 = 76.8 Ans.

Stability: The second derivative of V is
d2V
= - 44.145 sin (u/2) + 300
du2

At the equilibrium configuration of u = 76.78,

d2V
2 = - 44.14 sin 38.39 + 300 = 272.58 7 0 Stable Ans.
du2 u = 76.78
1144.

The truck has a mass of 20 Mg and a mass center at G.

Determine the steepest grade u along which it can park
without overturning and investigate the stability in this
G
position.

3.5 m

SOLUTION
Potential Function: The datum is established at point A. Since the center of gravity 1.5 m
for the truck is above the datum, its potential energy is positive. Here, 1.5 m
y = (1.5 sin u + 3.5 cos u) m. u

V = Vg = Wy = W(1.5 sin u + 3.5 cos u)

dV
Equilibrium Position: The system is in equilibrium if = 0
du

dV
= W(1.5 cos u - 3.5 sin u) = 0
du

Since W Z 0,

u = 23.20 = 23.2 Ans.

Stability:

d2V
= W(-1.5 sin u - 3.5 cos u)
du2

d2V
2 = W( -1.5 sin 23.20 - 3.5 cos 23.20) = -3.81W 6 0
du2 u = 23.20

1145.

The cylinder is made of two materials such that it has a mass

of m and a center of gravity at point G. Show that when G
lies above the centroid C of the cylinder, the equilibrium is
unstable. G
a
C

SOLUTION
Potential Function: The datum is established at point A. Since the center of gravity
of the cylinder is above the datum, its potential energy is positive. Here,
y = r + d cos u.

V = Vg = Wy = mg(r + d cos u)

dV
Equilibrium Position: The system is in equilibrium if = 0.
du

dV
= - mgd sin u = 0
du

sin u = 0 u = 0

Stability:

d 2V
= - mgd cos u
du2

d 2V 2
= - mgd cos 0 = - mgd 6 0
du2 u = 0
Thus, the cylinder is in unstable equilibrium at u = 0 (Q.E.D.)
1146.

If each of the three links of the mechanism has a weight W,

determine the angle u for equilibrium. The spring, which
always remains vertical, is unstretched when u = 0.
k
u
a

a
SOLUTION
y1 = a sin u dy1 = a cos u du

2a
Fs = ka sin u

Assume u 6 90, so cos u Z 0.

4W - ka sin u = 0

4W
u = sin-1 a b Ans.
ka

or

u = 90 Ans.
1147.

If the uniform rod OA has a mass of 12 kg, determine the

mass m that will hold the rod in equilibrium when u = 30. B
Point C is coincident with B when OA is horizontal. Neglect
the size of the pulley at B.
C
m

3m
SOLUTION
Geometry: Using the law of cosines, A
1m
lAB = 212 + 32 - 2112132 cos190 - u2 = 210 - 6 sin u
e O
lAB = 21 + 3 = 210 m
2 2

l = lAB - lAB = 210 - 210 - 6 sin u

Potential Function: The datum is established at point O. Since the center of gravity
of the rod and the block are above the datum, their potential energy is positive.

Here, y1 = 3 - l = 33 - 1 210 - 210 - 6 sin u24 m and y2 = 0.5 sin u m.

V = Vg = W1y1 + W2y2

Equilibrium Position: The system is in equilibrium if

dV
` = 0.
du u = 30

dV 1 1
= - 9.81m c - 110 - 6 sin u2- 21 -6 cos u2 d + 58.86 cos u
du 2

29.43m cos u
= - + 58.86 cos u
210 - 6 sin u

At u = 30,

dV 29.43m cos 30
` = - + 58.86 cos 30 = 0
du u = 30 210 - 6 sin 30
m = 5.29 kg Ans.
1148.

The triangular block of weight W rests on the smooth

corners which are a distance a apart. If the block has three
d
equal sides of length d, determine the angle u for 60
equilibrium.
G 60
u

SOLUTION a
AF = AD sin f = AD sin (60 - u)

=
sin a sin 60

a
AD = (sin (60 + u))
sin 60

a
AF = (sin (60 + u)) sin (60 - u)
sin 60

a
= (0.75 cos2 u - 0.25 sin2 u)
sin 60

d
y= cos u - AF
23

V = Wy

dV a
= Wc( -0.5774 d) sin u - ( -1.5 sin u cos u - 0.5 sin u cos u)d = 0
du sin 60

Require, sin u = 0 u = 0 Ans.

a
or - 0.5774 d - ( - 2 cos u) = 0
sin 60

d
u = cos-1 a b Ans.
4a
1149.

Two uniform bars, each having a weight W, are pin-

connected at their ends. If they are placed over a smooth
cylindrical surface, show that the angle u for equilibrium
must satisfy the equation cos u>sin3 u = a>2r. a e e
a

r
SOLUTION
a
V = 2Wa r csc u - cos u b
2

dV a
= 2Wa - r csc u cot u + sin u b = 0
du 2

cos u a
ra b = sin u
sin u
2 2

cos u a
= (Q.E.D)
sin3 u 2r
.
11-51. The uniform bar AB weighs 50 N ( 5 kg). If the
attached spring is upstretched when = 90, use the method of
virtual work and determine the angle for equilibrium. Note
that the spring always remains in the vertical position due to
the roller guide

K = 100 N/m
K = 100 N/m 11m
m

1m

1m

A B
F1
1m

1 1m 1m
y
W
1 1m
A
1 (11 1sin)
100

50

[50 + 100(1 sin)](1cos ) = 0

50 100 sin = 0

.
11-51
y = 1sin
F1 B
1
V = 50(1sin ) + (100)(1 1sin )2
2 1m

dV
= 50cos + 100(1 1sin )(1cos )
K = 100 N/m d
B 1m 1m
1m
dV y
Require, =0 W
K = 100 N/m 1m
d A 1m

1m 50cos 100(1 1sin )cos = 0

cos = 0 or 50 100(1 sin ) = 0

= 90 ,

or = 30 Ans.
1m
2
dV
= 50sin + 100(1 1sin )(1sin ) + 100(1cos )( 1cos )
d 2

A d 2V
= 50sin + 100(1 1sin )sin + 100cos 2
d 2
d 2V
= 90 , = 50 < 0 Unstable Ans.
d 2
d 2V
= 30 , = 75 < 0 S table Ans.
d 2
1153.

The uniform right circular cone having a mass m is

suspended from the cord as shown. Determine the angle u
at which it hangs from the wall for equilibrium. Is the cone
in stable equilibrium?

SOLUTION
a
3a a
V = - a cos u + sin ub mg
2 4
u
dV 3a a a
= - a - sin u + cos u b mg = 0
du 2 4

3 sin u = 0.5 cos u

tan u = 0.1667

u = 9.46 Ans.

d2V 3a a
= -a- cos u - sin u b mg
du2 2 4

d 2V
u = 9.46, = 1.52 a mg 7 0
du2

Stable Ans.
1154. The
1146. The assembly
assemblyshown
shownconsists
consists
of aofsemicylinder
a semicylinder
and
aand a rectangular
rectangular block.
block. If theIf the block
block weighsweighs
8 lb40and
N and
the
the semicylinder
semicylinder weighs
weighs 2 lb,10investigate
N, investigate the stability
the stability when when
the
the assembly
assembly is resting
is resting in the equilibrium
in the equilibrium position. position.
Set H  4Set
in.
h
h = 100 mm.

250 mm

100 mm

Wb = 40 N
4(100)
d= = 42.441 mm
3
yb = (100 + 50 cos ) mm
V = Vg = 10(100 42.441 cos ) + 40(100 + 50 cos ) 50 mm
Ws = 10 N

dV d = 42.441 mm
= 424.41 sin 2000 sin = 0
d
100 mm
sin = 0

= 0 (equilibrium position)

d 2V ys = (100 42.441 cos ) mm

= 424.41 cos 2000 cos
d 2

d 2V
At = 0, = 1575.6 < 0 Unstable Ans.
d 2
1155. The 2-lb
1147. The 10-Nsemicylinder
( 1-kg) semicylinder
supports the supports the block
block which has
which has aweight
a specific specific  80
ofweight = 13.5
oflbft 3
kN/m3. Determine
. Determine the heightthe
h
height
of the h of the
block blockwill
which which will produce
produce neutralneutral equilibrium
equilibrium in the
in the position
position shown.shown.
h

250 mm

100 mm

Wb = [13.5 (106) (h) (200) (250)] N

4(100)
d= = 42.441 mm h
3 yb = 100 + cos mm
2
Ws = 10 N
V = Vg = 10(100 42.441 cos )
d = 42.441 mm
1 h
+ 13.5 6 h(200)(250) 100 + cos
10 2
100 mm
dV
= 424.41 sin 0.3375 h2 sin = 0
d
ys = (100 42.441 cos ) mm
sin = 0

= 0 (equilibrium position)

d 2V
= 424.41 cos 0.3375 h2 cos = 0
d 2

424.41
h= = 35.46 mm Ans.
0.3375
1156.

If the potential energy for a conservative one-degree-of-freedom system is expressed by the

relation V = (ax3 + bx2 + cx + d), determine the equilibrium positions and investigate the stability at
each position.

N N
Given: a 4 b  1 c  3N d  10N m
2 m
m

Solution:
3 2
V = a x  bx  c x  d

Required Position :

dV 2
= 3 a x  2 b x  c= 0
dx
2
2 b  4 b  4 ( 3 a) c
x1
2 3 a

x1 0.590 m Ans.

2
2 b  4 b  4 3 a c
x2
2 3 a

x2 0.424 m Ans.

Stability :
2
d V
= V'' = 6 a x  2 b
2
dx
N
At x  x1 V''1  6 a x1  2 b V''1 12.2 V''1 ! 0 Stable Ans.
m
N
At x  x2 V''2  6 a x2  2 b V''2 12.2 V''2  0 Unstable Ans.
m
100 mm 100 mm
1157.
1122. Determine
Determine the weight of block G ' required to x
balance the
the differential
differential lever
lever when
whenthe the100 N (
20-lb 10 Fkg)
load is C G
placed onplaced onThe
the pan. the pan.
leverThe
is inlever is inwhen
balance balance
thewhen the
blockand
areblock
not onare
thenot on the
lever. X Take
lever.
Take 12 inx. = 300 mm. B

D E

50 mm

Free Body Diagram: When the lever undergoes a virtual angular displacement of about point B, the dash line configuration
shown in Fig. a is formed. We observe that only the weight WG of block G and the weight WF of load F do work when the virtual
displacements take place.

Virtual Displacement: Since yG is very small, the vertical virtual displacement of block G and load F can be approximated as

yG = (300 + 100) = 400 (1)

yF = 50 (2)

Virtual Work Equation: Since WG acts towards the positive sense of its corresponding virtual displacement, its work is positive.
However, force WF does negative work since it acts towards the negative sense of its corresponding virtual displacement. Thus,

U = 0; WG yG + (WF yF) = 0 (3)

Substituting WG = 100 N and Eqs. (1) and (2) into Eq. (3),

WG(400 ) 100(50 ) = 0
(400 WG 5000) = 0

Since 0, then

400 WG 5000 = 0
WG = 12.5 N Ans.
1158.
1123. If the load &
If the F weighs
weighs 100 N and
20 lb ' weighs
and the block G 100 mm 100 mm
x
10 N, determine
2 lb, determine its position Xx for equilibrium of the
its position G
C
differential lever. The lever is in balance when the load and A
block are not on the lever. B

D E

50 mm

Free Body Diagram: When the lever undergoes a virtual angular displacement of about point B, the dash line configuration
shown in Fig. a is formed. We observe that only the weight WG of block G and the weight WF of load F do work when the virtual
displacements take place.

Virtual Displacement: Since yG is very small, the vertical virtual displacement of block G and load F can be approximated as

yG = (100 + x) (1)
yF = 50 (2)

Virtual Work Equation: Since WG acts towards the positive sense of its corresponding virtual displacement, its work is positive.
However, force WF does negative work since it acts towards the negative sense of its corresponding virtual displacement. Thus,

Substituting WF = 100 N, WG = 10 N, Eqs. (1) and (2) into Eq. (3),

10(100 + x) 100(50 ) = 0
[10(100 + x) 5000] = 0

Since 0, then

10(100 + x) 5000 = 0
x = 400 mm Ans.
1159.

A force P is applied to the end of the

lever. Determine the horizontal force F
on the piston for equilibrium.

Solution:

Gs 2 l GT

x 2 l cos T

Gx 2 l sin T GT

GU  P Gs  F G x 0

P 2lGT  F2l sin T GT 0

F P csc T Ans.
1160. A 5-kg uniform serving table is supported on each 250 mm 150 mm
side by pairs of two identical links, AB and CD, and springs
CE. If the bowl has a mass of 1 kg, determine the angle u
where the table is in equilibrium. The springs each have a
stiffness of k = 200 N>m and are unstretched when u = 90. E
A C k
Neglect the mass of the links.

250 mm
u u
D
B

150 mm
1161. A 5-kg uniform serving table is supported on each 250 mm 150 mm
side by two pairs of identical links, AB and CD, and springs
CE. If the bowl has a mass of 1 kg and is in equilibrium when
u = 45, determine the stiffness k of each spring. The springs
are unstretched when u = 90. Neglect the mass of the links. E
A C k

250 mm
u u
D
B

150 mm
11 62.

Rods AB and BC have centers of

mass located at their midpoints. If all
contacting surfaces are smooth and
BC has mass mBC determine the
appropriate mass mAB of AB required
for equilibrium.

Given:

mBC 150 kg

a 0.8 m

b 1m

c 2m

d 1.6 m

Solution:

Use T as the independent variable

d a
atan atan
2 2 2 2
Define L1 a b L2 c d T I
c b
Then L1 cos I  L2 cos T bc L1 sin I GI  L2 sin T GT 0

L2 sin T
Thus GI GT
L1 sin I
L1 L1 L2 sin T cot I
Also y1 sin I Gy1 cos I GI GT
2 2 2
L2 L2
y2 sin T Gy2 cos T GT
2 2

L2 sin T cot I L2
GU mAB gGy1  mBC gGy2 gmAB  mBC cos T GT 0
2 2
mAB mBC tan I cot T mAB 150 kg Ans.