Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 448

. .



-
1985
22.161.6
33
517.9

. . -
: 2- ., . ..: . -
- , 1985. 448 .

-
, , -
, .
, -
-
. ( -
1980 .)

.
, -.
. 1. . 46. . 54 .


-
( - -
. . ).

^1702050000059 ^ Qn (Q) .
/iW
/\ QK *> ^
Uoo(lw;-oo -
, 1980;
, 198$

6
1. -
, . . , . 7
1. , , . , . . * . . t 7
2. . . 9
3. . -
34
4*
36
5.
. . . . . . . . 39
6. -
47
7. -
50
8. .
* 59
9. . 67
10. .
* 71
11. 79
12. . . . . . . 84
2. -
88
1. . . . . . . . . . . . 88
2. . . 96
3. * . . . . * 99
4. 106
5. . -
- . 108
6. , 116
7. -
117
8. . . * 121
9. .
. . . . . . 129
10. , -
. 140
1*
4

3. 162
1. . . . . 162
2.
167
3. -
-. 177
4. 180
5. 182
6. -
184
7. n- 185
8. -
196
9. -
204
10.
. 207
11. . . . 217
12. - 225
4. . . 240
1. . 240
2.
247
3. 249
4. . . . 256
5. 263
6. . 276
7. 284
8. . . . 288
9. ( -
) . . . . . . 295
5.
304
1. , 1- -
, 304
2. 307
3. -
313
4. ' 319
5. 324
6. . . . . 334
1. 334
2. -
. . . . 335
3. . * 339
4. , . 346
5. , -.
347
6. 350
7. 353
5

8. . . 355
9. . . . . 358
10. 366
11. 374
7. -
381
1. 381
2. 383
3. -
388
4. -
398
5. 405
, 445


, -
.
, -
. -
-
( 510 ) -
-.
-
, -
. -
-
.

.
, , -
, .
,
. -
2 . 1 10 . 2, -
. -
(. 4, 5),

(. 5, 4). 5 . 7

.
-
-
, -
.
.
. . , . . , . . -
, . . , . . , . . , . . -
, . X. . . -
,
.

1

1. ,
*

Fix, (\ '), ..., 0< ) )=. (1)
F , -
, () . -
-
= (), -
. () ( -
) (1),
/
/ .
1. fix)
/ =* (, ) , {) .
(2)
-
.
:
X

f(t)dt+C

.
(2)

. -
(2), -
() - , ,
(0) = 0.
8 [. 1

-
.
2. sin#,
cos x
*+0-0, (3)
. = sin
, ,
i/(0)= 0, 0 ' ( ) 1 , (4)
cos x
;

,
(3), (4) ( (4')) -
. = sin -
(3), (4);
# = cos#.
-
.
-
.
3.

= F. x(t)
t. xit) -

:
5
(*) <>

r(t) = (x(t), y(t), z(t) -.

-
-
, y(t), zkt).

f, , , -
-
tQ. , -
2) 1- 9

(5),

V (6)
-
-
-
, , -
. ,
. ,
(5) F -
, F -
t, -~, , .

, q(x) = # ,
, = 4W/(2AI 1), -
= 2 ( , 1841 .)
, -
, -
. -
-
; -
.
-

, -
.

2.
1. . -
()

2
fix, ) , -
, () .
10 [. 1

(1)
, , -
. , -
:
Fix, , i f ' ) - 0 .
. 2.
: -
(1) ,
0>, (2)
#, # . (1), (2)
. (2) -
.
= -*- (1) -
/ \ (. . i/ = <p(tf),
# / ) (1).
: -
(1),

(#, ) (. 1).

-
-
.

. 1. . -
/(#, )
> 0 ' D
(#, ), (#, yQ) D.
1. .
\ | < 6
(1), (2).
2. . ^), ^)
(1), (2), ) = 2(#) -
0.
-
. ( /
4
?f D) , :
(0, 0) D
, .
D, , -
(* 1).
5 2] 1-

-
. 2, 1.
.
1. (1) ;
. -
, 0
(), ( # ; ) -
0*
2. -
0, . .
. , (1),
(2) .
(1) -
.
(, ),
6 = /(#, ). (, )
D fix, );
. -
(1) ,
. :
-
, .
(1)
dy-f(x, y)dx~0. (1')
: (1) ( I 7 ) ,

Pix, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = O.

dx + Qdy
.
1. (1) ,
: , --
. ,
(1), . -
. -
(), <<,
(1), ,
(1'):
dy-f(q>(y),
, -
= const.
12 [. 1

. -
: = <(), i/ = t|>U),
ti<t<t2. -
7
(1), (I ), . .

'(*) - /(<pU), *(t))q>'tt) = 0 , U < t < .

-
, .
. -
,
, .
, ,
, , . .
.
2. .

*-/(*>*&) (3)

, fix), g(y)
/ = Ui, \, J ** ( ) . -
(3) -4- = / () -
;

, # 0 , -
, g(y0) * 0. (4) -

.
(4) G(y) =F(x) + C ( F, G
(4)), .
(4) (3):
g(y), -
. * , g(y*) = 0 ,
() ss * (3).
2} 1- 13

(2) (3).
t) ^ 0,

(3) ,
. g(y0) = ,
(2) ()~0. , -
, j (g ())"1 dy ,

,
(5) (. 2).
1.

-ij = , = -\-

= 1/ + ), -
. , ()^0. #^,
, 0 = 0,
.
(0) = 0

, (1)
(
, ). -
, >, {) (2)
= 0 + 1/*/0.
-
() =
= y*(g(y*) = 0).
, (4).

, -
,
.
2.
14 [. 1


= (-; = 0,
.
. 2. -
: {0, 0)
:
= ( 0)3 = 0. ,
-
-
.

- -
= 0.
3.

^ , arctgy = + ; y = tg(x + C)t

.
/(0) = 1. tg.C = 1, = -j- + ,
.
=* 0, # = tg ( + /4).
;/4 < < /4; -
.
4.

= 1, ~ 1. ,

-
.
a; In II 2\.
.
y l, y =
~ 1 .
2] 1- 15

5.

0. ,

+ cln\y\*=ax +abln\x\ + Ct
.
, ,
, -
. -

-
, .
-
. -, ,
, . ,
3, , -
, 0 < < . -,
, -
-. -
, ,
. -
.
2,
In | 1 - / ( * > + ,
. -

. ,

^ (6)

d 0 . \\
= \

> +, -
0 <, (6 ) -
(6).
0, (6) .
16 [. 1

, 4 -

.
3. .

*!L-4(JL) (7)

= xz, z(x) ;
= xz' + z
dz _/()-

Z XX J / (2) Z I 1^ *

, 2,

(8)

0 , ^).
, 0 /(&),
=ftoa? (7).
(7) -
, tx, ty
( 0 ). , = <(#) -
(7), y = t~\(tx) -
.
, . -
~ ,
/= const -
.
6.


2] 1- 17

y~xz,

arctgz 1(1 + z2) = ln|a:| + .



a r c t g|| - - -|- In {2 + 2) + .

,
, . cp==lnr + C

. -
.

: # = cos , sin .
6
(-y)dy ( + y)dxr
(cos cp sin )(8 dr + cos ) =
(cos + sin ) (cos dr sin &),
, cfr == dtp.
.

O. (9)
fix, ) ,
fitx, ty) = tmfix, ) (10)
t * 0. , ,
, = / ( 2 + 1 ) , , q , q>0 (
tm t < 0). -


(10) t t**.l.
& "R <*
18 [ t

(#, ), Q(x, )
, (9) .
7.
( 4 - 2x*y)dz + ( - 2xy3)dy - 0.
(7),

y xz
9 2
2z i , /1 \ , dx
dz d z
-> [ )
2,


x(l + z3) Cz, -
, 2 = 0
. , *

/(z) = z -
2 0, z l .
3
* + , ^ , -
. 3. -
, 3.
~ -
.

* V < 1

f(x, )
, (10)
* > 0 . m . :
(2 + y2)m/z m
. (11) -
. (9), -
/\ Q
, ,
.
2] 1- 19

8.
xdy ydx fxz + 2 dx.
, 1, 2 + 2
1,
(, ) .
= xz,

> 0; In ( V F + 1 + z) = In x +
0 . z -

,
, O0.
< 0;
In (*+ V7+1) - -In Ui + , (z + VF+1K-*) - C l r
d > 0 ,
1/.

-2=.

> 0 . -
. -
, < 0 , -
.

{}, bj) (, 0).


uibz dzbi 0'9

2*
20 (. 1

:
/ = 1, 2.
.
- a26i = 0, bi=^0.
z = atx + bty + c l f
.
9.
( -7z + 7)dx + (7 - + 3)dy - 0.
1, = ,
( - 7x)dx + (7 - 3x)dy - 0.
= z
^ (7z2 7)d* = 0,

J S = 1 , 2 = 1 ,
.

.
10.

== z m ,
2mx2zm-iz/ = zB
, -
, z :
2 + ( - 1) = = 1 + .

! 1/2, y = lfz

*V f/ V' = z3/2
2] 1- 21

z = xw,
xw' = w2; w = - l / ( l n \\ +)\ - -

4. .
(12)
. -

(13)
.
, (), ) -
/.
(13) -
.

, 2,

! J j (14)
'
. = 0 -
, (13) ^.
(12),
. , -
(14):

{|<')<**|
() .
(13),

() = () | (') dx' 1,

X I X' \

() = + J* (') - (") dx"\ dx',

.
22 |. 1

, (8)

X \ X ( X

I I
(15)

I/ . ' '
-
;
3 2== const. (16)

, (15)
,

# 4 ( /, g (15)),
(16).
.

- .
12.

d<p 1,

(, ) . -
:
dr it j I

.
= 0 = 1 . ,
> 1, 1 + . ,
- * 1 ,
-^+ (. 4). < 1 ,
~ 1 9; , -*
2] 1- 23

= 1 , = In -
.
13.
(x + y2)dy=*ydx.
,
, -
xiy):

' +

14.
a>0.

fix) ^ lim f(x)


~+
= 0. (+) -

X

-** ]e~atf{t)dt.
+
, -
-+ +>. -

lim ifoCaO lim i - lim ~ g L - 0.


a-+oo x-+oo e x-+oo a
0
= yoix) + *, ,
:-*-+>.
5. .
z, y)dy - 0. (17)
24 . I

,

(, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy - df(x, y\ (18)
: :


.
15.
dx + xdy a 0
: d(xy) = 0,
%
. -
' , " 0 **0.
( (0, 0)) -
, -
-
. , ' /
* 0, *0.
. (, ), Q(x, ) -
D.
(17) -
, ,
g-.g, fertcsD. (19)
D , (19)
.
. (17)
, (18)

, -
, (19). D -
(19) .
()
J P{x,y)dx + Q(x,y)dy, (20)

, f? D -
(), {, ); (# ) D .
2J 1- 25

-
, (20) ^
-
(#, ). fix, ), -
D (18).
16.
(2 + 6xy2)dx + (2 + 4y*)dy - 0.
= + 2, Q = Gx2y + 4ys -
0Q
, j ~ = g p ,
fit fit

fix, ) , ^* ^ "^' ~* '


/.

Ciy) ,
3
fix, y)=x
-
, fix, ) -
. Ciy).

2L - Q = + V - 6* + (),, () -

3 + + * = .
17.
xdy ydx __ Q

, ^ - = ^ ( (;, ) (0, 0)),


djix, ).
( / _

, Cix)^ const. ,
26 [. i

arctg =

. , -
= , :
= , >0; = , <0.
, -
:
*=0, >0; = 0, <0
(. 1).
6. . (7)
-
, , -
. (, ), Q(xj ) ( -
) , \.

y)=C. (21)

/(*, )~(, y) + yQ(x, ).
(11) (19), -

= + { + 1) .

, -- = ( + 1) Q- -
,
df-lm+lHPdz + Qdy),

(21) .
18.
xix2 + 3y2)dx + (2 + 3x2)dy -

( = 3).
2] 1- 27

0 . = -
(0, 0), > 0
(0, 0).
(17) -
.
\i(x, ) , (

\i

, ,

(-
), -
, .
(22)
(. . 5), -
, -
(18). ,
.
(18), (, ), Q(x, )-
. ( m = 1
.) -

, (22) -

(11) ,
mPQ.
-
: \ = (. (22)

t = JL (w^dQ
\i dx "" Q \
28 (. 1

.
^ s l , , -
(18)
dy + (() + b(x))dx = 0.
(. . 4). -
/ =

I
J a(x')dx'\.

m n
dy + bydx + x y (cx dy + dy dx) = 0,
, , , d . dy + by dx
~~\

-*- + by dx)= d(xayb).

, -
. xmyn(cxdy +
+ dydx)

.
/2 , JLXJ = |2,
. -
2 , / 2 = ; , = #
,
^ =* ( + - 1 = ( + 1) - m - 1,
( + 1) 1 ( + 1) 1
ac bd^O,
, 6- , d = &6,


(1 + ){ dy + by dx) -
.
19.
dx dy n ,9q
2) 1- 29

,
arcsin + arcsin = , (24)
11^. , (23) -

2
^lf + ^ = ,. (25)
(23)
n^tfdx + yT^J'dy - 0.

iT^tfdx + 1l=x*dy = dixy r=Y"+ yHi^H?) + xyh,


h (23),
dizlfl^y + ^) = [1(i-x2m-yz)-xy\h =0,
(25).
li r U - ^ - X l - p 1 ) -xy
.
(23) -
:
dx dy 0

(?), F(^) .

. -
-
. , -
(23) .
. (18)
: Pdx + Qdy =
= df f(xr =. ()
,
(/(#, ) ) = . -
.
(18)
fix, ) - , gix< /)-
Fiu), *
F"4w) , (. 4, 4)
gix, ) Fifix, )).
30 1. i

(24), (25).
arcsin + arcsin = , xlll-y2 + !/1- = F{C).
arcsin = , arcsin = ,
+ ij> = , sin cos + cos sin = F(C) = F(<p + ).
- = 0, F(q>) = sin . ,
sin cos + cos sin - = sin ( ).
, -
(23)
2 2
+ + 2' + * - 1 - 0, (26)

.
# = d=l, j/ = =H. , -
(23) , dj/ O j/ = l , dx Q
=*1.
(25) -
, -
, .
.
(24),

. -
, -
(26),
7. .

z = 1~ -

z' + (1 - n)a{x)z - (1 - )).

8. .

(27)
, ^ ,
(27) .
.
-
.
2) 1- 3J

1. :
2. - -
:

, , f 6 #, fty # 0.
.

(27)
(fi/i + ) 2
, -
.

'
y = q)(x)z, z = w + |)(#) ,
, = .
.
1. ,
.
() . = yt + z,

2
[ + z' a(y\ + 2yxz + z ) { + z) =
2
= z' (2 + b) z az == 0.
( == 2), -
z = 1/ . , -

= + (28)
.
2. , 2, -
.
:
2 9
J 3 * 3 <
, (28), = 1/( yl)i
>
,
32 (. i

. 4,
9
^ZT^ const.

, (29).
,
,
(29).
3 .
. y z/a,

z '/

, ,

(-
. . 7).

(30)
^, 0 .
20.

= /. -
, 2 2 = 0,
1 . (28):
~ + , z' + z = 1.
2
z0 = ~ . -

2J 1- 33

2
: z = {)~ . -
,


z = -] ~,
*

.
(30) -


=== ===
1 . 2&' "^ ' i 2, ...; = 2,

1. = 2, . . -

= /, -
: 2 = 0. -
, -
1
i/ +
2 , ,-
.
= 1/z,

21.

' + + 5 = 0.

= 1/z,


34 [. 1

z ;
, , - , 5 2du dx
+^1+.^\
^ 2

, = l/

-
. 2, 10,

3. .

1. .
,
.


+ atlx)y{n-iy+... + () = fix). (1)
{) , %()% ..., (), /--
.
) (1);

Ky)^f(x). (2)

{) 1 0
+ et W " + . . . + () (3)
-
. (1) ,
fix) .
fix) es 0,

). (4)
2. . ,
4 , ..., (), fix) ,
3] 35

i/),
/ = ( , ). <=1.
1. 2 ,
+ a2l(y2). (5)
L
. cci, 2 ,
() + 22 ()) - aiy[k)(x) + a2y(2k) {x).
-*(#)
* 0, 1, ..., , (5).
1. 1. .
i/i(#), yz(z) )
= 0,
{)
o&i, a a -
.
2. j/i(#), 2() -
(2),

(4).
. 1. 1, -

) + 22()) = )) + a2l(y2(x)) == 0.
2. ,

, Z,
) - 2()) = / ( ^ ) - Z(^2U)) = 0.
2 .
3. (1)
(. . ) -

.
, () ()
(1), ()
.
() = () + {),
() = {) () ,
2.
3*
36 [. 1

4.

1. .
'--, (1)
,
(2)
( 2, 11).


(3)
[I , () .
1. (3)

- QmWe**, (4)
\%
Q() (5)
\ = . Qm(x) .
. -
(3)
= e^z, (6)
z(x)
*# + ( | i - X ) * - P w t e ) . (7)

m 1 1
Pm(x) - aox + Hi*" - + . . . + , =.

\1 == ,

(7), (3)
(5).
[i^K; z(x) -
:

60, &i, ..., bm. -


4] 1- 37

(7),
{\ - ) + U\i - i + mb,]xm-x + . . .
= + -1 + . . .
,
~*1 ...,
bo = /(\ ), bi = (at mbo)/(ii ),
(3)
(
(2)) ,
(3).
.

4x
1 () - ^, () + ^ 2 ( * ) + . . . + e Pk (), (8)
..., , , ..., Ph(x) .
1
(9)
, / . ,
1 % =
8=8
Pj () ** ( 1);
(9)).
2. .
.
(1) ,
% . ()
-
.
1
* *
. = t$ (fJ , i ),

* = cos $ + i sin $x.
= + if), , . -

%
-
:
1. * ^ * =
2. * * * * - * * - 1 .
38 [. i

d : *
3 = <?
' '
X

e
. J e dx=Y . ^).
, -
. 1. Kt = at + i$u Kz =
= a 2 + ifr;
)x [cos & cos 2 sin p ^ sin &
i (sin px:r cos 2: + sin $2x cos P^)! =-
[cos (Pi + P2) + i sin (Px + p2) ]
,

2 .
3 4, -
, -
. /(#) -
1={,) -
.

(11)

(), v(x) -
.
, fix) -
0, -
(), viz). -
( . .)
#, (
. .) (), v(x). -
fix) :

. . (11)
, i -
. f(x) :

\ f(x)dx = ] {) dx + i J v (x) dx.
5J 39

3.
-*** = $ sin + cos x +
+ i (e a x p cos + sin )
= (cos + i sin ) ( + ) = te**.
4 3 .
2. , jx ,
) m -
. (1)
(2), , (3)
(4) \\,% (5)
[i == .
,
, |, ().
-
:
5. \\=* ( = + ).
,
\\ = / c o s 2 * + sin 2 = 1
| (+) | = | ^ J | | ^ ^

5.

1. . -
-

<n-l) + ... + any = 0 (1)
1? ...,
-
, ,
- .

(1),
D = --:

KD)=Dn+aiDn'1 + ... + an. (2)
, (1). -

D + D ( y + ... + .
40 [. 1

Dky = {\ (1)

0. (3)
-+ HD)y () -
U(D)y](x).

;
/(/?), . . , (2).
-
:
a(D) a0Dn + a,Dn^ + . . . + a n ,
m 1
bW) - bQD + bfi- +... + bm
ah by -
,
a(D)y + b(D)y. -
,
) + ) - la(D) + .
a(D) b(D)
a(D) + b(D).
a(D) b(D) -
, a(D)[b(D)y\,
. . b{D)y ( -
(/?)), -
a(D). ,
a(D)[b(D)y) = b(D)la(D)y] = [a(D)b(D)]yr (4)
. . a(D), b(D)
a(D)b(D). -
, , :
a(D) = a0D + au b(D) = b0D + 6.
a(D)[b(D)y] = (a0D + ajthy' + b,y) -
e
oM" + (i^o + aobt)y' + aj?xy ==
ia0bQD2 + (
(4) a(D),
b(D) .
2. .


(1). , liK)
5] 41


= - - ).. - \ (5)
, ...,
/(X) - " + "- 1 + . . . + = 0, (6)
-
(1).
1. 2, ..., -
.
(1)
= c / i * + ,/ + ... + ", (7)
..., , (7)
(1).
. KD)

KD) = (D - Kt)(D - ).. .(> - KJ. (8)
, )
(. (5)), D
, .
(8) -
- (1) -
. ; 1
4. 1
. KD)
KD) - lt(DHD - ), h(D) = (D - Kt).-..U) - -,)

z = (D Xn)y. z
lx(D)z = 0,

. ..., ^ -
. -
,
..., Kn-i. -

' 0 ,
, -
= Cxelix + . . . + Cn-ie%n-lX. ,
(1) (7). ,
(7)
42 [. i

(1).
1)% = ( + ~1 + .. + ) = l(K)e**.
1) = , ..., U = 0 , l{e^x)^ , K / < n f
^1*, . . . , e^nX
(1).
3. . Xlf . . .
..., % -
. 1()

*, ..., X. , fclf fc2, ..., k* -


. X, ,
/ = 1, , &,- > 2. fc,- /?-
Xj .
2.
..., ..., kai
, Ar4 +- 2 +... + 8 = . -
(1)
-Pi(x)e%ix + 2()%* + . . . + ()*, (9)
Pj(x) $ 1,
(9) (1).
. -
KD)
/(>) = 1 (D) (D - %sy, 1 (D) - (D - ^ . . . ( / > - ,)^" 1
(D )/==2, z
ll(D)z*=0 1.

K % %
* - ' - - ^ () ^ i + . . . + ^ - i (*) ^ + Qs (x) * .
Q\(x), ..., Qs-iix) 4 1, . . .
..., ka~i 1, (?,(#) ka 2; 1,
Qaix) ss 0. -
.
ka , -

= pi (*) *1* + + p>-i <*) >~1,
#) fej 1,
/ = &&,
( 4). (9) .
5] 43

8 ,

- pi ^+ . . . + - 1 () eK*-ix + xQs (x) ^%

Pjix) &, 1, Q8(x)


fcs 2. 0 -
(9).
4. .
{) + ^-* 1 - 1 ' + ... + -,' + == 0, (10)
..., , > 0 .

= % ()

. ,
d _t d d dy
&~e Tt' x
Txy~-di'

dt) ~ dt
* dt
h {h)
, x y
t
.

%
, == .

= \ 2" = - 1)\ ...,

(10) #\
:

+ ...-1 + = 09 (12)
. %
,
*** (13)
.
.
. % 2, ..., -
.
44 [. 1

, \
, ..., .
2.
Kij ..., ..., 8 ,
kt + 2 + . . . + 8 .

= P t (In j ^ / i + P . (In *)** + . . . + P8{lnx)x\
,- t kj 1.
. ,
> 0, ,
% = %1.
5. . -
(1) -
,
.
, -
,
in i}
) _ <) +ul(x)y ' + + () = 0 (14
.
1. (14)
() ,

() = Re , viz) = Im y(x)
.
. () = () + ). -
(14),

), l(v) , ,
/-0.
2.
(6) % ,
.
.
= + *1 + ... + == + ^"1 +... +
..., , ) = 0,
0
5J 45

(1) ; -
. -
, 0 = ^ -
. = + if), ^ 0, ,
(1) =>*. -
1
yt = cos #, = sin (}#
() . -
= ** -
. ,
(1) -
0, yi9 yz,
. .
= * + . . .
+ Bxeaix sin xx + , . . + A&ea*x cos %x + B8ea*x sin
Cj9 A}, Bj .
1.

Xt == 1, 2, t9 -

Cj .

. -
ix
, e = cos x + i sin xy

== + cos + 3 sin x,
; .
2.

> 0 . -
4 k ==
k == 0 : 1 2 = , 3) 4 =biA,

46 [. i

Cj .
. ehx, e~** -
, eihx = cos kx + i sin kx,

= Aid" + *** + 3 cos kx + Ak sin kx,
Aj .
3.


Xk + 3 + + + 1 = 0 (15)
.
+ aW1 + - - + CLn-iX + an -=
, , -
:

,
^ = - 1 , + 1
1. -
,

(15).
X2, -

X+-^ + a(x +
=1, = 2,
1Y
y -y" + 2y"-y' + l~0.

pi = 0, 2 1 ,

CJ 2- 47


2
= + A2sinx + e iA3cos~-x + 4 4 sin-^- ).
4.
'"-"-'- = .
Kit % 1,
3 = 1, = 1 .

6.

1. .
+ 2 = 0, (1)
> 0 .
X2 + 2 = 0, Kit 2 =
(1)
x(t) = Cj cos (ot + C2 sin co, (2)
Cu C2 . -

48-<), (3)

= \ + \, cos == CJA, sin = CJA. -


, -
xU) x(t)
tt0. ^0 = 0 ,
:
*i. 14)
, x(t) -
t , , -
Xi . -
, = , -4 =
= V xl + #iA2 (& (3)
(4)).
= , . . ,
. -
48 [. i

, .
=* 2JX/G). -
(
. 4,
5).
, -
(1), -
. :
1. .
2. ,
, .
3. ,
L.
2. .
+ 2 + = 0, (5)
, . -
2 + 2% + 6 = 0
%1 = 11 . (6)
, -
, .
1. . > 0,
2<, 12 = / 2 ,
(5)
= e'at{Ct cos wt + 2 sin (ot), w = lib a 2 ,
2-~ . -
,
(3):
x(t) * Ae~at cos (at - ). (7)

-
; , -
-
5. ,
==2/. ,
(6) ,
lim x(t) = 0 ( . . 5). Ae~at -
. = -
. 6 = 1/,
, -
. , Ae~a{t*x)/Ae~at =
6] 2- 49

= . d = 6 (. . = 2/)) -
. -
,
. N ,
.

, d , -
, . -
( -
)
,
.
-
Q :

, -

, .
(5) -
:
= (2 ) F.
2 -
,
,
. , , -
( ). ,
, -
; -
(7). -
(, -
, -
).
2. . - > ,
2 > , Kit 2 -
, > 0.
{t) + 2 ' { < 0, ?i2 < 0)
.
.
50 [. 1

3. < 0.

= Aew cos (cof - ) (2 < ),

{t) = Aew [ciet^/a2-b + 2"^2~) {2 > ).


Ae]a]t -
. -
-
, -
. fc>0
. < 0
( ) -
:

-
.

7.

-

<"> + 1<-1) + ... + = P w ( * ) - f (1)
Pmix) ,
.
1. KD)
,
:
(2)
.

- 2 i=o

,
x n
) = e la0(D + \i) y + at(D + \) ~* + ... + any] -
e^KD + \i)y.
. 1. .
(. .
7J 51

(1)
= Qmlz)e?*9 (3)
Qm(x) .
2. . \ -
, .
(1)
= xkQJx)e^, (4)
Qm(x) .
.
- * (5)
(2). z

h(D)z = PJx); Zt(Z = HD + \x). (6)


li(X) b0 + ^ + . . . + ,
Zi(0) = ZC|x> 0, b0 0. ,
PJx) = + ,~ + ... + .
z
z = d9aT + diar-l + ... + dm9 (7)

d0, du ..., dm (
). z -
(6),
boz + bxz* + . .+ bnz{n) = bo(doxm + d,xm-x + . . . ) +
m i w 2
+bl(mdQx - + - l ) d ^ - + ...)==
= coxm + CtX-* + ... + cm.

, ~\ ...;

bodo = 0, bodt + mbido = ci9 . . .

b0 0, -
d0, dh ... (7), (5) -
(3).
2 hiX) =
= 0 , hik) ~ l(% + \i).

1( = ++1.+.,. + , 0.
/.*
52 [. 1

w = z{k)\
w
bhw + bk+iw' + ... + w(m-h) = PJx).
bh=0,
1,
w = doxm + diXm'1 +... + dm; z{k\
,

)- xQml(x).

0 ; : 1 , z = xhQm(x),
Qm(x) .
(5) (4).

+ aty(n~1) + . . . + = {) (a cos \xx + b sin \ix). (8)
{)

a l t . . . , a n , \i
() .
(8). ,
i\x -
,

. (8)

= Qm(x)(A cos \xx + sin


\ -
,
~ 3^Qm(x) (A cos \ix + sin ,),
i\i -
. Qm(x) -
.
1.
if+afc-Fcosarf. (9)
)>0, >0, F=^0 .
(9)

^ + (22 = * . (10)
at
7] - 53

Rez -
(9).
1. ,
%=. (9), ,
(9)

(9)

= cos (o0t + 2 sin (uot + 2 cos (ot. (11)

2. = )0,
z = Ateiv>t (
+ ( = 0 1). (9)

Hot . - t FteiQ**
z = Axe +A2e +~2?^'

(9)

v s n (0 m
= cos G)ot + 2 sin ^ + 2 ^ * ^

(11),
(12). (9) ( F 0 )
,
( 6). (9)
, -
.
, (9) -
<> < t< , (11).
= , (9) -
t -> +> -
sincoo (. (12)), . .
.
0
. -
, -
.
3. ^ 0
(9) Fcos (co^ q)t).
x(t) =A0cos (0 0) +-4icos (co^- ^, (13)
54 . 1

], ,- ; ,
%0.
. 0, coj , . .
, x(t) -
. , co0/coi = /<7, , q ;
, .

% v
. )0, 0)t , . . -
, x(t) -
. , > -
x(t). x(t + T) =x{t) :

sin - sin (* + - - 0) +

+ sin ^ - sin ((^ + ^ J = 0. (14)



tk , a>oth + - | 0 = fat, fc
, (14) ,

/
sin -^- sin ^ ^ | J = 0. (15)
, = 2jt/c1/t0i,
^ .
(13), ,
.
(13) 2/, .
2jt&1/coi = 2jtm/coo , -
o)0/o)i . -
coo, coi.
(15) ,

() . = 0, 1 -
, jto)i/coo = , m
. o)0/o)i
, -
. ? x(t)_ .
7] 55

,
l4)l Hi|
t~R
. 0>0, Ai>0 -
. tk = {2 + )/, ,
(13) . ,
t = th -
, 4 .
2( + ), = /, (17)

= (" 5 11(2) . -

2. .
<= 10, 1) > 0
& = ),
\ LfCo&j \ ^*- v/

[\ ( *= + ,
, 0 < < 1, [] = ).
.
1 ^ .
, 2, . . . ;
= 14*}, ft = 0, 1, 2, ...,
. , ,
( 0^4 ), -
- 1]. . -
, Am ~An * ,
ma Ima] = na ,

, a .
, 0 < < 1, > 0 .
, + , -
. , . -
N>1, l/JV<2e. AOf Au ..., AN
TV . I
1/iV, . . .
< . -
+-),ft= 0, 1, 2, . . .
Bhi Bh+i / < 2,
&0 .
,
56 [. I


\{ + ( )) [( + ( -))\ \ < .
1. 2 , -
{[]} -
[0, 1], . .
[0, 1] -
. , -
7 = 10, 1].
: L ,
/, I ML) -
, t -
N.
lim = I.
7V-oo

, cos2n(ka + $) -
;
(16) . (J
[J =*/ , , 0 < < 1
(18).

\\ < ,
cos 2n(ka + ji) = cos 2nf,
-
. (16) -
.
2. x(t) (. (13)) -
coo, (Oj . -
, > 0 L = L ( e ) > 0 -
, L
,

- . -
, ,
, .

:
N
* (t)e S Ascos (* ~~~ ? .

, 1? . . . , ^ ,
7] - 57

. . 0, ..., nN,
,
= 0.
), coi
.
xit) , .
2. (13) , -
>1 > > 0 , G)I , . . Q/co0 < 1,
0 = 0)! )0. xit)
xit) = A (t) cos i(o0t ()),
A2 (t) = A20 + A\ + 2AQAX cos (<p0
(19)
tg it) = 0 cos 0 + A1 cos if (t) ' = 1 Q^.

Ait) ,
, 2n/Q. > 0 , i 4 t > 0 ,
A2it) iAQ At)2 iAo + AJ2.

. 6.

cos ()0 (^)) -


; xit) . . 6; AQ = AV.
;
Ait) .

(. 2, 11).
xit), ,
-
; xit) -
t.
Wo, CDI ,
, -
-
, . . ,
58 1. 1

3.
+ 26 + (20 = F cos (ot, (20)
2
> 0, > 0, > 0, * < 0. -

t -> +00. ,
(20)
xo(t) = A cos of + sin cof,

(18) t

. . . -
(20) 2 ( 6), -
. F cos , F = ,
,
. -
, -
.
. 3, 12.
. -

ly as j/<4> == + 23 + 3 sin + 4 cos 2x,


cij . -
4 1 = 0

()

Ctex + Cze'x + cos x + sin x.
Cj . -
-


e 3
Ijfi ^*i ^ = , /3 = sin , lyw = cos
8] . 59

JJL = 1
1, { yl = Aixex. -
iji . \
:
(xexYk) = (){) + 3)' = ( + tie*.
At == 1/4, yt = /. \ = 2
, -
2 =*, -
2 = 1/15. 3] i -
1, 3 =:x(acosx +
-\-bsinx). 3 ,

x(acosx+ bsinx){lk) +A(acosx + fcsin#)(3)


x(a cos x + b sin x) = sin x. (3)

= 1/4, b = 0, y3 = -j x cos #.
2i , -
= a cos 2x+ b sin 2# -
= 1/15, 6 = 0. , -

= Cxex + 2~ + 3 cos + 4 sin x +

8.
.
-

dx

dy

aift .
, X )- = (ajh)
- () {) = {1 () ..^) (
60 . 1

):

-
.

[8, 20].
,
= .

( )

detU-?J)=0,

/ .
1. % 2, ..., ^
, , 2 , . . .
. . . , ( ).
:
, -
( X )- , -
, . .

J (2)
"
4, ,2| .. . ,
= ( 1? 2, . . . , ) (. .
).

. () ( X /)-
tjk(x). - ()
(, . .)
/, (-
. .) . -
- () , -
()9 . .

(as'*()).
8] . 61

. () {)-, z(x)
-.
I () = *) + (*) ^ - (3)
, -
() z () - -
,
. (3) .
2. 2, . . .
..., . -
(1) :
%
() = /' + /*\ + ... + *, (4)
ev 2 , . . . ,
2, ..., .
. -
- z ()
() = *(), (5)
, -
(. (2)). (5) (1), -

dT
g- ^ 0.
~1 , 7""1 = ,
dz A
A Z

, . .

Zi , z 2 /2 zn ^

|, 2, ..., ,

z = / 1 ' / ! + / 2 * / * + + CneKxfni (6)


62 [. 1

/ft , - -
, .
, Tfh =
= eh , (6) (5), (4).
, (1)
:
1. 2, ..., -

detU-X/)=O.
2. , 2, . , . , -


= ; = \ ...; = -
3. (4).
.
(1).
. -
. ,
X, % ,
.
. , = . -
: = he.
, = , -

= %.
, % , -
.

, ,
= .
; =
= ^ . -
:


= ,
Uv . . , . -
.
Xi, ..., , Kh+u ^ ft+ i,
8] . 63

+2, +2, . . . . -

+ Ch+1 Re ( / f t + 1 4 ) + Cft+2 Im
} .

{x). (7)
() -,

: () = 2 PJX\
3=0
Pj .
1. . \i
, (7) -

-"?*<?(), (8)
Qm(x) -, -
.
, -
.
Qm(z)

Qra (X) = S qjX^
i=o
qj .
(7) ?*9
(|i/ ~ ) Qm () = () -

, ~1 . .,
{\xl A) qm = ,
(fx/ ) _ = _ 77igwf (9)

\il , \ -
,
(9) qmt
64 {. 1

(9) qm-i
. .
2. . \ -
,
. (7) -

=* e*xQm+l (),
Qm+i (#) -,
, +1.
(5), (7)

x
^ =
+ #*U Or), ^ - X2z2 + e U (*), ...
fjix) - T'^Qm (x). -
,
, 4.
.
== - 2z + t,
== + sin f,
z = Gx - 2y - 3z.
.
3 2 + - 1 = 0 ?w = 1, 2, =
==. ^
- # - 2z = 0, : / == 0, 6: - 2/ - 42 = ,
== = 2 , = (1,1,1) . -
2
(4 - i)x - - 2z = 0, x-iy = 0, 6: - 2i/ - (3 + j)z = 0,
x iy, = 2ii/ 2 = (1, , 2)^.
3 .3 == 2 = (1, i, 2)T',
-
3 . ,

) .
8] . 65

-
.
1\ / cos t \ / sin t \
(
-=
2)
sin* ] + - c o s * ) .
\2 cos t) \ 2 sin t )
- , -

f cos t \ / sin t \

0 + A2[ sin* + , - C O B L
Aj .
\2costJ \2sintJ
. -

}= 2 + V = + *6.

, ( )


= 6, = /1#
6,

, .
2, = ^
1,

cos t + a2 sin t + t (a3 cos t + a 4 sin t)f
aj . -
, , s i n ^ I m e * * .
elif%% /2 = (0 1 1 1 0)
66 [. 1

. -

2 = aelt + btelt.
,
ia + itb + = + tAb + /2,

( ) = , ( //) = + U
: det ( /)=0,
%=*i .
2.
6 0,
=5^0.
.
( ) = 0

(
2).

r
(== (#, , z) )
(4 i)x y 2z = ia, x iy = al,
6#-2/-(3- = 2.
, -

2 (2iy - z) = ia + (4 - i) (1 - a),
(3 + 0 (2iy z) = 6 4a.
,
, = ( 1 + 20/8.

x i y + (2i7) z 2 ^ +^ ( l

, -
,
. -
.
Celtf2i -
9] 67

/2. =* 0, ^

2i 7 \
0
W.
f (1 +130/

-,

/cos t 2 sin t \ /8cost 28 sin A
+ sin* + ' 0
+2sinf/ rfZ \13cos* + sint /



= + 1 + '2-

9.

1. . -

#.
Xi = !(^), 2 = 2(^) (1);

2. -
(1), , -
, : -
(1).
: (1) ^ ( ^ ,
x2U)^0 (0, 0).
( )
(1).
(1) , -
. 2 -
*
68 [. 1

- (ajh) (1), . . -

0.
21
-
; 2 :
I . Xi, K2 .
2. 2 : Ji2 = ^i.

. -
.
2 . -
, 2 -
, (1)

/ .\ **\1 . 2 /\

2 . 2
. % 2 \t)
,
2
()


: ( , 2 ^ 0 , (3), -
-
*\ I I .
I. 2
.
A. li < 0, ,2 < 0.
Ci = 2 = 0
(0, 0). Ct > 0,
2 = 0, -
| i , d = 0, 2 >
. 7. > 0 2. -
,
t) t. 4 > 0,
j
2 > 0, ^ ~>0 (f- + ), 3 -> (^-^ ), / =
= 1, 2, -
, t -* + (. 7).
Ki > 2,
1- ^2 1- (
Jim == = lim
9] 69
^ -
( ga, !< 2 ).

(4)

( (3)
2, 4), ,
.
. 7 -
( , (t) -
(0, 0) t-*+).

,
. 8, -
. .
. 1 %2
().
%i >
> 0 , 2 < 0 . d = 0, d > 0
li = 0, 2 = 2 -* 0
t -> +5 d > 0, d = 0 -
| 2 = 0, gi -- + t -> +.
4
( 2 -
d = 0, 2< 0; d < 0, . 8.
d = 0). d > 0 , d > 0 ,
| j -^ +oo? g2 -> 0 f -> +oo?
(. 8). .
2. . 4 = X, %2 ^.
: = . -
= , . . , .
(1) (2), -

. -
(5) : -
(t) .
:
70 . 1

(5).
= + , = if2, C = a + ib,
, , , J / , / 2 .
*(*)-61/1 + 62/2,
6i = 2eat(a cos fM - sin (tt),
g2 = 2eat(b cos ftf + a sin ^ ) .
I. : a = 0 ( ).

6i = cos ( ^ + f), 62 = sin ([M + -),
2 2
0 = 2 + , tg 7 = /. -
(. 9). -
^ ( ^ > 0).

. 9. . 10.

II. :
A. : < 0 .

li = poeat cos (p* + ), ^2 = p o ^ a / sin ( ^ f 4)
, -
t -* +00 ( eat -* 0). -
(1
(. 10).
B. : > 0 .
,
. 10, t-+ +00 -
.
(1) , ^
. ~ = 2;

dy_ __ ax + by ..
dx~~ cx + dy* W
101 . 71

ad 0.
()
(6),
= () (, # =
= ()). (0, 0) ( .
. 2, 10). , -
(6)
.
3. .

+ + = 0 (7)

, .

= , = . (8)
(8)
(7),
(, ).
(8) (7) : ,2 + + = 0,
(7) ,
.

10.
.

1. . 8 -

,
. -
,
.
,
.
.

-\
(
4 = 2 = 0). ,
; (2 X 2)- ,
~* = .
72 [. 1

, -
. ~1 = 0,
= 0, .
, -
,
, .

"

. -
% fc,
/. ,
Jx = , . .

%Xi + 2 = KXi, 2 + = %2, . . ., kXn = hXn.


, 2 = 3 = . . . = = 0, ,
. . / ( -
) /j = (1, 0, . . . , 0) ( -
-). : / 2 =
= ( 0 , 0 , . . . , 0 ) , / = (0,0,1.0, . . . , 0 ) , . . . J
:
Jfx = /, // 2 = /2 + /, . . . 1 Jfk = ^/ft + fh-l-

. {, . . . , eh} -
,
= %1 2 = 2 + ev . . . , Aeh = %eh + ek^v (2)
, 2, ..., eh -
. / 1 ? . . . ,
/.
-
. -
,

0
g 101 . 73

Ju / 2 ,., J, kh k2, ..., ka:

Ihk \


ki + k2 + . . . + , = n,
kh .
, (3), -
. -
.
-
,
.
. [40, 41]. -
.
. *
. ,


-1, 2, ..., , ;
(2).
. ;
? ,
3 X 3 ,
() 3,

:
0 0\ 1 0\ ( 1 0>

%;
? :
[40].
. 4 .
74 (. 1


. )-
, . . *
,
. (4)
,
() ,
bjk | & 3 J < e ,
> 0 .
. ,

'' , '

/ . -

, , / .

Ct2 Ctj-i
\
h

'

/
10] . 75

2^ = -1 = = . . . = ahad^r.1 =

0

V \

\ RJ
, ,
/?1-V1/?1

K'W
Kj, a

bjf ; + i = 0.
.
~* = R-i(P~iAP)R = #-7 == + .
.
2. .
:

. -
.

/ (1).
76 [. I


dzt
1 2i
dx

. zfc = Ckc**. -
, Sft-i Xzft-i = C ft e^, , 1, 4,

, (6) -

2$ ..., Ch , -

(7)
(5) -
.
1. {e, ..., eh} -
(1\ . . . , ^ -
(7).
2. (5)
-
.
10] . 77

. -
= Tz, -
, (5)

dx '

~3 ~ i 2 "5J"== *2
z* - kh
, (6).
.
1 = 2> + 2, 2 = ~ + fy2.

hi = 2 = 3.
= , . .
2#i + = 3#i, + 4^2 = /2,
, /i = /2
( ): = (1,1).
02? -
2 = 2 + . 2
2
- yi = 1, /2 - #1 = 1,

2 (0, 1). (7)


, ,
%
= 3(, + ), = ,
.

(5), .
78 [. 1

..., hs
..., ms. (5) -

Pj(x) -, -
rrij1.
, , -

rrij ( ,

). (7), -
Pj (x) e ?, -
- Pj ()
, .

, , , -
, . (2 X 2)-
. -

, . -
(, ) ,
, , -
2 = 4. , (0, )

(0, ) ( , -
).
.
,
one-
. ,
. -
,
, -
. ,
, , -
. ,
, (, -
) , -
, - (-
, ).
] 79

11.

-
-

.
-
. -
:

. -

,
-
[31].
. -
fix) , :
1. f(x) # > 0 , ,
, , fix) = 0 < 0.
2. \fix)\<Meax >0.
, .
fix)

00

J -**/(*) . (1)

Fip) -
fix) :

, (1)
Re p > , 2.

s
f(x)dx

Re p < 0. , -
Re p > Fip) -
.
-
. , -
.
80 [. i

, ,
= + -
(, e~pxf(x)\x==oo = 0 . .).
1. .

, ,

.
2.
/() (*) = pnF () - ' ( 0 ) - . . . - pfn'2) 0 - fn~x) (0). (2)
= 1,

/' {) = J e-pxf (*) dx = PF (p) - f (0).


. (2)
. g(x) = / (n) 0r),
/ + 1 ) (*) = g' {x) = pG (p) - g (0) =
n n l) (n)
- { () ~ P 'V (0) - . . . - / ~ (0)) - / (0),
(2) + 1.
3. . > 0
/(*-) = -^(). (3)
, fix ) = 0 < , ,
= ,

f(x a) = J /(;r-a)

-
,
-
. (2) : ,
-
11] 81

/?, . . j -
.

-

. :

0(0) = , '(0) = ..., ^)


#i, ..., .
y{x) = Y(p), f{x) = F(p).
(4)
1, 2,
() - -10 - . . . - !/_,) +
+ 1(-1) - -0 - . . . - -) + . . . + ) = F(p),

(), () .

Y(p) (),
. , , :
? -
:
,
b+ioo

55 d-ioo
J
Rep = b (. [33]).
-

-
. , -
,
. -
,
.
ft /
82 [. 1

, -
, -
(4) .
^ ,

\
'xndx

, cos x =*
1 . 1

{eix + e~ix), sin x = tp (eix e~ix), :


1 P
1 COS (

\ (0
+ sin coo;

1
X COS (OX
(/ + 2)2
!
x sin (ox

1.

, (p2+l)Y(p)
'- / 1 ,

, , -
-
:
1
V/


() = 1 cos .
(4).
, , -
11] 83

, F(p) .
Yip)
, (5).
-
, (4).
2.

" + <$> = cos , (0) = 0, ' (0) = 0.

( > 0, > 0, 0 .
,

.
( . 7, 1).


=
() 2 (C0S

~2 ~"

2 2
= , () = /( + ) , -

= s i n
2 ^^'


= 0. -
= :

(4),
= {) =().
:
) +flig*"-1*+ . . . + = /( + ),
= , (0) = ...,


.
84 [. 1


g--/(*), = . (6)
( X )-, f{x) -
0 -.
- (. .
) (1),
13 .
(6),
(pI-A)Y{p)-y* + F(p), (7)
Y(p), F(p) - (), f(x).

.

(pi )"1, -

(7), , .

12.
2, ..., , . . . ,

= a^n-i + - + . . . + ahyn-h) n>k+l, (1)
#i, a2i ..., ah , ah = 0. -
( -
), (1) -
. ,
-
. (1) -
-
:
k 2)
zw = ulZ<*-i> + a^ - + . . . + akz. (2)
, : -
{} izj
(1),
{ + Pzn}, a, P .
, 2, . . . ,
(1) yh+i7
12] 85

(1).

= , (3)
%0 . (1) -
~,
(4)
. -
, % -
, = " -
(1).
%2 ..., -
,
= + + ... + , (5)
|, 2, ..., Ch , -
(1). ,
(5) (. [19, 43]).
(1) -
(2) (-
(5) 1, 5). (1)
,
.
1. n-

+2 = +i + , */i = 1, = 1.
2
= X + 1,
%1 2 = (1 5)/2,

= 1, 2, d , C2,

2 ) \ 2

2.

1
86 . I




1 = (1 + + 2) 2 =<

-= % + + )+ 2 ( + -1 + -2) zni
=2

>2 = 1, , = 1. a-2 = = ^-i = = 0;



^ 0.
2 + + 1 = 0

1/3) = C O S2;- t
^ 3

,
.2 .2
% 3

0, 1,
* g-iJt/3
=

)l
J ^
, -
, -
.

0, (6)
, (0) = 1.
= ~. fe>0,
~ (& + h) ()
^ ,
h .
(6)
( ) (l
12] 87

y(nh)=yn, = , 1, 2, .., -
:

yh=(l ha)h. (6) -


[0, 1] h = i/n.

/(1) ~ -+, . . -
. ,
-
:
( 1 / )

cin^ainh).
-
[19, 43].
2

1.

1. . -
t ( ), -
&), ..., xn(t). -
. -
:
==
JJjT / l \> ^ 1 ^ 2 %)1

dx2
==
~flj /2 \ %2i Xn)i

dxn
~J~= = /n \fi x
\i ^2T ^n)

. -
-

(

dx /.


d
( - A
I . . -^
( )
: (t) -
(1) ,
1] 89

t0 , = (#?, . . . , )
. (1) --
#=(), -
Ui, tz) -
.
= (t) (1),
t^l = (tii U). (1) -
# = (), = ; i e / (+1)-
Rfjc1 U, ..., )- -
: -
(1), -
(t0, ) Rn+1.
(^), ..., (), 1)
= (), t = t, = (t0), t = t0. (1)
(/i(0, ()), ..., /(^,^)), 1).
- / (t, x)
GczRn+l. {t, x) e G
(/i (^ ^) /(^ #) 1), G
. (1)
, . .
, ,
= (t), t = t, -
, (1).
(1).
-
.
-
. G Rn+1 ( -
t, xu ..., ), - f(t,x) -
df. (t, x) n
~ > 1 ^ * \ j ^ ,
G. (1), (2),
(*0, ) = G.
1.
(to 6, to + 6).
2. , . .
, () (1), (2), >
i|)U) t0.
-
: -
G ,

90 [. 2

-
(1)
.
1. (1), (2) -

(3)

: 1) (1), (2)
(3); 2) -
(t0 6, to + 6) (3)
(1), (2).
. (t)
(1), (2), I=(to 8,
fo + 6), t .
(1) t0 t (2), (3).
(t) /
(3). (t0) = , (2) .
, - fax ,
- w(t) = /(t, x(t)) i e / }
t
- J w ( t ) dt
'
t e /. , - (t) -
t e /.
(3), , x(t) (1).
(3) :
z(t)-A{x.{f)). (4)

t
A{x(t)) = x+ | / ( , x{l))dU (5)

.
x(t)
-
y(t). , , -
x(t) y(t).
y(t)=A(x(t))
A: x(t) -+ y(t) (: x(t) y(t)).
,
(t)t {t) -.
1] 91

.
1. :

a(t) [,
.
2. :

3. :
t
( (0) = J (t) it.

1, 3 x(t) , -*
2 / = [ , ].
4. A(x(t)), (5).
(t) /
- , (/, (t)) t ^ /
- / (, ).
, :
.
-
. ,
: -> ,
: -> , - -*-
-> -.
-
, .
X, .
, X -
, = X -
^ . X
, X
( -).

5 , -

( 24). -
.
2. = 1 . -
:
92 [. 2


t
{t) = 0 + j /(*, (*))dl ( (*)). (6)
'

. -

A(xo(t)), ..., xn(t) =A{xn~i(t)), ...

xo{t) = xo, x1(t) = x0+


'

..., xn{t) = x0 + J /(?, *n-i(?))c (7)

#U) = e'. -

t

:
xo(t) = 1,

= 1 + J (1 + -,

, -
*9 -
11 93

.
, ixn(t)}
-
x(t) / = U 0 - - 6 ,
0 + 6l, 6 > 0
. -
U 0 1^, \ \ ^b,
G,
{

(. ) .
. .

max max
t&I -
x(t), ,
. . \x(t) \ ^ 6 t ^ /.
1. ^/0 x(t)^M, () ^. -
, A(x(t)) t^I
t
\A(x(t))-xo\

2. x(t), y(t) min (b/K0, q/,


0 < q < 1.
max | ( (t)) A x(t) - (t) \. (8)
mi

\A{x{t))-A(y(t))\ =

( -
; 0(?) (#(?), y(i)))
t

(8).
94 [. 2


X(t) = + (Xi(t) - ) + (2 - Xdt)) + . . .

xo(t), &), ..., ,


-
ixn(t)}. 1, 2

max | ^ x (t) x0 (t) \ < qbt


ti

, ^ 1
max | z n (t) ^ _! ( | < bqn.
tGI (10)

= 1 ,
n i l (8),
(10),
+1 (t) - (0 | = | ( (t)) - (- (t)) | <
< q max | xn (t) xn-i {t) \ < bqn+i
t<=i

(10) . (9)
/ ( ),

q, 0 < g < l . (10).
, xn(t)
x(t) /, -
t ^ /.
t

,
x(t)
(6). -
.
. ,
(6) , ytt), -
t^I,
1] 95

(8),

0
0 < < 1 , mbx\z(t) y(t)\ 0,
y ,
3. . z = x+iy -
; , , i
.
-/(*,>), ()-, ()
, w(z)
. iviz) -
z0,

(12)
=

. -
z0
Iz zo\ < . -
/(z, w) (z0, w0),

/ - 2 2 /(-)(-^)*
(z0, i^o).
. /(z, ;) -
(z0, >0). () ^-
1 w;(z), z0, u
.
. w(z)
(12) wn. -
iv0 : w{z0)e w0.
(12) (13),
z zOi (11)
+ 2w2 (z z0) + ?8 (z z 0 ) 2 + . . .

+ (/0l^2 + /20 + fllWl


,
96 [. 2

z z0,
2;
>1--/! 2 - / + foiwu
3w3 = folw2 + / 20 + /11^1 X

-
w ?2, ..; -
,
. -
wiz) . [40].

:
%-f(z,w), w(zo) = w. (14)

, /,(z, wi9 ..., >),


1 ^ / ^ - / (z, w)
(z0, w\r ...,Wn)- (14)
w(z),
z0 .

2.

%
-
. ,
,
( + ) (
) Bt
:
1. + = + .
2. ix + y) + z~x + (y + z).
3. & ,
+ = .
4. 1 = , 0 = .
5. ($)
6. {+
. .
1. -
,
11 (*
)% :
2] 97

1. > 0 , \ 110*0=0.
2. # = 1 | { ).
3. \\ + \\ < IWI + \\y\\ { ).

-
.
1. R. = .
2. - .
= (xv 2, . . . , zn)i -
:

=1
n
3. - R r
||#|| = max \XJ\.

-
.
4. (, ). -
x(t), [, ,
m a x
I*(*)!

5. (, ). -
- x{t) = {x1{t)1 . . . , xn{t)),
[, ,
|| ( 0 || = max | a? ( 0 ,
t<=[a,b]

, ,
(max |

4 ;(^) -
, . -
C(a, b), ,
.
5.
2 \\x\\ x , j x \\ -
. -
|| ||, || 1/|| -
, -
/, .
98 [. 2


,
.
.
, -
R > , 11 < R ,
, lim = ,
#||=0.
-*
, , -
,
:
lim {xn + Vv) = Hm xn + lim ,
- -* -*

lim = a Hm ( ),
- 1-+

Hm Hm yn.
-* -*
3 ( = ) -
: lim x) = Xj
h-*oo
/ = 1, 2, ...., . (, fc)
xn(t) (^) -
ixn(t)} [, . , -
(, )
lim max | xn {t) x (t) \ = 0,


{xnit)}. (, ) -
xh (t) (t)
[, 6] : ) (t) ^* Xj (t)
l^j^n.
(^) ,
lim || xk = 0.
2. -
, -
.
-
-
. ,
3] 99

1 5 ( , , Rn, (,)
(, )) .
{, ). -
xn(t) -
,
lim max | (t) {t) \ = 0.

{xnti)} -
[, ] -
x(t), . . xn(t) -* x(t) (, ).
(, ).


, . 2 ( ^ )
=:1
, -
{$}. , -
:

2 , . .

2 I ||, .
71=1
.
3. <^,
,
() .
.
-
.

3.

= ). (1)
, , -
, (. . -
).
, (1), -
. %&
:
, . . ., +1

0, 1, ..., , . . . -
100 [. 2

. ,
, , -
. ,
w-^oo
+ 1 =* ),
, = ). -
(1) -
.
-
.
.
. 4, /, -
,
1) :-+ {. . !

2) , 0 < & < 1, ,


211 (2)
4 , 2 ^ .
1. {, ),

= . -
:
. (2).
1 ( ).

. .

(1)

^ , .
. (1) -
. -
>^ :
. . ., +1

;-+ , ^^.
, {} . -

+ (! - ) + ( - 4) + ... + (+1 - ) + ... (3)


3] 101

, > 0
, 11< ^ ^ . -
,
+| - J ^ 2" = 0, 1, 2, . . . ) . (4)

= 0 , ,
+i - q>J = () - (-1) ^ ~ cpn-i'l < 2+\
(4). , lim =
-*0
^ ! , .
,
lim ( ) = (),. (5)
-

, - ^.! =
= ( ), ,
(1).

-*- , (5) .
, (1) .
, , | / .
- () ("),
II - 11 ^ - |)
0 < < 1, 11 = 0, . . = |).
.

. , II -

(. 12). -
. d , -
) < ,
A(M)^M. ,
) *^knd.
-
,


'
. -

, -
(1).
102 [. 2


. -
. -
,
(11 + 22) = CLiAityi) + )

2 , 2
2 .

sup * (6)

, IL4ll<.

. (6) -

IU(q>)ll<ILAllOq>Of (7)
.
+ -
,

, 7 , -

()()
, -
,

, -
, + , ( ), -
. , (6)
( 2, 1).
. , -
, .

- IccllUII, \\ + \\ < IUH + 1,


(8)
.
.
.
; -
3]

. , > , , (7),
HU + )() ^ ()11 + ()11 ^ ( + \\\\\\,

14 + 1 1 = sup

, (7),
)!! = ))" < 11) < ,
(8).
. -
:

.
\ < \\ (9)
, J5
2 2
() ^ 11() < 111111,
() < , -
(9).
2. -
" , (ajk). -
, 2, 3: \\x\\ = max \\-

| = 2 | | . (1)
j fe
, | ^ | ^ [ | ^ | | ,

m a x

|?||^||||||?||,
(10). |||| =
104 [. 2

(10) . -
(10) j = /0.
x
k 0jofc \ a>joh |~\ ajok 0, xh = 1
;

( , > & = 0 ),
| | 4 # | | > | | |||||, (10) 0.
/ , -
7() = .
11/11 = 1.
2. , -
,
\\\\<1. ()

() |> (12)
, -
, .
. -
,


|)). (13)
, (12)
- * + (*) + . . . + ) + ... (14)
(7) < 1, ,
2
1111 < \1 + IL4II + + . . . + " + ...) =
(15)
(14) ,
. ,
WA( - ) ^ - " -* 0 ( -> oo)f
( )-^() /->.
-> ==[} + (_1), ,
(12).
. , -
(12), ,
3] 105

,
~ == ( ).
,

< 1, = 0, . . = .
, | -
()-, (12) -

( / - ) - | > . (16)
-
; (I A)'1 , -
if .

. (7 )'1 , -

11(7-iD-MI^U-)- 1 . (17)
,
1 - ( 1 ) = \pi, 2 - ( 2 ) =1|)2,
^! + 2 2 ( 2 ) -

()

1
(7 )" .
(15) ,
1 1
- 11(7 - )" () < (1 - )- !!^
ty e , (17).
(18)
(12), -
. (7 )" 1 -
(12). ( ) -

.

)- 1 . (19)
106 [. 2

, (12) -
= (7 i4)"4if),
(7-)-*() = [7 + AU- )"1]^),
(19).

4.

g(x) -
-
:
i ) b ) ' ( l H z ) , (1)
U, ). -
.
D Rx ,
,
, .
: ,
, . = (, . . . , ) Rn.
1. g() -
D /?
,
), y-x)% (2)
% , , .
. D ,
/, , . -
z (t) = + t ( ~-)
0 ^ ^ 1, g(x) -
t:g(z(t)) = /(), O ^ f ^ l .

/'tt u ), < < 1 . (3)
/ (0) = g (x), f (1) = g ()

(3) (2), 1 = z (^0).


-
.
4] 107

2. 1 ,

* ( ) { zh), (5)
** (, ) -
D, ).
. , (4),
l n

g {) g (#) = J -fa g (* (0) ^ == 2 * (^

'-x)). (6)

<pft.
3. - g () = (gt () ...
..., gn(&)) -
D.

\(){m<K\y-xl (7)

g{ (X)
max (8)
,

. (2) -
gi(x),

re

1 Jl 12/ j

\yjZj\^\\yx\\. -
( 2, 3) .

- ( 3) -

g(y)-g = (*; ) ( - *)t (9)


(1). (; ) { X )~
1 0 8 (. 2

%{ , , .
- (\ ) J G O .
F (; z), (, . . . , ), *=

. D -
R^T, , F (; z)
D
>1 .
(#; , *), (, . . . , ), -
..., \ yh ..., \ zh ..., zm
1 , ,

F (; z)-F (x; z) = 2 (*; ; *) (* - *) ()
fe

(5), (6);

(; ; *) = J ^fe (x + t { ); z) dt,

Fk F xh + t(yh xk).

5. .

-

1. . 1


x{t)-A(x(t)), (1)

(2)


5] 109
. (t) t e [, ] -
-,

(3)

\zj(t)\^.\\x(t)\\ = max [t)\.


j
/;
/, 1 < / ^ , , (3).
(1) -
. \\ || ^ 6,
\t t01 ^ , G (. 11).


= max || / (t, ) ||, = max (max
KiJ<n\ ,

6 : \t t0 \ ^
^ < , || || <1 , > 0 -
.
C[t0 , t0 + ], . .
U f 0 l ^ 6 -
(t),
1* (1"\
V / II
||J-I ""- i1TIQY
xidA II 1*
\\ */I '

- (
, || (t) #|| c <;fc. ,
| | # ( ) ] | < | # 0 | | + x(t)^M.
, ?(*) = x(t), xk{t)^M,
h-*oo
- (t) e , , ,
0
| | # ( * ) - - # | | < & , x(t)<=M.
, , , -
(2), /, > 0
.
1. , > 0 ,
: -** . (t) e M. -
( (t)) G C [ ^ O , t0 + ], (2) -
- / (, (t)) -
(. 2

-. ,

J /(t, (t)) dt\ < J||/(1, * (?)|<ft < J

< b, /. ,
< &/- (4)
: -* .
2. , > 0 ,
(5)
0 < q < 1, (f), (t) e M. (*),
(^) Af. 2, 4 (
)

7,x(i))-f(t,y(i))\\di

t , -

II { (*)) - ( (*)) || < q 1| (*) - {t) ,.


q = Kln8. S #/(,), ?
, 0 < g < 1, (5), .
, , > 0 ,

(6)

.
, , x(t) == ( (t))
(t), U 0 1 ^
. 1 (. ),
-
5]


d
= tif,x), * ( - (7)
2. - . -
-
(. . ):

t
--. (9)

: (8),
(9). , -
.
-
n - . -
f(t7 0, z/i, ..., yn-i) -
^-, 0^.}' ^. 1,
GaR?^1, (0, #, #i, ..., ^ n - i ) e G .
(8), (9)
Uo 6, 0 + 8).
= 2.

^ =f ( t d A ' x l t ) - x - ^ =
2 dt o) dt
dt \ ) ' *" '
d*
x = y0, ^^

. -
:

, -
(10),
.
112 [. 2

d2x ( dx\
. % f \t, , ^ 1,
.
) ; ) ?
3. .
1. -
/ (t, x).
. - / (, )
G ?,\ -
^ 0 ) = (0, ) G.
. [40].
2. -
/ . :
dx _ 2/3

(. 1, 2, 1, . 2).
= 0
, fix) = 2~ -
.
(7)
- f{t, x),
. -
.
. <() -
>0, (0) == 0, () > 0 >0

> 0. (t, x1), (t, x2)


G

(7)
{t0, x) e G.
():
, |1| (^1), |1||111||
. ., > 0 .
-
[53].
5]

3.
: -
U to\ < .
, . 1, 2
^ = 2 -
4. G it, ) (,
). , fit, ) -
G ,
>0 ,

U, # 4 ), it, 2) G. -
t, xu 2. - f(t,x)
G,

(, 1) (t, x2) G.
/U, ) -
G,
t, . . /Uo, x) -
(/0, ) G.
-.
-, -
.
1. /(#)
/: ^^. fix) -
#=/. , -

2. G = [^, t2] X Go, GQ -


/?.?. --
f it, )
..., .
3 4 , f(t,x) -
? G.
(11)
/
= max max
\
114 . 2

3. / [-1, 1], / = , . 8 *
.
X 1
/ *
\| == J s g n i d t , \xL\ |^r a [ = J sgn t dt%

]
\\ .
= 0.
, fix)
/, fix)
,
fix) /.

= sup|/'(z)|.

, f(t,x) -
.
-
. G -R^J1 -
f it, x) G -
-
G', G.
(7)
XU , * + ), > 0.
-
.
(5). , -
; (tt xl), {tx ?2)
(11).

, ,
nKt .
4. . x(t) -
(7), /=
^ Ui, U)' ,
5] 5

, . (t) -
x(t), -
/ => / (t)
/ .

( ),
> < t < > ( -
t0 < t < > < t < t0, ).
G. (t) (x (t0) = ) -
, -
(t), -
Uo, +), + < , , (t,y(t))
t, t+, -
F G.
.
.
G ^1 (7) -
.
() -
, ,
.
. [4, 41].
-

= /U, z), x(t0) = 0.
y(t) -
, t0 < t < t+ < . -
:
1. lim y(t) .
2. lim (0 = .
3. lim (t) .
+
(t, y(t)) -> U+, y+) -
.
, , = , G -
ti < t < tz, Xi < x < x2. -
=*2 (. 1, 2).

; .
# = sin(l/Z) =
= t-2 cos (1/) G: t<0, > < < , -
8*
116 [. 2

. limx(t)
,
= , 1 ^ # ^ 1,
.

6.

. - f (, , 2 . . . , )
-
&*1 . -
(1) -
+ 1.
, ,
.

. = 1, x(t)
, .

(2)

fit, x)
, -
fit, xit)) -
. -
, (2) -
, . . -
-J72". /? = 2.
(2) t,
d2x(t) df(t,x(t)) df(t,x(t)) dx(t)
+
dt
2 ~~ dt dt

,
, ,
3 , . .
7] 117

7.

1. .
,
, (,
. .).
, . .
,
-
. ,
, -
, -
, . . -
.
.
-
.

- = } (*, , (), (*0, v) = xOf (1)

\i . G
(t, , |LI). fit, , \i), *'
G

(0, 0, 110) G, (1) x(t, \i) -
(, JLX>
\t t| ^ , I[ |01 ^ 64.
(1) -
, UOi #o).
, , -
[, .
. (1) -

t
(t, \i) = 0 + J / (, (, \i), \i) dx (2)
'
, ,
= {). (3)
: \t to\^a, \x xo\^b,
118 1. 2

||i | 1^, G,

o
0 0
(3) -
. x(t, \x),
U 01 < 6, 1, jiol ^ , > 0 -
,
\z{t,\i)\.

,
Wxit, \) \\ ^ . , (, \i) e Bf

() = 0 + J / (, (, ), |i) dt

U f o l < 6 , 1[1--1^^,
, -
.
, , 6 ^ /, < q/Ku 0 <
< q < 1, /, -
.

:

ii = (JLX , . . . , ^i m ), JULJ .
1


. G -
{t, , \i) - f
^ 1 -
t, , \. (4) x(t, jui) -
(, jm).

JLI (. (1)). /? = 1,
# = (, ^i) (1). =
= (, \ + \)
7] 119

(1), = cpU, + ) (,

- / (*, (*, + ), + ) - /(, (*, ), (*)

( 4 ) -
F + G , F, G -
t, (, jx), (, JA + ), \, [ + Ajx,
/|

(, ) (^, + ()
,

4?1. . - .
(5)
t, Aji
/|, , , F, G
Y df df
--, -gj-. -

/ ||,
lim -- = --
,

--^ =0.
/| \tzsst Q
/U, , \) -
> 2 ,
(6) , , -

\'
dt-

,

^2
-
%-
120 [. 2

, -
(4).

= /(*.*) *(*) = *. (7)


t0, 0
.

--/(',*), *(0)=0.
/47, ) /(? + t0, + 0) -
,
(0) = 0 . -
, /U, )
&*1 -
, x(t; t0, x0) (7) -
> 1
t, i0, x0.



n- .
(6) .
x(t, \x) , -
.
!) .
(1) -
'==[0:
( ]
. ,
(

1
, -; j ^ ^ . -

8] 121

.
+ 2 = \\ (0) = 1, i(0) = ,

> . -%- iy(t).


x(t) = cos at. -
\ = 0,
+ )2 = cos 3 (dt = -- (cos 3CD + 3 cos (o^)?

-
. Y(p)
;
1 1
4 ,2 _|_ /.

3 , 1
4 ( + 0,2)2 22 \ 2 + 2 2 + () )

. 1 11,
-- = ^ sin ^ 7 (cos cot cos
1^=0 8) 322
8.
1. *

= /iCr/i, /2, ..., ),
#2 = /2(*/i, , ..., ), (1)

-
= (a?lf a:2. ^). = (l/i 2, f #n), / = (/i /2
(1)
(2)
, / lf /2, .,., / -

= ( 2 , 2 , . . . , ); / () = &.
, (1)
122 [. 2

() 2, ...,

, ,
-*<*). (3)
- g {) -
f(y).
. -
/j :

sf >Vn) = /i (a) + 2 -fe~


o{\y a\\) (y -+ a).

/ () = / + /' (a) (y-a) + h (). (4)
h()- hu h2, ..., hn
/ ' ()

(^) . (5)

/' () .
) (4),

:
6 = /' () ( ).
, -
, -
: det /' () 0. , -

(1).
U = . -
- = f () /
V =
(. 13). ,
, -
- g (x).
.
:
8] II 123

1. - f ()
= .
2. d e t / ' ( a ) ^ O .
U, V }
- g(x) , ;
1. - x f(y) -
U V.

. 13.

2, - = g () -
V.
3. - = g{x) ,
V .
-
.
1. -
. .
, = 0, 6 = 0;
? = , == . -
(4), (2)

x = By + h (),
= /' (0).
-~{-11{)) (6)
(, /' (0) = )
(6)
= () (7)
() (6).
U 1 \\ ^ = 0 f
V #||<;6 01,
, , () U (
124 . 2

U) G I / , V, . .
() . (8)
h(y) ~{\\) \\-*0 (. (4)), * ( ? ) ! <
^ 8 1 # 1 11^11^6 = ()
. -
lir^tfll^llB" 1 !!!^!,

(8) , ^
^ 6/12), ^ 1/(2), = \\~% -
, /, V .

(7), (2) {1)
\ 2 U.

( 3 4), Kt =
= max max ilEl J. (4) ,
dhAO)
= 0 /, > 0
, q =
= ~11< 1; -
V. ,
(2) (^2 1\ <4< !) (9)
V (7)
( 3 ) .
, -
/,
(. (6), (7)) ^
() , (8), (9) , -
/, (7)
, , = g(x)^M.
-
- = g(x) V,
U.
8] II 125

2. . X ^ ^ G F H ^ 1
=(#*)
#2 = (#2). (6)
g (*2) ~ g (1) = "1 (* - 1) + " 1 (ft (#2) - (1)),,
, (9),
|| g (*2) - g (1) 1 < | fi"1! I x*-*\ + q\g (2) - g (tf1) 1,

1 g (x^) - g ( 1 ) | < 1- 1 1(1 - q)-1 |a* - |. (10)
, 2 ~> 1, g (2) -> g (x1)
- == g ()
.
3. . -
- = g(x) # F,
,

/ig^g (xQ + Ax)-g (x) = CAx + h (?),
|(*)|-* (||^||->0);
.

0
0 = g (); / {0 + )
/ ( )- (9), (10), 4 ,

( X)- ;& = -J- -J-,


| j , ##
- (^/)
,
() = (0) +
, |||]-*-0;
lim V

() -,
|e(Ay)|-o(|
(10) ,
1 2 6 [. 2

D -- ,


|e(AV)|-o(|A*|) (|*|-*0). (13)
(12)
by-trwr^B + h^x)

(13) , |(?)1 ( ) ||?||-> 0.


(), ,
- =g {x).

.
- :

f'(y)g'W = h (15)
, (2).

g (tfO + _ g
(14).
-
,
, . 9.
2. .
m

Fi{xu ..., , ..., ) = 0,


F2(xiy ..., , y lf ..., J = 0,
(16)

/ ^ m U j , . . . , , U -, ) = 0

+ ,
-
..., ..., .
81 127

(16). -
,
= {xv . . . , ) , = {yv .. ., ) , F = (Fv ...,Fm)
( -), (16)
F(x,y) = 0. (17)
Fy ( ) -
F(x,y) , . . ()--

(dF.(x,y)

. -
:
1. - F (, ) -
= , = F (, ) = 0.
2. det Fy (, ) 0.
/, V a, b
, :
1. - = g (x), -
[ / , F,
F(x,g(x))^0, xs=U. (18)
2. - g {x)
U.
3. - g (x),
(18), , U .
.

F{x,y) = z, x~x (19)


+ ..., #, yi9 ..., ym
zlf ..., zw, xu ..., .
, . .
(1) z=0, x=^a
=, =. -,
(19),
0> \

In On, m -
) ( X ), = 1, == 0nfTn.
=, = det 4 = d e t Fy (aA 6)=^=0
128 [. 2

(19) .
, ,
-
= <(#, ), = *(#,*),
W
== , z = 0 W = , = ,
- <, .
W ;
W = U X , U == , F
= i?. , ,
| (a?, z) *s x%
= < (?, ), ? == ?.
g (^) = < (^ 0),
(19)

.
g'{x) --
== g (). , -
, F . -
(18)


1
g' () - - ( F ; (*, g (x)))" F'x (x, g (x)). (20)

,
-, . .
m
? / , R . (20) Fy ( X )--
,

t 1 ^ i <C m1 1 ^ /;

. . Fx ( X )-. , , -
,
; ,
( )- ( )-.
3. . /(*/)
g(x) (
9] 129

% ),
< / ( * ( * ) ) ' - <*(*))*'<*). (21)
-
- / (), g (), -
/' (), g1 () .

. .^ - g (x)
U = , -
f ()
V = = g (), - f {g {x)) -

, (21).
. , = 0^
g () = = 0,
g(x) = Ax + (), f(y) = By + 2()

- ^ 0 ||?|->0, 8 2 ->0 1^||~>0. -


, | # | | ~ > 0
/ (g (*)) == Bg () + 2 (g ()) - + (BBX + e2)
, = + 8 2 -^0 J -
,
) - + $\\) (||^!0).
, (4)
/ (g (*)) = (/ Uf (*)))' 1*- + ||) d I -v 0).
(21).

9. .

1. . 7
Rx>
1. , -
, -
U.
130 - . {.. 2

(), ..., (), ^., -


U,
, . . j
() w ( (),..., 1 (a;), u j + 1 (), . . . , ()). (1)
w - .
V^U {) . ,.()
, -
U.
1. { = ..., wm=
= xm (m < ) U.
&!=#!, u2*=x2i ^3 = ^1 \
U: \ \.
-
. --
{)
() () ()\

( () () (*, I
2 )
(2)
* () .
*, . . . , 1
2, . . . ,

Vi^gi^u , . . . , ),
e
fttei, 2 . . . , ), - . ., = gn(xh , ..., )

, ,
*-*(*) (3)
1. (3) [/5. w#-
U,
I . - = g(x) -
U V.
2 . -
*-/ (4)
V*
U 2, ...,
yh y2, ..., [/,
.
9] 131

i ) 82 ( ) . . , ^ W ( {), /2 (#), . . . , / {))


.
, gi(x), 2(#)>..., {)
,
.
1.

.
. (#), 2 (#), ..., ()
(3) ^ () = (f(y))f
2 () (/ ()), ..., () wm(/ (#)).
, (#), (), . . .
..,() () /,
w, (), 2(), .. .,() (-
) V. , 1 ();
(?) . . . , () U, -
/ (1). %

w
() = (i (). - . Mj-i (if), U+i (if), . . . , (if))f
^/), w 2 (^), . . . , {)
/.
1. ' ()
U > 1 U.
V -
uY(x), 2 {), . . . , () -
, .
. -

Ar = det A, A

, ^ .
^1 () = 1..., {) = /, + = + -., < = . (5)
, ,
. -
{) = (() ...,(), + - . . , )
( \
( ih
132 . 2

/,
( ) X { ) ( ) .
det ' () = det
. , (#), . . .
. . . , {) F,
() = , ..., () = -
, Uj(x). ]"^r + l,
(), .. ,,uT(x), -
+ (). -
v () =Jw x {), . . . , +1 ()) 7?()=
e
(^/i , ur+i ()),
v' () v' () = g{x) ( 9).

0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
v' ()
+1

vr(y) ,

yr+i

+1 ()
+i, . . . , . ,
() = ^ ( y l f . . ., ) = ? (U! (^), . . ., ()).

. . +\() ()1 . . . , ().


1 + ()
{), ...,{).
1. ^
' () m U.
1 (), 2(), . . . , um (x) U.
, -
, , -
, U.
2. ^
'() .
(), . . . , ()
(), ...,() ,
.
91 133

: . (5).
1. g (), . . .
.gm(#), m^n, U.
: U
.
2. = 2, U
(, 0),/ = #1, 2 = 4 - /,
, 3#
3#2 ,
(#?, %) , \ , \ 0. =
^ V #2 = V^2/2 - -
2.
2. . Rn
,
= ^i(^), ..., = xn(t)9 t (tt1 t2) cr /,
Xfit) t^L f -
, ) -
t&I

(*i(0. 4W)= (0, ...,0), ^/. (6


dx it )
j~- -
nex(t0). (3) -
if ,
..., Vn^fnixiW, ..., xn(t))f
.
,

/' () , -^-,
.
, , z
/(#, , z) = 0, g(xt , z) = 0
, .
2. (/ 1)-
(*) - 0 (7)
134 [. 2

Rn ,
, xQ (7)
'() -~ 1.
. -

,
(6) 0, . v
. . . , ^ 0. f
i - 0, . . . , |/-1 = 0 , - ^,

f / ,
1. 2 ( -
3) , . . (6) ^
.
5 8 , -
: (, ), -, . .
(, (8)

# (, ).
#, , z U,





dz dz

, . . 2, U.
( 0 , 0) :

0.


91 135

(8) -
( 0 , 0) , [} , :
= (, ), P e P U , ),

z = /(#, ) z(aU, ), (, )).
= 0,
= (, ), I/ = (, ), 2 z(cc, fU,
5.
[ dz\
*** Ida' '1 ')' , a e a 0 , -
<

S

^\'<%)' ) ') -
,
. (), -
==:
( ) J* a (a 0 , 0), ( 0 , 0),
S
. , -
(), 5.
2. S,
2 + 2 + z2 = I. , S ,
. . (8). S\, S2:
Si ,
, 5 2 -
, . Si, S2 -
= ri (a, P), r*=r2 (a, P). Sh S2 -
. S , -
,
(8), , . -

(. [4]).
.

7- Rn
Mh,
* - * & , . . . , 5 * ) < (Sif...iE*)=tf. (9)
U |, - ()
U *1.

*i(i, . . . , , ..., * = {\ . W-
2. Mh -
( -
136 [. 2

) % ' (|)
\ /.
1, Mh ; = 3, = 2, 2
3 . -
1 .
(3)

,
.
- 5 2 ^ 5 , . . . , rk = ^ M = /,
,
. () ,
== (|) ^ (), . . .
^ { I ) J \ -
,
(), Mh .
-

/-. ()
3. (10)

f(x) =0. (10) -


n
~* R .
. ,

0
/ (? ) 0,
f(x) =% . - - ,


9
1 0 ...
1
0
9] 137
1
1 ~ , -
(10), = 0,
~ (
li, . . . , ?n-i ..., i/n-i). ~
~* .
3.

! (>1>1>).

, / = [ -4, -|-|)
\ )
(0, 0, 0),
. ,
, -
- -
.
& ^ 1

, , *
(. ()\
. : ( - ~ 1
0
^ ^ , ^ / ^ n,, ?0,
, -

, . . .
3, . ..., -
71, U .
U\y=*
= g(#) ( # = / () . (3), (4)).
= , . . gj () == , , -
3; $ = const
. , ( 2) -
2 = 2 (-
):

,
. 7, -

'./ (3) ( (4))(


138 [. 2

(), U,
() () . -
2 () = (/ ()),

() .
+ , , -
+ , + , .
+ = /( + ).
- / , | | -*0
| ? |-> 0
? + = / () + /' () + .(| Ay |) t

/' ,
Ax = f () + (\\) (\\-+). ()
, |#|, | Ay \
, . .
Clt C a > 0 ,

| \ ( | \) .
{} , -
1%.., ,
= + . . . + .
(11)

,...1 :

,, + . . . + + (\\). (13)
4 ' ^ -
9] 139

\&\ -
{}, [}. -
/ {) (12)
, det / ' ( ) . [ {)\ -
; -
, -
, -
(. 14).
U
(^), . .
^ U

. . . + (*)
, , - (?). -

() [ {P))f
. . ~
ftWS + + ^ . (14)
- (#)
(14)


= /'- (15)
/' () , -
(4). (15) , -
-
.

-. (16)
140 [. 2

= / (), -

() - .
(#) >{).
1
1' {) f - q> (*), - (/' ())' <*) - (),
- < (?) < () -
(15).
' () () -
{) {)
- ( 9 ) :

, -
. # = / (), ( 9, (21))


Vu(y) = Vu(x)f(y). (17)
4.
, .
, . 3 ,
.

10. ,

1. . -

Fix, , i/') = 0. (1)
. F(x, , ) -

D (, , ).
(, , ) D.
j?(x, , ) = 0 (2)
, , S
.
, * 141
(1) , ,
,

1. 2 = 1
= + , = + ,
(, ) %

(. 15).
, -
(0) = 0,
( -
) '(0),
F(x0, y0, '())=
-

'(0). -
: -
(1),
. 15.

0, 1/, F{xOi 0, 0) = 0.
1.
FP(x0, 01 0) 0. (4)
(1), (3) -
(0 , 0 + ).
.
(2)
, : = (#, ), / -
U (0, 0), -
= (^ 0 , ).
' = (#, ), (0) = 0, (5)

1.
(1) -
(#, ), (#, , ).
, ,

() = '(), S : Fix, , ) =
=0. 1 S /? = 1, = I*
-?
* 1, *-* = 1 .
[. 2

5, (4) -
1 ,
Fix, , ) = 0, Fp(x, , ) = 0. (6)
, , ,

D(x, ) - 0. (7)
, , -
.
(1);
, -
.
2. '2 = , . . 2 =
* . 2 = 0, 2 = 0, -
= 0. :

I/ ss 0 ,
(. 16, ).
if

. 16.
2
3. ' = =
=(2/3)# 3/2 + ( )
2
0. = 0, 2 = 0 -
= 0,
-
.
S, (4) -
, ( )
(, ). 2, S
: 2 = 0,
< < ^ ^

(. 16,6).
10] , * 143

2. . . -
(5). (#, ) , -
U ,

. (#0, ) -
. , , -
. ' = (2/3) */2/3
= 0 (. 1, 2), 0
. , U o , yOj p0) -
(1),
U ( 5), -
; -
.
1 , -
(1) -
-
.
, -

/(*, , )-0, (8)
. /
D
(#, , ) /^.
U
(#0, /, ), /(#, , CQ) = 0.
" (8),


.
2.
.
, - .
. -

(8) (5), (#0, ) Tf*
, , 1| , -
(0, ) %() f
.

. %'(0) = (#0, t/0)


(5) .
.
144 . 2
v
3. / = 0, x, v /^(0, 0)
Uo, J/o, ), U (0, 0)
, (8), -

fix, , ) = 0 , fcix, , ) = 0 . (9)
. / ^ /
, ix0, 0, ). ,
(#, J/o) = ^o ;
. -
(8) , : C = if)(x, ),
if ~ -
U. , ^ 0 ,
fix, , tyix, y))**0 ,
fy + fc^y = 0 .

= , tyix, ) .
,

~

.
(8) = ,
, -
.
, , -
(9), ( ) -
g(x, i/)=0.
3
.
4.
/U, , )^-{2 + = 0
(. 2). / = 0 2 + = 0;
/ = 0, = 0,
.
5. 3 -

3
, )_**{- - (4/9)* -
9
10] , 145

/ = 2(/ ), / = 0, / = 0
= 0. ,
(. 17).
6.
f(x, , ) - sin = 0. (10)
/ = 0 # = , = 0, 1 , 2, ,..,
0 (9) -
{, 0). -
, , -
.
(, 0) -
. -
(10) , , -
,
, -
(0, 0).
(, 0), 0, -
, -
.
. 17.
.
-
.
(). -
,
.
, .
:
. .
( 6),
3. (1). -

, , -
.
.
1. ()

' = . ()

: = (), * ().
2. Fix, , ) * 0 -
.
146 [. 2

(11). =*
=/(#) -
/: < < ,
/ " ( # ) ^ - 0 ^1. fix)
/, '() = -
: = (),
/ = (/(), fib)). , y = f(q>ip)) =*
= tyip), = fix) :

(11)
. -
; : y = f(x), x^I,
( ). p = y'ix)
(#, yix)).
, -
. -
= /?0
p&J .

(1).
1\ , . -
(1) :

/=
' : 1/ =(/), -
. -
, \ -

' = ; = ().
:

'()

, F(y, ) = 0

10] . - V' 147

t,
dy__dydx__dx , ,, , _ ' (t) d t

(1) :
*,/)-,
Fix, ) == 0 /?:

dj/ = y'dx == /? :,


^ = (), == J ' () ^ + .

F(a;, ) = 0 :

, t, -

dx__dxdy __ 1 dy __ ,.

7.

> 0 . /' = ,
148 !. 2

-
:
dp

, = ,
dp
0 dP
p
= / + .
/7+1

/7+ V7+T
,


, . -
.
== 0, ^),
2() , -
. , 2 .
8.

2 2
+ = 0 -

,
dy dy dx dx . 2 dx 1 3t2
lli^lxlt^Plt^ ' It ^ i __ t2 <

2. . F(x, , ) -
, :
F(tx, ty, p) - FF(x% , ).
10] , V* 149

(1)

*-/({. )-.
/: p yiy/x), -
(. 1, 2). / -
:

, -
-

9.

+ 2, 2 = [j pj.
,

2-1


2
= + 2, =* ,

tf
*-2Cx + 2.
, .
,
150 [. 2

F^ypz + 2xp-y=* 0, Fp 2{ + ) = 0.
= /,
, # 2 + 2 = 0. ,
.
3. . Fix, , ) -
, , (1)

f() + {) (12)
.
}

y ] (13)

4- -illb = _1-9
* f(p)-P P-t(p)
.
= (, ) ,
^^, ); -
. ,
-/(.)-0,

= zf(po) + g(/>o),
.
flp) e p
.
10.

2
= 2 ,
. / \ ^ dx , 2
0 , 2 .


= 2+2{-), ^ + ^ = 2 , * - ? + .
,
or ?
*=-5 +4 . / / = ^ + iL, #
. (14)
, = 0,
/ = 0. ,
iO] , V' 151

. ,

= . ,
.
.
: # = (/?), = ^(), , -
.
, ' ( ) = 0 , /()= (

('(), '()) ).

= () = >^. -

= J?o
1/ 2/
- sQ(C) - () , - () = () .
. -
= 0: ^ , :-^, i/ -*.
-> > jo -* 0, = 0 (0) = i/(0) =
. = 0 :

, -
-
.
, -
y^xzr . . . ,
z
p 2 + = 0,
=*: 11 .

=*'() , ^.
-
U o . #<>) * + , \t\
152 [. 2

- -

, -
t > , t ^ 0 -

, _ -+ t - 0, (# 0 , J/o)


.
= 2
.
(14) ,
0 < < + < < /? < 0. #(/?), i/(/>)
-** 0
-* >:
27

X^ Pi ~-^\ y~-j-X2 (-^).

,
(. . -* >, -*
). .
1. > 0, 0 < < . > 0,

|/ > 0 ( / = )
(#, 2/Q). ,
.
( > 0) -
= -- # 2 , (*/ > 0) -
2 4#.
2. 0, < < 0 .
, (15)

X -* , -*- + (^ - 0), X - ^ +, ^ - * +? (j? -* .).


g 10] , V* 153

-
( < 0) = -^- # 2 ,
( < 0) 2 = 4#.
3. < 0, 0 < /?<<,
. (15)

-^, -> { -> + 0 ) , "++, -* + ( -> +).


-
( < 0) #2 = 4#, -
[ > 0) = -^ 2.
4. < 0, < ^ < 0.
(#0, ) < 0, < 0.

(# < 0) = - j - 2,
(/ < 0) 2 = 4#.

.

. , ==-^-2 -
2 - D8
=-/>, =-3-.
(14) ,
() - () -> 0, () - (/?) - ^ 0 , /? -* +,
-
-* >, - .
2 4.

fix, , ) = 0, -
=* 2 -
, .

2 , -
, :
2 - )3 = -- 2)\
, , -
(14), .
154 [; 2

11.

f-i-f-bf-
[46].

e
g ^ 27 ^ ' 9 ^ ' <teT

= 0.
= 1,
= ; 4/27,



-
(-) = {-.
# = ,
= . .
8
---/>2=0,-
, ;

= -
. = 4/27 -

. , = 1 -
,

= + , = - +', x-y=4f
, = 4/27 .
4 . . (12) /(/?) :
(16)
' =
+ /(/?) ,

0,
(17)
10] , ' 155

= /'(/?)
x--f'(p), --) + \ (18)
, , .
jip) -
/: { < < 2 /" () *& 0
p&J. , /"(/>) < 0.
/'(/?)
/? ^ x = f'(p) -
: pix). -
= () , (18). ,
(17),
= ()

, (18) -

.
12.
, >0.
Vi-ry'*

= + =


7/ 1

2/3 -
,

.

, --
,
. // = fix) -
, Y = ' + \
' \
. . .
13. ,
, Q -
- .
156 [. 2

PQ, -
; (, 0), Q =
= (, 0), > 0. , Q
( ) U, )
( =*= ci/')(l + ')~\

2 ,
.


~ * + **;

, -

. ,
, ,
.
-
(1) (#, ) -
1, -
. (, -
) -
(1)
( ) .
F(x0, , ) = 0, Fp(x0, 0, ) = 0,

(0, 0) -
. , S
( Fix, , ) ==0). -
( 9, 3): (F r , F v , )0,
F = 0. ,

Fy(x0, l/o, ) ^ 0,

= 0, 0, pQ 0.
. F
10] , V* 157

#> , Pi
Fxx + Fvy + - {FppP* + 2FpxPx + 2Fpvpy + Fxxx* +
+ 2Fxyxy + Fyyy*) + . . . ,
-
, -
. -
, -
, , , , j / 2 ,
;
Fxx + Fyy + (Fppp* + 2FpxPx + Fxxx2) = 0 .


F 2
Fyy + Fxx -|- xXx = Fyy, x - lc, p - pf

, . -

2
Fvy + FpxJ>x + \ FPVJ> = 0.
,
FpxiXo, , ) * 0, FPP(XO, Jf0, ) 0.
, . ,
Fpxx = F^c', ( -
)

-
: (#, , )
/^, Fp-, 0, Fpp*0, 0. (19)
,
, (19) ,
-
F = 0

(0, yOi /?0).


5. .
/; < < b - ().
158 [. 2

X Y
-\ Y-xX-y. (20)

(, ()) - (X, )).
() -
"{)0 &1, , . 3,
X Y(X)
X.
. X = -^-;

dY = dp + dx dy = # dp,
*=. , # , -
:

= -xp-Y. (21)


Fix, , ) - 0, FiP, - F, ) - 0
. ,
.
14.
{-')=*.

'=*, y-xp--Y;

v \
I , "

# ^. ,

In Y - L - .

/?,

- /p_ V '\ Y- _
10} , | 150


= *.
,
0.
-
. : = fix) -
. -
ix, fix)) .
; -
. , -
.
1. .
2. .

. , -
(, fix))

(/', fix) xfix)) -


ix, fix))^T. (20),
, (/?, ), . . -
ix, fix)).
6. .
, . -
( ),

. = /2 -
, == /2 . -
, , -
,
.
, -
(1). -
(8)
/(*, , > - 0 .
,
(1). (8) ( -
);
160 . 2

/ = 0, jx + pfy = 0,
Fix, , ) = 0, . . (1).
.
, *
.

V V - , g ! + t g * tg

F(x, , ') = 0
' = tg tg *,

<22>

fU (23)
15. -

2

2 =
=
2 + '-0.
,

2* + * = , > 0 .
16. -

' = , -

+ ' = 0,


101 , V 161

> 0 , < 0 -
. , ==1 -

17.

1
> 0 , > 0 . -
(drYlb a| f 0),

2 2

' 1/', -
. , -
.
0 < < & ; >
> . 6 < < , -
, -
. <<*>9
, . -
6, *=* -
.
18. -
=**.
' = ,

ydx^tg a(x dx + y dy).


, <,

0 .
( ^ / 2 ) , -
,
3

I.

I. . -

. , , ajh{x),
fj(x) . -
.

(1)

(2)
0
(1), -.
-
. -*
f () - () *
I [, 6], xk e 7,
1] 163

1. (1), (2;
L
2\ (1), (2) :
{), z(x) (1) -*
(2), () = () I.
.
(. 2, 1),
:
/.
2, . (1), (2) -*

\ (3)

:

l
() - g{x)t y {x) = g{x) + J A

i
... (4)

- - f{x)
/, -
0 t
(), y (x)... /
-. , -
k
)
^()
^().
(. 2 1),

+1
...+(/ -/(*))+... (5)
0 (), 1 {), . . . , {).. v
(5) -
[yh{x)\.
164 [. 3

,

I.*0 (*) + I V (*) - 0 (*) + . . + 1 / + 1 (*) - +
(6)
, {) -,
(/) :
*) lie max )\)f f
(m&x\yk{x)\)
)
( X )- () -
(. 2, 2, 3):

- g(a:) -
j e / ,

- .
(1) -
. Wy(x)h^Ci. ,

I
X


II

(
<1(*)11() (3) 5, . 2)

1*0 I
1] 165

( (7))

(8)
: == 1 ;
+ 1.

( (8))

5
\
(8) .
\ \ ^ ,

; -
&1 (. .
)

^ - [ ( (
\
^ J, (6)
[ ()}
.
- () /.
166 [. 3

&-*> (4),
-

[ ()}, , {)
(3) &1.
(1), (2) -
.
(. 2, 6).

4JT-/('i*)f *(*)-** (9)

(#i, .., xn)i f (fii *. , fn).


. - f{t, x) -
teI=[tOl t1]lx&Rn no *

a* t* \
(10)

), . (9) *
L
. -

3 (. 2, 4) (9)

, ,

. .
.
3. - .

{) + at{x)y^l) .+ , + - fix) (11)


2] 167

, ' = . . ., ("!)() l/n-i. (12)


-
. ), .., ()
fix) (11) I *=*
=* [, ],
. . ()
(12) 1.
2. . (11
(12) I.
. (11) -
,

(*) - (). () - {), . . . , -i () - -2 (*)#


U)
j j ( ) e j / W . (11)

-1 (^) 1fa)-1 () - - . fln(^) + / ()


(2),
1 ... \ /
... \ /
4W-I : : : /(*)- \
... 1 I \
(12) : ; ( 0 ) = 1/>

2.

1. .

- (1)

. -

168 [. 3

:

0 1
) -'^'* (*) - + J *- -
*
,
1 0
(*) - + (* - 0) , * () = * + (- ) * +

1 , {{%)} -
(1), (2)
/.
{) = (*-\ (2)

(3)

- eix~*o)A *
.

1. * ( +
1
2. {**)- - ~*\
3. -
I . (1)
(0) = 0 () . -
{ + 2) z (^), z () (1)
z (0) - (2).

V.
+x A e
e (*i i) y =, * ,
0*
2 1. ,
2] 169

(1).
#,
3 ; -
*.
& -
< < < ,
(1) .
:

Six) - + 2() +...+ ()+... (4)


( *
, ),
():

(()) +)) +...+ (()) +...


( , ). -
(4) 0
:

(4) / -
(1):

1 () + )\\ + ... + \\ + ...<.


,
- (. 2, 2).
-
. (3)

^^
^ ,
.
2. *
( X )-,

. ( X )-,

(6)
170 [. 3


1 1
-** = - '- ...-*-~* ).
-
. ,
,
. -
, . . ,
(h 0\
^ _ \
, (6), }
(*
(6) ,
T-ieAT

\-\ (8)

, ,
(9)
8 Sp , . . -
;

[7, 17] ,

, S p 4 2 ^ i -
(9)
( , -
)
.
(2), (8) -
(1)(. 1, 8).
(1) 1
21 171

; =
1=5
(cii t i c n) T (8)

/- h 1,
. Tf$ = ,
, (4) . 1, 8.

. 5
1X1 .

7 1X1
, , . . J^KI+.B.

(X/ + )* S
j0

Kmin(fe, Z1), ' 0

,
172 (. 3

^ ()

7
. (8) -
* .

. (5) ,

(~, (12)
4*) ( ) \ ,
(*)*~\ (13)
* (. .
(),

4 * = (5ji)).
I , - , . . '
-4, . -
,

2 .

, . . * ,
U *=* . ,
UU* ~ * *= - = I.
(12), (13) ,
(), -
().

()
+
' ,
. ,

/0 1\ /1 0\

-[ > -[ }
2] 173

3. .

\z\<R. /()
( X )-

(14)

, <,

( -^ \ < 1). (6) ,

T-'fUDT-flT-'AT), (15)

.
*
,

/ (1X1) -
, (. (10)).

(17)

ml
474 (. 3

, /(/) (1, )
, (10),

/ ,
()2 = . ; -
,

I
* + zy 1. .
( *
) ,
/ ,
.
Vh o\
-. ]-\ (18)
^ ,
: 1 % > 0 , -
.

*' + = 0$ (19)
-
.
e e
ixYACi +
-2 (20)

/ ,
2 . ,

(20)
(19). , -
. -
, (20) -
(19)
2] 175

(20)
= cos { -) + sin {x VI) 2% (21)
cv c2 .
~ = ,
Ai,..., , , . . .,
-i
. (16), (20)
A/, fy
Tz. 1? (19)
z" + Az - 0j

. .
+ Aj*j=*O, / = 1,. . . . ^ .
,

Zi == cos VAj x + Cj2 sin VAj x,


, 4 (19)


- 2 [Cji cos ( /Aj X) e2 + & sin ( ) }\% (22)

Cih .
4. . -
,
t - x{t)
~ (xi W * v> xn (0)- U
= Ulxu * ., arn)
-
. U ()
^ == $ \%





. ^Q (Q . )

X X

()
^) ,
76 [ 3

-=

m^ #().
, (. . 6, 5) !

U
= (,)-{,).

, = \ -
. -
() .
,
. -
, , . .
detK&O; -
.
0
* 1 **


$ + = 0. (23)
, -
, ,
[20J, -
( -
). -
,

, mjy kt.
(23) = Tz, ,

""1,
Mz + Kz = 0.
3] . 177


Zj ** Aj cos {<ujt + ;); ;

^ .
, (23)

*= cos {(Ojt + }) th (24)
i

tj /- . , -

o)j -
, tj. -
.

3.
-.
1. .
1. {), z/2U), ..., #*(#)
/== (, ),
cit c2, ..., ,
,
Cij/i(z) + 2{) + . . . + chyh{x) , &1. (1)
, 2(), ..., yk(x) -
1.
2 h
1. 1, ar, x % ..., x -
/.
;
, ci9 ..., ch, ,
0 + + 2 + . . . + chxh , x&l. (2)
-
.
. , -
/ ( ) -
, (2). ,
cQi cu ..., .
, ,
ch .
178 [. 3

.
(2), ( / )
4 + 22 + . . . + ~1 ,

, * , -
, *-! = 0 . ., 0 = ct = . . .
, . . = cfc = 0.
2. % 2, .., *-- ,

/.
. = 1;
^s=s0 / , = 0. |> -
1 ;
1 ft. , -
^\ . . %* ,
^ + 2 * + . . . + c,/ f e *0, J,
2 . -
*** \

1
iXj ^ =9^0.
Ci[Xi = 0 , . . . , c k - i | i f t - i 0 jiij^O, ^ 0 , ...
..., Cfc-i = 0. , c / ^ s O , / ,
,* = 0;
.
: yi^fix), j/a=

/), ; q/) {/2 0.
1
2. - (), . . ,, * ()
1 (, ),
.., , we
,
1
() + &* ()+ ...+ * () = 0, / . (3)
- -
.
g 3] . 179
2
2. . {), (), ...
. . , () - . *

w {) - det {1 {x)f * ( * ) , . . . , {)) (4)


( )
- {1 {), ...,{)}.
, a : s / = (a,b),
-
&1, / .
1. -
{)9 ...iyn(x)
0 /, - .
. , -
;
.., , ,
1 () + 22{) + , f + () &zOs a;s/.
,

1 + 1 () + . . . + 0# (5)
1
w(x0) * 0, (xo)f .., (0) *
ck *
.
l
2. - y (x), . (#) *
,
.
, -
, -
.
-
. -

*~{) (6)
/ - .
3. - 1 (), . ()
(6). w(x)
# 0 ^ 7 , *
.
. ? , -
..., , *
, (5)
180 1. 3

-
{*)-#*[) + . . . +{)( (7)

(6) {0) 0, (5).


- {) as 0 (7)
, (), (0) 0.
() =sy(x), () = 0%
z&I, (7) -
1 (), . . . , ().
. - -
3 . , -

, *
1, ; -
- .

4.

Y(x)
. '().
. Y(x) -
= 0,


() ~" \dx ** V')' *'

. *
,

(0 + h) - 7 W + Aj/W + o(h) {h-+0).

h) - det[Y {X0) + h^
{x0) det [I + hB + o {h)]t
1
= (*) " fa\. ,

det [/ + hB + o(h)] - 1 + A Sp 5 + o(A) (A -* 0). (2)


41 181

,
, O(hz),
h -
,
(1 + hbn + o(h)) (I + hb22 + o{h))... (1 + hbnn + o{h))
n

1 + h 2 bH + (h) = 1 + h Sp + {h).

(2) ,

h -*- 0, -
(1).
, -

-* (3)
/ -*
().
1
. (), .. ,1 () -
(3) w(x) . -

\ \ (4)

. 1 [),. ., ()
, ) (^) .
, Y ()
1
= { (), ..., ()), . . -
j
Y(x) - y (x). -

=A{x)Ys (5)
182 (. 3

(3).
(1), (4)

>,
.

5.


Ay = Ot (1)
(X -, (yv . ..>#&) -
,
,.**% (1).
(1) -
=* + . . + , ..,
.

%-{). (2)

. - () -
I. *
, / .
. -
(2) -
1
(x)i .., {).
1. -
.
. % . . . , -
1 \) ..., () -
(2)
1 2
{0) (0) = eZf..4 {0) - .
w(x) = 0 w (x0) -
det (ev . . . , ) 0, ev ..'., -
. 1 3 1 (),...

.., () , ,
.

2. (), . . . , ( ) -
(2).
5] 183

(2)
(*) - 1 {*) + 22 () + . . . + " {x)t (3)
2, ..., .
. ^ / }
1 (#)> 2 (#), -,(^) ,
( 3,
3). ,2,
.., 1
(*) - ^ 1 ( * 0 ) + 2 2 (0) + . + * {xQ).
-
(*) - ^i^1 + 2#2 + ... + (^) (4)
(2), (0) = ("0), .
() s i ()^ (4) -
(3).

.
(3) , .
(2), -
( ).
. ,
100
' /(, ), , -
-
.
(3).

,
(1).
4, -

()() (5)

/. (3) ,
(2)
{) Y {) ,

.
184 II [. 3

3. Y{x) -
(5)
(6)
() (1),
.
. -
(5) Y(x) Y{x)(kx). (5), -

i f () () + 7 ()() - A(x)Y ()()>


() (5),

~1(), ,
dC(x) , v
d U, . . ) .
.
(1) (6),
.
6.


% = A(z)y + f(x). (1)

- {) - /() -
/.
. (1)

(2)

Y(t)

d
= *(*)y- (3)
. -
, , . (1)
y{z)~Y(x)c{x)> (4)
6 71 n- 185

() -.
(1> , ^ = () ,

{) Y () c(z) + Y {) =^ = () Y {x) c(x) + f {x)t



1
-^^Y (x)f(x).
Y(x) (3),
-
- "1 (;)
&1. (#), -

(4), (2).
. (2) -
1
- V"" (t) f (t) , . *
/- (?, ). -

[12].

(1) -

. , -
,
-
.-(2). ,
0
(*) -
(1)

{) - Y(x) - (*0) + Y () J - 1 (0 / (0 dt.
1
(5)

7.
ri-to
1. - .
/-
1
^ + ,..-+ () = /() (1)
186 [. 3


)
+ ... + {) 0. (2)
.
(), ..., () fix) -
I.
46.
( )
(), ..., ()
() %()

w[x) '2() '()


(3)

I . >()0, (), ..., () -


.
;
Ci, ., , ,
CiViix) + () + . . . + () 0. (4)
,
() + 22 {) + ... + {*) 0,
(5)
( ) { 1)
() + 2 (*)+...+ 0.
, w(x) -
w(x) ss 0. -
>()*.
2. yiix), .., ()
(2).
, -
.
w(x0) 0,
,
+ . . . + () - 0$

1)
(^o) + . . . + (1} (0) - 0,
1 , .., .
(?) * Ciy^x) () + . .
7] n- 187

(2)
(0) - 0, '{0) - 0, . . . , ( - 1 >(.) - ,
()^0
), . . . , () .
2
.
1.
\\ * > 0 , [,

*
;
, . ,
1)+2()2()**0, &11, 1].
*=*1, ^ ; # 1 , -
, (), 2()
.
(2) -
, 1, . 3;

*)

3. (), * , 71 (#) - -
{ {), ', (), , /' 1 - 1 ) ()), 1 ^ / < .
- ), . . .
..., nix)
.
i/i(#), . . . , () ,
(4), ^
. , -
(5), (4) , -
1 [) ***1{) ,
188 [. 3

- {)1 () ,
1 (*) + + () ,
ch . -
, (4), . .
|/i(#), ..., () .
, (-
)
- (). -
, -
.
(2)
.
4\ (2
.
1 (), . * *, ()
(6). - -
,
(), ..., (), 3, -

(2).
5. ^), ..., () -
(2).

() = cty(x) + 2() + ... + (), (7)
2, ..*, .
^) -
1 2
~{), (6). - {), (), . . .

> ( ) , 3, -
(6).
( 5 ,
2)
1 2
& () + 2 () + . + ().
-
, (7).
6. j/iU), ,.., ()
(2) w(x) . -
:

w{x)=w {0) I J ai (t) dt . (8)


IT] n- 189
, (6), SpA(x)*=
=aiU) ( 4) (8).
. -
(1). -:


(6), - / () (0 2 0 ,. .2 02 / ()). -
(1)

(1), 6,
(1)

|(*)-|(*)|-1(9/(*)1. (9)
1 ,
-.
2. .
= 0. (10)
(), 2() , -

, (*> *
w(x) =

()

. ,

y" + q(x)y = 0 (12)


:
190 [. 3

() (12), -
,
.
, (13)

) -
. (. 1, 2, *
4),

(14)


(15)
,

(10).

w (t)

(9),

(16)

(16), -
(15) *
.
Ci(x)yt(x) + c2ix)y2{x), (17)
|, 2(:) .
'- 1 W +^2 W ^ (*) + ft (*) W W + ' {*) 2
g 7] n- 191

c t (#), 2() ,
. ()
(15),
fa (*) (If; (*) + ()[ () + () [)) + 2 () ( ^ () +
+ {)'%() + ()2())] + [()[() + c'2(x)y'2(x) = f{x).
,
(10), ()%

2 {%)

[ (^) \ () + 2 () 2 () = / ().
,
[ () - * () f () 2 (), 2 () * () f (x) ().
(17) -
(16).
1.
2
" +xy'~y = f{x), >0.

(. 1, 5).

== . , -
%2=*\, A^a ^ l .

= ctx + cjx.
-
:
= Ciix)x + 2()/.
{), {) + 2/**0.

' = 1*3 " - ([ - '2/*) + 2 2?\


, '% " ; -
, , 2, . -

192 [. 3


*0 0

. + - + yQ ().

2.
>0.
,
# \ -
2 + 1 * 0, kif =, -

. (. 1,
5, ),
{ * *1 * cos In x + i sin In x9
. -

cos In x% sin In .
*
(16). w ffr, 1/%

*) Vi(*) sin In
X


= cos In x sin 1 ^ +
g 7] n- 193

3.

(2')'=0 -
yt = 1, 2 = 1/.

= {) + 2{);

[ + 4 - ^ = 0, c2 = -rV(r).
,

3
j, =Cl + ^ - J P /(p)dp- -f J pV (P) dp.
r r
o o


y = z/r. (18)

;
dr dr dr '

(18)

^ -<+!) _ . (19)
dr 2
2 v 7
r dr r


2 ^ _ * ( * + * ) D _
"~ *

r 2 dr dr 2

R = 2/,
1)2 = 0.
z *';
( 1) ( + 1) = 0, =
= /1+1, 2 = . , -
(19)
) = cArn
194 { 3

4.
(20)

> 0 , fit) const


<<. , -
.

> 0 . / U + D = /U), /
. > 0
fit), = 0, > 0
.
, fit) (-
) > 0. , -
fit) (20)
, , , = 0.
(20).
= cos , x2 = sin t, -
, (26) -
:
x(t) =* Ci cos co + c2 sin co + xQ(t),
(21)
t
dx
x
o w e 4" I / w s i n (* ) -
0

x(t) > 0 ;
x(t+T)=*x(t) (22)
t. xo(t+T), -
% = +. , f(t+ T) =f(t),

t-YT
(ox0 (t + ) == J sin {t + ) / () dx =

t

J sin (t ) / (u) cfo = :0 (^) +


-

+ J sin (t w) / {a) du.
7] n- 195

-
.
xit + ) - = A cos at + sin *,

= (cos 1) + 2 sin J / () sin %%
-
(23)
cos cos
= ^ sin + ^2 ( 1) + J / ( ) ^

(22) t -
cos , sin cof ,
4=0, 5 = 0. (24)

-
- -
. () (24)
2 2
() = (1 - cos + sin co7\
.
1. -~-% 0 . ( ) > 0 ?
(20) -
. (21), 4, 2 -
(25).
(20)
, -
- .

*=2/. fit) ,
/ , . .
. -
,
.
2. = 2/, =0. -
-
.
coscor = l, sincor = 0, (25)
2 , -
(24). (25)
196 [. 3

,

= j / () cos di = 0 = j / () sin = ,
2 271

(26)
. . fit) cos cof, sin co
I2/, 0]. = 2//
, -
(20) .
, ,
(20) .
, (20) -
, . . . ,
(23) ,
2 2
( t y ) ( t ) ^ * i *

NT) - 0 (t + (N -1) t) = ^ - cos = ^ t - bf sin ^ t.


,
0 {t + NT) = 0 {t) + Ian cos t sin --

^ 0, t == 0;

=0, ^==/4;

xoit) , -
, -
(20) .

8.

1. -
, -
.
8J 197


(
1/*> + at(x)yin'i} + . . . + () = (IT
^) . -

y{z)~yt(x)z(x), (2)
z(x) .
, {()=0. -

z. -
z.

= j/i* (x) z [x) + ( z



1
' + ^" ' + ... + * ) 1 - 0 .
, z(x)

z' = iv -
1.
= 2 , -
(1) , -
.
2. -

,
( 1)- . ()-~ ,
\ () 0.
{*) =- \ {*) W
2{) ^ y\{x)z1{z) + z^{x)f
z z
\) ^ \%) i \) " n \X)i
!
198 !. 3

zSx) = 1, z2ix) . . = zn(x) &*


^ 0 , () -
.

Zh = 2 (x)Zj% /* = ! , . . ., ,

zla -
, ( 1)
( 1)- z2, ..., zn. -
, zx

h
Z\ = ^j btf (x) Zj.

3 . -
1
( )

7 = . (3)


(/ + > )',...,
{k)
y =Ph(w, w\ . . .
{ )
..*, 10 ~ )) .
(1), ( 1)-
fix, w% w't..., u;(ri-1))-0,
/ w, w\ ..., u; (n - 1J -
, . ,

O (4)
(3) -

z
w* + plx)w + w + qix) =0. (6)

4 . , ,
.

' ' )
199

.
= \ 1:

:
F(y,y' 0<>)-O. (7)
= '.

. . (7),

~ 1.
5. . -

/, , ' J/(n)) = 0, (8)


/, \ ..., i/(n), . .

/(*, , *', ..., tyW) = Ff(x, , \ ..., ) (9)
^ > 0.

.
,

w {h)
y = e*Ph(z\ ..., z ), Ph
. (8)
/ * -
.
z = w
1 . 4.
, ,
(, ', J/") = 0, (10)
, -

200 {. 3

, w' w:
w' = q>(w).
(10): *1*.
,

) (8) dx,
. .
dy d
( \ i
= e\

^ " " ' dz2~ dt


\dt 1
)"-
h
dy ht d

(8) (11),
, t, -
. 4.
(8) ,
dx, dy, d2y, ..., . .
()
, / , ", ..., ^ > ) - , I/', 1 .... )- (12)
-
:
= 13 = efz.

(8) , -
; . 4.
(8) ,
) (n)
/(*, , - , . . , < )= , ', ..., J/ ). (13)
-
:
nt
=-\ y = ze ;

8] 201

(8) (13), ,
t, . 4.
1.

. ' = \


. 4, 5.
2.

. ' = ;
dp
= jpj

:
1 L

, .
i/ ^ 0.

202 [. 3

VCy(i-Cy)- arctg / ^ = + Cl5


.
3.

. /' = ,

= 0, = .

= zm.

1 + (/ 1), , 2 + 2 , = * ~ 2 .
= z~2,


^yw;
dw / 1 V w dw dy
= 21 wl 5* = 2,
n

,
w-*\\z=* ; = -jp*=y'\ =
,
= 0. w ',

, Ci .
8] 203

4.

, \ z/", . .
ty, ty', ty". -

-
~ *" ~" '

(. 1, 2) w = l/z, -

w = /. -
, -
:

* * ' 2

,
,
2 '
F


.
5.

" = 2 ,
2
5z' - 3zz" = 0,

z, z\ z". -

204 [. 3

z = ew\
2w'2 - 3w" = 0; w' = u, u' = -^u\

Cj . -
,
-{ + {/ + + 4.
2 0 . -
,

,
((j,")-*")"-0.

, . .
( ),
-
.

9.

1. . -

0 (1)
/ = [, ]. , ) -
&1.
(1) ()^0; -
.
(1).
,
,
{) = y(x)z(x), (2)
z(x) . (2)
(1),
cpz" + (2q/ + ay)z + (" .+ ' + b(f)z = 0,
9] 2- 205

2' + = 0, z
. ,

(1) :

() z(x) .

q(x) ./.
.
(3) I
.
. , () ^ 0
2, ..., , . . . -
/. -
{) * /. -
, , -+ * ii-+-
-*->. {)=0, z/(#*) = 0, .
ixni xn+i)
4 , ''{) = 0. 4->-*, '(*)==0.
, 1/(*)==0, (*)=0
y(x)=s0; ()^0.
2. . (3),
q .
1. q < 0,
.: = cyw* + C2e-V*.
.
2. q > 0,
z/ = Ci cos qx + 2 sin 1/qx.
,
n/1/q
, q.

: (3)
, q(x).
206 [> 3

,
.

+ ? 2 (*) = 0
I = [,
.
jiW<g 2 W, a;e/f (5)
-
^)
2().
. 2
); , j/i(#)>0 Xi<
<<2. , 2()
1 2]; , 2()>0
. (4) (),
^) .

Vi (*) (*) 2 () () + (qx () q2 ()) {) 2 {) 0.


2.

yi(xi) = yt(x2) = 0,
2 (^i) 2 (*i)] +

2
J \4i{x) q2(x)]y1(x)y2(x)dx^Q. (6)
#i(#i) = i/iU2) = 0 i/!(x)>0 ^ ,

(^i) > 0, ! (2) < 0,
(, 2() > 0
[#i, 2 ]). i/iU)>0, i / 2 U ) > 0 [#i,2]
gi(^) q2(x) <: 0, (5),
(6) . ,
(6) ;
.
1. ()<0,
(3) .
, qAx) = q(x),
q2(x)~0. , )
10] 207

#i, # 2 . [ 2]
() = 0 ,
, y%(x) 1.
2.
(3) .
, -
() -
2().
, ^), ^() -
(3),
: j/i(#0) = #(#) = 0,
0,
. 2
^). (3)
, . , () es qz(x) ^ q(x) (4). -
2 3
*(). y^ix) >^
( 2), , , () -
, xz # 4 .
, % .

10.
.
1. . -
-

y"+p(x)y' + q(x)y = 0, (1)
:

() - 2(-)\ () = 2 (-)".
71=0 ^


[26, 33].

/(*)- liUix-a)" (2)


=
.
> 0 , (2) \ \ <R
| # a \ > R ( ==? -
). R -
.
208 [. 3

, , -
\ \ <R R -
R .
(2).
fix)
\--~\.<9 (2),
.
.

2 (# )3 2 { - )71 \ | < R

,
* = ( = , 1, 2, . . . ) .
(2),

\ \ *^R' < R.
,
-
.
1. (), q(x) -
(1) \ \ </?.
()- (1) ,
. .

()=2(-, (3)
=0

\ \ <R.
. [1, 28].

:
(n {n 1}
y > + adx)y - + ... + () - 0.
(), ..., ()
\ \ < ,
.
(1). 1 ,
(1), . .

. 0, . -
10] 209

(*)-!;?*". (4)
71=0
(1),

2 ( - \)~* + 2 2
=2

= 0.
, -
,
, . -
#, \ 2, ..., -
yQ, yi9 . . . .
goj/o + PoVt + 1 2i/2 = ,
9iJ/o + (go + Pi)yi + 2p0y2 + 2 3y3 = 0,
j[5)
n

kQ

0, -
( (0)
= , y'(0) = i/i). -
1/2, . .
-
n- -
.
.
'-^-. (6)
(4).
,

2 [ ( 1) ~* +1\ - ,
>

AL
210 1. 3

2/0 = 1, i/i = 0,
= 2/4 = = = = . . . = ,
. . ysh.


8
* * (2-3) (5-6) . . . [(3V-1)3*J

=0
, -
i/o O, i/i = 'l. -
ySk+i-

.. ^3^4-1 . _

Vah+i - (: + 3)( + 4)' ui x
i '

(3 4)-(6-7) . . . [ ( 3

), ^) -
. , , -
, 1
.
2. . -
, ,
, (1), -

Pj{x)y qjix) .. ,
; , 2() = 0
q2(x) = 0, -
(1) . -
(1). -
(1) , ,
10J 211

. -
-
, -
[1, 28, 45].
-
.

(z-a)*y" + (z-u)pU)y' + q(x)y**09 (8)

. (), q(x) -
1 \ < , -
, .
, -
(. 1, 5)
z*y" + axyr + by^O.
0 , (, ) (, 0).
2 (. 1, 5)

,
1 2
= " , 2 * .
% 2 -
. .
?wt<0, () = , . . = 0 -
\(). { > 0 { , ^ {) =
= k>[Xl] ( 4),

) {) - h (h - 1) . . . (h -k + 1) xKi~h
\ <0. = 0
(), > [XJ.
,
(8)
, .
= 0; (8) > 0. -



= & 2 (9)
212 [. 3

X, 01 ..., .

'= 1,(

" = 2 ( + X) ( + - 1) *

(8) %

. . . + Pod + n) + q0] +... + yo(lpQ + g0)) = 0.


, -

(10)
ynfod + ) + yn-ifi& + - 1) +
+ if.-Att + n - 2) + . . . + i/o/n(X) - 0,

/ o a)=m-i)+M+go, h(x)=iph+qh (k>i). (ID
z/0 ^ 0,
=, (12)
. Ki, K2
.
I . Xi K2 .
ioCki + ) 0, /0(^2 + ^ ) ^ 0 >0.
X==Xi (11), -
2, .... (
===
Ki /2/.
2. hi 2 = . m > 0,
/0(^i + ) 0 ^ 1, X = Xi
() . , = 2 /0(2 + /^)=
= / ( 1 )=0, -
i/w, yTO+i,
] 213

:

% (*) = (*) J " (0 - J 1~ (?) 1 dt. (13)

In ; (. . 3).
2. {), qix)
\ a\<R. 2 -
,
(8)
1
(*) =(*- )* (*)i (*) = (* - ) ^ ^ 2 (.), (14)
9 zt(o;), z2ix) \x a\<R
. Ki 2 ,
(8) ^) (14).
. [28].
-
-
( - ) > + U - )"-1/^*)^*- + ... + () = 0. (15)
-
, ^), ..., () -
\x a\<R ( ).
(9) ( = 0),

.. .ft, - + 2)) + ... + () = 0. (16)


3. ^ %h, j ,
.
(15)

>(*) - (* - a)**zs{), 1<]<, (17)
Zi(x), ..., zn{x) \ \ <R
Zj(a) 0, ; = 1> 2, ..., .

{-)% = (). (18)

-
, - Aix) -
\x a\<R Aia)0.
214 [. 3

.
*%- (19)
f
. z e
= .
%i, ..., , (19) -


{) 2 cpfie}.
elf ...,
Ci, ..., .
(18)

( * ) - ( * - ) * 2 (*-*0\ (20)
fc=o
X - 0, 1, . . . , yh, . . . -
n-. aj({x) -
- ()

- -4(;)
ft
[)= S ( - a) .

Xft ( X/)-
. (20) (19) -
a,

{\ + )*= # * - ' , ft 0 , 1 , . . .
i==o

( , 0 = ()), , -
, 0 -
. -

()) 0. (21)
10] 215

4. } *, / % on-
.
(18) -

! () - ( - ) V (), 1 < / < , (22)


z1 (), .. . ,z n (:r) -
|# | < .
3, 4

[1, 28, 51].
3. .
a*v"+zy' + -vz)y = 0. (23)

v.
(23) v ( , -
) ; v . -

, .
= z/1/x (6) -

^ ^
, V 1/2 sin^/:, cos#/*'#
(23).
-
.
= 0,
.
,

(24)

/ 0. ,
,
. (24) (23)
,
216 [. 3

2) 2 - v2J -*/o = O,..., [( + nY - v2] - i/n-2 = 0,.


0 , Xlt 2
= v . v>0. X = v. z/i = 0, z/3
= 0, ..., . . */2n+i = 0. ,

**n- 4n(v + n)

4nn! (v+l) ...(v + n)


,

\ (v + 1) ... (v + )
-

Hiix)

, == v, v

1/2 (X) -L2x

= v v (25) ,
,

() In .
v > 0 . (25), (250
( ). ,
), () , j/) ->- 0,
2() -* +0.
:
] 217

Jv(z), /-v(^) v -
.
v = ,
/ (#), -
(13). -
1#.
. 7, 3 -
-* .
.

11.
1. .

"() + ()'() + )() = , (1)

> 0 :
( + ) = (), b(x + to) = ().
-
. . . -
. , -
(1),
. (1)
-

(*) = e*i*Pl (*), () = > , {), (2)

yt(x) = e**pi(x), y2(x) = e^lxp^x) + p_2(x)]. (26)
pj(x) , %h
% .
(2) :
(3)
. . -
. Xi, K2 -
, pi, p 2 -
Xi, K2
Pi = 9 = fce. (4)
218 [ 3

. {) (1),
i/te + co) .
, + (1)
(), (), -

. Y(x)
(1):

U
Y(x + ) . -
, / + ), 2( + &>) -
(1). w(x+<o),
{) ^), ^), -
. ( 5)
(5)
.

. , . .
,

-7 =
Y(X) == ()~~, () -
( + () ={). ,
) = Pi^tC^), ( + ) = 2().
pi, p2 , -
. % 2 (4)*) -
pjCr) =1()~***1 / = 1, 2.
Pi ( + ) = -^-^ () - , ()
.; . pj(x) , -
(2). }
, 2&/, =*
, 1 , 2, . . .

) = aeia, > ,
c wa
. = (In + ta), ' = ,
11] 219

.
, . . ,

() = Y(x)T
( + ) {x)J, ,
,( + ) = ), yz(x + ) = 2() + {).
, , ,
{)=%,{),

= , pt(x) - .
q(x) = ~2(),
q(x + ) qix) = ~1().

9iU) = q(x) + dxpt(x),
d .
) qt(x) =
) ,
/ = ()""1. ,

2(^) pcogt(#) e
=* 2(), (26).
1. piy 2

det(F(co)-pF(0)) = 0, (6)
Y(x) (1).
, -
(. (5)), . .
det ( /) == 0. # = 0 (5),
= ""0)() (6) .
,
Y(z).
2.

(7)
220 . 3

. Y(z)
(1) wix) .
(6)
*?(0) + 4 + ?()= 0,
12 = ?(<)0),
( 7, (11)) (7).
3. (1)
, ,
:
p2~pi. (8)

Y(x) -
, (6) -
.

:
Q. (9)
. q(x) {^--
. -
(9)
:
1.
, 1/.
2. -
1
= , = ~* , .
.
, 1,_
e e
12 1. Im pj 0, 2 = Pi 2 1,
2 2
Ipil = 121 = 1, 2.

.
- ()
.
Y(x) (9)
B
Y(x)=P(x)e* . (11)
, ()
.
11] 221

( . [281).
, , (5),
( X )-.
, * = ( 2).
() = YU)e~xB,
( + ) - )--* = (),
. . () -
.
2. .

,
>0,
-" +q(x)y = k2y (12)

" +k2q(x)y = 0. (13)
q(x) - .
(12) , , -

, (13)

.
:
{) <
<<.
> 0 ( q(x)
555
const, ). -
, 2 ,
(12) ( (13))
< < , -
. (2) ,
2 ,
(14)
, , (3),
|/* + )1 = \,\\,()\ - \,, 1-U 2,
^), 2() -
. Ip^l 1,
2 . IpJ >
> 1, (, piPz D,
(3)
222 [. 3
:
0 , yi(x0) 09
\yi(xQ + n(i))\ -> /-^5> () -
.
,
(12) (13), q(x)
,
q(x).
.
,
. [52].

' U Z 6 (* mo) p = , (15)

U 0 -
( 12). q(x), (15), -
[52J.
0 < < (15)

, . () -
, ( + ) = () (. (3)),
{) - [') + ~-)]
< < 2. = -
( 12)
/( + 0) = - 0), /'( + 0) - z/'(co - 0) + Uy(<* - 0),
-
, :
(+) *= Aeih + ~**,
ikp(A - ) = ik(Aeik - ~) + tfUe** + "**).

, ,

2 2/ {) + 1 = 0, / () cos ok + j sin :.

, -
2#
^ 2 = 1. ,
l. (16)
11] 223

f(ft)<l,

,, a

Ipil = |1 = i. f(ft)> 1, pi > 1 /(fc)>0,


2 > 1 /(ft) < , ft2 -
. , /(/) = 1 ,
2 . , -

cos Arco + ^ sin ft < 1. (17)
I 4ml Hi I

/(ft),

/ = dbl. -
.
/ > 0 , (0, ft0)
, /(ft) ~
~ 1 + (7/2 > 1. ,
. -
/U)

, -
, *= -JJJ-+ Tn
Yn ~* 0 -* . , -

tgr -> 0, Yn ^ UH2nn)4 \1 -


(1):

(18)

(20
>
224 1. 3

1/(/)1>1 > 1 . -
.
\f(kn)\ - 1 -+>, - -
( )
-> . / (, bn) ,
. ~ , = fcn + pn, , (*
. (19), (20)

/ - (-1) =

^ U/i2nn). -
, 1

, -
/- . () -
, . -
(16) , 1(/)| ^1 -
(20)

1(/)1 > 1 ,
, -
.
-
(12).
. qix)
(^- , q(x) const.
>0 1 =
= [, fcj,
. -
-> .
q(x) >1 -
,

. [48].


I2J - 225

:
" + { + cos 2) 0.

q(x). q(x),
(12)
(. . ),
. -
.

12. -
1. - . -
60r) . -
. :

() = 0 , 0, j () dx.- 1. (1)

- , ,
,
= 0 ( -
-). ,
(); () = 0 0 ( -

= 0), J (:)~1,
, ()
, - -
. .
) -
G. .
F1. .

[15, 18]. , pee^
> , -,
> .
1, ,
, -
, -
(. . 1, 11). ,
: -
, -
-
, .
226 [. 3

. -
(), -
< < .
, ^
: () ^,0, -
(, )\ , - .
;
) ( ) .
f ( ) -
, -
. ,
/(),
/(^! + 22) cCi/!) + 2 /( 2 ) (2)

<pi(&)-, 2
4 , <2. / -
; -
,
.
, -
. , /() -

/()- J / (*)**. (3)


. , fix)
<#< , (3)
. fi(x), fz(x) -

J h (*) (*) dx - | /, () () dx (4)


s
(), f%(x) /2(^) (. 6,
3, ). -
,
/), f2ix) : fi(x)**fz(x), -
(4) ().
.
fix} -
, () . ,
12] - 227


(5)

/ () <() J!!
(#) . (5)
fix). -
, (5) ,
' ,

) / () ' (?) dx . -
~-

:
00

J / (*) () dar - ( l ) J / () ' ) () .


(> n
(6)

-
.

1. J b(x a) y{z)dx = ().

.
-.
-
.
6)
(. 18):

( 4
i

, 18.

6
, (, ).
,
, (*)-(*), (7)
15*
228 {. 3

lim J 6z{x)<({x)dx** f S(z)(?{z)dx**((O) (8)

. -
,

J 6, (*)q> (*
(8).
0() -
:

w-fc x<o:
20 W \ / \
' ' ' \) === lu/j
, . -
(5),

J 6' () () dx - j 6 () ' (z) dx

( )


), Q'(x) ~(:),
(. (4)).
3. fix)
< > ^- -
.
/) { / ' ( * ) > + 6 ( - ) .
= / ( + 0) /( 0) (. . -
/ ) , {/)> .
12] - 229

, (5)


- - J /(s)q/(*)d*

( )

= J {f'(z)}4>(z)dz+A<?{a).
'

00

J 48 (# ) {) dx, -

3 .

4. j ( ) ( - ) (*) < t o - v 1) ( ) ().


(fix) * ; -
, , ^ (fix)
.
1
5. 6() = \\~ ) (*()).
> 0 ( ), <) -
: .

J 6(*) (*)<** = -! j 6 ( f ) ? ( - f ) ^ = 4-<P() =


( * ^)

1
= J ~ (:) (:) dx.

^
(#), 5 .

6.

-
. -
' :
230 [.

/() / :

/ ( a ) - J e-iaxf(x)dx.

fix) = 8 , f (a) 1;
, 6.
7. fix) ,
xiy ..., , (/'Up ^

, /
0 f(xo)>O. 6 ( ( ) )
0,

> 0 .
fix) f{xQ)
x^giy)

, 4, 2 , f'{x)g'(y)
/'() < 0,

f

f 12] - 231

1.
( / ( ) ) " 0 X X), ] = 1, . . ., ,

.
. 7 , -
fix) , -
. ,

, -
. > 1 ,

,
00

J % () () dx - a;n<p ()'U-o " -


00

I V -
,
.
2. , .

^ + (0"-^ + 6 ( ) * - ( # - ) 1 (10)

V 0 , (*), )
, . 1^

$ + )-. ()

, x(t) (10),
x(t) () //? t*U -
:
0
r(t .\ (t 0\ - ) ,

\h + ) *T (^0 )> =* Tt *" f


^ fe 0) = lim (f0 ) . .
232 1. 3

, x(t)
t < U t > t0. , -
t = t0 jp
),
(. 3), %
A6'(t 10) (10) -
. , x(to + O) = .( 0), * -
x(t) t0.
(10)
Uo , t0 + ), > 0,

b{t')z(t'))dt'

-*- 0,
(
)

(12) .
x(t) , -
, (12) ,
t = t0 ,
V. -
-
( ); ,
).

.

+
a{t)
6XU) = 0 U - to\ > 6) = 1/(2) - tj <
< . F T ,
, ,

J Fxdx = V 0 ( ). -

-* +0, , -
x(t) (10).
- , -
I2J - 233

^

-
(. (7)).
.

*xl (13)
(), xo(t) ,
< / < < .
= + VG(t, to), (14)
x(t) (10) (13).
G

= 0, t>tof
(15)
dGlt, t
I \ I __ = 0 v < = 1.
,
Git, U)**0, *<*0. (16)
Git, t0)
(. . = 1) . , G -
(13) (. . ,
t<t0).
G(t, t0) -
(10) , -
&), x2it) -
(11). G
t > t0,
Git, t0) = CixAt) + C2x2it), t > h,
Cu C2 . (15)

\JC\\IQ) " ls2X2\I>o) U, Is\X\\IQ) I LS2X2\IQJ ~ 1,

Ch C2,

G (17)

w(t) {, x2(t). t<U


G(t, tti) 0 .
234 [. 3

, GU, U)

2
dt &

t < t0.
, -

+ a(t)g + b(t)x f(t) (19)


() /ft).
.
I
x(t)=)G(t,t')f(t[)dt' (20)
'
(19) t>t0 -
t = tu:
*(*)-0f i(*e)-0. (21)
, -
. GU, *') % < U,

, -

x(t) (19).
. x{t0) = 0. ,

G(tt t) 0,
12] - 235


t
lx (0 - / (t) + J Ifi (t, tf) 1 (*') df - / (<),


(. (15)).
(20) (. .
) .
t\ f{t')dt\ t'
(0, t). ,
/ -
.
( , (20)) -
, .
1. (20), (17),
(19), 7
(16)
.
2.
- :

, , , xii)

1 (12) t = tQ.

F ^ O , ), ..., an(t)
, . x{t) -

236 (. 3

t 10

G(t, t0)

IGU,
, dG

^ < .
t


dx
0.
-
3.
j + A{t)d- + (t)x = V6(t - t0).
Ait), it) )- V
n-. #()
lx (t) = 0 t=t0
(12). ( X )-
GU, 0) , t > t0 -

< t0. 0, / -
)-. 1 ( -
(20), / -), (17) -
.
12] - 237

3. . -

+ + = 0, (22)
, . > 0 ,
2 46 < 0;
(. 1, 6). -
-
U < tx < . . . < tn < ... -> 4-,
, Vu ..., Vn, ... -
( > 0 ) ,
, ,
. , -
.
.
#(*)= #0, i U * ) ^ ; t*<t0.
t > t* x(t)
v
+ + = 2 kf> {t - h). (23)

xo{t) -
(22), t* ^ t < <, -
(23)

: -
* = ? > * * , -

G(f, f f e )^0 t<tk (. (16)). (22)



{-(* - f0)} cos (^ *<>),
{-(* - fo)> sin (o( - *),


/2, 1 - 74,
238 1.-3

(17)
S i (<
G & *) - { - {t - f0)} ~ *)
t>t0. , n - i < t < t n ,
y Bin(u{t tk)
2 - . (24)
th, Vk ,
,
:

-
, -
.
(24)
n-i
bt
Sn . e~ Im 2* {*} {' (* )

^
q ** {( tco)},

(25)

I . 6 = 0 ( -
), ? ^ 1, . . 2/(0 0 , --
. ,
.
(25) i

, , tn-i <
<t<tn
IMOT
121 - 239

* -

, , /(2) .
. I
I siii-Tj--
,
,

< < 1 (. 1, 7), -


, ,
, V ( sin-~ )
, . 1, 7.
2. 6 = 0, . . -
,
, . . = 2/. {%) li
tn-i<t<tn
(0 xQ {t) + ^j- sin co.
==/( -
(. . 1, 7),
,
== 2/, .>. 1 .
3. 6 > 0 , . . -
, 2/(
.
tn-i <t<tn t=*m + t\ 0 < t ' < ,

-> , ^(^) "* 0, {} -> 0, -


:


v u
CO U \

-
. 6 * 0, a eiv>x 1, ,
I , .
4

1. .

.1. . -
t
, ), ..., .

( ) ( -
, ), -
.
-
:

-/<*>
,
.
^ / i f e ..., *), i=*l,2, ..., .
,
.
, ,

-/<*,*).
t Xni-u

U + D - -
.
. -
, - f ()
G a R, -
(#!, ..., ), . . / () -
G.
1] . 241
G.
1. = () (1), -
- x = q>{t-\-c)
(1).

= (/) (1),
/. = (), t e / ,
* (, xt e
= ), ..., = (^), 2 -
). -
( ) (1), -
*, -
(1).
(1)
(w+D- Rt,+x
it, xu ..., ). = (t)
, -
-
= (t), t = t; tezl,
-
-

JR?
t (. 49). , -
. 19.
-
(1), (
), , ,
.
. 1, 9.
2.
, .
. flf ^ -
, # = (), # = |?(),
. (tx) = = |5(2).
- = |; (t + (t2 *i))=X (0-
(1), 1 (^1)=(^1)
% (t) = (t) . -
T
(t)ssty(t +(f 2 h))'. - f i ^2 .
16 . .
242 [. 4

,
.
:
# . , =*
= 1 -
.
. -
(1),

3. , -
()=== , ~<^< ? (1).
,
11 = ^ = 0 , /(*(*))-/()-<>.

4. , =
.

; 3.
5. , ,
(. .
).
, = (t) (1),
dip (t )
= < (t0) dt -
(1) / () 0.
.
:
1) ]
2) {);
3) .
,
(1), ^ ,
t, > 0.
.
( ), -
, 5; ,
.
Y ,
= (0- , .
fls-j; 1 , ==
= (0). ^ /.
1] . 243

f / {)
Y, \ / () | f

0 < m < | / ( a ? ) | < M < o o , <== .
yt : = (),0 < I < t, /
:

t > 0 , * 7
ZU) KMt<l < Z/M. lit) -
/(+>) = +>,
l(t)^mt. , ( -
) > 0 , ) =-/. , ( = >
^ *
, /. ,
= ().
: -

J (2)

J *.

. (t; x)
o-x (3)
(1).
6. {tx + t2; x) - (*2; ? (^; 0)) = (xi x (2; 0)). (4)
. -

(1), 1. =*0

(0) = (tx; ), 2 (0) = {tx; x)f


.. 1(0)= 2 (0),
4
244 [. 4

< (t) = 2 (t) t,


(4). -
- .(4).
. -
= (t), (t) = {t\ ). t =
(0) = # , U + t2i
( + t2) = ?(^ + 2;#0)-

. 20.

.
, tt; ^)^
= (1;#). t\
= tj? {t) =
== (; (tx\ 0)), t = 0 (0) == (tx\ x)
(. 20). = ^
, , . .
(^1 + ^2)=^ (^) (4).
tz, th
(4).
.
7. { t\
2. . -
. G
- / (). ,
G . (1) -
f(x). -
, %
-
(. 21),
(1) -
/ (). , =*
= (1), t&I.
=*2; ^^^), # 2 = 2(*), t&I, -
( )
1] . 245

(, ). ,
(^), 2 (*)) #i = Ti(0),
xl = q>2(t0), f{x\, xV)
( (#?, %)). -
- . -
, , , -
.
/ (), / ()
, ( ) -
. , -
(1)
/ (). -
. ,
f(a)O, f(x) ==/() + (\-\) , ,
. .
, /().
,
. -
, | / () | / ()
->. f{x) -
, , .
= 2 (. . )
( )
.
- (1)
gl. -
. G,

-
t. -

g'x. -
x-+gfx
( G

gfx,
G). D . 22.
G,
D -+ g'D, . . x & D
gxx^D = Dt (. 22).
D ; 2
,
D.
246 [ 4

g* .

(*1 ) x\t=o=y (1).

gfy = x{t\y). (5)


6, 7 -*
g*:

/ : 1 =
, (6) ,
gCi+^y = gh (g^y) e G , -
(5), -
6. ,
t -
(6),
; . [3].
-
(1). (-
) R3.
,
,
= {, 2, ), v () = (vx (x), v2 (x),
vs (x)). ?,
:
,
.
v (x), -
,
,


; ,
() . -

-
.
.
5
(. . ),
. 23. ,
. -
, ,
(. 23).
2] 247

-
/ () (. (1))
, , -
( ).

2.

U ,
: f ()0.
(1) -
.
: f (x)ttf(a) #, , . . -
,
/(#) -
,
^. ,
U ,
.
, ,
. = 2, = (0, ),
t = 0 2 =
(, ). ,
t (. 24). ,

(|, t), , -
{ 2). , -
(#!, 2) *-*\(i, t) .

(, t) \ 1,
. .
(. 24).
.
(1).
(1)
:
dy dy dlJn l dy
i * - ~ * - 1 (9\

(2) :
1? t/2 2? . . . , yn-i ,-!, #=* + .
248 [. 4

. f () , ,
, , /(#)=7^0.
: ~\ (\ . . .
. ., |n-i, ) (|, ). # = (^, 1)" -
(1) ,
(0, | ) = (|, ), (3)
. . / = 0
.
I) (4)
:

-
. , (, %)

. 24.

, | i 7 ..., | n - i
# = ( ; ! )

= ?* ,* . . . , /~ == -i, 2/ = ^.
, = (,)
, . .
. = (, . . . , ) -> =
e
(tti, ..., a n -i, 0) (4).
- (#) = . (3)
6*.
(0, I.,
,

(1< 1)-.
3J 249

, , (1),


0 ...
0 1 ...

0 0 ... 1
...0

(* ). det A =
= / () 0,
.

3.
1. . -

Tt- /<*> W
# = # ( , ) ,
-
t, ;
.
1.

IF "~ J {X) fa' W


(df.(x)\
/' () = ( -^ 1 (. 2, 9).
. -
(1) , j^jt = "gfg^i

(2).
(2) .
x{t, 0) ; = 0 .


250 [. 4

dx(t,a)
- =^
.
j- I
= 0
.
(1),
, . . . , ' = (t, ). -
, - -
t, yh ..., -
,

V i,? ) ^ ^ ,

(3)
2. J (t, ) .

SrlnJ(t,y) = divf{x(t,y)). (4)

, ( )

== X X
/ \) (/l \%V 1 n)l * * 9 In \ li ) #7l))

X
2 = 1

. 1 , -

jj-
d ___ ,, ,
dt ~~ ' ^ ' *
== (t, ).
(. 3, 4, 1),

d i v
3] 251

= x{t, ), = ( 1 ? . . . , _) ( l)-napa-
.
\ ( , dx(t,a)

a?(f, a).
Z) -
, D* , D
t (1), Vt
.
.
d
I- Jdiv/(*)**, (6)
ecte = da?! *,. dxn.
. {t, )
| / = 0 (1), (y l t . . . , j/n) e Z>.
Z), #== #(*, #), jf
D. (3),
0 = lx J (0, ) = 1 (4) ,
*? )> 0 f.
dxx {t, ) ,. f dx n (^2 ) / (/ ) cf^i . . . dyn

D
( (4))
- j div / (x (t, )) J (tx y)dy= J div / (*) dx.
D Dt
*252 [. 4

1.

, . . Vt == Vo
t.
, , -
(7), D ,
( D).

-
S ( Q
S), ,

dS S
S . -
f ()
( 1, . 2), (7) , -
: .
(6) Vt F o .
-

( X )-.
71
div () = 2 an = Sp ,

(8)
:
**i _ (,) dPi (,) ,
~~ . ' dt ~~ ~7 ' i-ii...,H.

(, ) . -
-
2: ( ..., \ . . .
..., .).
2. -
.
3] 253

1,

2 ;
.
2. . -

v(x)
(. 1, . 2). v(x)
( ) Z),
rot (?)
.
. v () -
D. (9) -
(), D.
. ;
, D. -
x y(t), (/) -:
<{/ + ) = <(*) ( > 0 ). S -
7 D,
v(x) *. .

= & (V (), dx) = f f (rot v (x), nx) dS = 0.


V 8
dx
, dx = -gj d/ = i? ( (*)) df ,


. -
.
,
. = (^, 2, * 3 ), == ( ? 1 ? ? 2 , 'Jg),
^
254 1. 4

. ^
, .
,
+ XV (), T/zzx + w ().
= ?

I? () - v () ^ ' () { #),
({)\
v' () I -- I,
\ I

, -
-
.
TV (x); , .
V () = vf (x) -
()
U () = () 4- ().

dvk(x)\ 1 (dVj(x) dvk(x)

(H)
2,
/ + %U {) - / + ( + ())" (/ + ()) (/ + {)),
. . -

/ + (#), / + ( # ) . -
.
/ + (?) . -
[8], [20], (1 + ()) -
-
( ). , -
{1 2, 3}, -
^ () $ = ^ , * -
. (/ + ()) -
, ^ 3 1 +
1 + ta, i + 3,
p ( l - f ^ i ) , (1 + ),
(1 + 3) (. 25). V => , F ;
3J 255

1 + Sp () =. 1 + div (:).

0 div () = Sp e (#). (12)

() .
(11) ,

(/ + ()) + -7 rot ? ( # ) . (13)

, , -

rotv{x)t
% | r o t i? {x) |. -
(
-
) .

/ + (?); , (12),
-
(. 6)). '
<
,

:
1) () ( );
2) -^ r o t 0 ()\
3)
().
.
. ds = a, ds' = ,
2 2 2 2
ds' ds = | (/ + ()) | | |

( () , ) = 2

.
256 [. 4

4. .
1. .

5-/(,*) )
. G -
RfX1 (1) *
(. 2, 1). u(t, x)t
, -
G.
(, ) , =< (t) -
(1). -
t:
w(t). (2)
t ,
( ) (1),
dw(t) _ du(t,x)
dt


(1) ^ .
,

(4)
(#). (4)

(*) - 2 ^ 3 /; W ( V w ()' / <*.


s
(5)
, /^ (?) ()\ w ,
Vu v

() = f ~ 5 ~ ? , . ') " " (#).


8 41 257

(4) -
-
( ).
1. ()
I

Z . -
; -
, (. (5)).
*
. (#)- (4),
() > 0 { () < 0) D. -
() { ) -
(4), D.
(2): u{x)^0t
w'{t)>0 u(<pU)) = w[i) -
t.
{) , ()0 -
D. () = 0
S (. 2, 10),
Va (x) S
(). {)^. Z?,
f(x) -
Vu (x), (
) ().
* (4), %
/ (?) | .
.
(4) -
. -
. =
= {) (. 2, 10), ()
() =5 (),: (4)

,
. .
() = {),
= (). {)-

258 [. 4

(4), {)
(4 ). (. 2, 11/,
V {) - Vu {) (' {)) *
? ()

(Vv
2. . {) -
(4), -
. -
, = (t) r (4),
( (t)) = const t.
1. () -
' (4), ^

. ()
( D) = (*) (4).
w (t) = ( (t)) ,
() 0 , (5) (6).
(6) D = (t)
, D.

(6), . . ( (J)) t.
2.
(1); (6)
:

3. (6) -
. Vw (x) -
S: {) = ; (6) , -
/ (?) S,
4] 259

Vu (x). *> -
Sx S,
() .
. ~
.
, -
= {), (4) (4 7 ).
() (4),
() =(<()) (4 7 ). -
, {)={) = 0, . . [ {)
(6), :

1.


..., yn-i = Cn-i, ynssst + .
vx(y)=:yu . e . , Vn-i () = yn-i -
. (8)
, () = w (yv *.., j/n~i)-
1
( . . 2,
9), .
, ,
.
2. -
(4). -
U 1
{), , .. -.(), -
() . .
u{x) = F ( (), . . . , {x))f (9)
. U
, V = 0 -
= (#)
(4) (8) ( 2).
vx () =19 . . . , ^ni\y) =.
= - v ()
: v{y)^F(v1(y)1 # f t l *>n-i(y))2 -
47*
260 [. 4

1. = ()
(),...
, , . , u n _!(#) (4), (.2,
), v{y) (),
(9).
2. 2 ,
(4). -
: ,

= , = ,

(0, 0),
. ,
= \ (. .
= ), . -
(, ) -
, w=s
const.
(, ) = f(y/x) ( ,
: );
{, ) = F(cp), .
() -
:
= () () ,
. -
(. . ) -
-
.
3. (, ) -

^i_ __ (, ) dp. { )
dt ~~ . > dt "" ' I i, 4 , . . . , .

II ( \ V

-
, , -
, .
4.
-
4] 261

vix, x), -
= (), = (), = (^) .
,

JL
dt

. -
. ,

. , -

mx= VU (), * (s l f . . . , ).
( )

+ U{x)-E. (10)

-
.
, -
. -

~ = a{x,y,z)% ^ = (,,) ^ = c{x,y,z) (11)
(, , z) . (, , z)=*
8=5
S (
, ^ S . 2, 9). -
. -
, Y , -

(#0, J/o, z0) = , t =


= *, S. {0} 0, z0)
, (, , z) =
=? ^, . . ^ S.
262 [. 4

()
, , ^ = ^ 0 ;
, . .
.
(, , z) =
z % ,
z = q>(x, , ) . (12)

()

, z (12),
-
(11) -
. -
,
\ -
(4), -
1)-
.
(-
) -
(, , z), v(x, , z)
. 26. (11),
. -
, Sx, S2i
(, , z) =
(13)
v(x, , z) 2.

(. 26), -
. ,
<= 1 ;
5 4 , -
2, *-
, (11)
, (13) -
, .
5] 263

5.

1.
mX--U'{x). (1)

* _ , my~-U'{z), (2)
({ 4)
I!fU(x)-E. (3)
(2) ,
, , -
.
:
(0) -?, (0) - a l f = \/2 + U(x0).
(2)
(, 0), U'(a)=*Q. , ,
, ,
1. : -
(3) '(), ) -
.
(3) -
; , x{t0) =#0, x(t0) =#1,

- * (4)

.
Uix) , -
. 27. ,
U(x) <
< # < o o f 0, {7' = 0
7(oo) = +oof 7(+) = 0.
(0, 0) (, 0). U(x) <
(. (3)), -
, U(x) < ;
[ 2)
(#3, <*>). , 1/{)^^ = (), . . -
264 [. 4

; -
.

. 27.

I , 0 lxux2]t
t7 < t < <*>.
; -
- Xi 2. (0) > 0,
t>0 0}

C dx

t > 0.

2. , ft < : -
'(2)*0, U(x) ~ U'(x2)(x-~ ) -*
.
( -
5] 265

)
X

dx

, -
Xi. . .
,
( 2), . .

) ^ = (6)

, U(XJ(E)) , / = 1, 2. -
, -
(0, 0)
, (. 9).
2. {0) = 0
# 3 .(. 27), # ( 0 ) < 0 .


dx .
~2" J YE-U(x) *

3, -

dx , . . 1/ dx

t -** +OO -+ +, . .
(, J7(+) = 0 ) . -
. , x(t) -> +>
t -+ oof -
(. 27).
3. >0,
.
4. ~0. -
, <, , >.
-
();
.
266 [. 4

-
(, 0) , (. 8, 27).
# < &} (0) > 0,
0
. , (5),
E = EOj 2 . U^Uix)
U ,
0-{)~(- -+),
=0, >2, (5) ;
, .
,-
2. . -
m -
/
. -

ml2q> + mgl sin q> 0,


= (pit) .

- / 2 2 mgl cos q> E. (7)

== x, = , -
m 1, I = 1,

-TJ cos ; .

(, ), == 0, 1 , 2 , . . .
,
. -
^ ^ .
, , , - 1 < < 1
,
(0, 0), 12?I > 1
(. 28). -
, ,
. \\ < 1 -
,
; \\ > 1
.
5] 267

. (7) -
, \\ <mgl, 2? =
= mgl cos 0, 0 > 0 -
. (6)

0
i JJ Vcos<p cos<p
2
0

(sin /2) (sin /2)""1 = sin


/2
du_
() 2
(8)
sin 2

() -
[391; . .
(8) ,

, 28.

,
. 0 (. .
)

(. . 1,
6).
3. . -

268 [. 4

.
.

- * , - &V$%, (9)
, 0 < < 1.
^
1 (10)
- -

() = sn , 2() , s(x) = dn a?
( sn U, ft), en U, k), dn (#,
/)). (9)
, ()'= sn# dn#,
Mjj
7
(dn ) = k2 sn # dn .
-
,
ft'-Vl-fc1 (12)
.
-
(. ).
(9). -
-
, -
.
(9). -
2 2
,

~ (\ + \) - 0.
2
2k yt, 23
,

~ (\ + i/l) - 0.

, (9)
5] 269

,
sn2x + cnzx=U kzsnzx + dn2x=l. (13)
(. 2, 1) -
(9), (10) -
(6, 6). -
(13)
2, , sn#, ciio:, dnx ,
(13), (9), (10) -
, > < < . ,
sn#, , d n # #,
(9) -
.
(13) ,
l, -<1, '
. .
0<' ^ ldn#l ^ 1, dn# *
, dn 0 =* 1 > 0, ' <
< dn < 1.
, sn , en x, dn x
,
sn ($) sn , en () = , dn () = dn x. (14)
Zi(x) = yt(x), Zz(x) = yz(x), Z3(x) = 1/(^);

z 1 z2z3, z 2 = ZjZg, z3 =


Zl (0)-0, z2(0) = l, zs(0) =

zB(x)

dnx . -
, :. (9), (13)

(0) = 1, ) -
> 0

*
270 [. 4

jiyj^x, /(#) -
0 < yt < 1.
= f~l{x) 0

(16)

**

, -
. = t +

, . .

, (9), . .
Z2Z3, Z2 = ZxZ3r Zd = /TZjZg-

(9) . -
, -
.
Zj(x) /#), / = 1, 2, 3,

< + * > - S i . cn(* + JE)
5] 271

(* + ) - -

,
(19)
, sn#, , -
4, dux , 2.
, (18) , sn2K = 0, en 3K * 0, \..,

0 (20)
. -
sn#, .

sn = sin ,
=* 0 = 0, 0 < < .
.
, (13) ,
2 2
= cos , dn = 1 k sin .
sn#, , dn# , , -
-, - --
. dn# . ,
2~ dn # = .

.

: (0) = 0, v(0) =
*= v0 > 0. v = 1<,

(7)
272 [. 4

^ VHJ Vf
1. >1. i>o<2YgZ, . .
.

Y, (22)

- cosa

^ J (1-^ 2 )(1-

sin -- = sin -^-, sm-~- . sin -~-.

sin - | sin ^ sn ( Yj-1, sin i ) . (23)

4 .
sn : < 1, .
2. = 1. = 21/gl, = ,
(22)

f 0 , -
0 ,
. <
5) 273

= (
).
3. <1. vo> 2l/gl, . .
.
2 = j ^ ; sin -|- = , sin -|- = (24)

0 < 2 < 1.

t
r N
0

, ,
(25)

; (24). _ -
*= | / "7"^ -
.
.
4. -
.

-
.
+
^2
+ 2) (26)
+X ^ "
== /20. -

-x* + alx2 + a2x + 2E, (27)
.
(28)
*-*-

dx
^t + c
, x(t) -
.
.
4Q , , ~ _
274 [. 4

1. / ( # ) = 0 -
0.
f'(x0) =0 ( fix) =* ( 0)8),
/(>) = +>, /(+>) = , f'ix0) < 0. ,
/>0, <0; /<0, >,

<0.
Xi < 0. #(0) > 0, ,
8 (f'{x0) =0 . . 1) -
0 8 . (0) < 0,
t > 0

e
a?i < :. J /^ i :(^) -> >

.
2. fix) = 0 -
Xi < 2 < 8.
a) Xi < 2 < #, ( ). fix) > 0
" ^^ ^^ 1* V <^^ ^ 1* "f( " f ^^ TTTIT/ * ^ ^ * 1* ^^* f *? <^^

< < + > ,


< # < 2^^8.
, -
xz ^ < 3. -
(28) 8 = 2;

(30)
5] 275
2
0 < < 1, z -
. (30) , z = 0, = 3
= 1, ~ . (0) = *\ i(0) < 0 (-
)

sn*"f sn,

(31)

(32>
-
/^() .
) #t < # 2 ~ 3. fix) > 0
< < . ,
(?2, 0), f(x2) = 0.
) Xi==x2<x3. ^ / ( ^ ),
fix) > 0 > < <
, xt<x<3. (0) = 3; -
(28) ( )
dt = -

2du

x = xs, = 0. 0 ,


*()-!+ !;*'

(^) t = 0
xit) -+ Xi ^ -* ifcoo, :

. 5, 4.
276 [. 4

s
) Xi = 3. fix) *=* U 2Ci), -
.

+ (*-$9*=0, > 0 . (34)
, -
sin , 3/6, -
(34).
(34). -

* U ) - ; 4 s n [ a t t + C), , (35)
, , , . -
, . -
(35), (11), (13)
* A sn % dn u%
- 2 (sn dn*u + ft2 sn w cn2w) = Aa2 (1 + A;2) snw +

(34),
f 2 2 2 2
a (l + /c ) = G>, 2 == . (36)

, (34) (35),
, , ,
(36).

6. .
1. . -
, -

,
(. 27). (-
): 1(=0),
2 ( = ). , , -
. ,
,
, .
, 1, -
, -
] . 277

-
.

, -

. -
, , .
-
. . -
.

--/- (1)
(t; )

- = . (2)
1. *
, :
1. 6 0 > 0 , \ ,[< 0 ,
{t; x) 0<t<.
2. > 0 6 = 6 ( ) > 0 ,
|

t, 0 < < .
, -
-
(. . \ | ), -
, , -
.
2.
,

lim (t; x) = at

\ |.
,
,
.
1
, .
278 [. 4

,
, . .
.
, -
-
. ,

.
. 1, 9
= , =* (, 2)
(2 X 2)-. (0, 0)
, -
:
1. , -
(. 7, 10).
2. , -
(. 9).
3. (. 8), ,
!
2. . , V ()
U
. -
( U),
V(x)>0t ; F(a) = 0.

v
< 0 \ V () = 0,
V(x) -
.
1.
> v9 __ #


= 0.
= 2 V = { + \ -
(. 29),
(#!, 2) ,
. V
\ + xl =* (> 0),
-* +0.
6] . 279

[7]. V(x), , -

U .
V {) = , U,
, , >
.
2.

ajh = aki, , -
. -
,
{1)>0,

-
= 0.
-
, .
.

X)-, -

|. (4)
, ($ -
.
.
[8, 20],
^ . .
, TJlAT *=*
=
,
% 2, ..., . *= %

(Axt ) - (, ) - {^, )
1
( **=- )
) - ( 1 ) %

\\2^{, ?)<|| 2 . -
; | | 2 == | | 2 = | \2
(4) .
280 [. 4

3.
U V ()
( (1)),

(5)

(?) (1).
. -
U
(x)f
.
= 2; =
= (0, 0). V () =
> 0 . (0, 0)
- ^ + )>0 '() = %
() = 2, 4 < 2.
(, ,
.)
* t == 0
9 V(x) = c0. F(a?)<0, F(a?)<
^ F (x) = 0 if ( 4, ), . .
7 () = 0 t > 0
(. 30).

. 30. . 31.

. 0*
F ( # ) ^ c 0 ; -^+,
.
. = 0, 8 > 0
, : \ \ ^ U
g 6J . 281

= 0. S, ] | = (. 31).
Se , -
V{x) V{x)>0 5 e , TominF(#) =
*= > 0. 6: \ | ^ ,
7. V (0) == Q, > 0 -
, V () <
^, V ().
, | | ^ , | (t; x) | ^
0<t<; .
U ()<&, (?)<
= x(t\ ). -
, , ,
: V ()^ SBr V {)<
.

. U

V () , V () -
U.
.
. , ,
. | \ <[ ,
| (t; ) | <! 0 ^ t < .
w(t)**~V(x(t; 0)). 7 ( ) < 0 , wU)
( 4, ),
lim w(t) >0, V()>0.
= 0, lim x {t; ) = 0, V () > 0
F(0) = 0, . -
, > 0, -
. w(t)>A t>0, -
, 0 < < , |(t\ x)\^a 0 ^
< t < . ^
, = 0,
V () f
. ^ | | ^ V ()
, . -
F ( # ) ^ / < 0 , ,
*. ,
w'(t) = V {x{t;
282 [. 4

, w(t)^w(0)~-mt,
t>w(0)/m. -
: w(t) > > 0, t ^ 0.
U ,
, U
-
(. 32).
. -
.
V ()
Uu
V(x)>0, V(x)>0
. 32.
V () = 0 -
Uu U.
.
. Ul4 - -
, #,
= (t; x). ,
Uu
U. V () .
w(t) = V ( (*; )). ) > 0 w' (t) = V {) > ,
Uu w(t) > 0, -
Ui
Uu V () = 0. -
, Ui. . Vx -
, , -
.
.
1. (1) -
V(x),
.
.
, F(#) = 0 -
.
3. -
/, -
U(xu x2, ..., ). -

-Vl7(a?).
g 6] , 283

=*yt = VU ()

( 4 )


VC/ () =* 0, = 0, . . (, 0) ?0
.
# -
U (),
(?0, 0) .
.
-
, ,
/(#) = 0. V(x, ) ( -
{, 0) = , = 0,
U ()>0 *, -
1.
2. = 0
(1) V{x)

y(*)<-ccF(#),: V(x)^A\x\t (6)

U = 0, , , (5
. -
,

I (, ) | < < / (0 < t < ), (7)

= 0.
0
. w(t) = V(x{t; a? )),
w'(t) < awit), (In wit))' ^ .
0 t, wit) ^ wiO)e"~at.
(6),
A\x(t\ )|<(x{t; *

(7).
284 (. 4

7.

-

4 =^ <*>
. -
= 0. -
(1) ,
.
. = 0 (1)
,
-
.
. ...,
Re < < 0 /. -
V (). 10,
. 1, > 0 )

-
% ..., , = ibjk) - ,
\bjk\ < /\ . = -
(1)

-f-=(A+2? e )y. (2)


V(x)

% = (,). (3)
3=1

-
= 0 ( 6, 2).


( -- (2))
- + ) , ) + [{, ) + {, )}.
7] 285

i=l i=l 0=1

Re A,j < a.
,
. |1 < ,

/ n \2 n
n
I 2 I ; I ^ 2 I I2* Ta-

.. ,

7 ( ) < - - 2 ( ~ ) | 1 | ^ | 2 = --2(--)7(). (4)

, 0 < < /, (4) -


, V () , -
== 0 .
%jQ -
, ReA,j o ^O. (1)
*(*)-'**7, (5)
/=^=0 , -
Kj.
1*01-"/1, P-Rex v
^ 0, | (t) \ t -*
-> +, = 0 -
.
1.
V(x), -

V {) < - 2$V(x)\ - max Re %j - , (6)
l<j<n
0 > 0 .
286 [. 4

(6) (3), 4). , = T~lxt


(. (2))
V(x) = (~, T~lx) = 2
h

V () . V () -
, V()^\|2, > 0 -
( 5, (4)), (6)

(*-\*\\ >.0- (7)


1 2 6
2. -
(t; x)
(1) #(0) = #.
(8)
, (6).
, = 0 (1) -
, ReA,j<0, ,
Re-Xj > 0 -
Xj. (5)
\x(t)\ - ^ | / 1 - > >t *-^ + (
,- Re Xt < 0 f
; -
% ..., . -
-
/ = 0 , -
. , ,
> 2 , -
( -
, |,'..., ).
. , -
, ^ -
Jc> 2, (1) -
(. 1, 10)

/, g . t > 1 | (t) \
/ +
/ + ' *1>111/
1 > * 1 1 1 / ( ^( )
.
,
7] 287

(. 2, 2)
{ P )
* (. 2, 2). -
,

(. 8).
-
. ,
% :
> 0 . -
?0, ( 6).
7, -
, -
. -
;


^-'. (9)

Ulf ,
71

^0. ~1 # n = 2 c j # j >
i
3 ( , ), -
Ut

= 0 F (?) > 0 F (?) > 0


? I7 l f F () 0 , -
.
,
(1),

0 + "* + . . . + = 0. (11)
;
0, ..., . ,
(11), , -
288 [. I

h
, [33].
. -
(11) >. -
(11)
,

0 . . .
0

\

1 0
CL OL *. U

fl
2 *1 , . . . ,


" 4
2-1
2-2
2-~

.
ak == 0 > .

8.
1. .

. - / {)
-
U .
- :

/ ' ( ) (. 2, 9);
jf. ,

\g{x)\<C\x-a\\ x&U. (3)


, f{x)ttf'(a)(x ), ?, -
. (2) -
/(#) ,
Xj /.
f = ^- (4)
=: , ==/'(). (4) -
( (1)
), (1)
(4) .
8] 289

(4)
; ,
= 0 -
. ,

( ) -
.
2. . -
^

. --
f(x) *
. *
-
f () ,
. ,

0 < * < , (5)


> 0 , 0 3

: -
*
, *
.
.
, 0. (2), (3)

= /'-(). -
= 0,
() , () -
, V ()
# = 0 ( 5).
V(x) -
, 7.
,
, . . ~* ~ + . ,
, 7. -
= (1)

- ( + ) + *(), (6)
290 [ 4

h{y) = T^g ().


()

-(,). (7)

U.
,
, - h(y) = T~lg ()
, .

(). (6), (7)

[(( + ) , ) + (, ( + ) )] +
+ *(), ) + (, \- + 2.
, (. . ,
)

( 6, (4))

> 0 .

3 = 2CjC2, Ut
= 0. ,

\ )
* * i "~" ^ * 2 ^^^ ~~*" ! X I \ ' "~" / q I t3C I ) \Ol

FF : Ut : = 0 ,
|#|<-97~>
8) 291

V(x) -
W. -
= 0 .
(8) V {) ,

> 0 ( ,
(6) 7), (8), 7 (5).
. , -
(5)
,
< min Re ( %$).
1<3<
3. .
1. - f ()

. -

.
. = 0, ReX n >.. -
( 6).
2
, 7, V () = | | (. (9), 7).

3
| ( ) | ^ | | . = 0
, V () > 0,
, , V () > 0. -
,

V (?) > 0, , yt = 0,
0 ^ 0 , \\ ,

, R e ^ n > 0 . Uu
V(x)>0, V(x)>0 -
= 0.
-


19*
292 1, 4

4. . -

, - f{t,x)
Q:
\\<, t^O. , ,
f(t, 0)=0, 0<*<, (10)
(9) (t) = 0.


a?()==0; ,
( 6, 1, 2).

( -
). = < (t) -

-*(*>> ()

(t)
- g ( (*) + V)) ~g{4> (0) - / (t, (t)). (12)
, / (, 0) = 0 0 < t < >, . .
(10) . <() (11)
-
, (t) = 0
(12).
<() , | (0) < (0) | -
,
lim |a?(*) ( 0 | 0 .
. . (t) t -*
-** + -
q>(t).
.
(12)
<(). |#(f)l ,
2
g (<p (0 + (*)) - g (> (*)) - g'\4> (0) W + {\ (t) | ) .
8] 293

g' ( ()) ,
I

% (13)

, -
. (13) -
(11) <pU).
V(t,x)
(9), :
1) -
, t^0;
2) V(t, 0 ) = 0 *>0;
3.)
Q W () ,; V(t, x)^W{x)
^0
4) V(t, ) < 0 x<=Q
-
( 5)
(9). -
-
,

W{ () Q
.
6.
-
(9).
2.
--= *+/(*,*). (14)
,
, -
f{t,x) \x\<pt 0<;j<

t t>0.
(14)
294 [. 4

>0, 0, | # ( 0 ) |
. [34].
5. ( -
). -

(. 1, 9), .
, -
() , t = 0
, (t) -> 0 -*+>.
.
. -

X )-. ?
, ..., % -
. % . . .
..., Kk ,
.
(0) =-- + 22 +... + Win (15)
4, 2, .., *-- , ^*
,
x(t) = ^1 + 2 2 -h Vche
t *

*,!<(), ^ 2 < 0 , ..., ^ < 0 , \x(t)\-+0


t -> + -
, ( 0 ) , \x(t)\-+0 t ->
^ + 0 0 . (15),
2, ..., ck . (0)^
| X (t) | ->: t -> + .
,
,
. -
,
. -
(14).
3.

, -
9] 295

/(*,#) \\<.%

t, 0^t<*>.
to>O Rx (-
) ,
, < (t)
(14) , (0) &,
* 0 (t^+ool (16)
, 6 > , (0) &
|1 , = (t)

, 11 -
t, -
(0) .
3 . [28]. ,
-jg-
| | ^ , t > , -
(. 2, 9).

9.
( )
1. . -

-/feu). --ffeir). (1)


. fix, ), g(x, ) -
, .
= {0, 0)
(1). ( )

(2) -
-

. ,
296 [. 4


(1), U , -
(2)?
[40, 411.
1. (0, 0) -
(2) , .
(1) -

.
, -
,
(2) -
(1). , -
(
. . ). -
: (2) (0, 0)
, (1)
, , -
( -
, -
, ). ,

(1), [41].

dy __

(#, */) ,
o, ) = 0, g(xOi 0) = 0,
. . (1).
.
jK#o, #) 0, = {)
(3), (0, 0)
. g(x0, 0) 0, -
, . .

d / ( )

(#0, 0) -
= () (3').

dx .,
9] 297

; -

dx A

= /' ().
$ ,
( -
, 0) -
[38].
2. . x = x(t),
= (1) {0) =
== 0, 1/(0) = 0. t,
<< ? t (. .
.
. 1; 2, 1). , -
. -
(1)

^ ^ y), (4)

h = 1 + f + g2. ,
(4), -
, -
, (1) (4) -
.
: = , = y(t), < t < >
(1). /,
0 ^ J < o ( < ^ 0), -
() .
(, ) {^-
If,
->+ , (x(tn), y(tn)) -> (, ).
- (
tn-+). (|)((')) - (-
) ^- (--
) ^.

(1),
. . . . [28].
*+
J B D ,
D
(1).
298 [. 4

2. ((^)
!
1. ^) { ). *
t -* +.
2. co(if) ().
3. (*) -
,
t -*- + #
, (7)
. -
([).
3. f , -
-
. , -
^,
t -+ + t -+* ".
.
:
1. *-*+>
(. 33, ).
2. t - +
(. 33, ).
3. t -*- +> , -
, ,
(. 33, ).

3. . . L
, (1).
- L , ,
. L -
+ , *=* + , *=1 = [ 2],
t -
: = ). ) -
9] 299
+
- ^ - L,
= {%()) . %)
. -
; . [40, 41].
1. %)
^ ,
.

(. 2, 7). / = (, 2)
, .
2. %)
u^L
3. 0 , -
, %0) = 0.

0
) )
. 34.

, -
. -
, , (. 34) -
,
.

.
(1).
-
, -
-
.
1.

,
, , -
R L, Lt. /=
300 [. 4

= lit) , , / -
: /^=/(/) (/ ,
," U ), ( > 0) -
L
Li9 / -
flk)
-
(. 35).
=
=/ /(0), -

. 35. + g(x),
g (*):= (-/-/(0)),
> 0 , > 0 -
. , , -
. . . , -
:
g(x) = 2 sgn ( > 0).

= , ,

, = 2 + 2 (5)

> 0
, " " 8 ^ ""
2
(6)
< 0. > ,
2 + 26 + 2 = 0, -
* (5), (6), :
2
Klt 2
= - 6 icoo, coo - .
(5) (, 0),
(6)-(, 0); ,
() -
.
%). t = 0
(, 0), > 0 .
t > 0
<0, (, ) (6),

cos sin )0)


9] 301


= ~( + ) (coswot + sin wot\ , =x

0 ^ t ^ /( = h. t> t0 -
> 0, U, ) -
(5),
= ~6 cos wot + 4 sin G)0J) + .
sU 0 ) = --6/> (w + a) - , /(^0) = 0 -

= (^ (^) ) (c o s ^^ + 77" s i n ^o*) +


'

f = 2/)0
((>,.0),
-2/ , -/0\2
U
X () = " + [1 J a. (7)
, .
() = :

. ,
%') < 1, . . (. 34, )
.
2. -

), (8)
0 = 0U) ,
/, ft, m, g, I . ,
,
(). -
[21]:

1. 9.
2.
6,
,
,
8 = 0.
, 1, 2,
), > 0 , 6(0) -
(8)
+ 26 + (), (9)
= 6, , . ,
1, , -to > . =0 -
(9)
2
i *=O (10)
> 0, < 0
.
t = t0 ~ 0, -
. -
: x(t0 0) = x(tQ + 0) = 0.
, -
(9) (to i9 0 + ), >
( . 3, 12),

f J 6(x{t))x(t)dt

A sgn [; (^0 + ) {t0 )].


sgn ,
x(to + x) >xTto x), dx -
, x(t0 + ) <
< x(t0 ) .
-> +0,
kt0 + 0) - kh - 0) = A sgn + 0) - kt0 --0)1,
(0 + ) x(t0 ) ^ 2x(i(f0 + 0) x(t0 0))
-+ +0. , x{t0 =fc 0)
,
kt9 + 0) - kt0 - 0) - 4 sgn iU9 - 0). (11)
9] 303

. =
: (#(0), {0)) =
= (0, ), >0. (10)
*
/ ^ ._. G1T1 fi\ I I ^^ ^Z^ 1 -
' ~"~" *^"""~ (; O1JJL \AJnV * \J ^ ^ ^ I ^ ^ ^ 1 ___ ',
%
{t0 0) =
*= - . (11) {t0 + 0) =
01
-> , = {/(}
. ,
Ui-+U2==up +A
t0 ^ t < 2^0-,

{)--/'(-'/ + ) + . (12)
(^) ~

, '^) < 1, -
(. 36).
-
. -
( 26i, 6 > 0 ) -
^ , -
(, 0),
= 0 ( t = 0),
-
.
J^Jo : -
-
- . 36.
. -

;
.
(. [3, 4, 21, 41]).
-
.
;
.
5

-

( -),
.
: = u(xh ..., ).


. -

.

1. ,
1-
1. .
,
z Y , z.

2
). (1)
. -
(1) , :


dz dz

1-
z(x, ). -
z == z(x, )
(#, /, z)
i] 305

(2).
: -
z = const
. , I: z(x, ) =
= z0 z = z0. (, , zo)<=l, -
XJ ( dz &z\ . v
\z =*-\, 1 ( ?), -
(, ). Vz
I (, ), I
z(x, ). ,
I - (#, ),
I (0, 0).
2 , -
(2) z,

(2). -
, (2) (1),
. -
(2) . -
-
.
. , z = z (, ) -
, = at,
= bt% s = c,
dz dz
( bz)-7^-\- {az ~cx)-j^ = bx ay. (3)

2 -
, -
.
2, .
(*,*)=/(*-*). (4)
, ,
t . t -

t == 0 ct .
, .
= cf , = / -

on _. _ _
306 [. 5

4 ,
(4).
4 . 4 , -
() -gj-= / ( # ) -
-

g<*>'-Ej--O. (6)
-
1- -
[31]; . 5.
3. -
1- . ,
()
. -
1- :

(7)

(2), (3), (5), (6) . 1-


, -
() .

:

:

-

u*=u(t, x).
, , -
. :

S = Six, ) .
2] 307

2.

1. .

= /(*) )
. - /{) -
D cz i?.
1 4, . 4 , -
( . . . , )
(1),

D. ,
(1)
(2). " (2)
(1), 2, 4, . 4
1. U -
, -
(1). U
(2)

(), ..., Un-tix)


(1), a F {) .
-
(2) -
(1).
(1) -
(2), -
(2).

" (, ): -
z = const z = z(x, )
.
.
1. ^ ~ 7 : ' ' ' z = = = z ^ > ) -
.
308 [. 5

, dty :

, 2 + 2 = ,
= + 2,


z.
2*-^-+ =0. :
jrr =% = const ( ), -
: u = x ct,

,
(1, , 0).
3. - + ^ - = 0. D, -
, -
,
z = const (. 2).
(0, 0) D, = / ,

z = F(

2 = (),
(, )^ , . -
, . -
,
(),
()
( ). -

. -
= () , -
z.
, , ,
2J

4. 2^j"^~-= 0
: - \ ..., ),

. Rn -
(, &!,..., &n-i), Uj () = (6j, x)
, (6j, ) = 0.

() = /?((&,, ), . . . , ( & * - ! , * ) ) .

2, . -
(. 1)

J {, ), ...,-^- = {,)^== (, ). (4)


. aj(x, ),
(, ) D =
(fli, ..., ) (0, ..., 0) .
w(xu ..., 1 ) ,
() (3),
w{xu ..., uixij . . . , )) ^ 0. (5)

__ dw I dw
1x7 Ixj /~
, (5),

(,)-^- + (,)^ = 0. (6)

(7) , (2),

{, ), . . . , vn (x, ) (4). -
, (3)
310 [. 5


F({\ .otVnfa)) = 0f (7)
F () .
5. -zr+ -0--= 0( ). -

,. dx du
at = - f
0 f

4 , 3 ? tu. -

F(u, z-~tu) 0.
,
u~f(x-tu). (8)
? 4.
3. . -
-
(5), -

^ l y 1 z ) ^ + b{x1y1z)^^c{x1y1z). (9)

(9) 3

I () - ( ()% () ()); - fe yx z).
S: z ==
z(x, ),

S . -
(9)

((/>),!(*))-, ()
. . (), I (P) . :
1. 1() -
.
, .
2] 811

2. S: z = z{x, )
1(), S -
.
, -
, , I ()
-
. ,
2. S: z=*
= (#, ) = (0, 0, z0), -
, .
.
~ ={,, z), jt-b(x,y,z)%
2 = (:, ),

{x(t), y(t)} . :
= x(t), - , z = z(t) <pte(Of
; ,
. ,
dz dydx d<pdy 5

z = <(#, ) (9).
6. - + 6 ^ - = = (2 + 2 ^ 0 ) . -

dx dv 7 dz
=b
Tt-"* i > It*"**

, I =
= (, , ). ,
, -
I.
( = 0)
!_ ay, u 2 = flz~ ex

F(bx ay, az ex) = 0.
312 [. 5

i ^2 , , , dz

7, ( )--+[ c?)-^=z. -

+ , = + bf z = Czel + ,
Cj . -
, =* (, , ), -

(. 3).
z
1
1

8. (bz ) .-^+ (: az)~=aybz,


(, ) .

Z cx az 2
Ht ~~ "di ~~ i ~di ~~
: 1) a, b, ; 2) ,
, z ,
^ + + cz, 2==: + + z2.

; -
= d 2 = 2 ,
I: x = at, y = bt, z = ct.
,
I (. 1).
9. ( ..., ) -
, =0
t > 0
u(txu ..., txn) e tau(xu ..., )- ()

t
* 1, -
3] 813

2 *,*SL-. (12)
: () = | ]; ()
( > 0).
-
(12).
& dxn d u

^ 1 X

, . Xi > 0;

v -

(14) -

, (14) -
;
# 4 > 0 , ,

3.

1. -
.
> + z
> +
&' ">
^ & f (*' ) ' ^)
1. (, ), (, ),
(, ) fix, ) (1)
814 [. 5

D
(, )
iaix, ), , )) (, 0)
D.

' = <(#, ) :
, -
(0, ) (, ).
(1)
:
,
(, , z).
.
(, ) . , j/ = it>(s), s s
=/=($!, s2). , -
s e /
(', , 0)

. . f & . f -
z:
(2)
. .
se/, (3)
2. his)
s e / .
-
:
(1),
(3) (. . ,
).
= , =
= |), z = his) is e /) -
.
, -
(. 37).
(1) -

-j = a \x} y)% -p- = \, ),- (4)

.
,
2.
31 315
(1) -

.
dz dz dz_
dt* (5)

. - -
(4),
dz dx dz dy dz dz
by dt dx

1. -
. (1), (3)
-
.
. -
-
(. 38), . .
-
(4):
\ 1 (6)
s /. . 38.
x=*x{t,s), y = y{t,$) (7)
(4), (6), I, -
. 1 (1) -

dz ,
W+cz (8)
. . -
. (8), -
^ = w(t, s). -
B:s^I, * e / f , /, -
(61(5), 62), 6 i f 2 > 0 . ,
7 . 2 (4), (6)
t, s \
wit, s) -
(8).
, w -
, ; ,
(7) t, $ , ,
316 [. 5

.

ds . ds _ I ' (S) |/ (*)
\(,) (,\
dt dt

, (q/, i|/) ,
(, ) Z*,
, .
.
, (1), (3)
, ), z2(x, ). z = Zi z2,

, (8), 1

z ^ O , Zi(x, y)^
2 2 (;, ) .

(1), (3). ,
. , -
Y> . . (4), (6)
.
2. (8), -
.
-
.
-
, (1), (2)
.
1. zx = 0
s
z= F{y), {/ = const.
2 2
1. if + = 1. = 0
|1 < 1 ( 0 , 0),
, z(#0, yo)==z(xoJ y0).
,
.
2. if = 0.
h\1 sa , . -
; z = /(#),
/(/) , f(y0) = .
31 317

2. .
= (#, ), f. -
z(x0, 0) :
^ ( s = s0
) (8)
s = So (. 38). , z(xOj 0)
h(s0) -
h(s) . -
, (1),
(3) .
3. . -

= (xv .., xn). " ,


1 /?. -
f ( 1) -
,
X} = cpjG?!, . . . , Sn-J, Kj<n, (st, . . . , s n - t ) e U.

U R*~~\ q>j (s) e


e=Cl(U)
rankq/ () = n 1, U. (10)
(9) ^
w|v = M*) ()
1
h (s) e (U).

# (4* (12)
() = { (), . . . , ()) -
(9).
. (), . . . , {),
c(x),f(x) C4D), D
1 Y V () 0 .
2.
. (9), (10)
^.
-
1. /: = (t) ,
318 [. 5

I

dx
du 'V j

if , -
lso -^- + =* /, |===0 =
= (s). ,
(/ 1)- su ..., sn-i, ==
-10U, * l f ..., sn-i) tf-msi9 ..., sn-i.
4/ .
(*! ^) -^7 + {, z)-jj~c {, z). (13)

( 2, (4))
dx du dz / /

.
, :
(15)
, . 1: , 6,
D
(, 6) (0, 0) D.
3.
(, ).
(13), (15)
.
-
1. : : = (5), # = |),
z = h(s), s^l.
; S
. , -
, S:
1) - z = f(x, ), /
;
2) .
1) , S
P^S ().
I {) (() ), ()) ),
,
. I () (),
S . -
4] 319

() (-, , 1),
\ j

\ ^* - h ^Z

(13) .
1).
z = x(t, s), y^yitj $), z*=z(t, s) (16)

(14) . t = 0


.ds ds I q/ (s) |/ (s) .~
= K)i
dx_ dy_ I a b ^
dt dt
* -
(, ). (16)
J, s , (
^)f z^zitlx, ), six, )) -
, .

4.
-
* . -

*L+ **_<). (1)
dt ^ * W
> 0 ,

$+-
:
ulfo "=/(#). (3)
/ (. . -
) .
1. (1) ( 2, -
2) u = Fix ct),

uU, *)-/te-ct). (4)


320 [. 5

/; -
, .
fix)
ct
(. 39), . .
_ , *
.

- 39* ,
-

. 0
t = t0 (0, 0.
2. (2) -
u = F(x tu) ( 2, 5), -
(2), (3)
u = f(x-tu). (5)
.
u(t0, 0)
tOi 0. t = 0
(. 40).
,

\
\
. 40.

, , -
, .
,
. ,
t = t*
,
u(t, x) .
u(t, x) -
(, ).

( t>t*) (2),
t>t* . 40
41 821

. -
: . -
.
3 1. ,

t = t*, = u(L*, *).


2. t*, f(x) = 2 2 , :> 0.
( )
.
-
, ,
.
-
. u(t, ) -

(, Ut, U*, Utt, Utx, Uxx, . . .) 0. (6)
-
t, x.
(6)
= fix ct),
/ , 0 -
. -~ ct~\, -
/:
/, -/', /', 2 /",-/",/",...)=..
/() const, -
, (6)
. -
(6).
1. (2) -
. , /

/() = const.
2.
Ut + UUX = [iUxx, . (7)
\i > 0 . / -

94
322 1. 5

, * -
, 2 + 2 > , uZ > w. -
~/ ( + ) == ut>\
- * + 2 th ( / 2 + 24* g/2|i), /(-)-ui,

, wi (
uZ > wi), -
. /()
:
uZ . ,
- + 0, / ( | , ()

"
c = (uZ + ut)/2.

\ (), -
( ).
3.

+ uux + -g = 0. (9)

:
6UUX + Uxxx 0 .
(9)
4J 823

(9)
(4); /

-cf' + ff + -g--.
,

(26) . 4, 5. -

2, . . g(|) =
^ = %2 | 8 > | i ,
g{\) = - ( - 1,)2{\ - Is).

(, )

/ ( ( |) ) ) ) ~ \ (10)

| , = | 3 | , -
(9) uit, x)*/>,
.

v(t, ) - (, ) - * - u^t - .

/0(1) = /()
| = 0, . -
. -*
-+ = -
.
() . v

(. (1)). (10) ,
, = 0,
/ 0 (|) . ->
- + /0

S-o,
"10, 6^0.
21
324 [. 5

4. -
> Uxx = s i n . (11)
/
(l + c 2 )/" + s i n / 0 ,

(. 4, 5).
5.
~~ = 3. (12)
/
(1 + 2 )/"

(. 4, 5, = 0). ,

, go .
>0 ( <0 ), |/|^
^ V~E, -
:

1
f + VT+T

/< h
5.
1. .

S.
5] 325

= (, . . . , ), = (pv . . . ). -
, (?, ) -
2
R j?p

~ , . . . , .
^
. (1)
,
.
S {) (1); % =
dS
?= 2-. (1) xk,

U?
. f - Zi . f dxk W

2 2
dS dS
^ = ^.
0x Ox ax
\ k hOxi
= (xi V5 (?)).

() . &-
7 B C e Pi ,
dS ( ())
Pi =

dpk ^ d dS () d*s dxx __


d% d% dx^ Jad dxflxk di * ^ ^i

, (2),

- ~ = --, = 1, . . . , . (4)
1 2 7
d% . '
, ^
71

5 v^ OS ax. ^i ^

(3) (4), 2 -

826 [.

(
(1)).
(1); 2-
**. , (5),

ds v .
P (7)
Z
, (1)
-
(6).
2, . -
(1)
-
.
-
. , , -
: /' fix) -
: (0) = 0.
, -
: (#, #')*(), -
: ()=*, y'(so) e jp*
, . . "-
{0, 0) 0. , -
(1)

(. . ) -
Mri"~1c:i?2. 5 -
(1).
, ~1 ^
=* 0, 0.

/71-1 S: S (#', 0) So [xf).


\ [x')t i 1 , . . . , 1 \ (1) =*
OS (x)
*=-~^. /?(#')

(\ 0 , \ [') ... _ ! [% (')) - 0 , (8)


5) 327

. . {') . -
(8) , ,
. .
= 0 >

^ (9)

. (. 2, 8)
(8)
1 0 (). , {0') *
:
S {\ 0) - So (*'), V5 (*', 0) - &). (10)

\(') = | , 1<9 ^^)


(8).
. ~1 -

=*%{), I- 1, , /, ()
== (, . . . , a^^i)
V a Ra"1. , , =* ?0 ( 0 ). -
~1 , . .
( ())' 1. -
(1) :
,
(*(a)) = S0(a), VS(*(a)) = p(a), (12)
So --
. (12)
.
1. #(#(a), p{a)) = 0, ae=V\ (13)
, S -
~1 -
(1). '

2, <*S 0 (a>- S tf ()**?()


dS = V -^ dx -

.
328 [. 5

: ,
(9).

\
dat (15)



( ( ) P ( %
. (13)(15) . -
(1), (12)
.

1 . ,

~1 0. 0


(16)
(6). = {yv ...
. 1 -i) = 0.
(16) ( (, ), (, )}.
-
, ..., yn-i -
W = 0, = 0 (. 2, 7).
(7) -
, . .

% W (5 (, ), (,

5 (10):
*S | 0 ===== 50 ().
S (, );

== 5 0 (, )

-
W.
,
:
51 329

1. , ..., */_! -
..., .
, -
: ? = 0.
S (, ) = S () (2 ) =
= () - .
2. {) = S/S(x).
3. S(x) (1).

# (t> ) =
, i/t, ..., -
(16)
^i ) = '- -, 1-1 (0, ) = - * (0, ) == 0

"4*

= 0, ^ = 0 . -? = jr 0,
(9). , det#' (, )0 -
1
(. 2, 8). ,

B{x(t,y),p(j,y))<m0. (17)
,
(6) (. 4, 4).
2;

( , 0 ) % 1-1,.....
:

? 4
i-1, . . . . .
; ==2(, ), =/>(, ). (7).
yt (18)
330 [ 5

t ,

~ - dt dy% * 2d dt ~~ <LP>dt dy.%'

(17).

% |(, ) ^ 0 (18)
. -
; -
(6), (7).

--TI (19)
-
. > 0 (-
). 5 = const -
. -
( ). = 2, ..
iS=e5U, ), J J - ! q == ^-,
(19) 2 + q2 c~2.
(6)
dx __ Op ^. On s= 0 = 0 (20^
% 1
dx di ^' di di ^ '
(7)
(21)
=7-

-(0) + 2(0),
2 = 8(0),
51 331

. . , -
(, #, /?, ).
(, ) ; (20) ,

, . -
, VS(x0, 0) Six, ) =
^Sixo, ) (#, j/o)> (20)
- S.
= 1, 5 1 ^ (. .
). TJ-, -
,

-rj 0, = 1, = 1.
:

*1-9, 1-1.
| (23)
, q (. . VS) -

dS

s
.
2 2 2
1. , + = ; -
. (, )
,
= R cos , == R sin ,
s = ( sin , cos ), = (cos ? sin ),;
(24) /? = , = 8.
(22) (21),
= (R 2) cos , = 2) sin ,
S - 2.

332 [. 5

(, ). , ,

Six, ) *=R 2 + 2,

, ,
, ( ) .
. 0
5, .
0 < < RI2 ,
R 2 S = 2.
= /2 (0, 0).
, (0, 0)
.
, -

4(v } = 2 4- /2 ( 9 2
J\X, , X) X ^ 6) ,
. . -
. (. 2, ),
/=0, ^ . ^ . (0, 0);
.
2. 2~2 ia>0).
-
: = , = /2.

2 3
/ + '
(20)

=
2 2 , 2
* 2 ( 2 + 2 )3 / 2 ' ~ " ^ ( + ' 2 '
, Six, ) == 2. S -
, .
, -
, , ;

, . . :

ii4
(, )
5] 333

(25) ,
(. 41)

-
.
-
. , -
(. . 51~ const),
, -
, . 41.
.
(1) -
.
:
(*, S (),

.% QH dp{ Qfl QJJ
== !=:
~1Z 7, TfT " ^ = 1 . . . ,

a S - (7). -
-
, (1).
6

1.

, ,
. {)

) :
() -+ ()).
, J(y(x))\ -
. -
.
1. = ()
(, ) (6, ).

2. */==*/(#),
(, ) (, ),

3. , -
, :

F(x3y(x),y'(x))dx, (1)

f2
F . 1 F =lli + y y
2 F = j/.
-
-
.
--
g 2] 335

. -
.
1. = (),
(, ) (, 13), ,
.
s(yix)).
2. ( ).
,
(, ) (, ). ,
= ().
, -
t.
dt = ds/c = (), ds
,

,
t(y(x)).
Jly(x)) -
, ,
" {) [, \. -
, - -
, ,
-
. ,
,
-
, .

2.

1. . .
, . . -
(. 2, 2).
llj/ll.
1.
*=-
J(y). , -
J(y).

, . J(y) *
336 [ 6

0, > 0 -
> 0 , \J(y) J(yo)\ < e,
Wy-yJi<6.
^
.
1. (, ) (. 2, 2). ,
[, ]
l 0 ( * ) b - roax \y{x)\.
[,]
(, ) -
[, .
2. (, ) (
DM, )) -
[, ] :- :
|| ()\ = max | () \ + max | ' () |.
, &[,] <[,]

() -> () . .
lim|y n (^) ()\ = 0 . z^ia, b]
7J-*CJ0 \

(), ():

.


J(y) = $F(x,y(x),y'(x))dx. (1)

(, , z)
^^, < i/, z< oo, -
1
J() (, ).
(, )
.

. , s {) = J ^1"

( ) (, ).
2. . ()
. -
,

hh h2^B cci, a 2 .
g 2] 337

:
b

1. () = J a (x) h (x) dx, aix) e (7 ) -



. -
Cia, ).

2. () J [a (x) h(x) + () ()] dx, aix),

(, ) .
Clia, ).
3. .

(, , ) . -
, .
fix)
,
/ _ f{Xo + h)~ /U o ) = () + o(h) (h -> 0),
, -
fix) 0.
)
i/o,
/ . /( + h) - ) = () + (\\) ( -* 0), .(2)
() . - () -
( -
) ) yQ :
()-/^ ().
1. () (
/f/ ()) .
) j/ 0 ,
:

, ty(t) ~ 0 + th),
h^B . (2)
$ - (0) = *<() + ( ( -> 0),
) = ().
(1) -
-, Fix, , ) -
838 (.

*
< ^ z < . ,
*(', )
(3).

- It I F (*
(4)

Fyi Fy, (, (), '0{)).*


4. . 0 -
() /(),
J{y)>J(y0) U(y) ^J(yQ))
yQ.
, . 0 -
/(#),
.
. , 0
fix),
: d/ = 0. ,
yQ
), : / = 0.
. J(y)
0. 0 -
/(), ,
:
/,()-. (5)
.
. yQ
( ), $JyQ{h) =
(h) 0. h0 ,
) ^ 0 . UI
0 ^ / - J(yQ + th0) - J(y0) - 0) + (1)] (t -* 0).

.
*(0); t ,
.
.
I 3] 339

3.
1, . -


f (*,(*),' (*)) ** (1)

(2)
, .
() , 6) ( ).
:'
() =
= (), < < , -
(, ) (, 5) (. 42),
(), - (KB)
J(y) .
-

.
= ()., -
J(y) , . 42.
.
. Fix, z/, z) -
, < ^ 6, < z/, z < .
z/(#) h(x), . . -
J(y(x) + h(x)). ) :
, ), (3)
, -
: ()=, () + ) = , h(a)==0 -
6) = 0. J(y) -
(4), 2. :

J F'y,h' (x) dx = Fy,h () - J h {x) ~ Fv,dx (4)

(3),

(5)

Fyi Fy> U, y(x), y'ix)).


99*
340 [. 6

( ).
fix) I = [, \


f(x)h{x)dx = 0 (6)

), (3).
fix) 0, = /.
. , {()0,
0 (, ) , f(x0) 0;
fix0) > 0, . -
h = (0 , + ) 0 , fix) > 0,
x&h. , h
(, ). ho(x) ^1(, ) ,
>0, x^h\ ho(x)^O, 1. (7)

0,
(6).

ho{x)dx= f(x)ho(x)dx>O,

fix) > 0, -hoix) > 0 /.


(6) ; , fix) = 0, x^I.
. ,
(6) hix),
: hix) U) U)&* 1 -
^1 h (a) = h ib) = 0-, O^j^n 1.
, , -
-
hoix), (6). -
, ,

1. yix) -
(2) ).
3] 341

()
Fy-^Fyr^O, <<, (8)

. {) ,
6Jy(h) = O h{x).
(5), -
(8).
(8) -
. ,
FV, (*, (*), ' ()) Fxy, + Fvy,yf + Fv,y,y\


Fy Fxy, Fvyfy' Fy>yfyff = 0.
Fyfyf = 0 .
. F ,
. . F = F(y, ').

F-y>Fv, = C. (9)
-
-
.
2. -
. -
)
. (10)
() ^Cl{a, b). -
:
= (), ^ < , -
(, ) = (. 43),
, J(y).

.
2. () (10)
). () -
(8)
() = A, Fy, {z, (), ' ()) \= = 0. (11)
. () ,
1/0(#) , .
()=, () -
342 [

{)~, ()=. -
, J(y(x)) > ()) () -
, ()*=*, () , -
, j/(b). -
1 , yoix) -
(8). (4) ,

h(x)
, ) , ) = 0, (10). -
h(b) ,
h(x) , h(b) *0.

(11).
3. . -
-
. ,
()= ()~
. / = [ , .
-
: = {; d , C2),
:

: -
, ,

. -
:
-
/, , -
, -
.
.
1. -

(y)
. 43.
(2). ) , -
= () .
3] 343

1;
(9)

.
-
/, . .

, -

, 0 0; / , / ,
/() 0 -
: > 0, ,
0 > 0 . , >
/() = 2, 0 <
< < 2.

2
Cch~ | / l + sh -- dx = 2 J
~

( ,

h' () - 2(1 - c h

-
~2. ,
344 [.

= 2 ch -=r ,
9, -
. = /() = -
, -
.
0<<0, f{C)=A
,
J(y) {, ).
, / > 1.

(, ),
(, 0), (, 0), (, ), . . -

(, 0) [, ] .
2. (, ) -
, (, ) -
. . -
( 1) ,

{, =
= i/(a:), < # ^ ) .
nix, /) = /(:, #),
. 0 -
(#0, 0).

J(y)-T-\n (*- ) V'i+T^dx. (12)

Vl+
~ ~k{"" "" ~


3] 345

3. . -
, z, z ,
.
(13)


-1. (14)

z (2 = 0 ), c(z)
;
(. 44).

. 44.

[10].
: = 0, z = zi > 0; n(z) = c(zo)/c(z).
0, - z(0) =*
Zi, ' ( 0 ) = ^ 0 (14)

(15)
cos* 0

. 4, 5.
z = z(x) z m i n < z ^ z m a x
z(x)


dz
=
346 [.

, < () <
< , > 0 , II:
Zmin(a) < 2 < z m a x (a), cos 2 a < 2 (0); II -
.

4. ,



/ () - J F (*, (*), ' (), ..., <") (;)) dx (1)

:
() , ) ..., (

. Fix, z0, zu , zn)


n
,
< < , < Zo, Zi, . . . , zn < .


(1).

*) - / - JJ


()
(*)) -F(x,y (\ ..., ())} dx


+ te=O

a)
->0, h (x)-+O {0<j<n) [, 6].
,
5

(;) , -
[, ] -
5] , - 347

, (2),
u<*>(a) = few(b) = O, 0 < * < - 1 . (3)
^ (3),


J
a a
()
*) dx = ( - l)*Jft(*) ( ) *yl
Fylh)dx
0 ^ ^ w.

yix) (1), (2), 6Jy(h) =*


= 0 hix). (4)

'

F
(, (), (), . . . , yin)(x)). ,
() (5) -
(2).

5. , -.



$ (1)

[) ( (), 2 ()9 .>., ()).


. 'Fix, yu 2, . . . , ,
Z\, z2, . . . , zn)
^ ^ 6, <
^ifi<. -*><2,< (; = 1, 2, . . . , ).
:
() = , ()-, (2)
n-. -
348 [.

(1) -,
/ = [,
(2). -
h {) = (hx (), h2 (), . . . , hn (x)) -
, /

() = 0, h(b) = O. (3)

. - ()
J {) (2),
,

. () = (y\(x),yl (), . . .
' (%)) . / (
- (*/? {), . . . , \- {), ()
i/i+i (^) ()) ( , 1-, -
# {)).
,
():

, \ {\ ..., yU (*), i

:
{) = ) =
0
() J{y),
. //,) -
\ == \ () , -
1, 3,

{, {}, 0' ()). , Ki^n,


, () -
(4).
5] , - 349

1. -
J(y):

/, () = 2 - i F y ' ) h <*> **+2 v w I'-


2. F , . . F =
= (> ')- ,

(4).
2. .
. -

, x(t) == {xi(t), xz(t),
xs(t)) t.
L
:
L = T-U. (5)

L - % (\ + \ + - U (t, 1 2, 3). (6)

h
l (7)
. S
(1):

(t, xv x *,)] dttx

*! - (t).
oc(t) :

-
: ,
.
,
=* (t), t0 <;
350 [. 6
1
tv 1 -
5,
65-0. (8)
-
.
(4) S.
6U " 6U oU

= VXU (ty x).


.
, -
. -
:
, 74 . 65 = 0 .
:
.
, -
.
-
, N .
mu m2, ..., w, -
(\ {t)t 4 (0i 4 ()) = ** ). - 1 , 2, . . . , iV
/(*,*,...
. ., ?71).
N
2 2
^ ( ' k ' k * k2\
Xi x
2d ~ \ **" * "*" )""

5 (7),

6.


. f(x)%
g (x)} Rr\ -
61 351

D . / ()
, g {) = 0.

L(zi, .., , X) = f(xiy .., ) + Xgixn . . . , )

..., -
X, . ,
-

, ,
dL _ ef , , dg _ _ 0 dL df
^7 =
*-"*- "^:
1 dL n n
0.
: -
Vg () 0
, d = 0 = 0, , .
-
.

f
(, , ') dx3 K(y)=* ]G (, , y ) dx.

Fix, , z), Gix, , z) -
< < 6, < /, z < 5.
)
,
(1)
Z ; -

{)=, yib) = . (2)
%
-

. yix) -
(1), (2), 60. -
{)
352 [ 6

L(y) = J(y) + (), . .

(Fv + KGV) - - ^ {Fv, + IGV.) = 0. (3)

. () -
. ) = zjix{x) +
+ 22(#), 8i, 2 , hi, h2 -
= , == .
,
( 1 2) = J(y + Bihi + E2h2)
Ei = 0, 82 = 0 -
, YUi, 2 ) = 0 , VUi, 2) = ( + ^ + e2h2) -
I.
.

dzh

h2{x) , bvK{h2) 0; -
^ ^(0,0) ,
. 1 ~
hxix), X = >to
, dL O 8i==0, 2 = 0, = 0, =
1
= + ? . (4)
84 = 0, 2 = 0, =

hiix), -
[, ], (3).
. = ()
Z,

, .
.


71 353

F, G , (3)
( 3)

,
( )
-+ * -0, ,' -
Vl + y'* *-(-?
,

, -
(, 0) (, 0).

7.

: = (), z =*
= z(#),
giz, , z ) 0 , (1)
,

(x,yxzty\z')dx. (2)

:
()== ()" f t ; z(a)-i4lf z(b)=B2, (3)
, , (, ) (, ft, ft) -
(1).
. . Fix, , ,,) -
-
, < < 6, -
> .
2. gix, , z)

g 0.
(4) g O -
S .
: , -
2 3 R Aonnnmu
354 [.

S , -
,
. . = (), z = z(x)
.
() , v -

\ (F + Xg) dx, . .

d

(5)
xl^-lj'-o
. g =* z (#, ), . . -
S
= (, ). (6)
():

J =, J F{x,y (), {, ()), ' (), (, ()) +


+ (, {)) ' ()) dx = G (x, , ') dx


d
F
. , = bv
F ,
y
dx dx
F
( d7' ( ') = -v 7 J ' + Fz> (cpxy + q>yvy')J

gz = l, gy = (py,

''-*"-"-*'*. (8)

\
(), (5).
2. -
:
g 8) 855

. , . = (), z = z(x)
( , -
), Tfo ,
N. ,

Jx {, z) = J F (, , 2, y\ z') dx%
a
i

fli, 6i , N .
. . (
), -
5. , ,

Yu (. 45). ^) >
^ ) ( -
).
(
. . .
.

N .
(4) -
gy, g2 ; gt(M) 0.
z
(, ) (1), . . 5 -
(6). (1) ,
^0 (9)
S. . 1 -
(7); (9), (8).
8.
1. .
J () = ^ F^xlx .. .,,,~^, ....--jdtf. (1)

(#), (^ . . . t xn)% dx='dx1... dxn% D


.
. F(xu . . . , # , .
..., ) -
, x&D U I \
23*
356 .

, Ki, ..., < >. -


/() , -
D [] .
J
; .

6/ u (fe) = JL / ( w + th) \t=0 = Fuh + Z F"X h*i dx


- (2)

, ( 3),
. /[)
D U } / () /i () cte = 0 ? h (a?),
b
U
: (?) | = 0. / (,) = 0 D.
-

{) \ = (), (3)
() .
= 1 .
. () -
D -

. h(x)
. (2)
, :

() - JJ[F
[ - 22"4
4 ^ JJ <** (5)
= () -
h (#),
(4).
. = 1,
.
8] 357

2. .
( 5 ) . -
L = U, -
, U .
u(t, , ) (, ) -
^ t.

- , -
D, . U.
, -
, ,

AS . ,

U TokS = j J (y )
J
D

4JJ *4+ .tt)dxdy,


D

-
. -
, . . , t;
L
4 JI ~** ~r u *) dxdy
D

S = Ldt - ~ J J J(pa? - ? - T0u2y)dxdy.

(4) .

= 2'0/ > 0.
( ).
358 . 6

9.
, (#, h) -
g&B, h&B. -
,
, . .^
a 2 g 2 , h) = (XiCpCgi, h) + a2q)(g2, h)f
+ a2h2) = OMp(g, h{)+ a2q>lg, h2).
i|)(ft) = (, h) .
1.

\ J [ {) h'* {) + Q (x) h? (x)) dx (1)


1 (, ). Piz), Qix) . -


j fP (*) ^ (*) ' (*) + Q(x)g (x) h (x)] dx.

- , >( =
= 2/ f.
1. J(y) -
^. , )
0,

AJ^ / + - ) - q>i( + () + (\\2) ( - 0),
(2
tyi(h) 2() -
.
2()
/) 0. ^ ) ^
= 2 /^ (h) 2/. -
.
,
.
,
.
1. 6/(/&) = . 0
{)
g ] 859

.
. (2)
h
Jiy + th) - Jiy) = *<() + t2tp2(h) + oit1) it -> 0),

^ (3)



J{y)-lF{xty{x),y'{x))dx (4)

:
( ) - , {)-. (5)
1
, . . ()^ (, ). -
(3)

6V = 1 [Fyyh* () + ZFyyhix) ! () + Fy,v,h'2 (x)] dx.

, :

2 2
2 [ Fw,h [x) h' (x) dx = J Fyy,dh {x) = . J h {x) ^ Fyy,dx.

,
h(a) = h(b) = 0/ -
(1):

6V = 1 J [P {x) h'2 () + Q {x) h2 (x)] dx%

F e F
= v'v'\ Q vv ~ -< Fvv'-
Fix, , z) -
a^x<ib, <y, z<>, -
6V ()&1(, ).
, Fix, , z)
360 1. 6

-
; -
Qix).
, 6 / ^ 0 -
= (\ h(z) ,
. . h{x)&Cl(a, )
) = ) = 0. (7)
1. () -
(5) /(*/), , -

Fyy (*, (), ' {)) > 0, / . (8)

. , -
#, <<, , {0)<0 (-
, = F>* . (6)); (0) < < 0
(0 , + 8). ^,
. () = (/6), > 0
< 1 , ^ U I > 1 () -
. . 3.
< 6 \Q(x)\<B 8 < 6 0


1 I n

[ -1 -1 J
-" 0 -
, ,
2() < 0 6 > 0.
2. 6/ (h) s== 0
0, h{x) ,

2 2 t2 2
J [P (x) h' () + Q {x) h (x)] dx^ j [h (x) + h (x)] dx (9)

h(x).
() -
(5) J(y).
9] 361

+ 2 {Fvv, + 12) h () () + {Fv,y> + 22) h'2 (x)] dx,


-* 0 ||c t -*0. [ | | | C l ^ 6 | , 1 ^ =
= ( 0 ) -* ( 0 -> 0),

\ J ( 2 () + 2el2h {) {) + e22fe/2 (x)) dx <

"12

|'(*)| + 1*)|
J

AJ-^-^iC- 2e) j ['2 () + h2 (x)] dx >0,

0 > 0 , h(x) 0.
,
(9), .
( -
) ,
(
) , -
.
2. .
(6)

i (*)-<?*-<> <10>
:
> 0 , x^I. ()
-
.
2.

(ft) e J [h'2 {x) - h2 (x)] dxr h{O) = h (2) - 0.


2

h(x) = sin U/2), 2 *= 0.
362 (. 6

2.
', (10) h{x)*0
, ) = h(c') = 0.
2 0, 2 , . -
) =* sin(:r/2)
" + h - 0 ) =(2) = 0.
2. () -
[, ] , .
2()
.
2 -
, 2
.
(6)


(*) - 4 - 1 [*" + -' + i^l) /i2 ] dx -


, ,
, . . wix) -

P(xW - + P(x)Q(x) - 0. (12)
/ = 1 , ] ,

13
(h) 4" J &) \h' &) + h ^ ) dXl ^ ^

() ^ 0, () # 0.
w(x) . -
,
, . . /. -
( /)
w(z).
3. , 2 -
(12), -
1.
. (12) -
w
9] 363

, {), -
7; -
w(x) . () -
() = 0, ui () = 1; ^) > , / ,
^, / , .
() () = > 0 ,
' () = 1, . ) > 0
^1, ,
{) > 0, & I.
2.
,
2 >0, h(z)*O. (14)
, 2 > 0, (13),
cp2(W = 0, ho(x) 2()
. ho(x)
(10).
(13) () > 0, 2(0) = 0 ,

ho(a) = 0 , ho(a) = 0.
ho(x) ^ 0. , > 0
,

, () ^ > 0 &" /, -


= 4" J
(11) .

, , -
=1. () , -
/()==, ^ ( ^ l- ho(x)>O
364 (. 6

^1, =,
hB{x) > 0, < < 6, 0 < ^
< 0, 0 . > 0 > 0 -
, ,
) = 6, h'(a) = 1, &1.
3 , 2 > 0 ,


(15) . (9).
h\a) = 0,

, (15),
(9).
3. . -
2 2
3.
(5) (4). -
6/0 (h) ss 0 :
1. Fv,y, (, (), ' ()) > 0,, < < b
{ ).
2. [, 6] ,
{ ).
{) -
J{y).
9] 365

3. -

3, 1, , -
0 () = C2ch gr, Cz - -

f(C) -
0 ; , >/( 0 ).
.

l / l + ?


^2
20 2|


Q Fvv dx" F y y t
~

Fy,v, > 0 . -
(10)

) == ()2() + h2(a)hk(x) (16)


== . , ) 0
<^, 3 , ()
.

/ ' ( ) < 0 0 < < 0 , / ) > 0


366 1, 6

, /'() > 0.

/'(2) > 0, ' > 0 ^ < 0


#) > 0 < < 0. 0 < < ,
(16) , /2) > 0 . ,
2/ > 2,

jp (16) , #) > 0
0 < ^ .

10.

1. .

- x(t) = (x1(t), 11 ti xn (t)).


1. fit, ..., , ...
..., ) -
U < t ^ t ...
.., , ..., .
-
(1)
ft(*,*,*) = 0, i = l, . . . , > , (2)

1
#(*) = . xitj-x * (3)
gu ..., gh . -
.
-
.
.
1. <, gu ..., gk %
. .
y~O. (4)
g IOJ 367

(. . ) -
; (2), . .
, \ .
7
(1), (4), (3) /1 = 2, / = 1. -
, -

L = / {tx % ) + 2 Pi (*) gi (t, )%

piW, ..., pn(t) (


). = (t) ,
-
h
J Ldtx . .

, gt(t, .., )
-
tb^t^U , , ...,
gx if, x) = f ~ \,
1 / , , . . (t,x),
(4). -

, -

.
2. (2)
xit ., # .

(5

=* (, . . . , ), ( . . . , umj. ,
== 2, = 1.
4==
U, ),
*(*i , , ^, ^) = = 0- (6)
t, , ; (6) , -
, (i, ). -
= (^), = ^(w), w
868 [. 6

. t9 xf ,
= , , , w), y ^U, #, , ).
ft (2) 2 + 1 -
, , -
m = 2 + 1 t,
% ! #, ..., . ,
-
(5), . . 2, 10.
, -
(1) (5)
(. (3)). , (5),
t, x, , -
(1) t, x, .
, -

(7)

,
uh ..., ( -
!) V /-
', .
(7) -

= (t, , )
( ) (t0) = #, (tx) =
.
2. f(t,x, )
(,#, ) -
U, {, ..,, , ult ..., )
*0 ^ t ^ tu U Rn.

L * / (*, % ) + ( (t), - (/, % )). (8)

ho ^ 0 , p(t) (/?i(), ..., pm(t))


(, )~ , . .
771

-^Pi(^i |)- ho, Pi(t), ..., pm(t)


.
g io] 369

. - {&{t),u(t))
.
, ), ..., pm(t),
, (,)

L dtx m. e.

L U) = 0, /-l,..Mm. (10)

. [2]. -

(5).
1. (.
6, 7) :
f(x) g {) = 0,
Rn, /, g . ,
, -
J\,o, Jii, ,
VXL = 0, L -
: L = Kof () + Kxg {). S/g () '0;
= 1, -
4 [30, 39]. Vg () * 03
= 0, ^i = 1.
2. -
(9) 1, = 1.


J (, ) J / (f, , w) , # = (tx } ).

,
: u = h(t, x, ). -
, -
:

/ ( 4 = j ^ ( ^ , x)dt, F^ xt x) = f{t> x>h{tx Xl x))

. -
370 [.

~ -
Fx F . 0 . .

= (^ , hit, , )) no x
,
* + 4>vhx , <ptfe.. = 1


d
4 m '

1, =* //, -

(9), (10).
2. . -
( 5). -
t -

- (0=(#i (0 (*))> L (* #>#)
. -
6S = 0, S
:

h

L^-Al.^o, l-l,...,/. (12)

8
Pi
= ^*<*\ 1=
*1,...1 (13)

.
-

C/U, #!, 2, # 8 ),

~~2~~ \Xi " % xf) U (t, xv x29 x3). (14)


] 371

{ {, . . -
.
L -
. . . , ()
Pit > t. , -
(13) -
..., i n , . . .
..., , /?i, ..., L -
(. 2, 9)
...,
, -
:

,
-
. L
t, = (pv ..., ).

H=-~L+ ^xiPif (15)


i=i

, ii, L t, x, ,
, (12)
. dH, -

.

<11 + 2 j r d x i + Z-g-;dpi$ (16

dH - - dL + 2 Pidk + 2 iidpi. (17)


il i=l
dL

dx
dL~-wdt + 2 - ^ : dxi + 2d-?- it

(13)

dL = -|f dt + 2 -g- dXi + 2 Pffc,. (18)


372 [. 6

(18) (17) , dxiy -


,

dH - - - ^ dt - 2 " | j ^ i + 2^
=1 * ==1
(16),


dt dt ' % ~~ ' ~~ *-"

, (12) *

x
^Wi' ~~-.> -1.2.... (19)
2 , -
(12), ( -
) .
(11) .

, , .
(14), Pi~mxi,
(15)


^ 2 i + (*i' **> *)-

L
U ;
= + U, . .
.
. ,
t, . . = {, ), -
(19) (. 4, 4),
{#(*), P(t)} .
3. . -
(1), -
z(t),
, x = x(t) :
\)~, :
x=*g{t). -
(1) .
x(t) \ =
**x(tx) . xtt)
] 373

: xitQ)XQ, xttjx^
xit) -
xit0) = 0. -
. xit) hit) -
:

(*, , ) dt =

)lf{t,x + h,x+h)-f(t*x,x)]dt


.
xit, + ) + h(ti + 6t) = git, + dt)
, hit,) = igitt) xit,) + e)6t, e
,
/:

, xit) .
= xit) -

1 + fk(g-x) = V (20)
.
. ^1*
H = f + px (. (13), (15))
, = (1, g (t)) . -
(20) , (, ) -
, . . (, ) f
itt, xt). * -
. -
374 1. 6

(1), (t) -, -

, x~x(t) :
(t0) #, -
%%

(13), (15) Pi= f

= / + ( , ) -
, (tly (^)) (. .
) (//, p t , ..., )
. Vg = {gjt g x i , ..., gxn) .

,
(#, ..., ) -

(21)


,
7 , -
. :
x(to) = xQ, x(t^j = 1, t0
1
, ; t{ . ,
I -
%, = ..., =
== \, < t < >, -

ff(*i,('i), (.)) = 0, (22)
I (1, 0, . . .
..., 0).

11.

1. .
, '
t - {t) ==
= (#i (*) zn(t)). ,
: -
( {t)t, f , x um (t)) = {t). -
] S75


(, . .);
-
, ( ,
. .) ,
.

/0 &*(*),(*)) (2)


= &. (3)

(2) (1), (3),
-
.
,
Mi, ..., Um -
U i?
' m-
l
I h\ ^ = 1, . . . , w.
(,
u(t) : 0 ^

. /0 (t, #, ), ft {t, xit


u
)i > fn(ti x, )
df.
: j - r i = 0 I, ..., } / = 1, ..., ,

-
(t) /, ,
to^t^tu ,
-
376 1. 6

(t) U < t < ti f * -


:
lim (t+ ) == (*, 0), lim (* + ) = {t# + 0).
->+ -*+
- x{t) -
t0 < t ^ ^.
-
: -
(t) , / (#, )
, -
(3). {x(t), u(t)),
, .
-
(. 10, (5), (7), (3)).
: U -
, 10, ,
, -
-. -
, -
.

.
0 1
, .
1. J (#, ) =
= ti 1 0 , /0 (t, , ) = 1. -
: tQ, t{
; u(t).

.
-^
, . .
[421.
2. . -
(1), (2), (3). -

(*, , , , ) = ( / . *> )) - Wo (*. *. )' (4)
> 0 , = { {t)% . . . , pn {t)) ( /) -

2 Pifi- .,., -
.

(tx ) - sup {t, , ), (5)


iij 377

( ).
(x(t), (t)) (1)(3).

%0 - p(t) , :
1. - p(t)
1~- 1-1,...^. (6)

2. # ( * , x(t), , p(t), Xo) w e t /


*= (t) t e
Uo, tj, . .

supH(t, x(t), , pit), ) = (*, x(t)p{t), l0). (7)


17

(4) , \ = Hvv -

= 1 = ., 1 = 1, ...,/. (8)
(. 10, (19)).
,
2 2+ . . .

-

.


. (7). -

.
, -
. -

i-/(*,), (9)
= (xv . . . , ), = ( . . . , ), f = (, . . . , / ),

378 [. 8

, & R n , t0 -
-
/ (#, )
*(*)-*< ( - ()
-
: %1 (t0, ) (t)
, = 1%
<t< .
( (t)f
u(t))
(4) :
1. (6), (7).
2. = ^ -

!-0.. (12)
. , 1 ,
M(t, x(t), p{t), Xo) t, (12)
t&[t0, tj.
/ s 1,
/ (4) , ,

(13)

(12)

) . (14)


[37]. = uf
, | | < 4 (. .
U [1, 11).
,
= 1.

Xi = 2 , &=*. (15)

( ) (0, 0). -

= pixz + pzii.
] 379

/?i,
= 0, 2 -
, /?! == c t , p 2 = c 2 -c 1 f, ch 2-- -
. /?,U) = const,
max = :2 + max 2 * |

. . = 1, sgnu(t)*=*
= sgn/?2W. , u(t)
, =1.
== 1, (15)
t2
z2 = t + 2, = + 2^ + 1?:

1~\ + > (16)


. = 1 -

1--\\ + \ (17)

' . (16)
&
, =*1, (17)
, i a ^ w 1.
p2(t), ;
, uit) , -
.
Y
(16), (17), : =
~2 \% 2 < 0 = -2 :?,, 2 > 0.
(r/i, /2) Y> TO
w s l ( #2^*0), ^1 ( / 2 ^0),
Y-
(i/i, 2) Y, (^) = 1
(17) -
Y- , . .
u(t) 1 ^
. ,
(yi9 2) , *.
, -
.
380 [. 6

-
. , -
, . -
, -
. -
: (1) .
> = + . (18)

, ( X ),
() . /
, w
,
U. , -
Bw, ABw, . . . , 4nlBw .
[42]. , -
(18), ,
-
.
(. (15))
, ( ) (0, 0),
. U [1,1],
W , ?*0. Bw=*(0, w), ABw***{wy 0)
( ), Bw, ABw
,
.
7

1.


" -k2qix)y=*Q (1)
/ = [, \. ,
fc>0, q(x) ,
# /.
(1)
-+ +.
, , -
, ,
.
q , (1)
\,= qx.
, ^ -
1/fc:

()
.


:
(t) a (0 \ 1

*- (*) + 0 (*)+- - +... +^" +


1

(2) J


(3)
w
/ >

(4)
382 [. 7

(2), (4)

w /_! {) + 0 {) + + ..

(4):
ft*aL, () + [2 0 () . , (a?) + a l , ()] + *,. - 2 ()
:
a i x {x) = q(x), 2a_! () 0 () + a l 2 (;) =. 02 . . .

-() == /g(F), () = | ^ , ...

),
aiU), 2 , . . . (2)
,

[ - 1 In ()] ~ ( ()/\
!
( ( )) -

01.* () 9~1/4 [ & J / ^ d^ J (ft -> + ). (5)


,

.

( -fVg ).
-
.
" (4)
- ( . , . ,
. , 1926 .
), -
.
, , ,
.
g 2J 383

2.
1. . .
y"-QU)y~O )
/ = (, ), <, .
1. Q(x) -

(1)
0
'-(
( 1, (6)):


.
{)

(2)

(5)
(4) -

. Q(x) = k2q(x) -
, ai {x, ) =(-]), (5) ,
("1).
(2)

Y T0(x)Z, -
0(1). -

384 . 7

, 0() , -
(, ) . -
k^q(x) ( are /,
()0), ()
/1 1 \
(1, ()) , TQ = I ,- ,-j.

()
1/QI * , -
0(1). -
0(~1), t = (/ + "" 1 ^*)) # .

(/ + ~1 ())"1 = / - k-iTJix) + (-2),


V = [* () + | , () () - () () - "* {)

Ti(x) ,
.
(4).

2. . (5) -
, (), -
. -


^ = (1,0), .2 = (0,1),
1,2 V^0> ) V W ^ 8 I'J

5 ( . * ) - | / 0 4 0 . (8)

, , -
, (5) , 1 , 2 .
, (4),
(1)
2] 385

(*>) JliW1
*
2* -
&1 VQ(x)
,


.
. Q(x) ,
2 : Q(x) , /.
Q(x) > 0; T/Q(x) > 0.
Q(x) < 0, MQ(x) ,
VQ(x) i\VQ(x)\.
1. 1, 2
(, s)<oo, are/. (10)
(1) ^) , *
(*) 1 (11)


.
(11), (19).
.

(*) 1 (*>) vi H i / =* U 2 8
(5)
v\ = () {vt + v2)t v'2 + 2 YQ{X) V2 a>t {v + v2).
,
; -

vi (*) - + J a x (*) ( P l (*) + 2 (/)) dtt


*i
() = { 2 5 (0, )}

- J {25 ( ^ <)} i (t) (^ (t) + (0) .


2
386 1. 1

Ci = 1, ~ 2 , -

(*) - 1 + J (*) {Vt (*) + 2 (0) <***


(12)
, () - - | {25 (, t)} , (*) (PJ (*)

, (, #),
,
1. (13)
, Re ^(:) ^ 0 ^1
< t ^ ,

(13).
-
(12),


1 1
v ? (*) - 1 + J a, (*) (p? (0 + vl (t)) dtt

_ x

J
() - l | < J | a x () | - p(a,*)

(13). -
,
2] 387

= 1 ;
+ 1.

11 ) I [ 1; - "' (<> I +1 ; - "1 ( i ]

dp(a, t) \ai{t)\dt.
(14) / = 2;
(13).

() - 2 (*>;+1 () - $ () = 1,2.

=
(14) (10) ,

(, ), < 6,
MX) - 1! < {2(, )) - 1,
\()\ < {2(, )) - 1. (15)
(4) () = " (0, ) [vx (x) + v2 (x)]r

(15) (11).
(#). (. (4))

(15)
1.

(16)
888 . 1

(11), (16) , (, )-*0


-+ ,
2. yt(x)

Km[{)[( --%,{) - 1, (17)


Q'(x)/Q*/2(x) -* 0 -* .
2(). , -
1,
2. 1
,
(, b)<oo f /, (18)
(1) 2() ,

; 2 (exp{2p(a;t &)}-!), xezl. (19)

.+1

'^-1 ( 2 0 )

3.

1. .
O (1)
> 0. :
. Q(x) > 0 > 0 > 0.
2. ^ " >0.
3.

(2)

GCi 1.
3] 889

1. I 3 .
(1) /), 2()
1/4
4,2 (*) - < (*) I t j VW) *t] (I + 1 | 2 {)) (3)

Bj{x)

/-1,2, (4)
00

.
3 , #) -* 0 -* +?
, , -


( }
j (*+<*>). (3')
. 2
2. / *= (#, )| =* ?0, =

e
(#1 <*>) j | 1 (*) J dt. ,
X
-^ |exp(2pj#, )} 1 | ^
ip, .
(19) 2

1 <(?1).

yl{xQ,x) ( 2,
(7), (8)) 2(), -
*(3), (4). -
# 4 , ,
{) (1), () .
.

^), 2()
, . .

{*) - iQlU (*) ( | ^\ ( -+ ). (6)


390 [. 7

. (20) 5)
(6) 2 ();
(6) (). (30, (6) , > 1
w(x) ^), )

. , ,
,
ivix) - -2i, (7)
.
#1,(#)
,() -> :

u? = 1.
,
(1) -
.
1
3. Qix) = ( -
1
), C i > 0 , atix) ~- ~ (2) -
| >
, f > 2 . ~ 2
(5). , Q(x) ( -
),
.
, Qix) C3(ln xyt
*
** ^>09 >0, ,
1 .
,
3] 391

Q{x)
. ,
Qix) ~ \ Q'(x) ~ i**~\ Q" ~ TW ~ 1~2,
a > , 7 > - 2 (x -* +oo).
, ,

+ . (9)
(2) , , @
-> (,
2 ) .
(9) 3 (#), ) -
, xn+i -
,

= + (1) { -> ). (10)

1.

, -+ >

{)^\ \~lIi [sin (41 ) + | * 8/2 )].


, x*=*t
+ ty =*

/
2. *

, # -*- +>
1
zx(a;) cos ? + OU" ), z2Gz) = sin +
392 [. 7

,
Q () - 1 - (v2 - 1/4) * " \ ?- 1 / 4 (*) - 1 + 0 1 ),
S {0 )

= J /$W - - 0 + J( / l -(v2 -1/4) <-* - 1) +

00

+ J ( / l _ (v2 -1/4) *- - 1).


,

2 2 1
+ - (v - 1/4) j [1 + / 1 (v 1/4)*-"]" *
00

+ +-0 ( 1 ) ( -^ +

(3) -
.

(1):
0. (11)

2. >0 ,
V(x) >

\\V{x)\dx<oo. (18)

(11) -

yi.i(x)~e** (a-*oo). (13)
.
" +Jc2y~V(x)y , -
(. 3, 7, (16)), -

ih
() = Cxe * + ,-* + -J-J sin ft {x - t) V (*) (*) . (14)
g 3) 393

C t == 1, % *= 0 -
:
() - %

(*) - ** + i- J sin {x-t)V (t) yn (t) dt.


X

= 1

+1.

IV(t)\dt = /(^). ,

n=o
)
) ">0. , -
, () , (14)


-*-+69 (12), () .
()
394 (. 7

, ,
U) + c 2 y 2 U ) ~ 0 >0. ct*0, ^)/
cjd. (13) , ^)/() ~
ezih* ( -** <),
e2ihx ~ c2/ct ( -* 0.
, -
-*- .
1. 2

(15)

2.

(13)
:


(14).
2 .
/"- = . (17)
3. 1 ,
(17) 1

) exp J } ( 1. ())i
14 J (18)
6-* **01 / 1 2 2.

(19)
3] 395
) (5),

J VWjdt] (z->oo) (20)

), 2() .
. 2
(19) , -

1. J VQ(x)dx = , . . -
(9).

2
l ( t ) d t (21)
(17) (. 3, 7). > 0
, 1 2 (#)1^1/2 ^, -
(21) "
X It \

I () - J / 2 \ VQTtjdt] (1 + 2 (t))~*dt.
1 J
, - +
t \
I{x)~J{) = j 2 J VOW)dt' dU

(18) -
yi(x),

I
i X


X
4" VQTtjdt
~> +. J(x) -* + -> +?
:

lim = lim = (1 + 2 {))~* = 1.


J vQ(t)dt ',
1
()
, i/2W ( 2). -
396 1. 7

,
-
(2) (9).
w ), (),
(18)(20), ?**3 2, -
.
, ,
, (9) .
. (5) .
>1 ) , -
() ,
{) + , 2 {) - 0. (22)
- -

, (18), (20) , '(^)1 () =


135
VQ(*)(1+ &(#)) - * 0 -*. > 0
, \()\ < 1/2 > .

luys{x)-lny2{a) - J / ( 1 + (*))*>

> J Vtffld*-*- + (-- )


00
2(#) -^ + -* .
(22).
, (17) -
#~* ,%(). -
, , -> .
3. (. 2)
, -+ +>
JLx) -?- 1 / 4 [(2/ 3/2 ][1
() - -1/4 [ ( -
, )
, ,

-
. 1 ,
<0.
3] 397

[11J:
A i {) sin | +
' ^ [ (
( -> ).

(
)9
<0
>0. [51].
4.
" +(2-2)=*0, >0.
-
. -
-+ +. # > 0 ,

lvw=;
: -* < (* *)"1'* ~ ~. , -
, -* +<
, () ~ -(
2(^) , 4
-*- +.
4 2.
5
2
" -(Ic +V(x))y =0 (23)

hx
yit2{x)~e U->+oo). (24)
. 2()
, 2, ()
2
(21), Q(x)~k + V(x).
X
2
(*) - ~ (1 + B l (x)) J (1 + 2 (*)) dt,


) -* 0 -* 4:>, , ,
898 [. 7

,
(1 + (1)) -> +>.
3. . -
(17), Q(x) -
.
5. 2, 3
llQ(x) > 1 ,
Re 0() >0. (25)

(17) (18), -
(19). , , -
(5), ,
. . (20), ), ()
.
. yz(x) -
, 1.
yt(x) ; ., ,
[11].
5.
" -0 = 0,

> 2, 0 0. 0 ^1 0 > 0, 0 < 0 <


< , = V ^ ,
ReVa 0 >0. 5 ,
, -> +.

VIA (*)
1
"+
4.

1. .
0, (1)
/>0 , / = 1, 6J.
->.
-+ +. :
1. q" (x) 1
2. > 0 are"/.
4]

1. , 2 ,
(1)

ik J VW)dt

elt2
(3)
, .
(2) , . .
01.2

{x) (4)

} (3).
. 1
2. Q(x) kzq(x); \Q(x) =
= ikyq(x)i (. (3), (9) 2)
q"(t)
gs/i ()

& > 0 , # / , q(x)"O1 q"(x) -


. ,
(a,x) _ 1 ^ C s / i r i (fc ^ fc0 > 0, / ) ,
, 1 2 -
,
(, )
-1

, ^ ) = J

g1/4(#) > 0 , -
/ 1/2 (1)~ 1/4 /, )
(. (2)). (4) \ {, )
400 |. 7

(16), 2. -
2(, ). w(k) ,
(3), (4):
wik) - -21 + (~1)] ( -+ +),
, >0
.
. -
DJ: | | ^ > 0, Im ^ 0. -
1 .
, -
2 2, . .
yQ(x) , ReTlQ(x)X), x&l.

yt (xt ), yt (x% )
/)" |fcl ^ p > 0 , l m f c > 0
. 1/Qix) ikHqix), ReVQix)
= l/q(x) Im > 0 / , i e DjJ", -
yl {% )} j/ fo A:)4
(2)(4).
, {yt (x, ), yt {, )}
\ {, ), ^ (, )} , .
. , yf (x% )

( (#> ^)) / 1 2, /? ( D^)
&1.
fc>0, yit2
:

M*i*) :.*(*) cos f * J Vqlfidt) + (Ari) L

ft) - - ft?1/* {x) in (ft J / H i ) ]

w
4 (*ift)- r W [ s i n I *J
1/4
fo ft) ^ () cos/ft J
4] 401
(~*) ^ /, > fc0 > 0, . .
\(~%)\ ^ , .
.
# # ,

-
0(~*).
2. .
" -k2q(x)y = O. (6)
2. /?& 1, 2 , -
(6) luteer

i,2 ff~1/4 (?)

(7)
ei, 2 (3).
(7) , . .

(8)

e l i 2 (3).
, -
1.
.
D% : I ^ I ^ P > 0 * Re&^O. -
1 .
,
D~ : | | ^ > 0,, Re < 0. -
1 , -
2.
%(, ) #<> (. (7)),
mmi/tk mi
(, k)^q \b)[i + O(k' )]9
> 1 / ( ) =*
= 0 U s / , 6). b (, )
26 fltennnJu
402 [. 7

.
(, ) = ,

lim 2 (% ) = 0 (# / 2 ).
fc-*+oo

fc > 1 I.
, fc) ( t/2(#, &))
( Oik'1)) -
= ( ~).
.
, q(x)
.
3. 1, g W ^ O
&1 ,
ReVgU)>0, x^I. (9)
(6) (7), -
.
8i,2, 8i f 2 (3).
, -
1.
3. . (1)
/ = [0, >).
4. 1

J < o o . (10)

(1) yitZ(x, k) (2),


e i f 2
00

(2) ,
ei,
x^I, k>ko>O),
= 0. (13 \
4] 403

, 1,
, (, )
(, +>).
.
5. 4.
(6)

(11). -
(12),
2 (13).
4, 5 .
, ,(#, k)/k
-*- , , - oot x -
, -*- , -> .
4. .
(1), (6) / = [, .
. q(x) -
&1.

. -
1. (6)
( 1, (2)). (4), 1 -

-*' () + I 2 * (*)Y - ) = 0.

^() = llq(x) -
,

:

,
), ...; , (#), ^) -
1.
404 [. 7

6. N> 1
(6)
(* () exp {kS (* 0 , )} X

(16)

Xexp

ef[ 2 (^ ) (3).
yit (, ) -
.
,
1, 2.
(16) . -
, "1 , -
(9 ),
O(k~N),

x
( i < () exp {kS (0, )} X

X [*2 -* () +*? (, )\ (17)


L =? J

yz(xt ).
(1)

0- U 2 (ik)-an(t)dt\f

a - i ^ V g . ()
(15).
7. N>1 (1)

1 4
(*i ) - g- / (x) exp {ikS (, )} X

X
(18)
5] 405

(xi k) e Q"lU () { MS (xOr )} X

X (19)

6^2 (#, &) (3).


/1#2(#, )
.
-
-
[51].

5.
-
,
. -
t, -
#|, ..., #(.
- -
. , -
- ( ) -
t, ..., ,
(t, x) G : + 1 ,
0 < < 0. 0 > 0
' .
1. . -
-
6.
-/('i*,e)f *(*)-*, (1)
x(t, e).
= #0() = 0
-/(*, *, ), *|,-~ (2)
/: 0 < t < .

, -
-* 0.
1. > ,
l e l < 8 0 (1)
I = [0, ] N ^ 1
406 [. 7

t9 e). (3)
t /, ^ 0

\ R i ) \ C N (4)
CN t, e.
xo(t) ; , -
(3).
(1)

+ 0 (^ =/U 2^*; +

("). xQ(t)
(2).
Xi(t)

W - & * 0) *i + * ^ (*) 0), ^ (0) = 0. (5)


-
, (5) -
/. , )
. -
-

+ Fn
^ & * W ) ^ *> ' ^^' *) =
(6)
F n . -
.
(6) i e / t -
?( ", >1 -
.
1

- -
(5), (6),
df (dfi\
jz g^r .
* \
51 407


.
1. ->0
(. 4, 5)
0, (7)
> 0 , .
(3). , -

3
30 + 220 + 8 (3 \
,
0, xt, x2, .
xQ(t)
^0 + 0 ) ^ = 0, ()=, i o (0)=*0,
xo(t) =A cos *.
;
sn(0)~in(0)0f >1.

Si + (o2xt A3 cos 3 cot.
(. . 2, 7),

(t) = -g t sin at H g- (cos at cos 3co).

x2(t)

(12* sin at + 12(ot sin 3co + 2 cos * cos 3<ot


128CD 2

cos 5co).

3t2 cos at---^t sin 3at +
128(0 \

-5- COS 5tot - COS tot ] .


CO /
408 . 7

, -
xn(t) .
,
.
1. -
. , 0
, -
xo(t) + )
, xo(t) + ext{t) + e2x2(t) ^-
, , 5. ,
n- -
, , ..., (2+ 1).
2.
t>0. -
- at sin <ot,
a? cos a>t + sin (ot + ct sin 3(ot. , -

tn(a cos (ot + b sin coJ).

-
.
. -
( ). , -
xN(t, ) (1)
0(*),
OieN), . .

# = 0(*). , xN
N
O(e ).
2. . -


+ ( /(, ). (8)
. 1, (3) -
. -
, -
t
2
e ^ + ...), (9)
()
.
5] 409

=* (, ) = () + exi(x) + *2(%) + . . . , (10)


, ()
2/. (8) , -

(1 + ecDi + 2) + ,. . ) ~ 2 0 + 8* -*


.
, -
(Of, co2, . . . -
.

#0(-) = acos(o(T 0 ).


() a cos .

v
d%* \ at j

/ 2/(;

/(#0? ^ ) =* 2 (/mcos +/2 sin ).


^ ' JS)
( )
, -
cos , sin . ,

u ( a ) = 0 , / 2 ()=0.
a, G>t. -
, , , -
. ),
410 [. 7

()

, , -

.
: n- ,

(+1)- . .
2. (7)
(0) = 0, ) = 0; () = a cos ,
Xi

~ + 2 ^ ^2 a cos + \ (3 cos + cos )

COSC&T
,
3 2

9

() = (cos cos ).


. -
.
d\ 2 2
.

2
(192 ~ " " 2 2) + A cos + - cos 5,:
\ 4

, . 2 = ^ -.
,

(^,) = a cos + ^ (cos cos ) + {\
8(0
51 411

()

,
.
3.

/. 1 \
( g- 31 + = 0.


# = a COST;

2) cos ^ sin ,

,
7 4 - =* 0, 4 0.

, (01 = 0, = 2, -
, = 2. , -
,
.

,
-
2 .
3. .
(8). s = 0,

, ty , (12)
, ,
412 [. 7


Xoit, ) = acos\f>, (13)
a{t> e), |)(, )

(14)

. xoit, e) -

^j-.


( 3 ).

-^-37 = ^ + 2 2 + &) + ( ),
3

+ (3)-, (15)
2
da d '
dt Qv

8
^ + ? ( 21 cos \|:- 2 sin
dt"
? 2atoB2) cos - +

- flfii 2 ) sin tf] + ( 3 ). (16)


5] 413

(8) -

*('.)= 2 e " * n M ) f (17)


=


2:

# w (a, - + 2) = # (, -).

# (, )

(^) = 2 (aft ( ) c o s ^ + bft {a) sin

, :
xn(a, -) > 1 -
(. . cos- sihi|)
).
.
.

dx da dip

dt 2 + d +
dt* ~ \ I da dt dt \ * ) dtf dt*
d*x
j

,
1,

+ (22 = 2 ^ 2 + ^ J + ().
414 [. 7

/ {0 + + . . . , 0 + + . . . ) =

= /(a cos |) + + . . . , ( sin |) + cos \\>

sin |) + 80) ^ + . . . I = / (a cos |), sin |)) +

[ *i + ^ ( ^ cos
* - * s i n * + 0 ) ^
/
(#costp, sin if).
(8) ,

= 2( cos a|? + 2 sin |) + / (a cos i|>, coa sin |)). (18)


$ (19)

Flty) 2 .
2-
,

J F (ij)) cos ij) dtp ~ 0 2 J F (tj)) sin t|? dtp = 0f (20)



4 (), i?i(a). ,

*i ( a i ") = S [* () cos + dn {a) sin n\J?]f

(18) -
, dn Ci, d4. , c t = 0, di = 0,
5J 415


cos sin
= /oi ( ) + 4 2 7~(/ ( ) * + /( ) *)
(22)

[2 (4, + iljBJ + ft4j - ^ J sin 2 5 ^

(23)
. 3, 7, 4.
-. F(i|>) :

sin

- (19)

^ cos\|) + r2 sin \|) + -^-0


=1

# ,
+ = cos -, + ?n = sin .
\ 2-:
cos

"
= 1,

(19) 2- ,
bt
.
416 [. 7

(18). /
:
00
/ (a cos if* ( sin \|>) = 2 (/ () cos m|> + / 2 () sin m|>).

(18) cos\|)
sin . . -
cost|), sin , -
2 (), 2() , ,
.

( \
\-~ + \ =* Fn(a, |?; Av .. 1

^ , 2- -
if.
2 2
J F n sin i|> dij) 0

(), ()
*
(, $) -
. -
- -
. .
4. (7).

2 j ^ + 1 2( cos \|) + 2 1 sin - + 8 cos8 .


3
cos tf = (3 cos + cos 3\J?)/4, -
costf), sin\f
3 fl2
_


5] 417

, cos of sin ,

0)2
I2 \
7 + ^ 1 - (252 + B\)acosq +
\^ I
+ 22 sin |) 2< ^ + 2 cos2 te.

, cosif sin if,


2 = , 2=^ ggg-Y- ,

^ - & ( 3 3c o s + " c o s

; == a cos \J?

"" 8*cos3lf + 2 r i ( 3 3 Cos3l^+ "5" cos 5 ^) +


a, \f

, -
1 t.
5.
:
(24)
418 - [.7

I + = 2 cos ty + 2 sinty
2 8
a (1 ~ a J sin \|) + -i- a sin |?,
,
3
a a
2
- g - ( 4 ) ^ = . 0 , x x = -g2 sin 3\J?.
,

^ + x2 [
+ 2A2 sin + a i a
2
+ 8 )
cos + ^ cos 5i|>.
,
A
D X (dAX 3 *

c o s 3
^
.

, ,,
2
=

0 .

\fo . -
2
, t -* +>
-
51 419

. 3 -
, .
, (14)

t ^
, ) - * * ( * , )\<?+%
cN t . ,
xN(t4 ) ( ())

0<t<T/eN. . [91.
4. . -
,

5-/(*,*) (25)
(t0) = .
-> + 0
1/. -
(25).
. ,
(25)
, , -

1/.
.
- / ( * , # ) , , -
t 2. /
:

, 0. R , / -
, /&(#) = /-&(#). -
, , f , . .
(25),
, ,
t 0.
(25)


2-/0(*) + 2'7*) , *(0) = *. (26)
9.7*
420 [. 7

= 0 (t) s=s . -
(22) ,
(*, 6) - + (te), efk (x (*, )) = e/ k () + (fe2),
t 1/,

(25)

-
.
-
0 t ,
t


L ,

^ ~ 17, ^ 0(1),
x(t) xttBt
,
(26), . .

UX I \
8
/
, / 0 ()
t / (t, ) [0, 2]:
2

(27)

, 1/
(25)

(28)
/ _ - / (ifj x). (28)
5] 421

.
.
(25), (28).
x{t), {t) (25), (28) -
(0) = (0) = -
x(t) , 0 ^ < .
L -
0 > 0 0 < t < L/e
0 < 8 < 0
\*(t)-x(t)\<r\.
-

,
. , - / (, )
t : -
-


/(*,*) = -4-/&*)<.

(29)
T--foo "

/ , , , -
(27) . (29) -
-
(, 1, 7), -
N
f (*, #) - 2 \h cos Kht + gk {x) sin hkt]t

Kh .
- f(t, x) , ,
. -
[9], [16].
5, -
. -
,
.
.
6.
+ = 0, (0) = 1
t > 0, 0 , > 0
. = 0 -
422 [. 7

0 0. ,
x(t, ) xo(t)
.
x(t, e) - e~at/:
.
1. > 0.
lim (t, ) = xQ (t)

t>0. (,~)
xo(t) , -
/=*=[0, ]. x(t, ) xQ(t)
/
1""06, > 0 . /,
= 0, -
.
= t/e (
);
x(t, e) xQU) = e - \
-*->. -
= /(, ) , -+- 0 -- +<, -
ruwa (
f = 0). /(, ) =
e"*at. , , -
1-,

2. < 0.
lim {t1 e) =
+
> 0 , -
.


ex = f(x, i ) , = xQ, x(0) = (30)

[0, ], >0.
5] 423

dx

-, i/ -: = (.r l f .. mJxn)Tf
=*( . . . ^ ) - = 0 -

/tey)-0. (33)
,
yq>(*)t (34)
- ?
. , (33)
, 1 (), 2(#), ..^-
. (34)
(32),

= g{*><f (*)),: *>)=-*. (35)


, xo(t) -
0 < t < .
, ( *= 0)

, , -
(0) = 0, #.(0) = (#)
0. ,

( fo ), (h )) -> (0 (*), 0 {t))t -> + 0 f (36)

t = 0. -
. ,
= = 1, (32) -
. = () .
, D
: (() fix, ) , ,
, ,
/ = 0.
(, ) D.
424 [. 7

(32)

Y (/ = 0), -
, > 0 .
v f (. 46),

Uo, 2/o)e D\y
-> +0
. 7
.

f.
-
(0, 0)
. 46. ,
(36) -
, [0, ] . -
/, Y -
. (#!, yj^y (#!, t/i + h)
;
9
Il
{ + /)
^ (*,y)sT. (37)
, = (#)
, -*- +0 -
(36).

t = 0. t = ;

-/(*.*>. !?-*(*.>. ^(0) = ^, ()^^.


8 = 0, () = 0, ,

-/(\)| (0)-. (38)


* == () .
t -* 0, -*- +> (-
5] 425

6) (t, )
#(> 11
lim #(;) = (#).

,
* = (#) 0
.
(35) ,
(37)
.

,
(36). Du D2
^ /?, R , D = DtX D2,
D D. , -
- f [ )
g (x, ) D.
1. /(?, ) = (#), -
q>(x) -
Bi. ^ = (^), ^ , -
n+w
7 # .
2. */ = (#) , . .
> 0 , / (#, ) 0 < | {) | < .
3.

= 0 (t) 0 ^ t ^ , > 0,
.
x = zo(t) D2.
(38)

. -
..., .
e f l i * = ()
(38).
4. * = ()
Dit
pt(x), ..., pm(x) -
fy (x, %= (.4,
426 [. 7

8) 4 ,
O, K / < i f (39)
# /51#

^ = f(Avh (0)- (40)


0 0
(32).
, ,
# * ( # ) , (40)
-* +>.
5, () -* (40).
lim () = ()1

0
( , ()) D > 0.
0
, -
* =
0
= <(#). 4 , (, )
x
: ~ 4>( )i
5 .
15 0 > 0
. 0 < ^ 0 (#(, e), y(t, )) -
(35) Q^t^T, -

lim x{t1e) =xQ{t), < < \
k ;
lim (*, ) - 0 (*), 0<^<.

, -
(. [141, [49]).
7.
e
S F - ' < * ) + *<*). *()-*< ^ - (42
f > 0, fix), g{x) ,
fix) 0.
5] 427

( = 0)

= xQ(t)

1 * * - - * . (43)

.
. > 0 , x^^lx^x*. -
1\)
#, 0 -
[0, ,

. j ! ~ <0 ^.^xv -
, xo(t)
[0, ].
, 3 . -

* == -- /(:0) <
' \ /
< 0, (/(^0) > 0),
() -* +. 4
/<0, 0 , a:J.
, 5 . ,
~ (I 1 8() ( 1 1
() = [ / (?0) j + ^) [ [ / {0) ] - 1J

V {*)-* g // -* + .
, : /(;)<0, &
[xOi xt] g(a;) < 0, xt < xOi g(x) > 0, Xi > 0.
(41), -
_(44),
428 [. 7

(35),
I 5 . 4 -
(39). (
. [14]) ,

. -
- , ,
, ,
, .
: Dt [0, 1 "*], De -
[si'a/2, 1J. , 0 < < 1 ;
, > 0 -
. Dt , De
, . t -
, = et .
Di De
t-+0, -> ( 6 -+ +0).
(
) .
: -
, De. -
, . -
,
() Dtf\De4 . . -> +0,
- +. () -
-
.
-

2
- 0 () + () + 2 () + . . . j
~ ^ (45)
2
() + W W + ^ ( ) +
= et.
(32),

-

X = 0 (t) + (0 + 22 (t) + . . .,
( }
W W V()
5] 429


(45)(47) . -
. t = (32)

(45), -

. -
,

(0) 0 # (0) = .

. 0 () -
(38),
0 < < <. , - 0 (), 0 ()
. 5

, ,
0(-^), ^ + , >0. (49)
:

(50)

/*, / , g (0(), 0())=( 0{%))


,

(51)

(50),
, -
430 1. 7

0 < xj< >.


- ()1

, (), . () -
-
0 < < . -

~3~ = fx (,) xh + fv (xOt yQ) yk + Fki


(52)
r
Fh, Gk - xQf . . . f &k-u
yOj . . . , yh-i. xh -
,
(. (48)).

() - J G
(52) -
%. ,
(45)
.
.
(47) (35), -
-
.
,
dxn

0 0 (0) = 0. ,
0, 0 (33), (35), -
3 (0 ()2 0 (t))t
dxn
(

0 < t < *

dyn dx
(53)
-f^ + fU f^
5] 431

, -
xv yv -
-
. -
,
De, . . [1~/2,
~ ]. . -

lim xQ (*) = lim - () lim 0 (t) = lim y0 ( T ).

, xQ (0) = ?0? 0 (T);S= .


, 0 (t)

, -
-
5. ,

. ,

= (), ^ Di, {0 (t))t t


. ().
(t)t
yi{t)y -
Xj (), yj (), / = 0, 1, -* +5.
, ,
,
.
8,
ei' + a i + *=0, (0)=0, () =
t>0, > 0 , >0 . 7
, I5 .

432 [. 7

. t = ,

(45) -

dx dy ~* ~~
= =
- - > () = ^- 1/ (0) = </,

% = - ^ = - bin - ), (0) = (0) = 0, > 1.



~ ~ h (
() = 0 , () = - + ( ^

', - 4 > + -) - V' - T


2 ) + !

P n , ^ f t , , 5 ,,
.
.

dx
"5 * + - 0* (0) -

, i/i 0,
5] 433

C*=xt(0) .
.
Di De

= xo(t) + ex^t) = 2 0 () + )
(). -
= \ ] (^) N,
, ,
. ,

() + , () = 0 + e-

(). -
t t , . . -
.

+
xo(t) + (t) - 0 + ( - 4 - ^ )
(). -
Dt ., -
,

2. R
434 [. 7

. , ,
.
. -,
, ,
. -
. . , -
-
dx/dt. ,
, ' .
-, DiODe -
, ,
-* +oof . -
, -
(45)(47)./
:
Di, De. -
, [, ].
.
.

0
. <,
. (32)
,

- x(t, ) + 2f(, ), - U, ) + (, ), (54)


, -* +>.
[14];
9.
(32). ,
(), () , -
8, . .

t
c>0,:
Pk, Qh ^. 0
5] 435

, = 1. (49), (51)

0 () = (?0) + {~), ,
(~) -> +.
,
Sj () + 6 + (^- ),

= ][g (\0 ()) -


^ - /* (^ ^ W) ^1 + / (, 0 ()) yv (0) - 0.

, ;

() = J -** (*) ^

^ () = J /(, 0 ()) () = /, ( 0 ()) ().

, -
J/I(T).

6() - /xU, */())( + + ?(-)) = + 64


1 ()= (^- ), 2() (-%) ->+>.
, , ) ,
*
436 [ 7

. ,

$&r-

-^ +

00 00

= J () dxt 6 3 () = J (5) 5 = (^~ ).


5 = 0 -
). ,


;() = (" ) ^ +<. -
%)
(56)

0(~ ).

. . (56) == 1.
-
.
. De
? (*) + ^ () + ( + )%
0 (t) + (t) == 0 (0) + {0 (0) + (0))
. -
5] 437

, =# 0 (0), 1() =
== .
- xv (53). -

(39) fy (xo(t), y0 (t)) -


0 < t < . -
(53),
du

-
,
< t < . - (t),
- {t) .
-
.

fyUh + fxxk = Fh, -jjr = gxXk + gyyh + Gki


Fft, Gft -, -
?! ( ... #*-1 ( (*)> - (0-
/ g (xo(t), yo{t)).
xk
.

- ify)"
xh ,
A(t) lx~~(fy)~1fx8x > 1.
xh (0)
. -
Xk (t)
O^t^Tj yk(t)
9,

+ 0 ,
-
438 [. 7

.
.
1. t =* -
i ( 0 ) = [/(), j/(e) . -
7 , -
z(t, e; ()) ,
0 < < 1 . i/(e)

(1, ; ()) = .

t = , t 1 -
. ,
t = 1 I

( 7
( fix) 1 > 0). ,
t - 1,
.
2. , (55):
(, ) xit, ) + (, ), -ef.

x(t, )
1 , {%, ) N 0
.
-

00 00

(t, ) = 2 s n l n (*)i ( )

,
, 1 d 2 ? , dx , 1 d

,
, $ ;
dx , -
5] 439

#(1, ) = .
x(t, e),
dx
~ + *0 = 0, (\)~

.

*,(*) = ~\ St(t) = (1 - t)e~\
Qt % 5
( - 4~ ~* ( * >-

#(, ) :
? (, ) + x{0j ) =- lim (, ) = 0.

, -
U, ) + (, )Ir-i = .
,
Sfe(O) - - () - - be, (0) - - ( 0 ) , > 1.
1, 2

^(0) = - ^ ?a(0)--ffe-
,

oo =s=
# 0 ( + ) 0 , 4 = 0. -
,

).
( -
Xi(+o)=*0 5=0,
#i(0) = be . ,
440 [. 7

. -

N _
(t% ) = 2 fa (0 + * ()) + (*+1), -> + 02

t&iO, 11, iV^O [141.



(tx ) = bee"-* + ( fee)?-*'6 +

+ \be (1 t) e~% fee^-f/8 + (a be) -~ ~*] + (2).



, {) = .
, -
9.
,
. . [14], [29],
[371. -

.
6. .

2
e x + f(t, s ) - 0 . (57)

/ : /U, ) == q(t)x,
(1) 4, -
. -

z(t, ) = y(tu t, s), U = SW/, (58)
S -


= 2 ( * 1 . 9 . (59)

dy_ _ S' (0
dt e dtt "*" dt '

2
dt
g 5] 441

(59) (57) -
. -
,

^ = , (60)

0
5 ( 0 ^ + 1
^2 ^5 25^
) ^ ) ^ - ^ ( 0 - . (61)
w l w
dt\ * dt^t x

(59) ,
,
: t U.
(60) 0
5, ,
. -
.
, (60) -
t{ t)
. , t -
. 0
, , S'(t).
(61) ,


(60) U. wt tt
. w2{tu t) -
;
+ Tt == wMu t) +Awi(tlf t), (62)
A = A (t) . ,
df/ .
Pi, 2 (. 3, 11),
(61) -
wu 4 = 1. 42 = 1, 2 = 1 -
(62) (. 3,
11). w2 ,
.
.

" +q(x)y = f(x), (63)


442 [. 7

q(x), fix) -
- ^).
2() ,
2( + ) = ()+1(). (64)
. 0. (63)
- ^ ,

<k-0. (65)

. 2 ,
.
(63) (. 3, 7, (16))

f(t)dt. (66)

/, i/i (64)


( + ) () = \Aei+\f {t) y% (t) dt
L
n
J I
I

J
( + ) ();
,


2 + J / (*) 2 (*) = Oj j / (t) yx {t) dt = 0.

, (65) .

. (), (66),
-.
(61) (65)
5] 443

[ ] * ! (67)
Z? . ,
(60), (61)
i/oUi, t), Stt).
2, ...
.
10.

(60), (61)

ot Ol
i i i

(7),

(68)

,
( 1 + #(*))#(*)-(*(*),
( 6 9 )
2k4t)S2(t) - -)A2(t)
-
SU), A(t), ). -
(67)

444 [ 7

= 4,
:

J
/0,
2 2
) A it) L ik )) = E%
h h
- (70)
L

v s n ^ i , ).
2
dv . dv

L
1

L = J /(1- 2 )(1

_ _ (71)

() :

(69), (70) -
SW, A(t), kit).

-(
4 2 2 2
4/ (0 L (fe (0) = (0

kit) -
( , ).
(72)
Ait) it). -
[29], [37]

1. . . -
.: , 1939.
2. . ., . ., . .
, .: , 1979.
3. . ., . ., . .
, .: , 1981.
4. . . -
. .: , 1975.
5. . -
, .: , 1978.
6. . . ,
.: , 1955.
7. . . , .:
, 1967.
8. . .
. .: , 1980.
9. . ., . . -
. .: ,
1974.
10. xN . . . .: -
, 1973.
; . . ,.: -
, 1980.
12. . -
. .: , 1968.
13. - - . -
.- .; .: , 1933, . 2.
14. . ., . .
,.:
, 1973.
15. . . -
..: , 1976.
16. . ., . .
..: - ,
1971.
17. . ., . . -
. .: , 1961.
18. . ., . .
. .: , 1958.
19. . ., . . -
. .: , 1977.
20. . . -
,.: , 1979.
446

21. . . ,. ,
1959.
22. . . .; .;
, 1936.
23. . .
. .: , 1967.
24. . . -
. : , 1972.
25. . -
, .: , 1976.
26. . -
, .: ,
1966.
27. . ., . . -
-
, .: , 1980.
28. . ., . -
, .: , 1958.
29. . -
. .: , 1972.
30. . . ,
.: , 1981, . 1, . 2.
31. . , .:
, 1964.
32. . ., . . -
. .; .; , 1950.
33. . ., . .
. .: , 1973.
34. - ., . -
. .: , 1964.
35. . ., . X.
,
.: , 1975.
36. . .
, .: , 1981.
37. . , .: , 1976.
38. . ., . .
. .: , 1949.
39. . . .
.: , 1975, . 1, . 2.
40. . .
. .: , 1970.
41. . .
. .: , 1974.
42. . , . ., -
. ., . . -
. .: , 1976.
43. . .
. .: , 1971.
44. . -
.-.: , 1953, . 1; 1954, . 2.
45. . . ,.: *
1974, . 2; 1969, . 3, . 2; 1974, . 4, . 1.
46. . . .
.: , 1969,
447

47. * .
.- .: , 1958.
48. . . -
, -
.-.: , 1959, . 1; 1960, . 2.
49. . ., . ., -
. . . .: , 1979.
50. . . .: ,
1962.
51. . . -
. .: ,
1983.
52. 3. . .: ,
1974, . 1.
53. X . -
, .: , 1970.
54. . . .
-.: | 1960.


. .
. .
, , , . .

12633

29.06.84. 01.03.85.
84X108V32. .-.
. . . *. . 23,52. *
.-. 23,73. .-. . 22,27. 16 000 . -
293. 90 .




-
117071 -71, , 15

4-
630077 , , 77, . , 25