You are on page 1of 523

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.

com

:

..



2004

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


66.2(4 )+65.9(4 )
75


()
04-02-16016

75 : / . .. -
; . - . . .: -
(), 2004. 494 .
:
,
.
, ,
,
.
.
RISS publication Moldova: Current Tendencies of Development analyses the
political, economic and social development of Moldavia through the years passed
since the independence had been proclaimed. Authors examined the phenomena of
the new Moldavian statehood, analysed economic reforms and relations with Rus-
sia and other CIS countries, EU and international financial institutions. Main at-
tention is paid to managing crisis in Transnistria and Russias role in this process.

-
, 2004.
,
ISBN 5-8243-0631-1 2004.

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


- -
- -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- -
-
-
- -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- , , ,

-
-
-
-
-
- ,
- , ,
-
-
- " "
-
- " , "
-
- -
- " "
- ,

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


- ,

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- ,

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- ,
-
-
-

() - ()
- ,
-
-
-

-

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-
- -
-
-
- ,
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- -
- -
-
-
-
-

-
-
ANRE -
ARA -
ARIA -
CLRAE -
CNYV-32 -
CPBR -
CSOP -
SP -
IFC -
MEC - Micro Enterprise Credit
KFW -
SWIFT -

USAID -

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


6

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.


. , ,
, , .
-
.
, .
.

, ,
, ,
. , -
, ,

. XIX . , , -
. -
.
. . -
, 20- - 30- .
. -
.
, -
-. -
,
,
. , , -
- ,
, -

, ,
.

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


,
.
-
.
-
,
,
.
, -
.
, , -
, -
.
, , - .
, " ",
,
. -
. -
, ,
. , ,
- .
.
,
, -
,
, 1991 . -
.

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


I.

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . ,
. .


. 2000 . 48,8 %
( 13 % ).
3-
[1]. 2002 .
21 % , -
5-7 %, -
2 % [2]. -
, ,
, ,
- .
90- .
: 1996 . - 87 %,
1997 . - 112, 1998 . - 88 1999 . - 92 % [3]. 2000 . ( -
) 97 % 1999 . [4].
1999 . 7,1 .,
1955 . [5], -
, (-
).
, 2000 . -
, ,
.
[6].

11

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..

, 2000 . ,

.

. , -
2002 . 103 %
2001 ., 9,408 .
,

2,3 % 4,8 %.
-
2002 . 71 %, -
- 29 % ( 2001 . 72 28 %) [7].

1999-
2000 . , , .
, ,
1992 ., 2000 ., "",
( )
[8].
"
",
- 180 . 1990 . 300 . 1992 .
1
1992 ., .

( )
- . ,
13 % .
1997 . -
. 17,3 %
, 13,6 % [9]. -
: " -
- ", " -
-
" (1991 .),
" () ", " ",

12

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


" , -
" (1992 .) .
"
- " -
1997 .
, ,
-
.
,
( 3,1 . 1994 . 40 .
1997 . [10]),
.

. -
1 . 27 ,
75 % 3-6
10 % - 6 (
1,5 ) [11].
.
1998 . 24 % ,
.
(-
, " ").

,
, -
(. 1).
, , -
87 % 1990 . 58 % 1997 . ,
.
, .
": -
",
(ARA)
, 1998 . 100 900 -
[12]. -
, , -
, ,
.

13

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..

1

( % )*
1990 1996
32,3 17,3
:
27,0 1,0
0 13,6
59,4 23,1
0 38,9
0 2,8
0 4,8
8,3 13,2
*
Republic of Moldova: Strategy for Development // Center for Strategic Studies and
Reforms. - 1998. - . 124.

-
.

,
"" .
""
, -
(USAID).
,
.
1998 . "" ( "") ,
.
, 1,5 .

.
, -
,
, . -
,
:
, -
, .

14

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


,
" ". -
,
2 (160 .) [13]. -
(7 ,
8 , 5 ) -
( -
- CPBR,
.).
-
USAID.
, ,
35 . [14]. 1- 1999 . -
516 , 234

,
124 , -
[15].
2000 . -

.
"".
1000 1035 .
, 1 -
1,5 [16].

240,5 . , -
. 72,3 .
. , 431,1 . , -
, -
[17]. 200 .
- ,
,
, [18].

. -
2,2 . 1 -
2000 . , -
, 590,9 . . [19].

15

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..

.
, -
3,5 . (287 . 1 ), , ,
30 . (2,5 . .) [20].
"" 1 2001 . -
, , 50 60 . [21],
800 . .
1 -
1,43 (116 .). 590
110 .
434
700 . , 440 [22].
-
"". . ,
, "
" [2].
,

, .
200 .
( 26 ,
2 . ) [21].
, -

.
[23].
1 2002 .
3,384 .
2,538 (75 % ),
- 1,839 (72,5 %), -
- 305,7 . (12 %), - 384,9 . (15,2 %),
- 8,3 . (0,3 %). -
69,9 . , ,
,
(655,8 . ). -
, -
. ,
4,8 . ,
- 28,3 . ( -
19,4 . , - 8,1 . ). 2001 .

16

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


371 694 . 1 2002 .


1,117 -
1,69 .
-
, . , 104,9 .
, 399 -
, 1050 , 139
.
. 2002 .
546,8 . , 1152 ,
1124 , 225 , 64 4
. -
513,5 , -
70,3 , - 34,2 .. [24].

.
.
, ,
, .., ,
[21].
2000 .
. - - -
USAID.
, ,
USAID, ,
2001 . -

, -
. , , -
25 . [29]. 2002 .
-
1,76 . 10
- [25].
-
. -
,
, -
. 1999 .
,
, ,

17

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..

- ,
. -
-
.
, 51 % .
, -
.
2000 .
100 ., 35 . 100 ,

"" [30].
, 2000 .
12 -
.
80 100 %
. -
50 % . -
"",
"" , -
, .
-
"-" - -
, , , ,
, [27].
,

. - -
350 700
(30-60 .) [28].

,

. XII . ,
,
. -
, ,
,

18

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.
,

.
4
: , , -.
() -
( 60 %).
"",
"", "", "", " ", "", "
". - .
,
,
. -
. - , ,
1 1
.
[29].
15-20 -
, 5 (
), , -
3 .

Cricivo-Acorex. -
- -
, 150
. -
-
, 1,5 . -
. ,
.
- ,
, .
" ". "
" I, -
[30].
- "-", "",
"", " ".
_______________________

1
1 () - 10 .

19

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..

,
,
, - ,

. -
,
"", " ", "", "-
", "" 10-
15 . "-
" "-", " " (" ")
"" "" ,
" ", . -
-
, 15-20 . -
. "
", ,
" ",
" ".
-
-
.
, , .
1996 . 172 . [31].
, ,
,
30 % ,
10 . . -
, 1991 .
. 5 ( 1992 1996 .) -
13 . [32], 2000 .
1985 . [33].
1 2000 . 90 .
. (7,3 . .). 2001 . 694 ,
10 . . 70 .
, 2-4 /,

5,5 /.
100-120 .
.

20

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1 2000 . 95 %
,
.
2002 . 107 . . 2001 .
530 , 2002 . -
1,4 . [34]. 85 %
, 15 % -
[35]. "", "",
"", "", "", "", "", "" -
78 . , "-", "", "-
", "" 28 . [36]. -
310 940 . .
"", "", "-", "", "" -
- 20-
26 %. 70 %
, - 50 %.
8-10- -
,
.

30-50 % -
. -

. , -

. ,
51 % - -
, 45 % -
4 % - [37]. - -
-
25-27 /.

-
, , , ,
.
-
, -
.
.
, , [38].

21

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..


-
,
- , -
, , , . 1999 . (
) 75 -
, 2000 . - 25 "", "-
", "", "" "" -
Mercier Center Europa. -

( ), (),
(). -

,
( ), , ,
(), (),
().
2005 . -
3 . -

"" "". 2003 . -
10 ,
.
9 [39].
.
1994 . " " ,
, -
(. 22).
,
. -

-
, -
. . 22 ., -
15-30 %

.
" -
" " -
" [40].

22

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


2001 .
, 15 %
,
.
,
, 20 4-
. -
50 % , -
. , -
[41].
-
, -
,
.
20 %
,
. 130 -
20-30
.
, , -
-
-- Glass Container Compa-
ny,
[42].
2000 . 110 ,
37 . -

40 %,
10 % [43].
2002 . 407 . , 327 .
.
4,3 . , 2 . -
[34].
- "", "", "" , -
("" - 7 . , "-" -
10 . , "" - 9 . ). -
50:50 [44].
2000 .
1,15 (930 .), -
; 350 . ,

23

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..

75 % , 1999 ., 24
, .. 2 , [45].
-
. -
, .
2002 . 8,7 , -
30 % [46].
- , 82 %
, 7 % - , 3,8 - , 1,6 - ,
0,8 % - [47].
: 33
10 %. ,
,
, , .
50
, 50 .
,
,
230 .
2015 . [48].
,
, , , .

. , -
( -
) , ,
.
"", "", "", ""
- 60-150 . .
2003 . -
,
, VI-1.



. 2003 .
, , -
, , [49].
,
, 40 %

24

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, .
-
, , ,
. -
, ,
,
.
, -
, , .
,
.
72-81 ., - 115-140 .
-
. ,
-
3 . 65 %
, [50]. -
-
- , , -
. , 2002 .
() "".
3,7 . 99,96 % . ,

5 . ,
, 600 [51].
-
. .
, -
. , -
.
1997 . -
90 7 10 %,
[52].

,
.
,

.

25

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..

-
.
,
(. 2).
10 % -
, 1999 ., , ,
140 (12 .). 1999 .
21 . 65 . 1991 .,
31,5 .
18,5 . [53].
1,5 % .
1 . 2,5 - 3 . ,
6-7 . 5-6 (400-
500 . .).
,
400 (32-35 .)
40-50 . () ,
10-12 . .
10 % [54].

2
1995-2000 .*

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000


(. ) 20,0 16,3 17,2 21,8 18,5 22,5
(/) 13,5 11,7 13,8 11,2 11,4 11,6
27,0 19,5 23,6 24,5 21,0 24,0
(. )
2425 3560 4062 4031 7047 8500

(/)
*
. - 2000. - 40. - 27 .
1998-2003 .
- ,
2000-2010 ., -
2010 .
70 . 18 / [55].

26

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


--
, 80 % - -
, ,
.
"-
" ( 85 % ). ,
1,6 - 1,7 . ( ,
"" ""). , ,
, -
. 2000 .
64 (96 - 1999 .),
- "-" "
-".
,
. 1999 . 12 . 0,85 -
1 . . - .
1999 . 1,2 % .
,
. 46 . ,
1999 ., .
, -
. -
5 6 7,5 .
6,5 1
. -
, ,
. 45 .
3 . , ,
, - . ,
.
19 2000 .
-
.
12 - , -
80-100 % .

50 % [56].
1999 .
,
. 1999 .

27

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..

,
. ( ,
) ,
. -
. -
,
.

, -

[57].
-
"-" -
- ,
, , , , .
2001 . -
.
" ".
70 %
. 2001 . 17,4 .
21,7 . 2002 . 9,9 .
10,6 .
. 2002 . 12 . , -
, 9
1,3 . .

3 . .
,
, , , , [58].


.
Sudzucker AG Mannheim/Ochsenfurt.
-
8 , 45 10
500 .
4 .

28

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998 .
, 1999 . - . 2001 .
, -
, ,
36-49 %. 17 -

,
, -
,
[59].
2000 . ,
, -
"-
" .
94 (7,6 .),
- 175 (14,1 .). 49 %
Sudzucker, 20 % - "-
" [60]. ,
, Sudzucker
,
,
44 38 %.
.
- ,
, -
.

.
2004 . "-" 150 .
, 77 % . ( 1999 . , -
"-", 46 . -
35 % .) ,
,

. 2001 .
-
. , , -
. - 12,5
, 10 KWF,
- [61].

29

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..


, , ,
.
, , -
- . -
[62].

, Sud-
zucker .
-
( 74,4 . 1997 .
6,9 . 2001 .) [138],
Sudzucker -
.
2001 .
- - -
Codapun. -
, .
Codapun ,
, . 2002 . -
. ,
, . 550
[63].
, -
, -
. 2001 . 200,4 /. :
- 553 /, - 700 /.
,
, -

. 1995 2000 .
1,9 0,95 , - 220 . 105 . .
. 1999 . -
34 % , -
57 %. 2000 .
, ,
. 102,4 . ,
3,4 . , 1999 . [64].
1996 2000 .
2 - 7,4 3,7 % (. 1, 2).

30

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


90 260
247
80 233 228

70 220
200,4
60 203

50 180

40 157
150,6
81,8 75,6 69,1 66,4 64 62,7 59,5
30 140
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

( . ) ( /)

2000

1916 1451,9
1807,1
1500 1748,5

1008,8 1085
1000

843,5
500
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
( . )

. 1, 2.
( . - 2000. - 41. - 3 .)

9
3 300 . ,
, . -
70-
80 . ,

31

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..

, 2001 . 20-30 . ,
. , , 4-5
[65]. , ,
2-3 , -

.

,
- ,
. -
26 %.
2002 ., -
.

-
.
(

) ,
. -
, .
-
.
,
,
, "
, ,
2004 ." - 70 .
[66].

68 % -
, 22 %
[67].
, -
.
1999 . : -
.

32

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



, 100-
,
.
, -
[68].
2000 . ,
,
: 1 -
120-130 ., -
120-140 . [69].
2000 . 727 . , -
30 % (1185,2 . ). 2002 .
1,18 , 34 % -
66 % . -
840 . ( - 480 . ).
,
(, ).
, , ,
[70].
-
-
, -
.
, , 41 . (23 %), -
86 . ( 2 ), -
.
3 -
.
1997 . , -
. -
-

( 20-21 %), -
13-16 %. , 1990 . 127 . ,
2000 . - 224,8 . , 2001 .
,
208 . [71].

33

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..

1100 1140,3 1031,2 1185,2


1117,6

800,4
727,7
600

295,7 278,3
285,6
182,6 133 230,9
100
1999 2000 2001

. 3. ( . ; :
. - 2000. - 37; . - 44)

90- .
: 1989 . 21,8 /,
1998 . - 9,9, 2001 . - 13,6 /.
278,8, 176,1 274 . .

,
. , -
, , ,

.

,
(
20-30 . ), , ,
. 3-4 ,
, 60-80 . , -
, .
, -
25-
30 . .

34

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


100 ,
.
,
. ,
326 .
120-130 . , 10-12 % [72].
" " - -
. -
2001 . -
- W. J. Grain Ltd.
20 % ,
. (
260 . .) 85 %
, 15 %
[73].

.
-
. -
- , , .
20 . -
-
, ,
.
2002 .


2002-2010 . -


, . -

- 957,6 2002-
2010 ., 30,5 60 .
,
-
, 6- -
. -
, ,
,

35

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..

: ,
[74].


90- . 40 %
.
1992 . (, , ,
) 787,5 . 393 . 2002 . -
, , ,
7-9 , ..
. 2001 . ,
, 12 % [75].
. 4, 5.
2002 . 120,5 . ,
118 . [76]. 2001 .
,
.
2002 . 300 . , 10 % 2001 .
20 % ,


, , , -
[77].

80 12
10,7
10,6 10,2
70
10
65 9,3
8,8 63
60
8,1
7,2 7,2 8
50
6,2 6,4
73,7 73,2 68 75 49 48 50,2 62,2
40 6
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
(. ) (/)

36

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


800
787,5 777,2
700
598,5 607
600
500,9 488
500 448,1
393,6 363,6
400 420,3

300
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

(. )

. 4, 5.
( . - 2000. - 37. -
6 ; . - 44. - 24 )


- -
, -
. 2000 . 17
1 , 3
, 6 7 -
[78].
2002 . 108 . -
, 8 . 2001 . [76].
2002 .
20 . ,
13,8 . , 67,4 76,0 %
; -
109 (78,9 %) 79,5 (89,3 %), - 114,6
(74,9 %) 83,7 (82,6 %).
.
, , -
12,7 .
86,3 .

37

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..

17 % [79]. -
. 6.

110
109 98

97
90
80
84
70 65 63 69

62 57
50
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

. 6.
( . ; : . - 2000. - 37; . - 44)

17 -
( ) 25 , -
.
1999 .
"-" (8,7 . ), "-" (7,78 . ) "-"
(6,07 . ) [80].
-
(
) -
,
, , -
. 2001 .
880
(69 .), 196,8 (15,5 .)
[81].


, ,
:
38

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1950 . 31 %
( - 17 %,
- 10, - 4 %) [82]. 2001 .
82,0 . 579,5 . . 1991 ., -
, -
2,6 , - 2,4 ( 1991 .
304 1292 . ).
1990 .
.
80 , 63 -
17 .

,
. -
. -
(32 , 148
70 ) 2-3 -
[83]. 240 .
1 [84].

. 2002 . -
- 4,3 .
6,1 ., 99 % -
[85]. 2003 .
, ,
,
[86].
1998 .
451 10 " -
2002 .", -
( 5 - , 1,5 -
3 - ), 12-13 % , 50 % -
, 44 % - , 50 % -
[87].
,
, , -
, , -
, -
..
,

39

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..

.
, 2002 .
(. 3).

3

( )
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
0,7 0,6 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,4 0,4
:
0,4 0,4 0,3 0,3 0,3 0,3 0,3
1,0 1,0 0,8 0,9 0,7 0,4 0,4
1,4 1,4 1,2 1,1 1,0 0,9 0,9
14,7 13,4 13,4 12,1 12,6 13,0 14,1

-
. -
. 2001 . 12 -
125 . , 47 %
, 2000 .
"" ( 44 %), "" (59 %), (43 %)
(118 %) .
- "" -
90 % .
40-45 % -
. 50 %
. -

(-
, , .).
2000 .
6 . [88]. -
, - ,
, - .
, . ,
10 -
15 , - 14 [89].
22 -
, 9 82 % .

40

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-
-
- "". ,
,

,
-
, -
,
[90].


.
-
, 1994-1995 .,

. -
, 15 % . 1996 . -
-
: ,
.

,
6-8 % (16 %
28 % ) [91]. -
1999-2001 ., -
16 1999 ., -
.
1999 . 37,2 %,
1039,3 . ( 25,4 %, - 44,5 %).
,
, 45,1 % ( -
28,5 %) [92]. 1998 .
53 % [93], , 1999 .,
-
54,3 %, - 40,3 % [94].
2000 ., ,
,
41

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..

. 41,6 %
, ,
198,8 .
13,9 % (66,2 .) [95].
2002 .
434,3 ., 2001 .
66 . , 1,5 , ,
- 3 , - 6 .
,
, -

, . -
,
.
, (
) , -
2003 . . 2002 . -
212 .,
3,1 . , 2001 . [96].


. 1998 .
70-80 % [97]. 1991
1999 . 43 %, 55 . 31,4 . -
, 27 . 5,7 .
3,8 .
80 %, 3 -
1,3 . 110 .
, ,

10 . [98]. -

,
.
:
.

. -, ,

42

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. ,
-
.
, , .
60,
.
-, ,

(Massey Ferguson, John Deere .). 50 -
, , -
, .
-
. -
.
, , -
. 1999 . -
3 . .
- -25, 3,
.
50,5 %.
-
.
"" (-
, , ),
.
1996 .,
.
"" -
("", "", "-
" .) "",
. -
1997 1998 .
45 (10 .).
530 1,2 .
[99].
, .
, -
10 %,

. ""

43

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..

,
. - ,
-
.
-
.
, ,

. ,
- -
, , , .
( 50)
"" ""
100 . .
, -
, .
"" -
,
, . -
,
. 31 %
,
- 26, - 25, - 20 %, -
0,3 %. - -

[100].
2000 . - 2R ("
"), -

. -
, ,
,
, 2KR
. -

.
2002 . .
3,5 .,
21 "Massey Ferguson" 42
"Sampo". ,

44

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


2,3 ., -
21 "Landini Legend" 23 -
"Sampo". 2002 . -
2,5 . [101].

. -
-
,
.
UNEP
- ,
- - - . -
10-12 , 10 % -
2-3 .
. , -
, -
-
. 1993 ., 886 . , 25,8 % , -
, ,
310 . -
. 1995 .
( 1,43 ) [102]. 2000 . -
2 , -
436 . [103]. -
26 .
, -
: ,
, .
-
.
,
, , -
, .
, -
, -
. 140 . .
( 8,4 . ) .
24 . ,
0,5 - 1 . .

45

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..


(1970-1990 .) -
. 5-6
20 , -
- 30-50 . 8-110 / -
, - 200-220 /.
3 - 3,5 %,
40,6 %
2 %. ,
50 2 %
, .
2000 .
,
:
- ,
;
- -
, -
;
- ,
( 10-15 % ), ( 10-
20 . )
;
- " ", -
,
.

() .
(
, ),


. -
2000 . 24 . ( 1999 .
1,3 .) [119]. 9,6 % ,
(29 %),
86 % [104].

* *
*

46

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-
-
.
, , -
,
.

, -
, "-
", .

, .
-
,
( )
. -
, ,
-
.
,
2001 . " -
", , -
,
.
-

. ,
,
. , -
-
, 3/4 -
, -
,
- -
.
,
-
, -
, ..
,

47

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..

,
. ,
-
.
,
( 40 % -
). , -
, -
,
.
-
,
, ,
, . -
- -
. , -

.
-
.
-
. ,

, ,
.., - " ".
-

. 27
2001 . ,
-
( ), ,
, , . ,
,
-
.

.


. ,

48

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



.

. -
-

.

49

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..

1. . - 2001. - 1. - . 24.
2. . - 2002. - 30 .
3. // -
. -
2000. - . - . 88.
4. . - 2001. - 1. - . 5.
5. // -
. -
2000. - . - . 103.
6. -. - 2000. - 11 .
7. http://www.agro.md/index.agro?menu_id=2&action=viewNews&news_id
=582&start=60
8. . - 2000. - 2. - . - . 18.
9. . . : . -
: Litera, 1999. - . 213.
10. . - . 208.
11. Republic of Moldova: Strategy for Development // Center for Strategic
Studies and Reforms. - 1998. - . 123.
12. BASA-press. - 1998. - 3 .
13. . - 2000. - 23. - .
14. . - 2000. - 23 .
15. . - 2000. - 5. - .
16. . - 38. - 13 .
17. . - 43. - 17 .
18. . - 2000. - 18 .
19. BASA-press. - 2000. - 27 .
20. . - 2000. - 14 .
21. http://www.aif.md/index.asp?id=45
22. . - 2000. - 44. - 24 .
23. http://www.vedomosti.md/index.asp?doc=1_5&nom=456
24. http://www.profitclub.md/economics/agriculture/2002_07/02_01.shtml
25. http://www.ko.md/cgi/article.pl?id=892
26. . - 2000. - 43. - 26 .
27. . - 2000. - 21 .
28. . - 2000. - 21. - .
29. http://kafe.yaroslavl.ru/barmen/vino_moldavii.html
30. . - 1996. - 4. - . - . 44.
31. . - 1996. - 10 .
32. . - 1997. - 4 .

50

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


33. . - 2000. - 38. - 13 .


34. http://www.agro.md/index.agro?menu_id=2&action=viewNews&type=
agro&news_id=657
35. . - 2000. - 35. - 22 .
36. . - 1. - .
37. . - 2000. - 23 .
38. . - 2000. - 4. - .
39. . - 21. - .
40. . - 2001. - 2. - 19 .
41. . - 2000. - 9 .
42. http://www.moldexpo.md/new_ag_r.html
43. - 2000. - 1.- .
44. . - 39. - 19 .
45. . - 47. - 15 .
46. http://www.agro.md/index.agro?menu_id=2&action=viewNews&news_id=
521&start=120
47. . - 2000. - 21 .
48. http://www.agro.md/index.agro?menu_id=2&action=viewNews&news_id=
537&start=100
49. http://www.ko.md/cgi/article.pl?id=1781
50. . - 2000. - 26. - 21 .
51. http://www.agro.md/index.agro?menu_id=2&action=viewNews&news_id=
553&start=90
52. . . :
/ : . - : ,
1998. - 7. - . 37-38.
53. . - 2000. - 33. - 8 .
54. http://www.reporter.md/15.html
55. . - 2000. - 16 .
56. . - 21 .
57. . - 2000. - 39. - 19 .
58. http://win.www.roline.ru/sp/iet/eurasia/july98/ogl.rhtml;
http://www.agro.md/index.agro?menu_id=2&action=viewNews&news_id=615&sta
rt=30.
59. . - 2000. - 10. - .
60. . - 31. - 25 .
61. http://www.vedomosti.md/index.asp?doc=2_3&nom=361
62. . - 2003. - 18 .
63. http://www.vedomosti.md/index.asp?doc=8_1&nom=479
64. . - 2001. - 3. - 26 .
65. . - 2000. - 21 .
66. http://ko.md/cgi/article.pl?id=2025

51

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , ..

67. //
. - 2000. - 7. - . - . 114.
68. . - 1999. - 23 .
69. . - 2001. - 6. - 16 .
70. http://www.profitclub.md/consulting/readit/agriculture/2002_07/
20_01.shtml
71. http://www.agro.md/index.agro?menu_id=2&action=viewNews&news_id=
621&start=30
72. . - 2000. - 37. - 6 .
73. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=478&IssueDate=
23.08.2002&YearNum=30&Theme=8&Topic=8653
74. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=463&IssueDate=26.04.
2002&YearNum=15&Theme=10&Topic=7607
75. http://www.agro.md/index.agro?menu_id=2&action=viewNews&news_id=
511&start=130
76. http://www.ko.md/cgi/article.pl?id=1191
77. http://www.moldexpo.md/new_ag_r.html
78. . - 2000. - 29 .
79. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=479&IssueDate=
30.08.2002&YearNum=31&Theme=10&Topic=8736
80. . - 2000. - 21. - .
81. . - 2001. - 6. - 16 .
82. //
. - 2000. - 7. - . - . 114.
83. . - 2001. - 2. - 19 .
84. Reporter.mdhttp://www.reporter.md/m_business.html. 2001. 20
85. http://www.agro.md/index.agro?menu_id=2&action=viewNews&news_id=
614&start=40
86. http://www.agro.md/index.agro?menu_id=2&action=viewNews&news_id=
551&start=90
87. Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova. - 1998. - 62-65. - 9 . -
. 25-32.
88. . - 2000. - 23 .
89. . - 2000. - 48. - 22 .
90. http://www.vedomosti.md/index.asp?doc=2_2&nom=351
91. /
//
. - , 2000. - . 22-23
92. BASA-press. - 2000. - 21 .
93. . - 1999. - 5 .
94. . - 2000. - 21 .
95. . - 2001. - 3. - 26 .

52

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


96. http://www.agro.md/index.agro?menu_id=2&action=viewNews&news_id=
595&start=60
97. . - 2000. - 23 .
98. . - 2000. - 30. - 18 .
99. . - 12. - .
100. http://www.ko.md/cgi/article.pl?id=125
101. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=480&IssueDate=
06.09.2002&YearNum=32&Theme=3&
102. Republic of Moldova / Environmental Performance Reviews Series 3 //
Economic Commission for Europe. United Nations Publication. - New York &
Geneva, 1998. - . 109.
103. . - 2000. - 18. - .
104. Republic of Moldova / Environmental Performance Reviews Series 3 /
Economic Commission for Europe. United Nations Publication. - New York &
Geneva. - 1998. - . 73.

53

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


54

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



. .


- ( 1972 . -
56,4 % [1])1.

- ,
,
: , -
, , , --
.

- , , , -
.
- -


.
, -
, -
, -
.
, 60- .,
(,
_____________________

1
,
.
-
, Economic Trends 2001 . 2003 ., -
" ". -
()
().

55

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

, , ,
, ,
, .).

-
.
( "" "",
, "", "", "" .),
( , ,
), ( -
), - ( -
), ( , ,
, "" .), ( "",
), ( ).

: "", -
, ,
. , -
, , , .
(
- , ) -
(, , , , ).
-
, 11,2 % .
30 %
90 % . -
: -
- 70 %
. -
, , , -
,
[2].

-
.

56

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



1995-2003 .

() 90- .
.
, - , ,
, -
,
-
.

,
. 1991-2000 .
.

-
, , .

. 2 ,
1995 . (.1) [3, 4].
1995-2000 .
. 2. ( -
) 2000 . 100 % -
( 1997 .
).
1999 . 50 % 1993 .
37 % 1991 . [5]. -

. ,
6 ( 20,9 % 1991 .
3,6 % 1999 .), - 16 ( 3,3
0,2 %), - 4 ( 22,3 4,0 %).
1
- 38,2 50,3 % 2,8 27,2 %
(. 3) [6].
_____________________

1

. . . . " :
".

57

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

58

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


59

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

60

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, -
. , "", -
,
.
1998 .
"" ( - "-
" -
1996 .).
"", "", "", "", "", "", ""
"" . .
-
,
. "", , -
6 .
2000 .
, -
. 2002 .
(92,8 %) "" -
-
""1, 950 . . 2003 . -
,
-
, 4 , 20,4 (1,5 .).
, ""
, ,
, "" [7, 8].
""
"" "", "-
" (), "" (), "" ()
2 . .
,
.

"". 60 %
, , .
80 % , 18 %
. .
_____________________

1
"" - ,
,
.

61

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

2000 . 4 .
. 2001 . -

3,5 (273 . .) [9, 10].
"" -
.
-
. -
. ""
,
22
(1,7 .). 9 2001 .
"" 12 ( 930 . .).
, .
1,1 . [9].
,
-

(-
). , "" 60 . .
, -
- 315 . . -
.
"", "", .
, ,
"", " ",
10 , -
"". 1995 .
6 -
: "" ( ), "" (-
), "" ( ),
"" ( , , -
), "" ( ), ""
( ). -
"" ,
.

"" : -
. -
. 1996 . 706 ,

62

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1999 . - 42 ( : 80- .
11 . ).
"" ,
3 .
.
2003 . "" 476 ( - 520), -
. -
(302 ), (48)
(5). :

,
[11]. -
""1,
( "
") -
, .
,
1998 . 1999 . ( -
),
. 2000 .
10 7,7 % -
( ). -
,
1999 . ( , -
, 37 % 1991 .),
-
[3, 5]. 2001 2002 .
- 14,2 10,8 %
.
,
[12].


2003 .
16,2 (1,2 .), 13,6 % , 2002 .
-
: ,
_____________________

1
2003 . ""
"- ".

63

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

, , ,
,
, , ,
[12].

:
- ,
;
-
-
--
;
- -
;
- -
;
- , -
,
[13].
, 90- .
( 1998 .) 2000 . 9,4 %
1990 . "
". ,
2003 . 3621,7
(268,3 .) , 5 %
. , -
70 % . -

5 - 37,2% 1999 . 15 % 2003 . [14].
75 % (
2,76 ) , -
, -
.
(32 %), (25 %), -
(11 %), (10 %), .
2004 .
13 %, 2005 . - 11 %, 2006 . - 9 % [14].

64

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1995-2003 .

- -
,
1 . [15]. -
.
-
- -
, -
. 1993 .,
, 1990 . 34 % [16]. -
,
, -
- .

1995-1999 . (. 4) -
,
.
.
. 1995 .
37 % 1990 ., 1999 . - 29 % [17].
,
-
-
8 1997 .
-
, , , -
. (
36,6 %), -
(22 %), (13,7 %), -
(6,5 %) .1 (. 5) [17].
-
" " ()2. -
- -
, ,
. 1999-2001 .
_____________________

1
-
1999 .
2
2003 . "" 11,6 . -
200 .

65

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

,
, -
. , 1999 .
--
,
. 2001 .
, -
232 %, 3
( )1.

" "
Insteel
,
.
5 . [18].

4

* ( , % )
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
70,6 96,7 83,7 94,7 85,5
112,3 91,8 124,2 88,6 111,2
45,6 101,1 88,0 99,5 96,5
73,3 74,9 108,0 69,5 79,8
:
85,0 77,0 112,5 68,6 84,3
74,0 58,1 53,2 88,3 78,9

60,3 77,9 97,3 90,8 99,8

- 72,9 94,4 101,4 50,0 50,6

44,3 120,6 78,7 137,4 91,8
72,7 75,1 95,9 76,7 88,2
- 77,6 74,8 85,6 90,3 104,3
, 71,7 89,3 99,1 93,7 96,2

* . - , 2000.

_____________________

1
.

66

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


5
*
( , % )
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
14,4 15,6 13,2 13,9 13,7
27,4 28,2 35,3 32,9 36,6
0,1 0,1 0,1 2,0 1,9
13,2 11,1 12,1 8,3 6,5
:

9,7 8,3 9,5 5,5 4,7
1,4 0,9 0,5 0,5 0,4

5,7 5,0 4,9 4,7 4,8

- 0,6 0,6 0,6 0,3 0,2

14,8 20,0 15,9 22,7 22,3
14,9 12,5 12,1 9,9 8,8
- 4,8 4,0 3,5 3,3 3,6
2,7 2,0 1,8 1,5 1,2
* . - , 2000.

- :
, , . , -
1999 . "",
(). 17 -
: , "",
, -, -
. -
, -
, .
75 %. -
, , -
(40 %), , , , , ,
, [15].
"", "", "
" .
-
"", "" "" .
-
,
67

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

300 . - , ,
.

,
"", "-
", " ", "-
", "".
,
, -
, . -
- , ,
, , , .

"" ( -
), "
" ( ), "" (, -
, ).
, , .
"-
", .

20 , -
, -
. "" -

(, -
, ),
. -
, , ,
-9001.

, ,
( - ), -
(, ,
), -
(
).
, (, -
) .

68

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


- , ,
150 . , -
.
:
14 . [19]. 2003 .
18 , -
.
.
-
. -
-
. , ""
1993 . "
" (63 % ). "" -
- 1997 .
"" ( -
30 % ). -
"" [15].
-
. ,
"" - SwissItera - 89 %
"" 2,15 . 2003 .
1,7 .,
75 % -
[20, 21].


" ",
.
, , -
30 %,
(, ) . -
,

, , ,
, ,
,
.
, -

69

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

5 . , -

, [15].
, (
, )
. , -
" ".
1998 .
() "",
(75 %) . -
,
, -
. . ,
2000 . 40 %
, -
[22]. "" -
,
.
-
- , . 2004 .
- -
Hares Group, ""
. Hares Group -
. , -
, -
, .

.
6 2004 . 520 . -
408 . .
-
1,05 . ,
2004 . [23].
Infotag, ,
,
387,8 .
353 . 2002 . 30,6 %. 27
66 .
"" 17,3 %. "" - 25,8 %, - 70 %.
"" - 2,5 [24].

70

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-
-
, - -

. , ( 1 2001 .)
( )

" ". , -
,
1.

. , " "
" - -
".
7 2001 . -
500 . . -
1,8 .
" ", 95 %
, "", "",
"".
,
90 . ., - 330 . [25].
, -
, -
.
, -
, -
, 2004 .

, , -
. -

2003 . ( -
) 14
10,2 .
100 [26].
_____________________

1
. , - 2001 .
381 . (571 .
), - 723 159 . .

71

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

, materik.ru,

(40 % ). 350 -
, 200 - - -
. ,
, -
[27].

-
,
. -
. 77 % -
, , , [28].
-
, -
, . -
. 6 -1 -2
, , ,
( ),
( -
), . -
2998 .

6
*

()
-1 () 1958-1961 46
-2 () 1976 240
() 1958-1960 28
1954-1980 2520
() 1954 48
() 1978 16
100
2998

* . - 2000. - 29. - . 13.

72

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



.

,
. -
, -
, , -
.
10-20 %
(
). -
- 80- .
200 .
15-20 % : 12
2. , ,
. ,
,
-
, . ,
, -
. ,
100-120 . [29].


. , , , -
, ,
.
3,25 , , -
"" . , - 2,9 1.
-

- 15 % ( 1999 .) 40 %
[30, 31]. -

. -
.
_____________________

1
, -
3,32 .

73

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

-
32 . 2001 .
10- --

( )
.
. ,
,
, , ,

[32].
1997 . -
,
: (1) , (2) -
(3) ,
-
. -
, -
(ARIA),

. -


(ANRE). -
, -
, -

.

() "" 16 -
, 3 5 -
.
, "", 2000 .
"",
- -

,
.
-
.

74

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



.
,

2000 . Union Fenosa.
, 7 -
6
. -
25 .
75 . [33]. -
, Union Fenosa 7 2000 . (
- ) 31 2001 .
78,8 . [34].
- -
1999 . -
Union Fenosa,
. 2000 .

,
(10,65 ., -
- 39 .). ,
2000 . , (
7 .) [21],
. 2001 .
-
, ,
Union Fenosa, ""
[35, 36].
2001 .
-
" ,
"1. -
.
, , -
,
- "-
",
10 . [37].
_____________________

1
.

75

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

-
( 4
11,9 .) ,
-
. -

, -
. Credit Comercial de France
(CCF)
5-8 25 - 42,5 .
1,6 - 3,9 . [38].
CCF, -
- -
, -

.
-
.
"-
",
1.
-
.
(75 % + 1 ), 2003 .,
-
-
" " (
" ").
,
" "
-
, -
. , -

" "
.

, "".
_____________________

1
1 2003 . "" .

76

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


" " ,

.
" "
,
-
,
190 ( 15 .). ,
,
" ",
-
[39].
" "
100 %
. --

. 2000 .
,
.
-
2003 .
" " "".

.
- -
"Saint Gidon Invest", 29 . -
26,5 -
160 . ( 60 % ,
). "" "",
, . ,
-
[40, 41].
""
,
.
,
,
80-95 % [42]. ,
2,5 3 . [43]. -

77

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

- "".
"" 1994 .

80 . 1 . . ( ),
, .

-
,
, ,
.
,
"-", 1997 .
140 ., ""
1. , -
. 1999 .
- "-", 50 % "-
" " " . -
60 ., 47 .
, 13 . - (36 14 % -
) [44].
1999 ., -
,
1
1999 . 592 . 1999 . ,
,
"" 1,1 . 2000 . -
90 .
"" 7 ,
[44].
"" 2000 .
, ,
. , -
( 2000 .
). -
2001 . . , "",
.

_____________________

1
"" .
. 35 .

78

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


" 1
,
- "-".
, , -
,
, .
2 ,
, ,
. -

"-",
, -
, .
"" , -
-

( 74 % ) [45].

70 % ( 80 % 2000 .) -
"" . ,
2001 . [46].
"" 1 2003 . -
1,19 .3, [47].

, -
. , ,
,
. ,
, "",
. , ANRE, -
"" [48].
-
2001 .
, ,
"" - 80 .
_____________________

1
( ) 1 2001 .
267 .
2
2000 . ,
.
3
890 .

79

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

1 . . . :
- 60 . 1 . . ,
- 3 ,
7 % . , -
90- . -
: 11 5,75 %
2 [43].

.

1/5 .
1 . . 100 -
2,5 .

[49].
"" . ,
50 . 1 . . .
""
2,5 1,5 . 1 . . 100
( - ).
-
2004 ., ""
"-" -
1
( ,
).
100 %- ,
6 2004 . 20 .
( 519 .),
436 .
,
"",
: 2 3 -
-
.
.
, Saint Gidon Invest,
,
, 2001 . Fenosa,
10 / 5 .

80

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



[41].
90- .
( , ) -
"". :
400 . 1997 . 600 2000 .
"-" 2001 . ""
800 . . [50].
""
"" . 1
2002 . "-" -
"" ( 60-65 .
1 . . ), "". -
"-" , -
2002 . "" "-
"
.
, "", ,
.

,
(
).
(90 %)
"-",
1 ( 77,7 . .).
Tirex-
Petrol, 82 % Mabanaft.
, Tirex-Petrol
350 . ( 27 . .) [51].
"-" "-
" 1995 . , 1999 .
.
2001 . 140 . -
, -
180 (
14 .). 2003 . "-"
210 . , 28,8 % 2002 . [52, 53, 54].
62
, 4 50 . . .

81

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

, , -
. ""
1996-2000 . 45 .
,

,
"".
(
) 40-60 . [52].
""
,
- ,
. ,
.
90- .
Tirex-Petrol. 2000 . -
1
Mabanaft 500 . . Mabanaft,
Marquard & Bahls 15 , -
1996 . 1996-2000 .
200 . [55].
, , Tirex-Petrol.
Tirex-Petrol,
. ,
.
10 %
Tirex-Petrol.
2 % [55]. 2001 . Tirex-Petrol
1- , 2- (
"") - . -
9 . 3 . .
,
,
. ,
.
_____________________

1
Mabanaft 7,5 . ,
,

Tirex-Petrol Petrom
.

82

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


Tirex-Petrol 40 -
() ,
.
, 5 Mabanaft -
5 .
[55].
Mabanaft ,
(
2- ).
Tirex-Petrol "-"
2001 . 150 ( -
, 116 ) [56].

.
Mabanaft, 70 % ,
. "-
" . ,
500 ( 39 .) [51, 57].
2001 . -
" ",
" -
",
, .

(ANRE).
-
,
. -
, -
1 ., -

10 . . .
-
.

:
2 . -
25 . . .

83

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

15 -
1, 25 . .
, Tirex-Petrol "-
". ,
, -
, 1-2 -
" ".

. ,
25 5 . . (
,
),
- 2 750 . . [58].
,
, - -
.
, ,
:
-, -
; --
,
.
,
.
, .
,
,
. " -
- XXI", -
1990-1999 . 2,5 .
: ,
, 19 , - 5,2 [59].
-
. -

, , -
,
- .
_____________________

1
2 . - 4-5 .

84

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



-
, "",
-
,
,
.

* *
*
XXI . -
,
-
. ,
1999 .: 90- .
,
.
, -
, , -
-
.
. ,
2000 . 85 % 1999 ., 2001 . -
2 %
[60]. -
5 37,2 % 1999 .
15 % 2003 .
( )
-
.


.

85

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

1. . - , 1974. - . 432.
2. . . . . - , 2000.
3. http://men/dnt/intex_ru.html
4. Moldovan Economic Trends. - 2001. - Q1.
5. -
. - , 2000. - . 19.
6. National Strategy Sustainable Development. Republic of Moldova. - 2000. -
P. 51.
7. http//logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=5458&Issue.Date=16.01.
2004&YearNum=1&Theme=59&Topic=12597
8. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=504&Issue.Date=01.03.
2003&YearNum=16&Theme=-1&Topic=10783
9. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=439&IssueDate=26.10.
2001&YearNum=39&Theme=7&Topic=5871
10. . - 2000. - 39. - . 15.
11. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=558&IssueDate=16.04.
2004&YearNum=14&Theme=7&Topic=13332
12. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=546&IssueDate=23.01.
2004&YearNum=2&Theme=7&Topic=12657
13. - / -
2001-2005 . - , 2001. -
.
14. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=564&IssueDate=28.05.
2004&YearNum=20&Theme=2&Topic=13703
15. http://www.ministriprom.boom.ru/PG/PROMPOTPMR.html
16. . . :
/ . -
. . . . - , 2000. - . 84.
17. . - , 2000. -
. 96.
18. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=430&IssueDate=24.08.
2001&YearNum=30&Theme=7&Topic=5193
19. http://www. infomarket.md/print/news/15243
20. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=563&IssueDate=21.05.
2004&YearNum=19&Theme=7&Topic=13655
21. http://www.infomarket.md/viewdoc.asp?id=1035&updir=294
22. . - 2000. - 26. - . 15.
23. http://www.allmoldova.com.intex.php?action=newsblock&id=0&id=10898
16313&lang=

86

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


24. http://www.allmoldova.com.intex.php?action=newsblock&id=1073308269
&lang=
25. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=433&IssueDate=14.09.
2001&YearNum=33&Theme=4&Topic=5436
26. http://www.allmoldova.com.
27. http://www.eurasia.ru/magarticle.php?id=291
28. http://logos.press/md
29. . - 2000. - 23 . - . 3.
30. . - 1999. - 32. - . 2.
31. . - 2000. - 29. - . 17.
32. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=425&IssueDate=20.07.
2001&YearNum=25&Theme=4&Topic=4769
33. . - 2000. - 40. - . 6.
34. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=423&IssueDate=22.06.
2001&YearNum=23&Theme=7&Topic=4646
35. http://www.km.riscom.net/in_energ.html
36. http://www.InfoMarket.MD
37. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=431&YearNum=31&Iss
ueDate=31.08.2001&Theme=-1&Topic=0
38. http://www.infomarket.md/ viewdoc.asp?id=959&updir=294
39. http://www.infomarket.md/ viewdoc.asp?id=12712&updir=294
40. http://www.allmoldova.com.intex.php?action=newsblock&id=1073039885
&lang=
41. http://www.azi.md/news?id=29861
42. . - 1998. - 24. - . 5.
43. http://www.infomarket.md/viewdoc.asp?id=834&updir=294
44. http://www.infomarket.md
45. http://www.km.riscom.net
46. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=428&YearNum=28&Iss
ueDate=10.08.2001&Theme=-1&Topic=0
47. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=504&IssueData=07.03.
2003&YearNum=8&Theme=-1&Topic=10303
48. . - 2000. - 10. - . 3.
49. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=420&IssueDate=01.06.
2001&YearNum=20&Theme=7&Topic=4426
50. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=434&IssueDate=21.09.
2001&YearNum=34&Theme=4&Topic=5503
51. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=423&IssueDate=22.06.
2001&YearNum=23&Theme=4&Topic=4633
52. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=431&IssueDate=31.08.
2001&YearNum=31&Theme=7&Topic=5285

87

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

53. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=430&IssueDate=24.08.
2001&YearNum=30&Theme=4&Topic=5180
54. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=549&IssueDate=13.02.
2004&YearNum=5&Theme=4&Topic=12838
55. http://www.infomarket.md/menu/frmeenerg.html
56. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=436&YearNum=36&Iss
ueDate=05.10.2001&Theme=-1&Topic=0
57. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=430&IssueDate=24.08.
2001&YearNum=30&Theme=4&Topic=5179
58. http://logos.press.md/Weekly/Main.asp?IssueNum=450&IssueDate=25.01.
2002&YearNum=2&Theme=2&Topic=6618
59. http://www.interlic.md
60. ., . -
2001 . // . - 2002. - 3. - . 124-137.

88

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



. .


1991 .,
.
(),

, -
, -
. - , -
- -
,
.
, -
, "
" " ", 21
1995 . , -
1992 . -

.
" "
, ,
, ,
[1].
, -
.
-
.
:

89

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

-
;
- ;
-
;
- ,
, -
;
- ;
-
;
-
;
- ;
- ;
-
, -
.
-

. -
, -
,
-
.
,
.
,
2002 .
100 (7,1 .).

,
" ".
20 % ,
2003 . 200 (14,2 ).

, (
), - 3 -
(
) - 7 .

90

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



,
. -
:
;
,
. -

.
. 5 " "
,
.
-
.
, -
,
. 13 (. 1).
, , , ,
, , -
-
. 1993 .
- .
. VIII ,
1995 .,
.
" "
, 1996 1998 . -
[2].
, , -
-
. ,

.
-
. -
, -
, ,
, , -
.

91

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

1
-
( )*
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004**
( ) 16019,6 19051,5 22555,9 27296,9 27700-
30600
( .) 222,64 228,53 268,86 302,27 258
1 ( ) 1945,7 2488,9 3262,7 3818,9 4701,1
, ( ) 3509,6 4787,4 6511,5 8509,2 -
( ) 2291,2 3101,3 4165,7 6123,9 8695,9
( ) 2042,0 2952,8 4222,7 5767,8 -
4,55 3,98 3,46 3,21 -
28,4 27,6 30,6 33,8 -
(%)

18,4 6,3 4,4 15,7 8-10
31,0 9,6 5,2 11,6 -
(/.)
12,4334 12,8668 13,5730 13,9426 15,2
12,3833 13,0909 13,8220 13,2200 -

* (http://www.bnm.org).
** - 2004 .


, -
: -
; , -
; ,
; -
; .
,
.

,
.
____________
1
- :
1 - -
,
2 - 1 ,
3 - 2 .

92

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-
10 % ,
.
,
, ,
. , , -

25 %
.
20 %.
50 %
.
.
,
,
().
.
,
. B,
, -
.
,
,
. -
.
, 1 2000 .
24/48/72
, 31 2000 . - 32/64/96
(2,5/5/7,5 .). 2003 .
: 30 2004 . -
40 , 30 2005 . - 45 , 31
2005 . - 50 .
2004 . 120 , 2005 . -
150 , B, ,
80 100 .

.
1 2004 . -
16 .
. :

93

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

1. - Moldova-Agroindbank,
, Victoriabank, Banca de Economii, Moldindconbank, Banca
Sociala. - 100 .
2. - Mobiasbank, Fincombank, Eximbank,
Energbank, Universalbank, Unibank, Businessbank.
200 600 (14-43 .).
3. - Comertbank, BCR-Chisinau, Invest-
privatbank, EuroCreditBank - 200 (
14 .).

. 2.
.

2

(
31 )*

2001 2002 2003


51,3 53,2 63,0
14,0 23,5 19,0
34,7 23,3 18,0
* 2002 2003 . (www.nbm.org).

1 1998 .

, 1996 . - , -
SWIFT.
-
: 5 (Agroindbank, Victotiabank, Banca Sociala,
Moldindconbank Banca de Economii) 71 %
(. 3).
.
23 (1998 .) 16,

. ,
, .

. - Agroindbank -
2004 . 154 .

94

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


- 524 .,
105 . [3].

3
( )*

2002 2003 2002 2003 2002 2003
Moldova-Agroind- 1714,6 2146,3 1161,4 1453,5 1005,0 1418,1
Agroindbank
Banca de Economii 1077,5 1591,7 862,4 1313,1 411,5 833,9
Victoriabank 1153,7 1487,2 788,7 1074,1 602,0 810,5
Moldindconbank 856,8 1071,9 510,5 654,6 547,6 694,9
Banca Sociale 841,0 989,5 566,9 687,9 512,9 621,1
5
( %) 71,0 70,81 76,0 76,5 72,2 71,5
* 31 , http://logos.press.md.

-
, -
. 16 -
-
2 - BCR-
Chisinau Unibank. 3
. Eximbank,
Businessbank Comertbank. 4
- Victoriabank, Mobiasbank,
Energbank EuroCreditBank.
59,8 %
2002 . 60,2 % 2003 .
, ,
, , , , ,
, [4].
"".

.

, -
.
, ,
,

95

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

.

.

,
.
2004 . 40 % (. 4). -

100 % , - 50
70 %.
: 22 % ,
, ,
25 %.
4

( )*
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

3201,3 4667,7 5993,5 7920,1 10290,0
. 276,2 376,9 457,8 586,7 740,3
(%) 26,0 29,2 31,5 35,1 37,7

1597,6 2292,7 3154,8 4265,6 6123,9
. 137,8 185,1 241,0 315,9 440,6
(%) 13,0 14,3 16,6 18,9 22,4

1587,7 2488,9 3443,8 5117,9 6866,0
. 137,0 201,0 263,1 379,1 493,9
(%) 12,9 15,6 18,1 22,7 25,1

925,3 1429,0 1664,3 1820,8 2169,3
. 79,8 115,4 127,1 134,9 156,1
7,5 8,9 8,75 8,1 7,9
(%)
* .
.

2003 . 29,9 %.

(56,2 % 2003 .). ,

96

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


2003 . "" 7,6 %


6,2 % .
,
2003 ., 43,6 % 35,1 % .
- 45,6 %
,
- 28,8 %.
2002-2003 . ,
42 %.
- 95 % .
, , , -

80 % .
. -
,
1998 1999 ., -
60 % -
. 2000-2002 .
. , 2000 . -
50,2 48,8 %,
( - 43,6 %)
(
- 52,1 %). 2001 . ,
44,8 %, -
(
32,9 %) (
56,0 %). 2002 . -
- 43,7%, "
2002 ."
37 % [5]. 2003 . -

- 45,9 %.

( 40,8 % 2000 .
66,2 % 2004 .). , ,
,
,
-

. 2003 .

97

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

1 2004 .
" "
( 1682-III 13 2004 .) [6].
-
16
1 % .
0,25 % . -
-
, .
4,5 . (378 .). ,
-
, -
( 90 %
4,5-4,7 . ). -
4,5 . , -
2 . .
,
-
. 6 -
: ,
. .


.

-
. 1994 .
" -
" .

,
.
1 4 ,
. -
,
,
2003 ., . 5.
, ,
.
, "2"

98

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


,
,

. "3"

,

, -
.

5

( 2002 .)*

(2000)

(2001)
( - 16 25 46 34 152 1329
) (10) (5) (4) (6) (16) (37)
-
(%) 13,4 0 62,0 77,5 11,8 -
( % -
) 7,6 7,9 19,7 0 - 11,4
-
** (% ) 18,7 7,7 - - 11,9 17,3

(% ) 24,9 2,9 - 1 7,5 36,5
2+ 2+ 2+ 2- 2+ 2
-
2 2- 2- 2 2 3-
* http://www.ebrd.com. - Transition Report 2003.
** , -
.


. ,
"2" ,
,
/ ,

99

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

-
. "3"
, -
, -
, -
(
, , -
) .
,
"2+" -
.
, , , , .

( "3").
, ,

. , "4", -
"4-", , , , - "3+".
,

.
"2" - (
"1"). ,
("3" - , , ; "4-" - , ).
, , ,
, .
-
. ,
- -
,
, , -
.
-
.
.


() 1994 .,
1995 .

100

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


,
.



. ,
, -
.

.

,
1998 .
. -
. ,
, "
", 1998 .
, ,

.


-
7 730 . 1995 . -
(91 ) . 1 2003 .
1108,5 ( 80 .)
. 1 2004 .
1296,2 ( 98 .) ,
16,9 % ( ), .

. 29,15 %
1998 . 5,75 % 2002 ., 2003 .
15,1 % [7].
-
2003 . 2,92 (220,9 .),
3,5 % , 2002 . [8].
2003 . -
. ,
6,8 , 19 % , . ,

101

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

, ,
2003 . 25 %.
.
825,8 ( 62,5 .), 11,8 % ,
2002 . (. 6). 2003 .
:
90,1 %, 28,9 %.

6
*


( ) () ( )
1995 2, 22 0,49 -
1996 11,47 2,47 16,07
1997 178,06 38,13 117,11
1998 437,52 52,59 236,33
1999 371,07 36,03 342,20
2000 288,50 22,42 694,00
2001 275,60 21,41 278,43
2002 252,61 18,28 486,00
2003 480,30 36,30 345,5
* Moldova Economic Trends. 2001. - Q2; 2003. - Q1; . -
2004. - 17.

,

.

. ,
2003 .
50,3 (3,8 .),
- 635,4 (48 .), .. 80 %
[9].
,
, ,
.
1 2000 . -
CNYM-32

102

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, Dow Jones.

.
32 . -

, 57,5 % , ,
, 19,4 % -
, 15,8 % - 7,2 % -
. ,
,
,
.
2000 . , -
.
,
, , 2003 .
, -
.

. 2003 . 14 -
, 5 .
18 .

. 2002-2003 .
79 6 . , -
-

.
.

.
, -
. , -
-
.
,
.
- -
, , -
,

103

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .


. ,
, :
,
;
( );

IOSCO;
.


,
.
,

.
2003 .
1440,09 ., 6 % (. 7).
() (
)
, 79 % 1997 . 70,1 %
2003 . -
: -
,
. 2004 .
(29,9 %).

48,1 % . ,

- 52,7 % ,
20,5 %. .
(, , )
2003 . 28,2 % ,
(13,6 %) , , 10 %
.
,
48,4 % 29,2 %
.
104

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


,
, 1996 .,
,

,
. 1996 . -

, - -
.
, 90- . -

.
2004 .
1987,67 .
.
, , ,
, , -
, .
2004 .
77 ., 22 % .
2004 . "" , -
-
,
111,46 , 11,3 % [10].

. ,
2001 . ,

2002 . .

. -

. -
-
2001 ., 2002 .
30 .
30 . .

, 2001 .

105

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .


.
, Fitch IBCA
2001 . -
"-" "+", "+" "", -
.
2002 .,
,
- "DD", -
.
, Moody's,
2001 .
"1", - "2",

.
, 2002 .,
, -
. ,

. , ,
.
Moody's, 2001 .
6,1 %,
, 3,5 %. ,
-
2001 .
75 .
2002 ., . -

2002 .

. -


.
,

. -
,
.

106

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


107

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

, Fitch Ratings 2003 . -


"DD" "-",
- "" "". -
,
- -

.
"Moody's" 2003 .
-
"a" "Caa1",
- "aa3" "Caa2". -
-
,
, -
( ). -
,

, . -
,
,
.
, ,
Moody's , 2003 .,
,
,
,
. , ,
, -

.
-
.
,

.
-
,
60 % .
2000 . 97,4 %, 2001 . - 84,7, 2002 . - 81,9, 2003 . -
73,6 %, . ,

108

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



, ,
. -

: 348 . 2000 . 400 2003 .
,
-


.
-

-,
2002 .
("low income seven"),
.
, , , -
,
,
, , .
, -

, 60 %
23 .
-
.
-
-
.
, ,

.
,
, .
, -

,
.

109

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

.
1992 .
366,8 .
. -
,
:
- "Stand-by (2)" 160,8 . -
;
- "Compensatory and Contingency Financing Facility"
31,2 . 1992 .
( 1993-1994 .);
- "Systemic Transformation Facility" 45
SDR -
;
- "Extended Fund Facility" 135 SDR
1995-1998 . .
, 2000 .

("Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility").
2000 .
, ,
. . -
-
, 2000 . ,
,
24 . 142
.
2001 . -
.
: 2002 .

.
. ,

37 ., 26 %.

110

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



(), , -
, -
.

(2004-2006 .) -
.
. , -
3
8-10 % ( - 5 %).
- ,
,
, ,
, .
-
, -
, -
( ,
).
50 %
.
,
.
,

,
, . ,
,
( ) "" 45 ,
.
-
, ,
, ,
, , -
.
.

-
. -
,

111

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

, -. ,

, . ,
2003 . 360 650 ., 2004 .
1 . [11].
,
. , -

-
.
, ,

. ,
,
,
, - , -
, .
,
.

.
- -
.
-
1992 . ,
,
. -

,
, , -
, . -
53 , 29
567 . ( 313 ) [12].
, ,
. ,
, , -
1999-2003 . , . -
- ,
.

112

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



.
(2004-2008 .), ,
2004 . -
.

. ,

150 . .

.
, -
-
,
. -


.
1 1998 .
.
,

.
-
.
6 - Agroindbank, Victoriabank,
Fincombank, Universalbank, Mobiasbank Banca Sociale.

, 1992 2003 .
166,2 29 .
-
, , -
[13].
2004 .
- , ,
, , , .


"" . ,
,

113

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

,
.

,
.
, -
. , -
,
. , -
.
- ,
.
,
- .

50 .

.
- -
. 1995 . Victo-
riabank, 2001 . 10 % Moldova-
Agroindbank.
- -

. ,
Victoriabank, Moldova-Agroindbank Moldindconbank.
- .
Victoriabank, Moldova-Agroindbank,
Mobiasbank Universalbank. ,
-
- Micro Enterprise Credit (MEC
Moldova, 2004 . ProCredit),
. -

.
, ,
- -
, -
. -
,

114

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



, .

,
-
.
,

,
,
. :

,
, -
.
Victoriabank 6 .,
,
.
- , -
.
.

, -
.

( ), -
,
, -
,
(, -
, ). -
,
. ,
, "
" [14].

.
2003 . 21,5 .
30 . ,
2004-2006 . 40 .

115

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .


:
- ,
;
- , -
;
- .
(IFC) -
, 1995 . -
. IFC
67 .
25 . - [15] ( ,
, , , -
, ). , IFC
Voxtel, -
Moldindconbak, Fincombank Victoriabank.
-.
-
, 1993 . , 2003 .

29,4 .
-

, , , -
. 4,5 . -
(5,5 .),
(3,4 .), (3 .) .
,
, 2003 . 3 . 80,85 .
, 2004 .
85 . [16].
- ,
-
-
. -
, ,
, -
-
, ,
.

116

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, ,
, ,

-

.
,
-
.

-

- - ,
, -
.

, -
.
14 -

.
-
.
1992 .
" -
"
().
.
-
,

. -
, -
, -
, -
, ,
, -
. :
,

117

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

,
,
,
.

.
:
,
, ;
; -
,
;
, ;
;
( ) .
15 :
,
6 ;
,
--
; -
, -
.

.
-

- .
-

1961-1992 . . , 1994 .,
-
. -
,
-
.
, -
.
2000 . " -
"

118

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


(1994 .,
1996 ., 1997 .)
. -
: 1 1
2000 .
, 1 2001 . (
) 15,8 . (55,6 %
, ), 1994-1997 . -
12,6 . (44,4 %) [17].
- 2004 .
, -
,
,
,
,
.
- -
()
. 8.

. ,
90- .,
2000 .

.

. -
-
. -


. -

.
-
, . -
,
-
.
.

119

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

- *



01.01.03.


2002 .

2003 .

2004 .
01.01.04.

( .) 1800,0-1900,0 1601,5 1900,0 2196,6 2250,0
(%) 20,0-25,0 10,6 12 32,6 12,0
5,9-6,7 6,35 6,7-7,7 7,2 7,7-
(. /. ) 8,65
(%) - 12,7 14,9 12,8 12,3
200,0-220,0 237,5 320,0 354,1 440,0
( .)
- - 27,8 26,5 26,5 30,0
3 (%)
7,0-8,0 20,0 18,0
(%)
- 23,0-24,0 16 18,0
(%)

* - 2002 .;
- 2003 .; -
2004 .; . - 2003. - 52; 2004. - 57, 58
(www.cbpmr.net).

1 2003 .
1176,7 ., 456,3 %
[18]. 1998 . -
90 %,
2003 . 400 %,
.
-
.
-
,
.
, , ,
.
.

120

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


2003 .
1202,7 .
.
1 2003 . 67 %
.
3,2 % .
.

1905,8 ., 4
[19].
-
" ",
1993 . ( , 2002 .).
, -
, -
, -
.

: ;
- ; -
(, , , );
, ; (-
) .
, ,
.
,
. -
,
, . -

-
.
-
.
.
" -
" - ,
.
. -
,

121

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

.
-
,

. - 3 . .
- .
-
, -
. ,
. -
, .
. -
, 1 2004 .
10 , 1 , 4
1 - (
Moldindconbank). -
( -
) 79,4 .,
2003 . 28,7 34,4 %.
, ( 4 -
67 % ),
2003 . 47,2 %
42,9 % [20].
,
, ,
:
2004 . 11,3 % ,
- 40,8 %, - 22,4 % (. 9).
: 2004 . -
120 .,
- 33 ., -
Agro-
indbank.
, , , -
, , , -
,
. -
. , , 1 2002 .
68 % 3
[21].

122

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


9

( 1 )*
2002 2003 2004

. 198,0 206,8 248,8
. 33,6 31,1 33,2
(%) 13,5 13,0 11,3

. 430,2 514,9 897,5
. 72,9 77,4 119,6
(%) 29,4 32,4 40,8

. 196,2 297,1 491,6
. 33,3 42,7 65,5
(%) 13,4 18,7 22,4

. 139,6 84,5 135,1
. 23,7 12,7 18,0
(%) 9,5 5,3 6,2
* . - 2002 - 33; 2004. - 58.

()

- .
( 90 %).
, -
, , -
, -
,
.
2003 .
: -
65,5 %. , , -
-
(..
).
-
, 8,2 % 2002 . 5,7 % 2003 .
2003 . -
, .

123

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

60 %. 90 % .

- 78 %. -
(93,4 %).


, -
, -

. 2003 . -
-

30 .
. ,

, - , -
.
, -
, -
-
. 2003 .

( 13,3 10,5 .), .
-
. -
-
. -
.

. -
. , , 2003 .
54,1 . [22].
, -
:
- , -
;
- "" -
-
;
- ,
124

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



.

-
. -
, ,
, ,

. -
-
.
- -
"" , . .
,
.
, .

- , -
-
.

2003 . -
, ,
,
.
- -
,
.
-
,
,
.
-

-
.


1995 . " -
-

125

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

". ,

-
, ,
.
, -

, . -
-
, ,
.
,
.

, ,
,
- -
. ( - ),

:

. -
.
,
- -
,

.
, -
- -
- . -

, ,

.
.

, ,
-
.

126

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1. " " 548-XIII 21.07.95.


2. " " 550-XIII 21.07.95 -
815-XIII 24.04.96.
3. www.infomarket.md.
4. Annual Report 2003 (http:// www.bnm.org).
5. Monetary and Foreign Exchange Policy of the National Bank of Moldova for
2002 (http://www.bnm.org).
6. Http://logos.press.md. - 2004. - 9.
7. Http://www.infomarket.md.
8. Macroeconomic Indicators (http://www.bnm.org).
9. . - 2004. - 17 (www.ko.md).
10. Http:// www.interlic.md. - 2004. - 30 .
11. Http://www.infomarket.md. - 2004. - 4 ; 10 ; http://www.inter
lic.md. - 2004. - 12 .
12. Http://logos.press.md. - 2004. - 2.
13. Http:// www.interlic.md. - 2004. - 23 .
14. Http:// www.interlic.md. - 2004. - 10 .
15. Http:// www.interlic.md. - 2004. - 2 .
16. Http://logos.press.md. - 2004. - 10.
17. . - 2001. - 7-8.
18. (www.cisr-md.org. - 2003. -
).
19. . - 2003. - 53.
20. . - 2004. - 58.
21. . - 2002. - 43.
22. . - 2003. - 49.

127

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


128

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


II.

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .


()
- .
,
-
.
" , - -
. , -
,
-
, -
. ""
, , -
, -
. , -
,
" [1].
-
,
.

, , -
, -
-
.

, -
, .

131

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

, "-" . ""
, "
( ) ,
" [2].

, ,
.
-

.
-
.
,
.
-
. ,
-
, , . -
-
( ?)
.

-

,
() . 1994 . -
,
, -
, ,
. , 40 ,
,
[3].
,
, , -
-
, ,

132

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, -
- , -
. . -
, . ,
,
.
, -
,
[4].


, -
(
). -
(, ,
, ).
1987 . 427,1 . (47,5 % -
), (164,3 . ). -

,
[5].

( -
), , -
, , ,
.
-
.
, -

,
.
-
, , ,
.
, -
.
,
, , -
,

133

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

. 90- .
,
. 1991-1997 .
65 %, -
- 60, - 43 % [6].

. ,
,
, ,
, . -
2000 . -
, -
. -

() -
, . , 1999 .
90 . ,
-
, 2001 . , ,
,
[7].
-
.
2000 . " -
" (1990 .) " -
" (1992 .)
90- .
.
-
2000 . "
", -
, -
.
,
. ,

, , , -
. ,

.

134

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

-
. , ,
. -
-
, -
. "
" ( VWD), -
, ,
,
, -
,
, .
[8].

-
, 70 -
-
,
( 19 - ). 24
,
11 - [9].

10-12 , , 90- . -
. , 1994 .,
- ,
. 1.
, 1995-1997 . -
: 18,2 %,
39,2 %. 1999 . -
1995 . -
, -
,
, -
.

, -
, , ,
. , 2002 . 2001 .

135

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

13 %, - 16 %; 2003 . ( 2002 .) -
23 %, - 35 %. 2001-2003 . -

, -
( 2003 . 2001 .)
1,8 .

1

1996-2003 . ( .)*
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
- 1867 2045 1656 1032 1249 1467 1682,5 2193

:
795 874 632 462 472 570 643,9 790,3
1072 1171 1024 573 777 896 1038,6 1402,7
- 277 - 297 - 392 - 111 - 305 - 326 - 394,7 -612,4
*
. - 2002. - 4. - . 69; 2000. - 17. - . 10-11;
2001. - 20. - . 36, 39, 96-97; 2003. - 12. - . 72, 75; 2004. - 3. - . 17, 20.
International Financial Statistics // IMF. - 2001. - February. - P. 576.

1992-2003 .
. , 1992 . -
49 , 2003 . 100.
- -
, .
, , ,

,
. , 1991 .
97 %, - 87 %, 2003 . -
53,6 42,3 %. 1995-
2003 . - 38,9-39 %,
48,9 13,3 % [10].
1998-1999 .

(. 1, 2). , ,
2000-2002 . -
[11].

136

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


2002 . 350,5
. (101,2 % 2001 .), -
409,4 . (120 %).
2002 . 293,4 ., -
629 . ,
66 % . ,
1999-2001 . -
( 11,5, 16,3 6,4 .),
- (2000 . - 321,2; 2001 . - 332,9
.). 2003 .
72,8 %, - 13,3 %,
31,7 52,1 % [12].

43
39,9 39,3

38
33,6

27,5 27,3 27 27,8 26,4


28
22,5
21
19

18
1998 1999 2000 2002

. 1. ( % , :
. - 2002. - 4. - . 69; 2001. - 20. - . 36, 39, 96-97; 2000. - 17. -
. 10-11; 2003. - 19. - . 15. International Financial Statistics // IMF. - February. - P. 576).
.

2000-2003 .,
, , -
( ) ,
- (64-65 %).
-
(11 %). 2000-

137

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

2003 ., , -
- , ,
, ( ), -
, , -
.

43
39,9 39,3

38
33,6

27,5 27,3 27 27,8 26,4


28
22,5
21
19

18
1998 1999 2000 2002

. 2. ( % , :
. - 2000. - 17. - . 16-17; 2003. - 19. - . 15. .
- 2001. - 13 . - . 5).

1994-2003 .
, -
, -
.
-

.

. , 1 1999 .

1018 ., 2003 . 1358 .,
69 % 170 %
[13].

, .

138

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, -
. , ,
1,5 ,
0,5 .

, 70 % .

"", -
1/4 ,
- [14].

. -

-
, -

.
, -
, - -

, ( ) -
:
, , -
, , ,
.


.
1 2001 . -
2271 ( 2000 . -
2138, 1999 . - 1874 ). -
. 2.

( -
624 ), -
(219), (119), (80),
(37), (27),
(23). 2001 . -
-
(164 %), (132 %)

139

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

(121 %).
19 %.

2001 . 72 .,
- 142 . (71 %)
, (58 %) - .
- -
(84 %
70 % ). 2000 .
5,9 , -
1999 . 87 %, 0,8 ,
94 % , 1999 . -
11 % 1999 .
18 % 2000 . [15].

2
,

( 2001 .)*

. - . -
(%) (%)
150,5 24,3 149,5 24,5
40,8 6,6 40,8 6,7
34,5 5,6 34,4 5,6
17,0 2,7 17,2 2,8
15,3 2,5 17,1 2,8
12,2 2,0 11,8 1,9
10,7 1,7 10,6 1,7
9,3 1,5 11,7 1,9
7,4 1,2 7,4 1,2
321,2 51,9 311,6 50,9
618,0 100,0 612,4 100,0
*
. - 2001. - 21. - . 95-96; 2001. - 12. - .64.


, -
. ,
,
, ,

140

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


,
. 1996 . -

( )
2 . -
(
),
. -
- "". ,
.
, "",

. -
. "-
" , " -
, - ".
-
30 .
2001 . -
[16].
-
,
-
, -
. -

,
, ,

.
,
-
. , -
2000 . 53 % ( - 20 %, -
- 3 %).
12 % 1999 . 5 % 2000 . ( -
- 20 15 %, - 44 32 %, - 10
5 %, - 2,7 1,7 %, - 9 2 %) [17].
,

141

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

-
, .
,
.
-
,
,
,
( , , , , ),
,
( -
).

-
( ,
) , -
,
[18]. -
, 8
1994 ., ,
8 1991 . ,
- 21 1991 .
,
-
,
.
, , , -
, -
. -
,
-
.
-

-
, .

142

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-


, .
"", ,
,
, , -
, ,
"" -
. ,

[19].


, ,
.
, -
-.
,
. , -
2001 . 140 -

, 20
- .
,
"95 % -
, 65 % .
- -
.
30-
40 %
. .
, . ,
" [20].
, 2003 ., , -
100 % , 79,3 %
, 100 % , 100 % -
, 98,8 % , 91 % , 97,9 %
, 91,6 % , 53,5 %
. .

143

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

99,6 % , 86,7 % ,
92,5 % , 92,5 % . . [21].
, -

.
, -
- ,
, , ,
,
. ,
, -

, -
.
,
, -
, -
-
, ,

-
.
, ,
, , (),
. 2001 . ""
18 . .
( )
- "" ( ""),
"" 2001 .
50 %. ""
. , ,
2000-2001 ., 80 . 1 . . [22].
-
,
"". -
2001 . -
, -
900 . 2001 .
73,6 %
[22].

144

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, "" ,

( 2 ) "-
". ,
"", ,
.
. ,
"" 5 45 .
57 , 18 4
, 4 . -
"-" -
.
80 %
40 % [23].

" ",
, ,
2002 . " - "
-
.
90- ., , 1993-
1999 . "". "
" , 1999-2002 .
-
11 . . ,
6 . . , 1,5 . -
, 2,4 . . , 600 . -
. . -
, 1,5 . .

, ,
- 50 . .
.
,
-
( , , -
).
.
, 2001 . -
93,2 .,

145

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

. -
120 .,
- 16,6 , - 5,9 , - 3,6
. [24].
, -
-
. 1999 ., , 14,1 . ,
(2595 .),
(2087 .), (1944 .) (1612 .)
. 2-
( ) .
2001 . , ,
, 13,3 . (2000 . -
11,9 .) [25].
- ,

, . 3.
, -
, , -
2003 . 95,8 % 92,3 %
. (72,8 %) -
.
-
. ,
2001 . .

-, -, -
.
,
,
. -
, "", "-
", "", "", "" ., ,
-
.
, -
. -
[26].
-

146

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


( -
) ,
, ,
. ,
, -
,
. -
-
-
.

, (-
) .

3

2003 . ( .)*


(%)


308,5 187,8 120,7 72,8 31,7
56,2 309,3 -253,1 13,3 52,1
41,1 50,6 - 9,5 9,7 8,5
1+2+3 405,8 547,7 -141,9 95,8 98,3
9,2 43,4 -34,3 2,2 7,3
1,5 0,1 1,4 0,3 0,0
1,8 0,9 0,9 0,4 0,2
1,1 0,1 1,0 0,3 0,0
1,3 0,8 0,5 0,3 0,1
2,2 0,2 2,0 0,5 0,0
1,0 0,1 0,9 0,2 0,0
* : . - 2004. - 6. - . 61.


, , -

12 . -
, , -
, ,

147

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

. , ,
100 . , -
200-230 . .

30 % [27].

, -
. .
. ,
"Curentul" , "
- ,
, -
-
..." [28].
. -

, -
-
,
.
,

, , -

. , -
,
. ,
-
. , -
,
, , , -

() .
-
, -
. ,
. , "
, -
-
, - .

148

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-
. - 630 .
" [29].

- (. . 3).
, 1999 .
, -
(, )
. ,
1998-2003 . -
. -
, , , -
.
,
. ,
2003 . 254 .
(95 % ), 103 . -
(75 %), 207 . (86 %),
1758 (100 %) . . [30].

,
-
. ,
-
-
, . ,
- -
2
- , ,
.

,
.

-
, 130 , , ,
[31].
.
2001 .
. -
, .

149

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

-
, -
,
.
-
,

(, , -
,
)
.
-
-
- ,
, , -

.
-
, -

.

* *
*

, -
-
. 2003 ., ,
50,1 %,
- 74,4 % (
36,3 23,5 %) [32].

- . ,
2002 . -
,
-
20 %,
, , [33].
2 ,
,

150

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



( - -
) (-
) . -
,
2002 .
, -


, -
, .
[34].

() , ,
,
2003 ., -
2003 .
,
, - - , -
. ,
,
,

.

,
, ,
( ) .

151

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

1. . : . -
: Litera, 1999. - . 23.
2. . - 2001. - 27 . - . 3.
3. . - . . - . 302.
4. Republic of Moldova: Strategy for Development // Center for Strategic Stu-
dies and Reforms. - Chisinau, 1998. - P. 37.
5. 1987 . // . - .,
1988. - . 230-231, 233-235.
6. Republic of Moldova: Strategy for Development // Center for Strategic Sta-
dies and Reforms. - Chisinau, 1998. - P. 40, 77; . - . . - . 202.
7. . - 2000. - 27 . - . 3.
8. . - 2001. - 1. - . 18.
9. . - . . - . 301.
10. . - 2004. - 6. - . 60, 61; Republic of
Moldova: Strategy for Development // Center for Strategic Studies and Reforms. -
Ghisinau, 1998. - P. 88.
11. // -
. - 2004. - 13. - . 22.
12. . - 2001. - 14. - . 76-77; 2001. - 15 - . 35; 2002. - 4. -
. 70-72; 2002. - 7. - . 38; 2004. - 6. - . 60, 61. . -
2000. - 9-10. - . 301.
13. . - 2004. - 5-6. - . 153, 155.
14. . - 2001. - 13 . - . 5.
15. // -
. - 2001. - 21. - . 95-96; 2001. - 12. - . 63-65.
16. . - 2001. - 13 . - . 5.
17. // -
. - 2001. - 14. - . 77, 79, 85.
18. Republic of Moldova: Strategy for Development // Center for Strategic
Studies and Reform. - Chisinau, 1998. - P. 88-95, 248-259.
19. Ukraine 2000 and Beyond: Geopolitical Priorities and Scenarios of Deve-
lopment // The National Security and Defence Council of Ukraine. - Kyiv, 1999. -
P. 19-24, 27-416, 45-63.
20. . - 2001. - 27 . - . 8;
. - 2001. - 15. - . - . 3; . - . . - . 327-328.
21. . - 2004. - 5. - . 51, 52, 63.
22. "" (2001 .).
23. . - 2001. - 15. - 16 . - . 6; . -
2001. - 31 . - . 13.

152

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


24. . - 2001. - 7 . - . 9.
25. // -
. - 2000. - 14. - . 121; 2002. - 7. - . 45-46.
26. . - 2001. - 3 . - . 1, 8.
27. . - 2001. - 7. - . 6; . -
2002. - 3. - . 60.
28. . - 2001. - 15. - 16 . - . 6.
29. . - 2001. - 18 . - . 1-2; Ukraine 2000 and
Beyond: Geopolitical Priorities and Scenarios of Development // The National Secu-
rity and Defence Coucil of Ukraine. The National Institute for Strategic Studies. The
National Institute for Ukrainian-Russian Relations. - Kyiv, 1999. - P. 11-12.
30. // -
. - 2004. - 3. - . 59, 67, 71, 78, 79.
31. . - 2001. - 18 . - . 8.
32. / -
. - ., 2003. - 12. - . 67.
33. . - 2002. - 3. - . 60.
34. . - 2002. - 18 . - . 3.

153

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

. .


,

, ,
.
, -
, ,
.

, 13 1995 . 35- . -
-
, -
,
-
.
()
10 28 1994 . -
, ,
. ,

,
. 2 1995 . , 1
1996 . , -
. 1 1998 ., .. 4 ,
-
- .
155

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .


, - -
.
. -
,
. -

. -
, -
.
-
,
:

.
-
11 :
;
-
; -
; -
; ;
, , , ;
;
,
, , .
.
() ,
.
() ,
()
.


. , -
,

- - ,
-
, .

156

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



, -
, .
,
-

, - ,
. -
-


, -
.

- . -
:
,
.

( 2 ) -
. 1991-2002 . -
95 .
90- . -
: -
,
, .

, ,
.

.
,
.
,
, : ;
-
,
;
; -
;

157

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

;

; ;
(-
, . -

); (,

, , -
, . ).
2000 .

. ()

,
,
,
.
,
,
- .
-
.
. -
(), . -
- "" - -

. -
.
-
-
-
. 2000 .

(). -
,
( ) -
.
,
-

158

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-
. " ".

. .
,
, . ,
-
.

-
,
.
-
. .
-
. -
, -
.
1991-2000 . 1,7 ,
,
,
.
.
.

(1998 .) -
. 1999 . -
4 , ,
. 2000 .
0,81 , 2001 . - 0,78 .


. 2001 .
,
.
.

.
-
. 1999 .

159

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

60 , 2002 . - 15 . -
-

,
.
.


.
. , ,
. -
.,

.
. -
, "INCO-Copernicus" "INTAS Projects".
: -
, -
(, ,
,
). ,

.

- . , ,
, , .
-
.


. -
, , ,
. ,
.
-
, .
, ,
.

,

160

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



.
1991 . -
, , , 1940 . .
-
,
.
, -
, , , , -
, , , . -
, ,
40 % .
,
.
. ,
. , 6 2000 .,

. -
,
-
, . -
, ,
, . ,

. . ,
,
.
, -
. -
. " ,
", , -
,
,
. . ,
, - ,
- .
. -
.
,

161

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

. ,

, -
. -
, ""
. -
, . ,

,
. -

. ,

, , , , -
, .

, , , ,
, . -

2000 . -
- ,
-
(KFW) 10 ( - 40 , 0,75 %
, - 10 ). 5 -
-
-,
.
, , , , -
, . ,
: , -

Sudzucker AG Manheim/Ochsenfurt,
80 % . 2,5

. 1,5
-
. 1 , , -
.

,

162

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, -

. -

. -
. -
2001 .,
2015 .? , ,

. -
1995 ., 2000 .
, .
, . -
-
: , .
,
, -
-
. , 8 2001 . , -
.
,
,
,
.
, -
, ,
,
,
. -

.
,
- , -
-
. 1999 .
.


.
- . ,

163

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

, -
, -
.
1999-2000 . -
, ,
. , -
(, , , , ,
) .
2001 .,
. -
. -
, ,
, -
.
, -
- . -
-
. . , - -
.
-
. 2002 .
. ,
- "
"
. " " -
,

.
"-
" " ":
, ,
. -
.
,
-
. ,
"
" .
2001 . -
,

164

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1 .
-
.
-
-
. , ,
- - ,
- - ,

- .
,
, -
,
-
.
" " 28 2002 .
. : " , -
.
,
,
. -
,
". .
-

.
. -

. ,
,
-
.
,
.

- , -
-
.
. , 2-3 ,
, . ,

165

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

,
-
. , -
. ,
, -
.

-
, , ,
, -

,
, -
-
, ( , -
),
. , -
, -
.
,

-
, , , -
, ,
.

-
-
,
.
27 2001 .
(Moldova Country Strategy Paper, CSP).


2002-2006 .
- ,

166

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, -
, ,

,
, , -
2002-2003 .
,
, :
-
;
- ;
- , -

;
-
.


. -

. , -
, -
( -
), .
-
,
-
.
, -
. 2000 . 326 .

. 10
60 %,
10 , .
, -
. -
"-
", -

167

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

. , ,
.
-
. 10 800 .
( )
. ,

, -
, ,
.
, 2000 . -


-
.
, -
, .
. 2001 .
2/3
. -
, -
, -
, .
,
. ,
,
, .
. ,
-
.

.
,
, : 515
, 140 . -
2001 . .



.

168

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-
, -
.
, -
, -
.
,
2002 ., , 50 %
. -

. -
-
.
,
.

.
. ,
2001 . -
, , 10


.

-
10
.
-
-
,
-
, .

(-
, , ).
, ,
, -
,

.

169

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

,

, : , , ,
, , . ,
-
.

-
. -
, -
: -
. ,
.

, ,
,
- , -
,
.
,

,
.

, -
.
-
, .
,
. -
-
.
-
. , -
,
2001-2005 . -
.
-
, -
, ,

170

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



, , ,
-
.
, -
, -
, -

.

, -
,
,
, -
, -
.
, -
, , (-
,
, ,
,
) -
.
, , -
-
,
-
.

- , ,
.
-
,
, , -
. -
,
.
, , -
,
2000 .

171

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

. :
(1) , (2) -
, (3)
. 2000 .


. 3 (2001-2003)
142 . 0,5 %
.
12 .
.
-
, ,
,
,
.
. ,
-
. -
,
.


, ,
.
-, -
,
-
. -
.
-,
, -

.
-, -
. ,

,
1998 . ,
( )

172

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


,
,
, , .
-, -
( ,
).
-, -
, -
,
, ,
-
.
,
,
,
( ).
,
, , , ,
.



, , -
,
-
. -

2002-2006 . ,
-
.
.

, -
- .
,
,
-
, , ,
.

173

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

,
, , -,
; -,
, -, -
.
.
, ,
,
, -
- . -

, .
,
. -

-
.
, ,

, .
,
,
.
-
.

,
, .

:
- ,
- ,
- ,
-
.
, -
-
.

.

174

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-
2002 .


.
,

.
-
, -
-
.


,
. , -
, -
.
, , , -

. , ,
. -
, -
,
.

2002-2003 .
2000-2001 . -
2000-2003 . -
(2000-2001 .) 21 .
:
- ,
;
-
;
- .
2001 . , -
2000-2003 .,
:
- ;

175

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

- , -
, ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ,
.
-
2002-2003 .
, , -

.
-
2003 .
, -
. - 8 . -
.
1. ,
( -
- 4 ).
:
- ;
- , ;
-

;
-
;
-
.
- ,
-
,
.
2. ( -
1 ).
:
- ;

176

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


- -
.
-
.
3.
( - 3 ).
:
- - ,
-

;
-
,
;
-
;
-

, ;
-
- .
-
, . .
, -
, ;
, ;
;
-
.
-
. - 8 .
:
- -
, ,
, ;
- ;
-
.
- -
, ,

177

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

,
.
.
- 4 .
:
-
;
- -

.
- -

.
2003 .
20 . -
(-
, , , -
), ,
.

* *
*
-
. -
,
, , -
-
,
,
,
,
,
( , , , ,
- ).

.

-
. --

178

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, - -
1998 . , ,

.
-
,
-
(
, ,
..). ,
.

:
, , -
,
.
, ,

( ,
, -
, , -
. .). ,
,

.
-
-
. -

() .

. , ,
- , -


.

179

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
III. , ,

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

1998-2004 .

. . ,
. .

90- .
. 1997 .
50
.
,
.
27 1991 .1
,
-
-
,

. "-
- ",

-
, . 1994 .
- -
() -
. -
, , -
.
1994 . 13 ,
4 %- 4 .
43,2 %,
" - " - 22, - 9,2,
___________
1
.
183

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

- - 7,5 %.
-
3,7 % .
- - 1995 .
,
,
.
4 1994 ., . -
, -
1990 . -
8 .
. 60 %
, , 64,8 % -
. -
( , ).
- 9 % ,
5 % .
3 % .
1996 . -
.
, , -
, . -
. -
().
(38,8 %)
(27,7 %). 10,2 %, . - 9,5 %.
.
. .
, . , 54,0 % , .
1998 . 15 ,
4 %- 4 - -
(30,0 %), (19,4 %), " -
" (18,2 %) -
(8,8 %).
,
90- .

184

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

1998 .

, 22
1998 ., -
: () - 40 ;
(), -
( . ) ,
( . ), - 26 ,
17 9 ;
" " (),

( . ), - 24 ;
( . ),
, - 11 [1].
, , -
, "
" , -
- -
() (. 1).
, ,
:
()
1993 . , -
1991 .
. 1994 . -
. , .
,
, -
, -
.
" - -
".
. - "".
329 .
1999 . 6,3 . .
()
1995 . --
() -
. .

185

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

26 1995 . I ,
. . .
-
,
. -
"". 1996-
1997 ., 20 . .
1999 . 10,8 . .


() ()
40 61

" - -

26 " () 11
24

-
() ()
17 9

. 1.
1998 .

()
1993 . - . -
"". , -
.
. -
, 1997 . -
, 42- .

186

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

- (),
20 1989 . ( 25
1989 .), ,
1988 . . -
,
, " ",
, -
.
90- ., 1994 .
9 . 24 1994 . IV
-
. -
"" ("").
1998 . , -
, ,
, 9 . (11 1999 .
-
(), . 2001 .
,
,
11 .)

" " ( - ,
) . . . -
-
. , .

" "
, .. -
.
. , - . -
. . - , -
, - -
, ,
, -
-.
-
- - , "-
" "
" .

187

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, . -
- ,
.
1998 .
, - , -
,
.
. -
( 1997 . - 1998 .)
. -
,
, . -
. ,
1997 ., "
- ".

, .
, -
. ,
,
" ",
.
1997 .
100 . -
,
.
, 1997 . -
" - -
". 1997 . 70 , 1998 .
"".
1997 . 1,6 %
90- . - 11,8 %.
52,4 %, - 9,6 %
348 . 70 %,
6,6 % ,
- 10,4 % [2].
-
1998 . . , -
.
, .

188

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

, , ,
, - -
- .
, 1998 1999 . -
.
, -
, ,
- [3].
-
,
. , .
.
1998 . , , -
, 33 %. -
, 27 %
. 50 %
,
[4].
1998 . -
. 1998 .
3 ,
78 %. .
.
, ,
1999 . .
. . .

.

(- 1999 .)

1 1999 . . -
, : "-
, ,
...
" [5]. 5 1999 .
.
-.
, . : "

189

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

- ,
-
...
. , -
".
"" - . , -
. . ,
. - . . -
, , , .
-
, , -
2 [6].
, , -, -

, -, -
-. -

. , ,
. , .
,
,
-
.
,
, .

(19 ) , . -
. ,
- .
, . -
,
,
- . -
. , ,
, "
" [7].
. .
24 ,
-. .
,

190

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

, 9 , ,
, - (. ) (. ). 2
. ,
: -
, . -
.
. , . -
. -
, -
.
. , , -
.
. , -
.
. , -
.
,
, . , , 26 , -
-.
61 , , -
. .
. . , ,
, [8]. .
-
" ". . ,
, . -
,
.
-
-.
,
, -
-
, ,

. -
, ,

.

191

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

-
:
- ;
- -
, ;
- , 1,3 .
1 1999 .;
- ;
- ;
- ( ,
,
);
- - ;
- -
.
, ,
- . (); - - . -
(),
, . () . (); 15
( 4 , 3 1 ). - -
, - -
.
, - - -
,
,
" ", -
-
,
.
26 .
.
, . ,
, ,
. ,
. -
, . , -
.
, . ,
. , , -
. , .

192

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

.
,
, , .
3 1999 . -
,
. . 101 ""
51, "" - 37 -, 9 -
. , 51
, .
,
. , -
52 . ,
.
,
"", - .
. . .

1992 . .
1994 1998 .,
1998 . - .
12
. (52 "", 37 -
""), . -
.


1999-2000 .

. .
"" -
. ,

,
. ,
. -
-
.
22 1999 . . 23 ,
,

193

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

.
:
" -
, -

, "? -
,
, -


.
1999 . .
58 % , 55 %
. [9].
" - ",
-
[10].
1999 . -
,
,
.
( )
-
.
. . -
.
, ,
. 1999 ., .
,
-,
.
, -
,
-
, ,
.
5 2000 . -
3 : -
; -
- ;

194

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

" " -
.
"
".
,
.
, 90 [11].
,
,
2000 .,
.
"
", -
.
, -
61 . ,
, ,
.
,
, "
,

,
...". , -
( -

) -
. ,
.

.
.

, -
, 1999 . . .
8 ,
, ,
.

195

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

. 1999 .
3,1 % 6,5 % 1998 . -
. 2- 1999 .
516 , 124
[12]. -
1999 . , -
, 590,9 . [13],
. --
, -
, ( 17 15,7 %
) [14], , -
.

"".

, ,
.
, ,
. , -
. " ",
. ,
,
. ,
,
[15].

.
, ,
,
, - , -
. ,
. -
.
-
.
. "-
",
,
. " -
.

196

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

: - -
1999 ., -
2000 .", - 3 ,
[16].
. :
10-12 ,
. 4
1999 ., 5
. 52
-
. -
,
, - . -
. " . -

, ", - -
.
8 1999 . - .
, 9 -
. .
58 [17]. -
. , - 10 ,
-
,
.
" -
- .

-
" [18]. , -
,
. " -
,
, -
".
.
" ", "
, - ",

197

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, " ,
".
22 1999 . .
-
.
. -, -
. , -
- . , - . . -
,
. , . , -
. . ,
.
- -
,
, , -
,
.
-
- , -
, ,
. ,
,
-
[19].
, ,
,
. "
". ",
,
" ," - . [20].
.
48 52 , -
. -
, . -
,
"" . .
. -

. , -

198

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

,
.
1 1999 . .
- -
-
. , .
, , " ,
-
, -
" "
". ,

.
. .
" , ". " ,
. , , -
". ,

, -
, -
. "
", "
, " [21].
7 . 48 ,
. , 52 .
.
16 - 42-
.
,

.
,
. . . , ,
, ,
,
. " ".
- .
, . - -
. , -
. ,

199

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

. "
," - . -
[22]. ,
-
.
21 1999 . -
. . 57
101 . , -
. ,
" ",
. ,
,
[23]. -
,
- . .

- ,

,
, .
.
-
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
.

.

, ,
.
-
, -
[24].

200

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

,
, . .
, ""
,
.
-
.
,
3 . [25].
84 % " " [26].
10-15 % -
, -
- . , 1999 .
14 % .
1999 . 190 . (
) 119 [27]. 1999 .
"" 40 %,
,
.
2000 . .
: "" -
90 . 7,5 % -
. .
. 2000 .
81 % [28].
- .
16 2001 ., 2000 . 83 %
. "
", - [29].
, .
, - -
.
, ,
16 2000 .
.
, , ,
,
. " , ? ,

201

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

? , ,
", - ,
. -
,
, . -
,
" "
, " -
" [30].

, .
,
. ,
. "-
, ",
.
. ,
-
, -
,
. - ,
45 . , 23 .
, 15 13 . -
, [31].

. -
, -
, -

. " ,
-
", - [32].
, .
, 90- .,
, -

.
,
-
(81,2 . 2000 .)

202

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

. .
, , -
.
,
600
[33].
,
800 . 241 . (
I, II III , -,
, , -
, ,
).
17 2000 .
,
[34].
20 , -
.
26 , .
-
1998 1999 .,
, .
8 15 . -
. , ,
, -
[35]. 17 ,
, .
10 . ,

,
.
, -
20 . [36].
.
.
,
.
[37]. 10 . -

,

203

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .


[38].
19 10 . -
, ,
-. -

, -
[39]. -
,

.

, , -
, 15 . ,
.
: - ,
, -
, -
.
[40]. -
. -
, ,

,
25 35 %.
,
10 20 . 1 . , -
50 ,
100 . . [41].
, 12
6 . -
, 15 -
-
[42].
[43].
15 -
"". -
.
-
,

204

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

[44].
,
,
. -
.
-
, -
,
[45].
, 7 2 .

.
, ,
-
[46]. 3 -
5 . [47].
1
, -
,
. . , -
, , -
. " -
,
", - [48]. 5 -
. "
, -
, -
", -
[49]. ,
,
" " 2001 .
( 730 . , ,
30 % , -
).
, -
. -
,
. - -
. , , -
, 6 .

205

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

,
, - 1
, - -
- 170 , - 397 [50].
2000 . -
7 %. " -

", - ,
2000 . [51].
2000 . -
. " . ,
" [50]. 2000 . -
, -
. -
30 -,
,
1,5 %. -
-
, 151 . -
, 208 . [53]. 19 2000 .
, ,
12 - .

. , -
1999 .
,
-
, -
.
. ,
. , , , -
. , -
. -,
,
,
2001 .
,
. 2000 . -
,
.

206

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

" " 21 2001 . . ,


60 .
20 .,
12 . 2001 .
[54].
2000 . :
1,9 %, - 2,3 %. -
43 18 %, 21 %, 20 .
. 1/4
, , ,
,
11 % [55].

35 %.
-
. 35 % -
[56]. -
, ,
-
. .
.
, 31 %
. : -
,
, ,
, -
, . ,
,
243,9 . [57].
.
. 21 2000 . -

144 ., -
3 . 12 .
[58].
.
0,5 % , - 10
5 . -
15 2000 . , ,
1998 ., ,

207

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

,
.

.
2001 .
5 %, 10 % [59].
2001 .,
2000 . ,
1,9 % 11- , -
. 2001 . (5 %) 2002 . (6 %) -
,
[60].

2000 .

. -
-
, 2000 . -
. 5 2000 . "
" .

, -
.
2000 . ,
-
, .
.
6 2000 .
-
( ),
"
()". -
, 5
.
, -
[61].
, ,
, " " [62].

208

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

2000 . -
. - .
, " -
". (.).


( )
1998 2000 ()
40 40
" " 26 14
"" 24 17
11 9
- 9
- 12

13 2000 . ,
. -
1
2000 ., 15 2001 ., -
. .
, 3/5 -
. -
15 .
,
.
24 2000 .
-
.
- . -
- . -
[63].

. " , -
", -
. [64]. 38 -
.
, 4 6 . -
, 61 .
50 , - 35; -

209

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

59 35 [65]. ,
19 ,
.
,
, , -
21 . -
- -
- 16 2001 .

,
.

-
. 26
, -
, 31 2000 . . -
25 2001 .
[66].


2001 .

12 2001 . ,
,
,
.
12 - , , --
, - "
", , , -
"",
- , , -
- . ,
5 - " ", " ",
" ", " ",
"" [67].
.
.
" ", 6 -
- , -

210

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

" ", , -
"",
. ,
( . ). -
(. )
(. ).
,
30 90. -
-
:
30 . -
- ,
, . ,

, .
, -
, 2001 .,
.
--
, -
, 90- .
,
, . -
,
. ,
,
, .
,
. .

, , .
. .
" " -
( -
, 1,9 %
).
" , .
", " , "
-
.

211

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .


, "
"
. -

, -
.
,
,
. . , -
- 3-4 % , -
[68].
44 % ,
. 65 [69].
, . -
2,5 % [70], -
. . , - -
( 15-20 %),
" ",
. .
,
"" .
25 2001 . .
67,5 % [71]. 794 808
(50,07 % ), " " -
212 071 (13,36 %), - 130 810 (8,24 %) [72].
47 %, " " - 9,4, - 12 % [73].
,
. 91 894
(5,79 %), . - 79 757 (5,02 %).
, 6 %- , 28 % -
, -
. 71 101
, " " - 19, - 11 .

(52 -
), (61 )
(68 ).
.
12 " "

212

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

,
"Opinia",
33,1 % . 27,3 % -
" -
", 9 - , 8,4 - 5,5 % - [74].
.
" " . ,
" -
, -
- 40 " [75]. ,
3
- " ", . ,
" ", .
, ,
55 - 59 [76].

-
, . , "
-
", "

, -
" [77]. , -
, ,
.
, -
.
- . -

,
-
. -
-
.
. -
, . , -
. , . .

213

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

.
. . -
, " -".

. , -
. . -
. , . -
. ,
, .
19 2001 .
, -
.
. ,

. , ,

().
20
. . -
,
. . . -
. -
. . , -
4 [78].
. ,
,
. 10
7 , 2 -
" " 1 - [79].
4 , -
, 71 101,
.
.

, , , -
. ,
-
, .
" , -

214

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

" [80]. -
, "
", -
,
. "
,

", - . .
, ,
" , , -
-
". -
, , 2000 . 65 %
13 % - [81],
.
,
. "-
", , -
. .
,
. ,

, .

.
. , , -
"" ,
, ,
. -
,
,

- .
"" , -
,
,
"", -
300-500 . [82]. , -

215

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

,
.

, . ?
?
-
? ?
. , -
, 2001 .
,
90- . , -
?
, ?
-
, .
2001 . ,
. ,
,
, -
,
. -
-
.

-

,
" ", -
, , .

,
().
2001 . , -
-
-
,

216

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

. ""
" ",
" ", -
. , ,
,
[83].
-
, ,
-
. -
2001 ., ,
- 2002 .
-
-
. , . ,
. "
,
... -
, " " -
", - [84].

, -
(CLRAE). - -
, -, -
1998 . -
,
. ,
,

,
-
. " -
, ", - -
, -
[85]. 2001 . CLRAE -
,
,
, -
. " , -
, -

217

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

10 -
,
" [86].
-

(), () -
(), 400 680
. , -

, -
. - 11 2001 .
, -
,
[87].
,

,
.
, -

. , -
10 ,

. "
", - [88].
, ,
, 90- .
.
. -
, -
, -
.
,
.
, 2001 ., 27 -
, -
" - ".
,
2002 ., , .

218

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

-
-
. 2002 .
. -
. , -

. ,
- -
2002 . ,
-
. ,
, -

- -
[89]. 29 2002 . " -
" . -
( ) -
, () (). -
32 , 60 5 (,
, , , ).
,
.
, ,
. -

, ,
[90]. - -
" ".

. -
, , ,
.
, , -

() -
.
, , ..
25 2003 .
-
. " " ,

219

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

"
-
". -
-
[91].
[92]. -
,
. ,
-
. . . .

. ,
,
: "
, ,
" [93]. . ,
. .
,
, -
. ,
" " [94],
. , , -
-
. "
, " [95].
- 25
8 .
. 8 ,
- .
. ( ). .
43,4 % , . - 42,5 %. 30 -
,
, " " [96]. 31 ,
, ,
. , . , . , . .
"
" [97].
. , 53,9 % .
-
: 41,1 % , -

220

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

" " - 21,3, - 8,1, / - 4,8, -


2,3 %. 156 (17,5 %).
47,9 %
45,7 % .
" " ( 20 21 %), (8,9 6,6 %)
(7,7 8,9 %). 5,5 7,5 % [98].

:
- ;
- (
, .. 0,5 ,
: 2001 .
200 . );
- ( -
209 . ,
2001 .);
-
[99].
-
. "" -

, -
,
[100].

, .

-
, 10- . -
-
21 1992 .
, -
,
,
. -
50 , -

221

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, 8 1997 .
, , ,
. - "
", .
-
, 2000 . -
. ,
, ,
, (
1990 .).

" " :
-
1 1990 .;
-
;
- ,
;
-
;
- -
-
- .
-
. 9 2001 .

.
2001 . -
,
.
. -
- -
; ; ,
; -
; -
-
, -
.
.

222

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

, -
.
2001 . -
, .
1 , -

, -
. , , -
,
.
- ,
, -
" " [101] ,
-
.
, -
. , "-
", -
,
...


.
,
-

0,5 ., 1,8 .,
3 .
, -
, 10 . [102].

,

400 - , -
, . ,
, "",
800 . . [103].
, 9 2001 .
, , -
.

223

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

,
.
. ,
" ",

. -
80 % , -
-
6 5 % .
. -
-
.
,
-
. 2002 . -

. -
:
-
;
- -
;
-
" ".
"
".
. .
, -
. -

[104].
1 2002 . . 10- -

, ,
,
, -
. "
", - [105].
2002 . .

224

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

- .
. ,

. ,

, - . -
-
[106].
(1-3 ) -
-,
- , -
.
.
,
. , -
, . -

(, , , ), ,

[107].

.
. " " ,

, ,
" " [108]. .
, -
,
, .



[109].

, -
. ,
. , -

. , , , "
, ,

225

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

,
".
,
,
. -
-
" ".
.
2002 . , -
, [110].
, ,
- 2002 .
. , , -
"
, "

22 ,
[111].

. -,
, -
, ,
.
,
, -
.
.
-, , . -
, -
. -
, ,
. , ,
, -
:
, "
" [112].
,
. . -

- , " " [113].

226

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

-,
.
,
,
. -

, 2002 .
.
-

- . , -
,

. , 2002 .
-

[114].
, , -

. .

. " ",
, : -
[115]. . -
,
,
.
, , "

, -
, ". -
-
, ,
. . ,
,
[116].
, , -

, .

227

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

2002 . -

: -,
( ,
, ); -, -
( . ). -

. -
.

, " "
, 2003 .
[117].
, -
2002 . .
"-
",
2002 . , -
. , -
. .
.
- . "-
" : " -
.
..." [118].
2003 . .
" ".
-
,
. -
: 6 -
, 2-3
,
, , .
12 2003 . -
,
[119].
, -

. .

228

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

,
, , , " -
, -
" [120]. 18 , 4 2003 . - -
"

". -
(), 1 2004 .
25 2005 . - -
.
[121].
,
( 2004 .)
,
.
, -
, ,
, . -
.
- (,
, ..)
. , ,
.
27 -
2003 . [122].
, 2003 .

, -
. -
. -

, -
" ": " -
", "
", " -
10 " ( -
), " ,
".
22-24 2003 .

229

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

-
. -
, .
, -

. . ,
, -
, -
-
"". , -
-
, , .
-
, -
, -
, .

(" -
" " "). -
"", -
- .
,
,
, .
- ,
2003 . -

.
, ,
, . -
. ,

,

2004 . [123],
.
2003 . -
, -

, ,

230

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

, , [124]. ,
2003 .
.
, ,
, ,
. -
. "
, - -
." "
, -

", - -
- 2003 .
" ", -
, 6-8
. -

, -
, - [125].
11-12 -
"" - -
: ". . -


-
[126].
. ,
-
, , "
".
.
-
.

2003 . , -
, , -
, "
, ". -
, 1

231

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .


[127].

-
. , "
" (""), , -
, .

,
. "" , -
,
,
[128].
-
,
.
18 2003 .,
.
. "
". "-
" ,
.
, ,
, , -
; ; -
;
-
, .
-
, ,
[129].
, 19 ,
. " "
, -
: " ", " -
", "
", " ",
" : ", ",
" [130].
,

232

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

,

.
,
.
.
.
" " 20
- .
"
", -
105 . [131]. .

, -
.
" ",
, , ,
, : " -
". 25 .
.
25 .
,
, ,
, ,
. 26
. , , ,
: "

, .
,
.
-

".
. . , -


[132].
.
, .

233

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .


,
" ", "
,
".
:

", , " [133].
-
,
.
, " -
", " - ".

-
.
2003 .,

, . -
, , -
. " ", , ,
" "
-
. " -
,
. -
- -
" [134].
1-2 2003 .
.
, . -
"
".
-
[135]. ,
. ,
, ,
. " "
, , ,

234

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

" " -
.
, -
, ,
2003 . .

- -
(
). 250 . .
, -
, , , (-),
20 . , . -
, 153 . ,
.
200
, , -
. -
, , -
, ( ) .
.
, .
, , -
.
XIX .
,
.
1989 . 19
1990 . ,
,

, .
. -
,
-
.
"" ,
.

235

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, - ,
,
, .
, -
.
.
, . -
, (-
), .
, " -

- ( )"

.
23 1994 . ,
-
() ,
, .
171 500 , 3,9 % .
78,7 % , 7 % - , 14 % - ,
, , . - 3
(, -) 30
(3 - , - 27 ).
- , 32 . .
, , , -
, , -
, .
,
, .
, , " "
. ,
" -
" 1994 . "" . ,
,

-
, . ,
,
, "

236

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

", , , -
.
- 1999 .
( ) . -
-
. 1998 . . -
, ,
[136].

,
. .
, -
, .
. -
, -
.
, -
"" ,
[137].
, -
, ( -
), ,
.
2000 . -
. ,

, -
" " [138].
-

4 2001 . -
, -
- .
-
2001 . . -
-
,
-
,
. , ,

237

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

,
[139].
-
-
- ,
. 2 2001 .
. ,
- , "
". " -

- , . -
", - [140].

,
-
-
. -

, -

.
,
[141].
()
, -
,

" "
.
, 80 %
, . 1
2001 . -
-
. " -
, ,
, 80 %
,
", - [142].
,
" ".

238

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

-
. 12 2001 .,
, . .
" ,
", , "
,
". -

.
2001 .
.
,
" " -
. 19
(19 1990 .
) -
[143].
, -
" -
",
, 36
. "-"
.

,
, , -
[144].

,
. ,
, "".
,
,
. ,
.
1 2001 .
.
,
-

239

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, "
". " ,
, .
, ,
,
", - -
[145].
2001 .
, -
. " , -

", - . , , -

- . " -
, -
12 ,
.
2,6 ,
" [146]. " ,
- -
", - .
15 2001 .
, -
.
,
, , -

,
, .
-
.
-
,

, " " [147].
- . , , " ... -
, , , -
" [148].
-
.

240

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .


, -
-
- -
.
, . ,
2002 . , 2002 .
, -
, -
.
6 ( 460 . .) [149].
.
18 2001 .
, -
. .
" " .

" ,
", .
-
.
-
,
[150].
, . -
,
. " " , -

, -
.
,
,
, -
[151].

. 2002 .
.
-
, .

241

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, , -
, . (
) " , -
" [152]. -
, -
,
.

. ,
, - -
. .
.
-
. -
. ,
,
, -.
,
. ,
,
. . -
. -
-
. ,
100 % ,
. -

. : -
, ,
, , ,
[153].
-
( 31 12
)
24 2002 .
. . . -
-
, "
" [154]. - ,
,

242

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

" -
" [155].

,
, -
, , ,
. . ,
24 , .
-
.
. 7
. . -
,
- "-
" [156]. 11 . -
-
. .
: "-
" [157].
15 2002 . -
. ,
,
.
24 . ,
,
, , -
:
, ,
[158].

. . . ,
. ,
. -
, , -

. .
.
. . , -
,
. .

243

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

.
[159].
,
: , , -
, [160].
6 2002 . -
: , - . -
; . ; . -
. ;
1990 . . ; -
. . .
, .
, -
, -
. .
, -
, , -
.
, , -
, ,
" -
" [161]. . ,
. ,
- .
, .
- -
. 6
. (40 %) . (30 % ).
20 .
-
- . . , . -
-
. -
. (50,1 % ).
,
. -
.
[162]. -

:

244

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

, - -
.
-

.
, , , -
-
. ,
, -
, -

[163].
-
2003-2006 ., -
. , -
,
. -
,
,
.
2003 .,
,
-
, . .
, , -
, -

, [164]. . -
. ,
, ,

. , -
, ,
.
, ,
.
2003 . -
, " " -
, ,
.

245

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

,

. -
.
.
16 -
.
,
,
( -
) [165].
- 2003 . "" -
-
. 16 .
- -
. ,
"- , , -
", [166].
, ,
.
2003 . , .
, , , -


.
,
.


.


2001 .


2001 . -
. " , ,
", -
. . "

246

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

- , -
. , : -
- ,
, - ,
,
", - [167].
-
. ,
. - -
- ,
, ,
-
. - . ,
, , -
. , ,
, -
, . "
, , "- " [168]. .
,
.
, "
". -
, , , -
. ,
6 %- [169].

. 22 2001 . -
,
25 , -
().
,
2001 . 52 - . (),
. () . (). -
- (. ), -
(. ), -
(. )
(. ). 25 , ,
18 % [170].
, "

247

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

" [171].

,
.
2001 .
.
, -
. -
()
().

, -
, -
.
, ,
- . 14 .
,
- . , -

,
. ,
-
[172]. , , -
, . -
(),
[173].
6 2001 . ,
-
. ,
. -
, - --
, 80- . -
, ,
. -
. " 25
,
" !"
1996 ., , 1998 .
-
. ,

248

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

" [174].
: "
,
. ,
,
. ,
. , ,
.
, ,
, " [175].
-
CDM-XXI
-
.
.
,
,
.
- -
, ,
. 2002 . -
. 9
2- -
-
. -
"
".
. ,
, ,
.
- . -
. -
-
" -
", , - "
" [176].
2002 . ,
, -
.
. , -

249

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

.
31 ( ),

. -
-
- . ,
, , -
200 . , .
31 -
, 11 "-
". -


. 24
, .
,
.
. , -

[177].
.
,
, ,
, - -
( 2002 .) ,
( 2003 .).
-
2003 .
.
" , -
!", ", !",
" - , - !", " !", " , -
!", " , -
!"
, -
.
-
, "
" [178]. , -
, - ,

250

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

.

[179].

,
. , ,
. -
, " "
, .
-
, . -
, . 2002 . , -
" " -
2003 .,
.

. (" -
...
,
", - . [180].)
-
- ,
. 2002 . " "
. "- -",
, ,
-, --
. ", , -
. ,
", - [181]. -

. -
, " " :
" , :
-
". -
, 10- , .
"
". - , -
, "
". . ,

251

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

.
.
" ",
-
[182].
, ,
-, -
, --
.
. 2002 .
. ,
,
( -
" ",
-
) [183]. 2002-2003 . -

- -
. . : -
- ,
-. -
-,
- ,
"- -
", 30
2002 . .
, ,
,
. -
[184].
2003 ., -
. .
1.
, -
, --
. 5-7
, .
2. - (" ",
20 % ) -
, " " .

252

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

3. --
, -.
,
. , -
- .
4. -
,
. , ,
.
5. ,
. , ,
, .

" ".
6. ,
4-5
, -
(, . , " -
") [185].
, , -
- 2002,
2003 . , - -
. , -
-
" " [186].
. -
-
, , ,
- . -
, , .
.

- ,
, . ,
,
, -
. -, -
, "
" [187].

253

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

" " -
.
- -
,
( - -
, " " -
).
,
-
. , 2003 . -
( . ) , -
,
, "
" [188].
,
.
, -
, ,
" , ". -
. . -
, . -
. . -
.
, .
-
.
" ",
. ,
" " .
-

.
"" -
-
2003 . " "
, -
, , , .
"" . , -
, -
, .

254

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

" : ", "" ,


, , !"
2003 . ,
, . -
, 2003 .
64 % .
. ,
, , -
, .
6 %-
, 24 % .
. : "
", -
2005 .
, -
, , , .
61 ( -
) [188].
, . -
, , -
.
- -
.

2001 . -
. . -
,
, , -
.

-
.
. -
-
. , -
, . . -

255

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

,
.
-
, . -
.
,
.

: "
, ,
, , "". ""
... , -
, -
..." , , -
,
.
,
-
- .
.

. 30 2001 . -
- .
.
, - ,
.
,
. -
. .
,
-
. ,
, ,
. " ,
,
.
" [189].
2001 . -
. ,
, -

256

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .


. "-
", , ,

" ". "
, .

", - . [190].
28 2001 .
- .
. "-

, ,
-
... -
, -
", -
,
27 2001 . [191].
: "

, . -
-
" [192]. 20 2001 . . ,
-
. " -
,
", - [193].

. , -
" " "Moldova
Suverana" 24 2001 ., , -
. " -
, -
, ,
... -
, .
, " [194].

. 25 2001 .

257

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, -
, , -
. -
" " [195].

. , ,

" "
.
, .

. ,
-, 7 2001 .
,
, -
, , -,
, 8 , ,
.
, -
, -
. 3 2001 .
" ,
" (), "-
,
". ,
, ,
.
" , , -

, ", - [196].
- 2001 . -
. , -
- ,
, ,
.
-
2001 .
.
, , , 7

258

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

, . ,
" " [197].

.
,
-
.
,
-
.
. -
-
. ,

.
2002 . .
, . -
4 ( ) 23 %
( ). 25 % ,
2001 . -
, ,
, -

. -
61,4 %,
4,3 .
2001 ., -
, -
. 3,8 %,
13,2 %, 16,5 %
, .
. : "
- , " [198].
. , -
,
, -
.

-
.

259

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .


.
" -
", -
, "
,
, " [199].
-
( ) -
, 2003 . -

,
( ) .
, -
-
, -
,
,
. : " -
".
-
-
, ,
. ,
-
, -
. ,
-
. -
,
, .

, -
.
. -
,
,
. -
.

260

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

, "
-
" [200].

-
, . -
,

[201].

-
. 2002 .
. -
,
-. . -

" -
, ,
- ". 2002 . . -
: " ,
".


[202].
2002-2003 .
" ".

2002 .
"
".
. -
2002 . . .

" ", " " [203].
" ",
2002 ., , .
, -
. :
, 180 -
, ,

261

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

"",
[204].
, , -
,
. ,
, " ,
".
, .
. , ,

. -
,
-
. , -
( 2003 .),
: " .
, ,
, ,
.
" [205].
"" -
"". 2003 . -

, , -
, " " :
" ", "
!" [206].
31 2003 . "" .
2003 . "
: ". -
-
, ,

[207].

- - . , . , -
2003 ., ,
. , -
, -
- ,

262

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

. -
.
:
, . "
.
. -
, ", -
[208].

.
-
.
,

.

263

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

1. . - 1999. - 6 .
2. . - 2001. - 29 .
3. . . -
// 6. - .: , ,
1998. - . 45
4. . - 2001. - 29 .
5. . - 1999. - 6 .
6. . - 13 .
7. . - 20 .
8. . - 27 .
9. . - 2000. - 15 .
10. . - 1999. - 11 .
11. . - 2000. - 6 .
12. . - 2000. - 5. - . - . 22.
13. BASA-press. - 2000. - 27 .
14. . - 2001. - 29 .
15. . - 1999. - 19 .
16. . - 1999. - 5 .
17. . - 1999. - 10 .
18. . - 1999. - 10 .
19. . - 22 .
20. . - 23 .
21. . - 1 .
22. . - 16 .
23. -. - 1999. - 21 .
24. . - 1999. - 21 .
25. -. - 2000. - 9 .
26. . - 16 .
27. . - 2000. - 26 .
28. -. - 2000. - 16 .
29. . - 2001. - 18 .
30. . - 2000. - 16 .
31. . - 2000. - 16 .
32. -. - 2000. - 19 .
33. . - 2000. - 22 .
34. . - 2000. - 17 .
35. . - 20 .
36. -. - 2000. - 22 . - 16 (619). - . 1.
37. -MN. - 2000. - 19 .

264

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

38. -. - 2000. - 18 .
39. . - 19 .
40. -MN. - 2000. - 22 .
41. . - 28 .
42. . - 2000. - 13 .
43. -. - 2000. - 12 .
44. . - 2000. - 15 .
45. -. - 2000. - 17 .
46. . - 2000. - 9 .
47. . - 4 .
48. -. - 2000. - 1 .
49. . - 5 .
50. . - 2000. - 15 .
51. . - 29 .
52. The Economist. - 2000. - July 13.
53. . - 2000. - 4 .
54. . - 2001. - 21 .
55. . - 13 .
56. . - 8 .
57. -. - 2000. - 31 .
58. News Brief No. 00/122 // International Monetary Fund. - 2000. - Decem-
ber 21.
59. Press Release No. 00/72 // International Monetary Fund. - 2000. - Decem-
ber 15.
60. World Economic Outlook // International Monetary Fund. - 2001. - May. -
. 46.
61. . - 2000. - 9 .
62. -. - 2000. - 6 .
63. . - 2000. - 24 .
64. . - 27 .
65. . - 2000. - 20 .
66. . - 2001. - 10 .
67. -. - 2001. - 29 .
68. . - 2001. - 27 .
69. . - 2001. - 28 .
70. . - 2001. - 22 .
71. -. - 2001. - 13 .
72. . - 2001. - 6 .
73. . - 2001. - 3 .
74. . - 2001. - 13 .
75. . - 2001. - 14 .
76. . - 2001. - 5 .

265

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

77. . - 2001. - 9. - 5 . - . 59.


78. . - 2001. - 21 .
79. . - 2001. - 21 .
80. . - 2001. - 4 .
81. -. - 2000. - 1 .
82. . - 2001. - 24 .
83. BASA-general. - 2001. - 6 .
84. . - 10 .
85. . - 31 .
86. . - 2001. - 15 .
87. . - 12 .
88. . - 12 .
89. . - 2002. - 30 .
90. . - 2002. - 1 .
91. . - 2003. - 9 .
92. . - 9 .
93. . - 2003. - 15 .
94. . - 2003. - 14 .
95. . - 17 .
96. . - 2003. - 30 .
97. . - 2003. - 31 .
98. . - 14 .
99. . - 25 .
100. . - 11 .
101. . - 12 .
102. -MN. - 2001. - 6 .
103. "". - 2001. - 29
104. . - 2002. - 25 ; 1 ; 5 .
105. . - 1 ; 15 .
106. . - 18 .
107. . - 9 .
108. . - 17 ; 18 .
109. . - 26 ; 9 .
110. . - 2 ; 6 ; 26 ; 15 .
111. . - 22 .
112. . - 14 ; 20 .
113. . - 26 .
114. . - 21 .
115. . - 10 .
116. . - 18 ; 24 .
117. . - 2003. - 10 .
118. . - 2003. - 25 .

266

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

119. . - 2003. - 12 ; 13 .
120. . - 19 .
121. . - 2003. - 16 ; 19 .
122. . - 5 ; 26 .
123. . - 16 ; 23 .
124. . - 6 .
125. . - 2003. - 24 .
126. . - 12 .
127. . - 17 ; 2 ; 7 ; 17 .
128. . - 2003. - 22 .
129. . - 2003. - 18 .
130. . - 19 .
131. . - 20 ; 21 .
132. . - 25 ; 26 ; 27 .
133. . - 28 .
134. . - 2003. - 26 .
135. . - 2003. - 3 ; 4 ; 5 .
136. -. - 1999. - 6 .
137. . - 2000. - 28 . - . 35.
138. http://www.ng.ru/cis/2000-10-12/5_third.html
139. . // -
- . - 2001. - 23. - 15 .
140. . - 2001. - 2 .
141. . - 2001. - 18 .
142. . - 2001. - 1 .
143. BASA-general. - 2001. - 27 .
144. . - 12 .
145. . - 2001. - 1 .
146. . - 12 .
147. BASA-general. - 2001. - 17 .
148. . - 7 .
149. . - 6 .
150. . - 19 .
151. . - 2002. - 1 .
152. . - 2002. - 12 .
153. . - 2002. - 15 .
154. . - 2 .
155. . - 2002. - 13 .
156. . - 23 ; 27 ; 9 .
157. . - 2002. - 15 .
158. . - 19 ; 26 .
159. .- 2004. - 17 ; 31 .

267

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

160. . - 23 .
161. . - 2002. - 13 .
162. Basa-press. - 2002. - 21 .
163. . - 8 .
164. . - 2003. - 12 ; 19 ; 20 .
165. . - 2003. - 19 .
166. . - 2003. - 17 .
167. . - 2001. - 14 .
168. . - 2001. - 26 .
169. . - 2001. - 7 .
170. . - 2001. - 31 .
171. . - 2001. - 26 .
172. "". - 2001. - 14 .
173. http://news.ournet.md/cgi-bin/ournet/mnews /page. cgi?ID = 13983
174. . - 2001. - 9 .
175. . - 17 .
176. . - 2002. - 23 ; 29 ; 2003. - 26
28 .
177. . - 2002. - 1 ; 5 ; 26 .
178. . - 2002. - 4 .
179. . - 2002. - 18 ; 15 .
180. . - 2003. - 12 ; 2002. - 26 ;
2003. - 31 .
181. . - 2002. - 17 ; 2003. - 29 ; 28 ; 21 .
182. - 2003. - 24 .
183. . - 2002. - 2 ; 4 .
184. . - 2002. - 6 .
185. . - 13 .
186. . - 20 .
187. . - 2003. - 8 .
188. . - 8 ; 18 ; 15 ; 22 ; 29 ;
13 .
189. . - 2001. - 27 (427). - 3 .
190. . - 2001. - 11 .
191. BASA-general. - 2001. - 27 .
192. . - 2001. - 8 .
193. BASA-general. - 2001. - 20 .
194. BASA-economic. - 2001. - 24 .
195. . - 2001. - 25 .
196. BASA-general. - 2001. - 5 .
197. . - 7 .
198. . - 2002. - 4 ; 15 ; 2 .

268

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1998-2004 .

199. . - 22 .
200. . - 30 .
201. - 29 .
202. . - 29 ; 14 ; 13 ; 18 .
203. - 10 ; 29 .
204. . - 2002. - 25 .
205. . - 2002. - 27 ; 2003. - 26 ;
23 .
206. . - 28 ; 7 .
207. . - 31 .
208. . - 2003. - 26 .

269

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
:
-

. . ,
. .

,
,
, -
, -
. -
-
10 -
, ,
. -

, 1993,
1996, 1998 2000 .1



XVII .,
, -
_________________________

1
1993 1996 . -
, . 1998 .
, . 2000 .
,
.
, ,

.

271

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

. (),
, -
,
,
- XVII-
XVIII .
- , , , , -
. : XIX . -
,
1 % 1.
XIX ., -

1812 ., ,
,
,
, ,
,
.
XIX .

,
.

,
. ,
,
. ,
1897 ., 7 %
. 15,7 %,
26,6 % [1],
. ,
, 155,7 . ,
8,1 % [2]. ,
, 1897 . -
,
, -
"", " ".
_________________________

1
1897 . (
1897 . - ., 1905. - . III.)

272

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. , 123,1 .
[3]. . 100 . [4].
I . -
, 50-60- .
.
1897 ., 45,9 %.

, I .
40 %, , 10 %
[5].
1897 .
,
, , , , -
, 60 %.
(37 %),
- (36 %), (20 %) -
.
,

.
,
, , -
.
1897 . ( ).
40,7 .
(16,9 % ), 40 % .
-
14 . [6].
, ,
- .
1917 .
.
1918 . , -

(). , 1926 .,
,
( ) , 48,9 .
, 8,5 % .
( )
. (60,7 %) .

273

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

19,2 .
, .. 23,3 % .
. -
, , 12 .

(55 %) [7].

.
20- .

. ,
- :
.
-
, -
. -
, -
, ,
. "

, ,
, "
" ...
1918 .
,
,
...

. , -
, - ,
- " [8].
1922 1930 . 300 . [9].
30- .,
, ,
, , , . -
1929 . -
.
, 1930 .,

: - 351,9 . , 12,3 % ,

274

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.
(28,3 %) , -
. , , -
-
, 1930 . 200 .
[10].
1940 . -
- (),
. -

.
283,1 . , -
126,0 ., - 82,7, - 38,0 . [11].
4
- 150,3 . .

40-
-
.
, -
(
, -
), -
. 1959 1989 .
2,9 4,3
, .. 50,3 %,
91,8 %, 293 562 . ,
30,5 % (. 1).
1959 . - - -
65,4 %, 14,6 %
10,2 % - . 9,8 %
, , . 1989 . -
64,5 %,
( 13,8 %) ( 3,3 1,5 %), ,
13,0 % (. 2).

275

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

1970 1979 1989 1989


( % 1959) ( % 1970) ( % 1979) ( % 1959)
122,1 109,6 110,7 148,1
120,4 110,6 107,1 142,5
141,3 122,2 111,1 191,8
130,2 110,4 111,2 159,4
119,3 109,4 109,8 141,9
103,2 81,6 82,0 69,5
123,7 110,6 109,8 150,3

*
: . - , 1992. - . 16.

2

( % )*
1959 1970 1979 1989
65,4 64,6 63,9 64,5
14,6 14,2 14,2 13,8
10,2 11,6 12,8 13,0
3,3 3,5 3,5 3,5
2,1 2,1 2,0 2,0
3,3 2,7 2,0 1,5
1,1 1,3 1,6 1,7
*
: . - , 1992. - . 16, 23.

, , ,
, -
. 1959 . 66,6 %, 1989 . -
86,1 %,
9,6 33,5 %. , -
,

276

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


:
23,9 %,
46,3 %.
3,4 % (1989 .), 80,3 %.
-
: 1959 . 35,7 % ,
1989 . 36,1 %.
1989 . 26,4 %,
49,2 %.

,
: ,
,
,
,
-
,
. , 70- .
-
. 70- .
: -
, , .
70-
80- . ,
, , -
. 80- .
, , ,
.
,
-
.


,
- -
, "" ,
.
- -
. 50- . 90 % -
, -

277

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

5 %.
1.
,
.
,
-
, -
, ,
, , , , -

. ,
, ,
1959 ., - 46 %, .. 4,5
(10,2 %)
.

,
, , ,
,
.

-


. -
. ,
, "-
" -
"" -
, , ,
.
,
- , -
, ,
, (, , -
, , ..).
_________________________

1

1959, 1979 ( . - 1562. - 336. - . .
2884, 7456) 1989 . ( . - . 32 , 33 ).

278

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



.
. , 1959 1989 . ( -
) -
24 36 %,
, , , , -
17 19 %. , ,
, , , ,
5 ( 3 16 %),
( 5 17 %).
90- .
60 % ( - 50 %),

, , , -
, . 38 %
( - 25 %),
- 31 % ( - 19 %).
, ,
,
,
.

. , 1959 . 1
133, ..
30
-
. 1979 . 127, 1989 . -
124. 52 1959 . 86
1989 .
80- . -
-
, -
,
- 34 % 21 - .
, ""
.
_________________________

1
: ()
, () .
,
() , .

279

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, ( ) 37 %
, - 49 %.
, -
, ,
. -
.
-
. -

,
.
159 1959 . 93
1989 ., .. 80- .
,
. ( 1959 1989 .
129 109) (
122 82). -
, ,
, , 80- .
, .
-
(, ) -
.
, -
-
, -
,
1,4 , - -
, ,
, -
, -
.
, ,
-
. ,
. -
,
- . -
, , -
"" .

280

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-
-
,
-
.

, -
-
, .
80- . , ,
,
.. , 23 %.
, 70 - 80- .
,
, ,
. -
-
.
1989 . ,
-

2 ( ) 1,4 -
.
-
-
.
80- . 6-
- 47 % ( - 39 %) 5-
- 34 % ( - 28 %).
, -
-
, .
- -
,
80- - 90- .

, , -
-
,
, .

281

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .



- ,
,
, ,
,
, .

,
,
,
. " -
" (
).
, 23 1990 .,
.
, -

, , ,
, ..
1989 . -
, -
,
-
, ,
, .
,
: -
,
,
;
; ,
.
1994 . - , -
,
. -
,
282

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


,
, .
, , -
: ,
.
-
90- ., "" -
-
,
,
, ,
. -
, ,

.
,
, -
-
, , ,
. 1992 .
, -
.


,
.
,
80- - 90- ., , -

, -
, , ,
.
- -
.
, -
-
,
. , -
,
, , ,

283

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

() .
, -

,
( ,
" "),

-
, ,
, , , .

, , , -
, , -
.
.
,
, , -
, ..

.
-
. -
(
1994 ., 1997 .),
,
,
,

.


, - . .
, "...
-
" [12].
, ,
,
. 90- .,
-
, ,

284

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-
, -
, -
, ,
.
-
,
, , -

.
,
.
- 90- .
, 1997 . .

" " -
", "
, . 7
" "
" ".
"-
" -
, -
, ,
,
, , , , -
, , ..
,
, -
, , ,
,
.
" -
", -
,

, . ,
90- . ,
, , -
.

285

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

80- - 90- . -
. ,
1989 ., -
. 1990-1992 .
127,8 . . -
,
, , . , "
,
" [13]. , ,
.
90- . -
, ,
. , .
2001 .
, -
, , -
. ,
-
, -

.

, 2001 .
,
, .
, , "-
,

, -
" [14]. -
, -

, .
, -
, ,
,

. , ,
, , ,

286

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.

, -
- ,
, -
. ,
2000 ., 14 % ,
, 80 %
. , 18 % , 20 %
, , 42 % , -
, , , .
, -
: 14 % , ,
, 83 % .
, -
,
.
(16-30 ), -

. 10-17 %
, , 74
78 %
. , 17-20 %
, 17-21 % , 36-44 % -
, , , , .
,
, , -

, 20 % .
, -
-
. 30 %
: 14 % ,
6 - -, 9 - - 5 % -
.
, "" -
,
,
. , -
, ,

287

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, ,
:
-
14 %, 7 % - 3 - -
, - 9 % .
, -
,
:
2/3
,
. ,
,
:
(11 %) -
(9 %) , - - (12 %)
- (11 %), - -
(14 %) (7 %).

,
-
.
,
,
.
9 14 % . 3-5 % -

, 5 %
, , -
- -
, .

-
, :
1-3 % 16 30
.
, 20 %
, 2000 ., -
, 18 %.
-
,

288

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


: , 20 30 %
. -
, ,
, : 45 % -
, -
. -
,
.
, ,
, -
. -
18 1998 . -
"", (
) , , , , .
-
, ,

,
.

90- .
.
90- .
. - ,
, .
, ,
, -
. -
, " , ".
-

, (
, -
..), .
- -
,

289

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, -
, -
,
.
-
, . 1991 . -

81 % ,
, 1999 . 33 %
, , -
[15].

. -
, ,
90- . ,
,
, -
- ,
, -
- .
" " -
, -
.
1990 .
,
.
, , -
. 1989 . -
, -
, 2,3 ,
, 1996 . - 7 [16].
-
- ,
, , ,
, ,
.
,
. 2 ( 1989 1991)
( )
50 53 % [17].

290

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



, ,
. , -
, -
, ,
, -
.
,
.
90- .
. -
1996 . ( 1991 .)
64, 46 %
1991 . [18]. 1997 .
. 1998, 1999 . -

.
-
- "" . , 1990 1995 .
( )
21 9 %,
38 54 % [19]. 1999 . -

3,7 % [20]. -
,
, "", "", -
.

,
.

, : 1991 1999 .
165 ( 6,6 . 0,04).
-
. ,
, 100 ,
2,5 , - 2,3 , - 2,4 , -
- 1,4 [21].
,
,

291

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

90- . ( 1991 1992)


192 (15 . ),
1999 . 35 .,
, -
, 1,2 . [22]. -
-
.
, . 1991 .
12
, , 1999 . 7-
, .
90- ., , -
.
, -
, -
. 1990 . -
30 % ,
1996 . - , 16 % [23].
1993 1996 . ,
, 30 . ( 1,02 ),
1,5 , -
- [24].
, . , 1996 1999 .
-
1,2 , 11 %, - 1,1
[25].

90- . -
,
. 1991 1999 .
2,8 [26].
, -
, , ,
.
, (-
, , ),
. 1,5
.
, , -
.

292

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, 90- . -

, . -

1993 ., (37 %)
"" , -
, " ", ..
60 %
. -
, 51 % -
.
1993 . -
-
: 44 % -
, ; 38 %
; 31 % -
.
. 90- .
, , ,
, -
"", -
.
, -
, ,
.
90- .
, ,
-
. -
, ,
-
, -
-
. ,
, ,
, ,

( , ..). ,
, ,
, "" .

293

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

1996 .
,
.
, ,
( 38 15 %). ,
, ,
- - -
, , ..,
1,5 , 1993 . ( 64 %
43). ,
,
1996 . 1,5 (22,5 % 33).

1996 . ,
1993 . (34 % ).
90- ., , -
, -

.
-

. ,
,
, 90- .
1991 . 1996 . 1466 ,
- 291 [27].
1996 .
48 % , 186 ,
240 . [28]. 90- .,

, -
.
1996 1999 . 1,4 - 40,7 29 .
1996 . 6-
, 1999 . - 9- [29]. ,
() -
( 1996 1999 . - 187,1 304,6),
, ( ),
, .
1996 .

294

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


3-
, 1999 .
2- (518,6 ). -
1,8 , -
- 1,6.
, .
90- . 3- (455,3 ),
-
(438,8 ).
(172,8 ), (186,7 ) (193 ),
, .
-
1999 . 2,8 ( 1996 . -
1,8 ) [30].
90- .
. 1993 ., -
, , ,
. -
: 90 %
,
60 %.
-
, 40 % ,
, ,
, .
, -
,
, . ,
,
, (, ),
20 %, -
6 %. : 24 %
5.
,
, , -
.
- . -
90- .

, ,

295

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .


.
90- . -
.
. -
, ,
(" ")
, 40 % 17 1993 .
1,6 , 36 %.
-
-
,
,
( )
, -

( 11 % 1996 . 5 1993 .).
24 14 %.
2000 . ,
,
1996 . , 15 %.
(" ") -
- 22 %.



,
, , -
( ,
, ..),
-
,
.

90- . -
, .
90- .
, , , ,
, ,

296

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-
. , ,
, , , -
, , , , , ,
.
, ,
, , -

,
,
,
.
, 1993 . 45 % -
,
.
(83 % ,
94 % ) ,

,
.
90- .

, , -
, -
, .
,
, .
1996 . ,
, -
, ,
80 %. , 84 % ,
-
.
1996 . -
- (44 %) ,
,
( 6 % ), 23 %
. 3 %
2 % -
.

297

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .


, -
,

,
.
,
-
,
,
, -
. , -
,
, -
.
, -
.

, -
, 90- .,
. . -

, .
1993 1996 . ,
3 -

(

, - ),
, -
, , , . 1993 . -
15 % 14 % -
, 1996 .
- 29 %,
- 16 %.

-
,

-

298

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, -
.
,
, -
, , , , , -
.
,
""
, -
. 90- . -
,
- . 1996 .
, , ,
(-
16 21 %), -
- 29 19 %,
-
, -
,
.
1993 1996 .

. , -
,
,
53 68 %, , , -
27 32 %.
. 1996 ., 1993,
,
-
, ,
. -
-

, -
, -
.
,
,
.

299

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, ,
.
, -
(. 3).
40 % ,
(
).
,
.

3

( % )*



22 18 61
36 47 26
35 33 11
6 2 2
1 0 0
*

1999 .

,
, ,

, . , -

37 % , 26 %.

: 88 %
, , -
- 2,4 %,
7 %. -
""
. ,
, 50 % ,
- 61 %,

300

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


26 %
- 13 %.
-
, .
(80 %) ,
. ,
63 %.
19 % , - 30 %.
, , , -
90- . -
,
,
,
.
, , ,
, ,

, ,
.
-
90- . ,
, -
,
, -
.. , -
, -
,
, ,
, , -

,
.

. 1996 . -
60 % -
[31]. -
, .
,
. ,
.

301

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

-
, ,
.
, ,
, "" .
, -
-
, , -
,
. ,
,
, 1993
1996 . ( 10 24 %),
( 61 55 %).
38 43 %.

,
, . ,

- ,
, -
.
-
" " [32],
, , -
, ,
- (
100 ). , -

, ,
, , -
, .. , , -
,
-
.
,


. , -
- 23 % (

302

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, 12 %),
(9 %)
- - (9 %).
, , -
, 6 %,
- 3 %.
-
. -
2000 ., ,
,
.
- (33 % ),
"", (30 %).
18 % , -
,
.
-
.
90- .
, -
, -
,
.
2000 ., 63 % 77 %
,
, . 40 % ,
, 47 % -

.
, , , ,
, ( )
,
,
: (30 %
), (24 %),
, -
, , -
(45 %). -
(22 %) -
.

303

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, ,
,

" " 3-10 %
.
, ,
,
44 % , , , -
,
. , (37 %)
, ,
: " -
, ,
".
, ,
" " ,

. 41 % -
,
, 28 % , .
14 % .

. 60 % , -
-
, , (22 %)
(39 %).

: 46 %
51 % - ,

.

, (80 %
).

80- . ,
,

304

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, ,

"" , -
.
80- - 90- .
, -
.
90- .
"" . -
, -
, -
.
1989 1999 .
3,2 -
, 13 % .
, -
1,1 (. 4).
(448 .),
(224 .), (219 .), (310 .),
(190 .). -
-
. , -
( 49 %) : 2/3
(64 %) ,
( 46 %).

( 2,1 ), -

22 %. -
(18 %) -
, (24 %), -
(26 %) (27 %).
, -
( 57 %).

11 %, (13 %)
(12 %).
10 %.

305

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

4

*

2000 . ( %
(. .) 1989 .)
, 2091 73
1111 82
448 73
219 76
224 43
89 74
, 384 51
190 51
161 54
33 36
, 378 97
310 97
13 99
55 90
, 196 89
93 90
58 88
45 87
3049 87

*
.


3 %:
(1 %) (3 %). - -
,
90- .
1997-1999 . , -
,
(10 %).
" " ( 1989 .
. [33]), -
.
1990 ., 11 , ,

306

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, ,
4 - ,

. -
, , , -
. 1989 . ,

, "" .
-
. 1989 .
(74 ),
1990 . 3 . , 1992 .,
, - 11 .
. 1993 . , 3
6-7 . . 2000 .
3 . .
1990-1999 .
55 . , 10 % -
. , -
"" " -
!" " - - "
. 1993 .
-
.
, 1993 .
1,0 [34]. 7 ( 1993 1999 .) -

11 . , 2 % .
,
12 % .
- , -
90- ., -
,
, . -
600 . ,
- ,
[35].
90- .
,
, : ?

307

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

,
() -
1993 ., , .. ,

,
25 %. ,
.
-
29 %.
1996 .
. 11 % -
. ,
3 , 1993 .,
. -, -
; -,
-
,
; -, 5 , ,
- -
; -, ,
,
,
..
2000 .,
,
, -
: 27 %
. ,
(CSOP)
2001 ., 26 % -
[14].
,
, ,
, , , , [36].
, -
( 80 % )
, .
80- ., -

,

308

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


- ,
.
90- . - , -
, -, , -
.
-
, .

( 80- . .) (
)
-
. -
(,
,
, .. ) -
. -
,
1992 . , ,
,
.
-
1993 ., , -
-
. ,
90 % ,
, - 80 %.
1996 . :
90 %
, - 75 % .
-
-
. 2000 . ,
73 % -
- , . -
, , ,
,
, - 86 % -
.
-
: 1993 .

309

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

10 % ,
40 %.
. 1996 . , ,
-
, 27 %, , ,
- 20 %. 2000 .
, 2/3 -
, , -
. 1/4 -
. ,
,
, 4/5 ,
, 40 %
, .

90- .
. -
. 1994 .

,
1991 ., 1,8 ( 8,3 15 %)
,
, -
[37].

1993 .,
2- -
, 1- " ,
" ( 60 %) (. 5). -
- .
-
,
,
,
.

90- .
:
, .

310

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



( % )

1993 1996 2000 2001


50 10 4 4

, 56 24 12 8

42 15 8 6

14 15 5 9
27 20 57 47

30 24 19 14
17 7 15 10
8 5 5 1

42 34 10 10

14 7 0 3
3 5 8 1

, ,
, 1996 ., ,
1993 .
,
,
,
"". ,
( ) - 34 %
- 24 %, 2- 3-
,
.
2000 .
. -
, - , -
. -

311

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

(57 %), 2-
(19 %),
3- - , (15 %).

. , ,
, -
12 % , -
9 % , -
- 4 % .

, .
, -
-
.
, 90- . -
- -
,
.

, 90- .:
, -
,
, - ,
. -
,
, -
, ""
. -
,

,
, .
, ,
, , , -
, , -
, "" - -
.
,
,
, ,

312

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


* *
*
-
-
.
, -
,
-
., 2000-2001 .

.
-
, , -
, .
. 2001 . -
.
, -

.
,
. -
,
.
,
, .
.
, ,
,
. , ,
.

, ,

.
-

.

313

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, 90- .,
-
-,
.

. 2001 .

,
-

.
- -

. , -
-
. , -
.

20 - -
. 2000 .
. -
. . ,
, .
-
, , . ",
- , . ,
" ( , 31 2002 .).
. " ,
...
"
( ). , , , ,
, -
, -
, , -
(
).
,
,
, -
, .

314

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1. . . . , ,
. - , 1990. - . 22.
2. . - . 70-73.
3. . . XIX . -
- . - , 1979. - . 138.
4. . . - . . - . 59.
5. 1897 . -
., 1905. - . 41.
6. . - . 47 ( .). - . 90.
7. 1926 . - ., 1929. - .
(). - . 182-183.
8. . . .
(1918 - 20-
.) - . - , 1997. - . 42- 43.
9. . . .
. - , 1973. - . 31.
10. . . - . . - . 91.
11. . . - . . - . 40.
12. Momentul. - 1996. - 20 martie.
13. . - 1996. - 3 .
14. . // . - 2001. - 26
.
15. / . -
., 2000. - . 9.
16. .
. - ., 1998. - . 38.
17. . -
. - ., 1991. - . 60.
18. - 1995 . -
, 1996. - . 4-6.
19. . . . - , 1997. - . 212.
20. / . -
., 2000. - . 27.
21. . - . 43, 47.
22. . - . 16, 367.
23. . -
. - ., 1991. - . 54; / -
. - ., 2000. - . 366.
24. . 1996 . - , 1997. - . 46.

315

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

25. / . -
., 2000. - . 366.
26. . . - . . - . 56;
/ . - ., 2000. - . 408.
27. 1996 . / -
. - ., 1997. - . 135.
28. . 1996 . - , 1997. - . 64.
29. / . -
., 2000. - . 35.
30. . - . 401.
31. 1996 . / -
. - ., 1997. - . 51.
32. / . - , 2000. - 1.
33. . . . . - .,
1993. - . 1. - . 103-104.
34. . . -
. - ., 1997. - . 11, 20.
35. . - . 25.
36. . - 2001. - 14 .
37. . - 24 .

316

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com




. .


, , -
,
.
,
.
-

.

.


, IX-XII .

-
.
,
,
. XVII . -
.
XVII . , -
, -
.
XIV . -
,
317

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

(
). -
-
-
. 1387 .
- . -
.
1401 .
-
. -
,
.
-
.
XVI .
. -
, "" -
.
,
-
.
, -
.
XVI-XVIII . -
.

.
,
-
.
XVIII .


-1,
. -
,
. ,
________________________

1
- , -
.

318

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


:
, .
, ,
.
:

.
-
, 1
( ),
.

-
, , -
, .
1814 .
, ,
.

(, ,
, , , .) -
. -

-
. 30- . XIX . -
, , 3,5 .
[1]. , , -
XIX .
[2].
: 1847 .
20 232 , 50 ,
1897 ., 11 - 228 528. XIX .
12 % , -
( 1897 . - 50
108 . .) [3]. 1903 .
(
43 ., - 39 ).

________________________

1
- .

319

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

" "

1917 .
. 1925 .
( 1885 .)

, -
( 1919 .) .

.
,
,
. 20- .
1 . ,
23 - , 29
, 366 , 19 600 -
, -
[4].
20-30- .

: -
, (
. 1939 .). .
" " -
. -
:
,
, "" .
1938 . :
, -
,
. 1938 .
. -
, "
".

, -
.
1919-1920 ., - 1925 ., 20 - 30- . -
, . 1940 .,

320

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


,
. -
,
-
. ( ).
22 1941 .
. "-
".
,
-
( 10 . ).
1941-1944 .
,
" ".
-
-
.

:
,

. -
1944 . ,
- .


-
. 1946-1947 . ,
,
,
601 ( 950 -
) [5].

-
,
. -
" "",

321

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .


, , -
, -
, -
- ,
" [6].

, -
. 1946-1947 . ,

, .
, 30 .
. -

-
.
1950 . 30 -
, , , "-
" (, , -
, .).
: 1949 . 232 -
.


. -
, -
, ,
, -
.
40- - 50- . -
(, -
, ..)
. -
.
60- .
- [7].
-

. -
.

322

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, .

-
, -
, 1 [8],
.

: ?

,
, 1991 .

.
,
. -
-

-
.
-
-

.
. "" -
,
- ,
.
,
. , -
( )
, , -
. -
, -
,
[9].
________________________

1

60- ., -
16,3 % (.. ,
, ..),
82,8 %, - 88,1 %.

323

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

1991 .
27 , 33 -
,
"" .
, " -
" [10].
90- .
- ,


.
-
,
. -
-
- () ,
" -
,
, " ", .
, - -
,
.
. ,
" [11].
, -
, (" - - " ..)
"" ,
35 % -
, -
.
, -
,
.
90- . 90 % (
" ")
, " -
" [12].
, -
.
: 1994 .

324

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, .

, -
.
-

.
,

, 1 [13].
-
.

-
:
- 853, - 11, -
- 14, -
- 1, - - 11,
- 2, - 6,
- 61, -
- 184, - 2, - 34.
221 [14].
:
(. 31), -

, ,
, -
.

, -
:

,
________________________

1
2002 . 3,5 . -
, -
, -
, , ..

325

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

,
..
-
.
, -
-
.
20 .
, ,
, (

).


.

,
( -
, -
..). 1998 .
-
.

, , -

, -

.
,
-
. -

, , ,
.

( 30 .
).
, -
- (),
.

326

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com




.
, ,

. ,
, , , ,
.

90- .
.
-

.
, -

,
1992 .
.
,
, . -
,

.
.

( , . ),
1 .
, -
"-
" , "-

" [10].

,
. . 80- -
90- .
________________________

1
-
" ",
, .

327

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

.
,
.

, -
.


( ).

, -
( "
, "). -
,
,
, ,
.

" "

. -
, -
. -

. , , "-
" -
,
[10].
-
, -
.

- ,
-
-
.

-
. -

328

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



.
-

.
, -
,

.
1994-1999 .
-
, , ( . ), ,
( ), , ,
( . ) ..

( 100) -
. ,

.

-
. ,
-
.
1999 .
-
, , -
, .
, -

-
. 2002 . -
II
,
.


, -
,
. ,

329

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .


, -
" " [13].
-
, -
. 1997 . -

.
2001 .
. -

-
.
"-
" 1998 .
-
(). 2001 .
-
,
7 . -
, -
, -
,
, -
, - .
, , -
-
.

, . 9 13
( -
-
). ,
,
,
. ,
, ,
27,02 .

.

330

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



. , " -
.
.
. ,
. -
,
" [15].

.
.
,
" -
-
" [13].

.
, "
, -
, ,
.
, , -
, 1940 ., -
, ,
, -
. ,
,
, , -
,
" [13].
-
. -
-
. , "
-
. ,
,
" [15].

331

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .


. . , -
, -
.
.
.
.

2002 .
" -
".
.
2002 . -
-
.
,
.
-

.

* *
*

.
-
, ,
.
,
,
.

-
.

.
-
, -
-
.

332

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


,
-

,
, . -

,

.

333

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

1. . . . - - . - , 1993. -
. 174.
2. . - . 176.
3. . - , 1908-1913. - . 4. - . 373-377.
4. . . (
- -
) / -
. - .: , 1968. - . 12.
5. . - ., 1999. - . 222.
6. . - . 224.
7. . - . 244.
8. . . . . - . 10-11.
9. . - 2001. - 29 .
10. . - 2002. - 25 (http:www.for-ua.com).
11. . - 2001. - 11 .
12. . - . - ., 1999. - . 72-73.
13. BASA-general. - 2002. - 27 .
14. / . - , 1992. - . 73.
15. BASA-general. - 2002. - 12 .

334

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


IV. ?

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
:

. .

- ,
(), -
,
. "-" -
,
() -
-
: -
, . ,
(). . 1 -
-
, .
() -
- , -
405 , ,
.
, -
-
. ,

( ) -
.
- - ,
. ,
- , "" .
,
.
,
337

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

( ), -

,
-
.



33, 7 . . 4,163 . .
4 335 . 660 .

(%):
64 33
11,7 29
10,7 29
127 . . 160 . .
27 1991 . 2 1990 . (-
( - -
) -
, -
1991 . - )
(
1993 .) ( 1994 .)
9 5 ,

- -
-- -
( 1995 . -

, -
)
- , , , -
- , - -
-- (,
, )


, , ,

338

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


:

( -
) -
-
, -
, .
, ,
(,
, , , ).
. ( -
)

(), , , ,
, , , , , .
-
( - , , ,
), ( -
, , ,
, , , -
, .).

.
"" -
. ,
.

-
, " -
" 5 2000 .,
( 2000 .),
, .

. -, -
.

. -
.

339

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

,
.

()
2001 .
-
, ,
, . 20
1.

-
. -
, -

. , -
() , -
, ,
, -
.

, -
. -
. ,

.
, ,
Transparency International, .
, 2001 . -
Transparency International Moldova -
, UNDP-Moldova
" -
". -

. Transparency International
__________
1
. : . . , . . . -
1998-2004 .
340

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


:

, 2/3

, 63 % - .
,
, .
, "Timpul"
, ,
"" , ,
,
40 % .
, 2001 . Transparency International

. 2001 . 63- 91
, (74- 2000 75- 1999 .).
,
3,1. , -
.
71 , - 81, - 83, - 84.

. ,
. -

"" "" . -

, . " ", , , "
, - ,
, , , ".
-
,
,
(). , -
-
. - -
,
, 2000 . 1 , .. 40 %.
40 , -
(
), 12 %
.

341

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

(, ), . , -
" ".
, -
, .
, -
, , -
1 .
,
, -
:
- ;
- (

);
- , -
.


1 -
.
1. -
-
.
2. -
, "-
".
3. -
. 1989-1999 .
3
,
.

__________
1
. : . . . -
; . . . -
; . . , . . .
.
342

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


:

4.
.
5. - ,
60 % -
.
6. .
7. , -
.
8. , -
,
, , .
9. ,
( ""
1 ) -
.
,
, -
-
(
- , , , , , -
, ).

, ,
,
.

, -
, -
, .

,
. ,
90- ., ,
""
.
-
,

343

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

, -
.
-
, ( )
.
, -
, -
( 1997 .) .
,
(
),
, -
.
""
,
, ,
. , -
. , -
,
-
. , ,

,

.


-
, - -
.
.
. ,
.
2001 .
.
- -
. -
,

.

344

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


:

,
-
.
1 2000 . 443 .,
363 , 52 - 24 -
.

( , , )
, .
. -
2003 .
, , , ,
" "
.

2003 .
.


-
, 50 -
. , , -

.
,
.
2- -
. 10 % 16,6 % .
,
- -
.

-
, "-".
,
, ,
.

345

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

50
, , ,
. -
3- .
-
. - -
,
"" , ,
. ,
7 . , -
.
. -

1 ., , , -
1 2001 . -
(
).
-
( -
) -
. 1990 .
, -
" " "
" " ", -
. 1991 . " "
, -
1940 . -

, ,
.
, -
-

. ,
. , -

. ,

346

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


:

. , -
,
--
,
. -
"
" , , - -
.
, , -
-

, ,
.

, ,
,
.

2002 . -
, -
. ,
,
.

. -
.
- . , , -


. -,

1991 .,
,
,
. . , " -
, , ,
", -
,
. , ,

347

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

, ,
" ".
-
-
1.

. .
, -
- . -

. "
,
, ,
,
", - .
, " -
", " ", -
"
, ". -
, " " -
.

. 3,5 .
-
, . , "
".
, 2002 ., -
-
38,5 . I -
32
.
4,25 " " -
, .
-
,
, -
" ",
__________
1
. : . . .
.
348

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


:

10,155 ,
- 4,570 .
2003 . - -
. ,
. ,

. -
( -
),
, -
,
.
-
"
", 2003 .,


, -
.
, , -
, ,
""
.

-
1.
,
-
, ,

(. 2). -
- -

" ".
__________
1
. : . . , . . . -
.
349

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

2




- -
-






-
,

-




""






-

- - -
, ,


, , ,

. , ,
,
- , , -
. ,
,
. ,

350

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


:

"-" ,
" ".
:
" ", , -
.
, --
:
, -
,
,
. -
,
. -
, -
. " "

.
-
:
, -
-
. (-
-

)
,
.
"" , -
-
, "",
,
, ,
.

(),
. 1990 .
.

351

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

-

.
, 0,5 1 -
. 1992 . - -
,
1995-1996 1998 .
-
, , , . -
,
, , , -
. -
-, -
- . ,
200 . .

, , , -
97 % . -
- 68 % -
.
,
.
-
.
,
-
. 1999 . -

.
(
2000 ., 37 % -
). -
,
, .

. -
,
, .
-
- , ,

352

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


:

, .
. -
, -
, ( 2 ), -
,
. , 1999 .
12 16 .
( ), 4 . -
.
, ( 80 %) -
.
-
, ,
.
.

.

, ,
-
. , ,
-
. ,
(, -
,
- 30 ) -
, -
, ..
( -
), -
, . 2001 .
.
,
,
(.. ),
,
.
, , . -
, , , , , , , ,

353

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

, -
.



.
() 1999 . 98- 162
(. 3).
, ,
-
- 1995 1999 . 23 . -
2001 . 30 %
1991 .,
- 32,8 ., - 6,9 . ( -
68 25 . ).
375
,
17 .
. (1,6) -
, -
( 1 1 . ) -
. 1991 2000 .
(
) 10 , 12 - ,
.
,
-
. , (-
,
, - ,
, .) , 5-7
.

,
-
.
,

354

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


:

355

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

, -
. .
,
,
. - -
. , -

2 , - 4.
(
.)
,
, .
, -
. 2000-2001 .
79 . , 1,5 , 1991 .

1998 . -
, -
. , 2000/01 . .
-
, 20 % -
, ( ) -
6 % , , 1991 .
,
. 1991 2001 . 1,5
( 1,5 ).
-
. ,
1991 . 4:1, 2000 . - 11:1.

, ,
3 ,
2 2000 . 0,58 %.
,
. . , " -
" ( ). ,
, ,
(!). , "" -
8 .

356

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


:

,
.

, -
, -
- -
.
.
, -
1. ,
. -
, ,
, , -
, -
. ,
: -
2002 .
. , -, -

.

-
-
" ".
2 .
- , -
. -

,
. ,

__________
1
. : . . , . . . -
: -
.
2
. . . , . . . -
1998-2004 .
357

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

,
() .
,
" " .

* *
*
-

"" -
. ,
( -
),
-
.
-
,
,
, .
,
,
, .


, , ,
" "
. ,
(, , )

.
" " " -
".

,
-
,
,
-
, .
-

358

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


:

" ".
: " - ".
-
,
.

.
" ",
, , :
-
, , - -
.
-
-
.

" ", , -
() .
, , -
,
, - -
. " -
- - - - " ..
, , ,
, - -
-
.

. -
,
. , -
, .

,
,
. -
.
1. , -
-
, , , :

359

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

-
(- , ,
..);
- , , -
;
-
.
2. - -
.
, -
,
.
3. - ,
"-
" , , -
, .
4. -
:
- ( -
,
, , , .);
- (
,

, -
,
);
- ( , -
- ,
);
- ( -
, );
- ( -

).

, ( -
)
. , ,

360

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


:

, -
. ,
, :
- ,
, -
;
- - , -
( -

);
- -
, ,
;
- ,
;
- , -
, -
( "" - ..
,
, "" - , -
;
"" ,
);
-
(-) -
, -
- -
();
- .

,
, -
.
, , .


. ,
, (,
0,63 0,41 ).
,

361

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

.
"" , -
.
-

:
, ,
"" ( -
). ,
,
,
.
-
-
.
, ,
()
/ .
"-
" (
) . ,
-
(,
"2+" , ). -
,
,
(, , -
).
, -
.
,
, (. 4).
, , -
, ,
, -
.

362

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


:


-
. -
-
.
, -
. -
.
-
. .
. -
,

.
.
.
-
, -
.
-
.
.
. .
-
- (- .
).

.
- -
- .
.

363

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

1. . . 2-. - ,
2000.
2. . : -
// . - 2003. - 3.
3. . // . - 2002. -
42.
4. 10 : , ,
/ . - .: , 2001.
5. (www.vedomosti.md)
6. . 10 : , , . - ., 2001.
7. . . : //
-
( - ). . 1. - 2001.
8. . . : ,
2001.
9. . - :
"", 2000.
10. . : 10 //
. - 2001. - 12.
11. . : .
? // . - 2002. - 1.
12. . - 2003.
13. . - 2003.
14. //
. - 2003. - 1.
15. . - 2003.
16. . (,
). - : , 2001.
17. (E-mail: pridnestrjdknet.com)
18. / //
. - 2003.
19. . . : 10 -
. - .: , 2001.
20. : 10 -
// . - 2002. - 1.
21. . - .: , 2003.
22. Moldova, Romania, Ukraina: Integratea in Structurile Europene. - Perspec-
tiva. - Chisinau, 2000.

364

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . ,
. .

2
1990 .
.
- -
[1]. ,
24 1995 ., "-
- , , -
, " [2].
,
. , ,
. . 4,2 . . .
,
-
.
[3], 1 2000 . -
660 . . 5 , 167 -
, 4 (, ,
) 8 . -
. (168 . 1999 ., 183,7 . - 1990). 66,3 %
.
1999 . , ,
33,8 % , 28,8 % , 28,7 % .
, , ,
. -
.


( - . . )
.

365

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

-
.

-

-
, .. ,
90- . [4]. ,
.
, -
, -
.
. . ,
, , - -
. -
, ,
. (), -
(, , , , ),
() ().
,

.

, ,
, , ,
, , , , , .
, -
V-VI .
, , -
, ().
, ,
,
. , , -
( 1699 .), -
, .
.
,

366

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


[5].
,
.
V-VIII .
- - .
1711 . ( I), -
1735-1739, 1768-1774 1787-1791 .
29 1791 . -
, , -
, . .
.
,
1793 .
-
1806-1812 .,
[6].
-
1812 . ( 1873 . ).
,
- ,
.
XIX . -
,
.

, .
1789 1918 .
, -
. 1859 . 86 . -
, 1908 . 242 .
[7], .

1918 . -

- 2 1917 .
.
-
,
-. 10 1918 .
[8].

367

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .


1919 . -
.
() . ,
-
. (
1919 .),

1919 . -
.
6 ,
12 1919 . . 1941 .
.
, - -
. , ,
, -
. ,
, .
. .
-
() 29 25
1924 . : "

, -
" [9], .. , -
.
8- , 8-12
1924 .,
,
, -
.
, -
[10].
8,1 . .
11 . , 1926 ., -
572,5 . . . ,
1929 . - . -
: (48,5 %), (30,1 %),
(8,5 %), (8,5 %), , , . (4,4 %). -
16 , 1940 .

368

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


28 1940 . ,
.
, -
.
.
.
-
, -
6 : , ,
, , - -
.
.
, , (
).
,
, , -
.
1940 .,
( 200 ) -
[11].
,
.
-

. -
, ", -
1940 . -
,
, " [12]. ,
.
, (
20-30- .)
. .
" ", 1926
1938 .,
. , , -
. ,

, .

369

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .


.

90- ., . ,
1940 . ,

. ,
.
, -
? -

, .. ,
- .
-
, ,
, , -
. , , -
, ,
-
,
,
, .

.
. , . .
. , . , -
,
. . . .,
. , , -
1961 1980 . -
,
. , 1951 . -
. , ,
, ,
.
, , .
80- . -
. , -
-
.

370

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, 90- . -
, -
[13].
, , -
. -
, .
-
: -

.
,
- , , -
,
,
XIX . ,
80- . 40 : -
, "", "", "", -
, ,
,
.
, "",
"", , "" .
,
-
. , , -
, 50- .,
- ,
, , 1980 .
13,86 / , .. ,
. , , -
1/6 , 1/3 -
.

.
, , , -
.
, , .

.
,

371

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

,
.
,
-
, 1940 . .
, ,
. . 90- .
- . , ,
,
-
.
, -
,
( ,
. , - . ).

- 1980-2000 .

80- ., ,
, .
1983 .
. -

(1982 .) .
. , , , " -
, -
60-70 %" [14]. -
,

, -
- 1 770 . ,
,
"" [15].
-
. , -
. -
,
. ,
,

372

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. -
, -
.
1985-1987 .
. 1988 .
.
4 "", ,

.
,
, .
1988 . -
. -
: " - ", " - - ",
" - , - ". 1988 . -
,
,
.
,
.
" "
-
.

"", .
-
. -
, -
. 1989 .
, -
, .
, -
.
1989 . -

- ,


[16].

373

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

1989 .,
.

(), 11 1989 .
" "
" ". 3-4 1989 . II
,
. -
. , 4 1989 ., -

XIV .
,
. -
-
. ,
. ,
" . -
. -


" [17].
. 3
1989 . . -

. , ,
. 91,1 % -
[18]. 29 1990 . -
.

. ,
. , " 1990 . , -
-
" [19].
. , . , . ., - -
. , . , . .
1990 . I
. - ,
, .
23 1990 .
,

374

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


2 1940 . ,
, 31 ,
, 5
,
" -
" [20].
II ,
2 1990 ., -
-
, -
,
. . -
,
1 1990 .,
, ,
- . -
II
-
. , 1924 . -
-
, " 1940 .,
, -
" [21].
II
, -
,
,
, " -
,
" [22].
, 2 1990 . -
-
.

- ,
. " " .
1990 . " -
",
[23].

375

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

1990 .
, -
( ),
. -
. -
,
[24].
.
2 . -
, 3 16 . -
25 1990 . -
.
1990 . - 1991 .
, , -
.
-
. .
"
" ( 1989 .),
. -
. "-
", " ", " " .

" " . , -
" " .
, [25].
,
. -
, ,
- , , , ,
.

: -
, .

21 1990 . 79 %: -
95,8, - 1,9 % [26].
-
17 1991 . ,
.

376

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


94 98 % .
77 %
, - 98,9 % [27].
1991 .
, -
, -
. 26 1991 .
" -
".
.
17 -
-
. -
1991 . ,

, , "

, -
,
, -
" [28].
25
1991 .
. -
. 22 -
,
. 29
. , 1990 . -
. , -
.
1 1991 .
,
. . , -
. ,
, -
, " -
,
" .. [29].
, ,
, " ", "

377

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

". , -
, , .
2 I -
, , , 4 ,

. -
. 25
-
. 1

. .
.
5 1991 .
, -
, 1 -
. 98 %
, . . .
13 -
(
). , -
2 1992 . 1
,
. -
, 1991 .
, ,
.
. -

, .
. -
, . -
.
1992 . -
. . , -
, -

(18 1992 .
), 19 -
, -
.

378

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. -
, , . -
. ,
14- .
, 14- ,
1992 . ,
. ,
, ,
. 12 1991 . -
-
.
14- [30]. ,

. , ,
[31].
. , , ,
. 16
1992 . 14- ,
,
, "
".
2 1992 . . -
.
, "
".
23 1992 . "
/ 48414 14- -
, ".
: " /
48414 1991 .
". : " -
- 1992 . , -

, ,
. 18 -
-
".
.
[32]. 14-
.

379

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, ,
" " , -
14- - -
, -
,
"
... -
. -
14- .
- 4-5 -
". 32 -
, 15

[33].
1992 . -
.
, , [34]. -
. -
.
. .
. : " ,
,
" [35].
20 1992 .
. ,
. ,
"", ,
.

14- ,
. (, , ,
) -
.
.
, -
. 4 1992 .
. , 14- . . -
, -
,
.

380

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


7 1992 . -
, 21
"

". 29 -
.
500 , 899 ,
50 . .
, [36].
1992 .
.
.
,
. ,
.
,
. -
, , -
, .
. -
, .
, -
.
(6-7 1992 .), -
, -
, ,

. -
, .
, 1992 ., -

. ,
1993 . , -
, 1995 . - . 28 1994 .
- -
, -
- .
,
, . ,
1 "

381

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

" 17 1996 . -
,
2 28 1996 . 3 8 1997 .,
. , . , . , .
. -
, , : "

1990 ." [37]. [38], , .
24 2000 .
. . ,
16 - . .
.
. 16-17 2000 .
-

. . -
-
"
".
2000 . ,
, .

2000 . -
,
1999 . -
31 2002 .
[39].
25 2001 .
,
. -
, -
, "", "-
" .
.
. 2001 .
. . -
, , -
, "-" ,
,
.

382

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com




, .

2
1990 ., II -
,
, , -
, , -
[40].

29 1990 . -
,
,
. , "

, - -
-
" [41].
-
, -
, -
,
2 1991 .,
, 10 1991 .
117 , -
1991 .
25
,
: "

" [42].
,
24 1995 . -
17 1996 .
128 II "3 -
", 8 . -

383

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

. , ,
, : " -
, , , " [43].
, ,
(
1991 .)
. .
" -
, -
" [44]. -
.
10- 30 2000 .,
.
, - -
- .
-
. 1990 . II -
-
,
50
1 1990 .
. .
, - , -
.



, , ,
. ,

.

1 -
.

, ,
, -

[45].

384

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


22-25 1990 .,
81,2 % . 60 -
: 25 , 18 , 12
, 2 , 1 , 1 , 1 . 50 -
, 83,3 %, . 29
.
. ("" - 52, "" - 2).
. . ,
- . . -
[46].
,
.
-
-
5 64 .
. .
1996 . -
,
. ,
- (32 )
(35) [47].
, 2000 ., ,
"
-
". 43 , -
.
2 -
1990 . .
II -

-
.
,
,
5 ,
. ,
- ,

, ,

385

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

. ,
.
1991 . -
,
. 3,72 , .. 78 %
, . -
98 % . ,
. .
65,4 % , . - 30,9, . - 1,5 % [48].
, 1991 .
. , ,
1987 . ,
"". 1990 . -
, - -
, I
- . - -
. , -, -
. 1986 1989 .
, 1989 . -
. .
[49].
1991 . -
35-65 . 1995 .
,
5 . ,
. -
( 2000 .) -
10- .
.
(5 ),
[50].
22 1996 . -
. (72 %
) . . -
.
-
.
-
.
,

386

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, ,
.

.
" ".
1995 . .
. 90
. -
, ,

[51].
2000 .
,
. , -
,
[52]. ,
1995 . -
(. 89), 2000 . .


, 1990 .
,
, .
. ,
. -
. , . ,
,
, -
. (), -
, ..
" " -
26 1991 . ,
-
1990 . , -
- , ,
, -
. 1991 . 15
. 1992 .
, .
:

387

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

24 ,
.
,
, , -
[53] (, , -
).
.
-
, -
. -
2 1990 . . 7 ("
") ,

" -
" [54].
, -
-
.
-
. -

"", 1992 .
, "", .

, 1992 .
1994 . -
,
. 1995 .

, , ,
, . 1992 .
, . , -

8 1992 . " -
". -

. -
[55]. 1992 .
[56].

388

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1994 .
. , , -
-
.
, , -
" , "
" ".

90- .
() ,
, -
. 80- . -
( -
)

. 1990 .
-

[57]. ,
-
.
, -
(, , , , -
.), ,
. . , -
, ,
[58].
1991 .
90- . 1995
1999 . 15 % ( 369,5
316,1 . .), ( 76,9 59,6 .
1995-1999 .) ( 52,1
39,0 . .). , -
, -
.
-
. , 1995 . 3 %

389

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, - 97,0. 1999 .
9,0 %. 1993 .
17,7 %. (
0,5 . 1995 2,7 . 1999 .) [59]. -
. 1990 .
, 1992 . ,

.
, ,
,
. -
, 1995 2000 . -
353,8 . 416,0 . .
23,2 . -
. ,
[60]. 1995 1999 . 2
, , -
, . 1999 .
5 , 1995 .
-
.
1995 1999 . 3 . -
, (
, , ). ,
,
,
.
1995 . 27,5 . . 1999 .
, , ( 32,3), -
( 25,3 . ). ,
- , -
, .
79 -
88 [61].
, , , , -
, ,
.
-
30 %.
80 % [62].

390

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


90- .
. 1990 . 1995 . -
36,7 %, 1999 . -
29,3 % [63]. , -
10 3 .
.
, , -
, -
, -
,
[64].
-
. ,
1990 . 13,79 ,

1999 . - 2,97 . -

. 40 %
.

"" . - -
. 1990 . 957 , 1995 -
24, 1999 . 3.
, 1990 .
22 320, 1998 - 36, 1999 . .
1187 . 1990 . 412 . 1999 .,
- 218,4 57,9 . , - 12,2 2,9 , -
- 430 178 . 1, - 1992 225 . .
- 6,5
0,6 . .
10 [65].
- , ,
..
, -
. , 1990 1999 . 708 .
796.
( 614 593 . ). IV 1999 .
,
2000 . 136 %
___________
1
1 () - 10 .
391

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

1999 .
"" - - -
1,5 , ,
, 2 3 [66].
2001 . .
. -
, .
-
[67], .

. ,
, ..
1983 . 1995 . 148
., 1999 . 91 . ( -
100 63, - 48 28 .). -
, 1990-1991 . 471 . , 1996-
1997 . 246, 1998-1999 . - 214 . . -
71,8 %, -
- 21,5, - 14,9, - 12,0, - 10,0, - 23,6, -
12,8 % 90- . [68].
1995 . 22,8 /, 1996 - 19,8, 1997 -
32,3, 1998 - 24,3, 1999 . - 20,5 /. -
: 1995 . 2,54 ,
1996 . - 2,26, 1997 . - 2,04, 1998 . - 2,74, 1999 . - 2,61 [69].
. -
275,53 . , ..
0,41 , -
, -
. -
-
. 1994 . , -
, 82 %
, [70].

. -
. , 1995 . 29,6 %
,
1999 . 46,7 % ( 51,3 68 %) [71]. -

. , -

392

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



, .

" -
". ,
" ...
" [72].
,
, .
1999 . 72,1 % -
, 27,9 % ,
1999 . 60,3 % -
, 36,9 - 2,8 % -
, , , .

( 1990 - 15 %, 1999 - 10,5 %),
, , , , -
, ( 1990 -
5 %, 1999 - 16,2 %), .
7,3 % 1997 27,1 % 1999 .
- 53,6 %,
- 36,1, - 6,6,
- 2,6, - 1,2 % [73].
( 882 1990 . 1194
1999 .),
.
,
: 1995 . ,
, 32, 1999 . 71.
, , .
: 1995 .
1111,5 ., 1999 . 674,5 ( -
258 ., - 416,5, - 158,5
.). -
149,5 ., 90 .
(47,3 .), -
(33,3 .), -
(69,8 .).
(119,1 .), -
(60,1 .). , ,

393

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

(51,7 .), (18,1


.).
, , -
, 1998 . ,
1997 . 6,9 ., 1998 . -
93 ., 1996 . 0,1 ., 1997 -
0,2, 1998 .
70 . [74]. 1998-1999 .
, , 1,55 . 1997 .
. - -

[75].

1999 . ,
-
. -
, -
, , -
.


. 1999 . 131 ., 78,58 %
. -
,
[76].
1999 . ,
[77].
1999 .
( 72,8 %) 1998 . (
), 2000 .
47 % -
[78].
, - -
, . -
, ,
. -
.
1994 . .
, 2000 . 14,
( 22).

394

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


( 1999 .)
(17,5 %), (11,7 %),
(2,8 %), (8,1 %), -
(0,6 %), (3,2 %),
(1,7 %), (54,4 %).
: -
- 11,7 %, - - 35,3,
- 16 - 37% [79].

. , 1999 . -
211,83 ., - 216, 47 ( -
4,59 .), 1998 .
, 2,76 . -
-
.

: 1990 . -
40 % , -
25 21 %, 1999 . -
75,4 %, - 2,9,
- 9,6 %.

-
,
. ,

, -
.
1996-1999 . 40, 58
68 . . 1999 . -
(165 .), (147 ),
(113 .) - (99 .).
(28 .) ,
- 97 . 1999 .
25 . [80], .. 2 ,
.

395

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

(1429 1999 .)
, 30,51 %
. 20 %
20 % 1999 . -
4,77:1 [81].

. -
() -
- , , , .
, -
, , .
90- .

. 1990/91 . . 198 ,
1999/2000 - 180,
104,7 90,9 . . 1999 .
72,8 . , - 10,2, -
6,3 - 0,4 . [82]. 125
33, - - 13 - 2.

: 1990 . 9,
1999 - 24. 7,8 13,0 . .
.
-
, 1930 . 1990 .
- - .
1992 . . -
-
. . . ( 30- .).
. -
11 , -
( ) [83]. -
, , -. 1999 .
.
-
.
,
1995 1999 . 3,8 4,7 % [84].
, -
-

396

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, .
,
.
,
; , , .
- ,
. , , --
. . -
. , -
. , . ,
. , . , . .
- -
.
,
- .
-, . .

. , " -
".
, ,
,
, [85].
, , -
, .
.
( 161 1995 . 164 1999 .),
( 24 32).
. ,
32,1 . 1995 16,2 . 1999 . [86],
, .
-
90- . ,
.
, -
, . -
,
, -
.
1992 1996 .
9 , 2000 - 7 [87].

397

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

(-
. ), ,
, , -
.
, [88].
. -
,
, -
, , , .
-
. . 1995
1999 . , -
6,1 5,4 . . -
, ,
. 21 - -
. .

. 1997 . -
104,3 .
14 , 1999 . 120 .
17 , 140,1 .
161,8 . [89].
,
.
. -
, , -
( 1990 . 27,
1999 . 11) [90].
, , -
. 15
, ,
,
. ,
, .
80- - 90- .
. -
, ,
. , 1995 . 9,75 . -
, 1997 . 9,0,
9,4 . 1999 . - 11,0.

398

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, 1999 .
. 112 1995 .
126 1999 . ,
( 144 1995 471 1999 .). ,
,
, . , 10,9 .
5,81 . .
-
18 24 , 35 %.
1999 . 18,6 %.
10 -
. , ,
. ,
( 13 1995 . 60 1999 .) [91].
-
:
,
,
, , , [92]
.

. 1993 .
,
-
. [93].

" ", -
, .
. 18 1997 . -
[94]. -

.

, ,
.
1991 . , -
, 1992 . -
()
. 1994 .
, 1996 . .

399

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

1991 .
, 1994 . - -
, 1997 . - .
, ,
. ,
,
. , , ,
"", .
300 , -
-
" ". , ,
. ,
80- - 90- .,
. -
1990-1991 .
, , .
1991 ., -
, .
,
, . -

,
.
1992 . . , -
, -
( ,
" "), -
, - .
-
, ,
. , , ,
[95].
(
. -
, .
. ), ,
,
- ,
. . ,
. . .

400

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.
, . . -
""
. -
. -
, -
. 1992 .
" ", -
. "" " -
" [96]. -
.
.
. : "... -
: .
, ,
. , ,
!" [97].

1998 .
, "
?" 43,7 % -
, [98].
-
,
.
, , ; -
, . ,
, , .
- .
, ,
.
[99],
.

. ,
.

401

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

10-12
.
, ,
.
,
,
.
. 2001 . -
. , -
.
, -
. -
.

. , -
. , -
, 90- .
,
.

1996 .
8 1997 .
-
,
1 1999 .
-
, -
. -

,
, -
.. [100]. , ,
.

-
. [101], , ,
2000 .

402

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. 18 2001 .,
.
. , . ,
19 . . ,
-
, .. , -
, ,
. ,


.
. . , -
,
"" [102] [103] -
, -
.
-
9 2001 . -
. 4- (XXI)
. [104].
-
. . ,
26 2001 . [105].
[106].
, , .

. ,
" -
" [107]. ,
.
-
, ,
. -
.
2001 .
. 1 2001 .

-
. ,

403

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, ,
.
9 2001 . -
. 80 % ,
- . (, -
, )
-
6 5 % .
.

. 2002 . (
) .
-
1999 .
, 600 .
2001 .
. .
. , , -
, -
, .
.
2000 . ,
,
.
.
1.
, -
-
.
2.
. -
,
. -

2001 .
, 1,5
-, .
3. - -
, -
.

404

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


4. - ,

.
5. -
,
, . -

.
6. (" ", ,
)
, , -
. -

.
7. -
, , , -
, -
,
.
8. -
. , ,

.
2003 . -
,
, -
.
.
-
, -
. " ,
, , . , -
... ( . - . .) , -
, . -
," -
. ,

.
2003 . ,
,

405

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

- -
, -
.
(2003 .) "-
", (2003 .)
, -
- -
.
" ".
. -
,
.
- 100 % -
, ,
,
.
, -
, -
. ,
, -
,
. ,
( )
, , , -
-
, -
.
, ,
, , -
- -, -
- .

- , ,

" " .
-
, -

-
.

406

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, -
.
, , " -
". , -
-
, . ,
,
.

,
, - .
2003 .
: -
( - )
,
-
.
,
, -
. , ,
, -
, ,
, - -
.
,
.
"
" , .

( -
, ),
, -
.
, ,
,
" ,
...
, ,
".

407

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, 2003 .
.
,
"-
" "
", -
( " ", . 1).

, -
, .
, , .
,
- ,
" ".
,
, .
,
, -
, -
.

-
. ,
,
-
() 2003 . , .
, ,
.
1. ,
, .
-
.
2. -
, ,
( - ), -
.
3.
.
4. 2-3 -
, ,

408

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, ,
, -
. , -
, , -
.
-
.
1. - .
2. -
, -
, .
,
(),
. -,
-
.
, ,
,
, , . -
"-
", -
,
,
.
,
, -
,
,
.
.
, , -
-
,
.
2003 ., , -
: -,
; -,
; -,
:
.

409

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .



-
. -
(, , ,
, ). .

.
29 -

. .
[108].
.
2003 . "-
-
", ,
:
( -
), , -
10 %
, ,
.

.
-

,
- -
, .
- . " ,
(. - . .) -
" [109].
-
-
. , 8
- -
,
.
. - ,
, , : "

410

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


,
-
...


" [110]. -

. ( ) "-
" "" " ".
, - -


. ,
:
, .
, " "
11-12 "-
" ". , -
(, -
. 12-
" " -
"
"),
-

(, )
-
[111]. -
, -
: (1) -
, 70 .
, (2)
,
(3) "
". ,

"" "" [112].
2003 . - -

" , ".

411

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

"
-
,
" (. 2),
-
, , ,
-
[113].
-
(-
) , -

.
, ,
" " -
, -
[114].

. 4 11 (!) -
,
,
. ,
, -
[115].
, "
", .
, -,
,
.

. .
-
. " " , -
" "
. , -
- -
,
. , -
-
, ,

412

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.

.
. [116] , , , :
- " , ,
";
- ,
, ;
- - -
;
- .
, -
. , -
, . " -
400 .
. , , -
,
,
, ...
, ,
,
?
, -
,
" [117]. , -
105 . ""
,
, -
,
[118]. , -

-
,

[119].
2003 .

. -
. 19 [120]

413

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

,
. . , , :
-
;
-
;
-
;
- ,
;
- -
, - .
,

. , . ,
-
,
.
20 -
. . ,
. "
". . , " -
... -
,
" [121].
21 - ""
-
" ", -
,

.
. (1) -
, (2)
(3) .
,
: " -
.
" [122].
, -
,

414

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


,
(" ? - . - -
, -
. ,
"), .
22 . " -
",
. "
-
, " [123].
, -
.
1. -
( -
).
2. 1 2007 . -
.
3. , -
( -
).
4. -

( -
30 -
).
-
. 25 -
, ,
. . 26 -
""
"
" (. 3). -
-
, .
, -

.
,
.

415

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

27 , ,
. . , , -
: " ,
.

...
,
, - -
, ...
, -
-
,
-
...
-
-
...
, -
.
- - -
- ,
. ,
-
, ,
" [124].

. 2003 .,
2004 .
. . , -

, . , -
" "
, -
[125].
, ,
, -
.
1. -

416

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


" ",
.
2. , -
. , -
.
3.
, -
:
,
.

. -
-
. , -
, ,
.
[126]. , -
-

. [127].
,
"" . 2003-
2004 . . -
.
( ,
- 1-2
..)
.
-
. , -
. , " ,
- -
" [128].
-
, -
.
, "-
" , , -
. 20 . -
7 2003 .

417

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

.
[129]. ,
2003 .
.
2004 . , ,
. : "
, ,

" [130].

418

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


" "

( )



"
" .
-


.

" ",
. -
10 . ,
, ,
,
.
-
,
.
.



.
.

: (1)
(2) -
. ,
,
419

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, 1992 .
,
(10 . )
1.
-
.

1.
, -
, . -
. -
. ,
6
, , ,
6 . , ,
-
, , .
-
.

- ,
. 50 %
.

, -
, -
:
.

- , ,
( (. -
);
. -
, .
___________
1

1999 . , () 2002 .,
31 2003 .

420

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-
,
, ,
( - ) ( -
).
, -
- .

-
, ,
- ,
-
.
. -
,
( "" -
) -
-
,
,
, , -
(.
).

2.

(60 - 100 ). -
, , -
,

. -
-
.
.

3.


.

421

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

, , .

.

(
(60-100 )
)

-
-
.
""
""

422

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. -
( ).
-
10 .
, -
( ).

, -
. , ,
,
- .
,
, ,

.

-
.

, . -
, .
-
.

423

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .


" -
,

". : "

-
( - ) :
- , ,
,
-
, - ,
1990 .;
-
,
;
- , ,
:
- ,
( ),
, -
- -
, -
.
, ,

,
;
-
.

:
- ( - ),

424

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


,
, -
.
,
;
-
,
-
;
( , -
) ,

;
-
,
, -
; -
, -
,

,
,
-
,
.

-
, -
, ,
.

, -
-
,
. -


.

425

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .



, -
.


-
, -
.

, ,
- ( ) -
, -

, -
. ,
-
.

-

. -
.
-
:
- ,
- ,
-
- .



, (
) .

426

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



-

-
.

, -
.

, .

-
,

,
.


,
.


. -
-

, -
.

.

-
-
,
,


, -
.

427

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .



:
.

( ) .
. -


() -
, -


.
,

, -
.
.
. ,

,
. ,
, -
,
, ,
.
. -

,
-
.
-
-
-

.
.
,
, , .

428

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com



, -
,
,
,
-
.
. ,

, -

-
.
- . -

-

, -
-
.


.
.
. -
-
,
;
- -

( -
), -
-
.

. . - 2003. - 1 . - 68 (571).
http://vedomosti.md/index.asp?doc=1_4&nom=571.

429

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .



,
,
,
15 2003 .

1. ( - ),
, -
, ,


,
, -
,
1 1990 .

2. , -
-
, -
-
.

3. -
:
3.1. ( -
- ) , -
, -
,
, ( ), ,
- .

430

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-
. ,
-
.
-
-
-

. -

.

.
3.2.
, , .
3.3. , -


,
-


, ,
.
3.4. -
.

.
-
,

, , -
, , -
-
.
3.5.
, , -
(-
), -
(

431

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

)
, , -
,
,
.
- -
,
, , -
, ,
,

.
3.6. - -
.
3.7.
.
.

. -

-
.

,
.
3.8. -
, ,
-
.

.
3.9. -

.
-
-
.
3.10.
.

432

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


3.11.
( - -
)
.
, , -
-


-
,
.
3.12. ,
,
-
, , -

,
-
.
3.13.

()
.
3.14. -
,
-
. -
()

.
- -

.
3.15.
, ,
.

4. :
4.1. .
4.2. , .

433

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

4.3. , , .
4.4. , -
, .
4.5. , .
4.6. , -
, ,
.
4.7. ,
, -
.
4.8. .
4.9. , , , , ,
.
4.10. .
4.11. .

5. :
5.1. ,
.
5.2. , -
.
5.3. , , .
5.4. , -
, - ,
, -
.
5.5. , , - -
- ,
,
.
5.6. , , , -
.
5.7. -
.
5.8. , ,
,
, .
5.9. -
, ,
.

434

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


5.10. .
5.11. , ,
, .
5.12. -
.
5.13. .

6. :
6.1. -
, -

,
, -
.
6.2. -
.
6.3.
.
6.4. , -
.
6.5. .
6.6. .
6.7. .
6.8. -
.
6.9. ,
-
.
6.10. ,
, .
6.11. .
6.12.
.
6.13. , -
, -
, .
6.14. , -
.

435

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

7. ) ,

, -
.
) ,

, -
.
) ,
,
-
,
, , -

() , (-
) .
)
, -
-
, . -


.
) ,
,
-
.
)
-

, , -
,
.

8. ) ,
, ,
,
.
) -

436

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, -
, -

, , .
)
.

9. )
, -
.
) 26 , 5 ,
4 - -
, 9 - -
, 13 - -
.
.
) 71 ,
4
, , -
-
.

10. ) -
-
, -

.
, -
.
) -
-
,

.
-



2/3
.

437

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

) -
-

. -
.
)
, -
2/3
, -
4/5 .
-
, .

11. ,
5


.

12. )
.
) -
-
. -
,


.
) -

-
.
-
()
.
)
-

, -
-

438

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, ,

-
.

13. ,

,
.

.
13.1. -
() , -
. .
13.2. 11 , 6
, 1 - -
- , 4 - -
.
.
13.3.
,
.

14. -
, :
14.1. 1 2005 .
14.2.
30
2005 .
-
.
14.3. -
, -
, -
.
14.4.
31 2005 .
14.5. -

439

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

,
.
14.6. -
, -
,
,

.

, -
-
-
.
14.7. ,

1 2007 . 1 2007 .
-
1/6 -
,
-
,
,
,

.
14.8.

, -
-
.
14.9.
, -
,
.
14.10. , -
,
-
-

,

440

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-
.
, -
, ,

.
14.11. 2015 .
3/4
.
14.12. 2020 .
-
, ,

( -
) .
14.13. 2015 . -
, 9 .

15.

-
-, -
(),
,
( ) .
-

-
-
.
-

31 2004 .
31 2004 .

,

-

.

441

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

-
-
, -

,
.
,
- -
.
, -

. -
, , -
.

.


6 .
. - 2003. - 22 ; 26 2003.
http://www.dnestr.ru/docs/doc_1103_04.htm.

442

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


1. . . . . - ., 1997.
1. - . 106.
2. . - ,
2000. - . 59.
3. -
. - , 2000. - . 15.
4. . . //
. - 1992. - ; . . . - ,
2000.
5. . . // -
. - , 2000. - 4. - . 81-82; . .
. . 1. - ., 1989. - . 47, 192-198.
6. . - , 1948. - .48.
7. . . XVII-
XIX . - , 1990; . . -

1861-1905 . - , 1985.
8. . . 1918-1924 . -
, 1969. - . 12.
9. . . . - , 2000. - . 45.
10. . .
. -
, 1971. - . 184.
11. . . -
. - , 1974. - . 574-575.
12. . . . . - . 69.
13. . . , // . - ,
2000. - . 179-180.
14. . - 1983. - 15 . - 349 (23875).
15. . - 1982. - 5 . - 339 (23500).
16. . . . . - . 149.
17. . - 1989. - 3 .
18. . ., . . .
// . - , 2000. - 4. - . 43.
19. . . . - , 1999. - . 26.
20. . 1.- . 97.
21. . - . 116.
22. . - . 112.

443

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

23. . - . - -
, 1990. - . 55.
24. . - 1990. - 31 .
25. . . .
1988-1996. - , 1997. - . 42-44.
26. . - 1990. - 21 . - 299 (7404).
27. . ., . . : -
, , . - , 1998. - . 30-31.
28. . - 1991. - 21-28 .
29. . . . - , 2000. - . 7-9.
30. . - 1991. - 14 .
31. . 4. - . 198.
32. . . . . - . 140-142.
33. . - 1992. - 15-22 .
34. . - // . -
1999. - 6 . - 13 (317); . //
. - 1999. - 29 . - 12 (316).
35. . . . . - . 143.
36. . ., . . . . - . 52.
37. . . - ! - , 1997. -
. 5-12.
38. . - 1999. - 29 . - 60 (9267).
39. . // -
. - 2001. - 21 . - 49 (2359).
40. . 1. - . 106-111.
41. . - . 135-139.
42. . - . 165.
43. . 2. - ., 1997. - . 182.
44. . . . -
, 2000. - . 9.
45. . 1. - . 103-105.
46. . - 1990. - 21 .
47. . 2. - . 191-199.
48. . - 1991. - 5-12 .
49. . - 1991. - 22 .
50. . - . 82-83.
51. . 2. - . 206.
52. . - . 87-88.
53. . . -
. . 1990-
1995 . - , 1999. - . 28.
54. . 1. - . 110.

444

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


55. . 3. - . 218-220.
56. . - 1997. - 20 . - 47 (165).
57. . . . . - . 5.
58. . . . . - . 10.
59. -
. - , 2000. - . 37-39.
60. . - . 86.
61. . - , 2000. -
. 14.
62. . . . . - . 11.
63. -
. - . 96.
64. . . - // -
. - , 2000. - . 5.
65. -
. - , 2000. - . 99-100.
66. .. . . - . 12.
67. . . , - -
. - , 2000. - . 39, 79.
68. . . : / -
. - , 2000. - . 27.
69. . - . 113.
70. . . - ,
1994. - . 5.
71. -
. - , 2000. - . 115.
72. . . . -
, 2000. - . 16.
73. -
. - , 2000. - . 135-145.
74. . - . 163-166.
75. . - 1977. - 12 ; . - 1999. - 19 -
. - 12.
76. . - , 2000. - . 8.
77. -
. - , 2000. - . 170.
78. . . . . - . 13.
79. -
. - , 2000. - . 148.
80. . - . 47-48.
81. . - . 50-51.
82. . - . 55-56.

445

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. . , . .

83. . - 2001. - 27 . - 3-4 (119-120).


84. -
. - , 2000. - . 148.
85. . - 2001. - 27 . - 3-4 (119-120);
1999. - 14 . - 8 (88).
86. -
. - , 2000. - . 64-65.
87. . . . . - . 18-19.
88. . - , 1999. - 28 . - 8. - . 11.
89. -
. - , 2000. - 71.
90. . - . 73.
91. . - . 81-84.
92. . - , 1997. - 21 . - 26 (8971).
93. . 5. - . 331-349.
94. . , . . . . - . 45; . -
1997. - 20 . - 107/9014.
95. . . - . - , 1997. -
. 79-80.
96. . - 1999. - 29 . - 49 (131).
97. . . . . - . 29.
98. . . .
// . - , 2000. -
4. - . 20.
99. . - 1999. - 23 . - 108 (9015).
100. . . :
- / . -
, 2000. - . 113-115.
101. . .

// . - 2001. - 21 . -
49 (2359).
102. . - 2001. - -. - 22 (391). - . 1.
103. . .
// . - 2001. - . - 22 (347). -
. 1, 4.
104. . - , 2001. - 27 . - 18 (234). - . 7.
105. // . - 2001. - 27 . -
78-79 (2521-2522). - . 2.
106. . // . - 2001. -
16 . - 64 (12114). - . 3.

446

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

. .

. 11 -
.
,
, ,
. -
, -
-
- .
-

[1].
.
2003 . . ,
. " - -
, . -
,
, -
,
-
", - . -
" -
" [2].

.
. ,
, ,
-
, .

449

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .


, ,
(. 1).

. 1.

-

- (. 2).
(
), -
, ,
.
, -
, -
, ,
, .
-
,

.
-

.
450

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

()

- -
- ,
- -
- , -

. 2.

-
:
- ;
- -

;
- ;
- -
, ,
.

451

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

-
,
(. 3).




-


-



( )

. 3. ,

, 27
1994 .,
( -
, ).
,
- .
,
90- .

452

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

.
,
, -
,

- .

.
-
, -
.
,
6 1995 . ( 482-III). -
-
.
-
" " " ".
" " (. 4) , -
- ,
.
.
-
-
(), -
,
. , -
,
, -
,
[3].
.
,
500 , -
( ) - 200 [4].

( , ).
-
.
-
,

453

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

, [5].

. :
-
, -
;
- , , -
, -
,
;
-
,
, , ,
. 82 (. 2) ,
-;
- (-
, , ), -
, ;
- , -
;
- ,
;
- -
;
- .

, , -
.
-
.
-
-
.
(-
, , -
, ) -
.
, ,
, , ,
-

454

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

, ,
-

, -
,
.

, ,
" ". "
"
.
:
(, ),
,
" ".

.


(. 4) ( , ,
), -

. -
, 12 .
4 , 1 ,
1 .
" " -
[6].
455-1 18
1999 .
(8,5 . ,
2,4 . ).
2001 . . , -
-
. ,
3 . (
). , -
,
455

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

[7].
[8].

-
-

-- - --

. 4.

. -,
12- ,
1 2003 . 7,3 . 6,8 . .
, , -
2002 .
6,8 . 2,3 . [9].
(7 .
). -
, .

456

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

( 27 . )
. (
11 .), (2,5 .), 4 ,
. ,
40 . , , " "
150 . .
2002 . .
1 1999 . -
(
) ,
.

14- ,
, , .
27 -29
( 1991 .), ,
, -
. 90- .
,
, -
, , -
10-15 . 1995 .
80 -71.
.

-
.
,
,
. 2,5 40 ,
"".
, , -
, ,
. -
. , ,
3 .
2000 . . -
, .
.
2003 .,

457

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .


.

. -
-29.
, ,
- .
,
, ,
.
,
( , )

[10].

1
*


3
1
1
1
1
1
1
( .. )
1
1
1
()

* The Military Balance 2001/2002 // The International Institute for Strategic


Studies. - London, 2001. - . 95.

, -
(. 1),
. - , -
, .

458

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-


()
- 210 ., - 210 .,
- 250 ., - 50 ., -
50 . ,
,
.
-
, ,
. , ,

- ()
. -
,

"" ( ), 1989 . -
11 ""
362 . 1995 .,
- .
,
150 . . [11, 12].
2001 . -
. .
. -
. -
.
" ". 2001 .
-
,
. . -
1 .
, , ,
.
-
362 ,
. , -
, 11 872 ,
.

[13].

459

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .



. ,
, - 40 % .
-
( 2003 .
44 . ) [14], -
. , ,
,
.
2001 . 18
12 . ,
,
. ,

18 20 ,
.
30
. ,
,
[15].

, (. 5).
-
. , . 57 : " -
. -
,
, ,
". ,
,
.

979- 24 1992 . " " 633-
" " 9 1991 .
(-,
, , , -
.), ,
460

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

..,
.

,
,
.
, -
.
-

().

( )
, -
. - -
- -
-
.

75
80 67

50
60

40

20

0
1992 1995 1998

. 5. ,
( % )

-
,

461

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

: -
.
,
" " -
,
, .

.


, -
,
( , ..).
,
. ,
75 % , 25 % -
.

119 25 1992 .
-
24 , .. , .



,
.
.
- "
" - :
, . 380 (
6 )
"
".
. ,
, , ,
. -
[16]. , 1995-
1997 . 45 ,
462

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

, , , , -
42.
, " ",
- ,
, , -
, -
-
. 1995 1997 . 145 -
, 1999 .
-25 -29 (
20 ). 2000/01 . . -
240 -
( , 124
75 - ) [17].
1995-1997 .
254 ., ,
1993 ., .. "
".
-
- . 2001 . -

"

".

-
-
[18].
,
, .
,
. -
,

. ,
. ,
,
" - 99",

, .

463

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

" - 99"
, ,
. , -
, -
, - .
-
.

:
, , ..

, ,
.
2003/04 . . ,
.
. -
, - -
, , - -
, .
.
4 -
- , , -
. 1990 .
. -
.
,
. 2002 .
12 . -
. -
,
, . ,
, [19].
,
,
- , -
, ,
. ""
-
[20].

464

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

2001 .
76,8 , 5,9 .
. 2.
9 , - 15,4 .

2
,
2001 ( .)
() 3,07
1,08
0,92
0,62
0,62
0,15
0,23

-
() ,
(. 6) [21].
, ,
, 2,6 . . .
1 . -
, 4,2
. , , , ,
0,5 . .
"

" 1544-11 23 1993 .
(Monitorial Oficial 7 1993 .)
20 50 %
, 20 - 3 % -
, 75 % ( , ,
85 %).

465

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

20,9
20 16,1

10 6,6 6,4
5 5,9

0
1999 2000 2001 2002

. 6. ( .)

-
" ". , -

"", . -
Moldavian Airlines -134, -
. - 1998 ., ,
.



,
. , , 1994-1995 . --
7-
.
.

- , ,

.

. -
, ,
466

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

( , "",
"", "", "", . .).
-
"" -
.
, -
,
.
- ""

. "" -
.
-

, 1997-2000 .
,
165 , .
90- . , , -
.
,
.
-
,
( -
),
.
, -; -
, -
;

,
,
.
1997 . 80 .
21 -29 500 (-13, -60, -27 -73) "-
" [22]. ,
-73 ,
. -29
,
-,

467

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

. 16 -
. -
, , -
,
40 . ,
40 ., [23].
,
. , 1993 . 5 -
60 . . ""
4,5 .,
-29 40 .,
.. 2 . . -
(, ,
, ..),
, [24].
- 2001 .
, , 2
.
17,5 . . .
""
2 (-
), -
. -
860 . . 144 .
24 ( 100 . 30
).
, , -
. ,
[23]. ,
- -
. ,

.

. 283-IV 17 -
1999 . "
, , -
", -
(. 3.9)
.

468

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

6 1998 . 7-1 "


"
Joy
Slovakia, , -
. -
, .
1998-2000 . Joy Slovakia
2,5 . (. 3). -
, 3
, -
"".

,

Joy Slovakia.
9 2003 .
Shahid Hemmat Industrial Group,
Cuanta SA, Computer and Communicatii SRL
. .
.
-
,
.


.
16 2002 . . Cuanta SA
-
2000 .
,
[26].
1998 .

, (
),
.
. 2000 .,
, 24,6
, , -
, - 64 .

469

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

3
,
Joy Slovakia 1998-2000 .

-
(.) (./.) (. .)

"" 4 71 500 286,00


- 4 31 500 126,00

""
927 868 596 517,33
927 494 691 341,35
27 435 596 259,26
60 344 596 205,02
73 880 409 359,92
30- 20 000 10,5 210,00
130- 2325 25,8 59,99
30- -17 3780 10,5 39,69
118 1 52 000 52,00
1110 1 22 000 22,00
9113 32 750 24,00
2502,56

2001 . -

. ,
-
- .
-
, .
20 % -
.
, ,
. ,

. -
-
.
. , ,
, ,
470

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

,
[25].
-
, -
, , ,
.



.
,
.
-
-
.
6 ,
.
1999 . 5 -
,
2 - , -

.
2001 . 1997 .
"
". -
--
, ,
.
[27]:
- ;
-
;
- -
;
- ;
- ;
- ;
471

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

-
;
- ,
;
- ;
-


;
- ;
- .
, ,
, ,
-
.
,
,
- .

. , , -
: - 2000 .

54 ; ("
- 2000") - 30 -
40 . "-
- 2000" -

.
2001 .

. , ,
-
, ,
.
-
,
, 1999 .
, , -

[28].

472

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

2001 .
- " - 2001".
.
2001 .
.
.
. -
, -
, -
. .
,
. .

. -
-
[29].
( -
) . , ,
24-26 2000 .
, -
( -
),
,
[30].
-
. "-"

. 1940 . -
.
-
. . , "...
-
, ".
24
430 ,

. ,
150
. ,
.

473

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

,
.


18 1999 . " " -
.
- -
7,7 , ,
[31].

,
.

(),
. -
- .
-
-
,
[32].
-
. , , -
-
- () "
- 2001", 2001 .
-
.
, , , , -
, . -
, .
[33].

. , ,
26 2001 .

,
[34].
2000 . . 2001 .
. (-
) " - ",

474

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

, , -
, , , , ,
[35].


.
- ,
. -
,
[36].

- , -
, -
,
. -
. 2003 . -
.
,
. ,
--
7 (
850 . .) ,
.
[37].


.
,
,
, [38].

- ( -
) . ,
,
2007 ., , .
2001 . 5--
" ".

475

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

. .
[39].
-
. 2004 . -
.
. -
,
, -
. ,
,
. ,
" ". ,
, , , ,
[40].
,
. 2001 .
(, ,
, ) (,
).
"-
" , .
, -
,
[41].
1994 . "
", . 2000 .
26
( 8 -
), 2001 . 53.
, -
,
[42].


. , ,

1999-2000 ., -
.
13 17 1999 . -

476

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

.
" - "
" - ".

" ", -
, , -
[38] ( ,

).

(. 7) [43]. , , 2001 .

45,5 . - , .
, 2 ,
-.
-
.
. , "
" [44].



[45].
,
. 42 -
, 50, : , 5
3 [46].
.

. " - 2000"

. -.
"",
"". -
[38].
-
. "
" ,
-
.

477

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

0,6 0,6 0,6

0,55

0,5

0,5

0,45
1999 2000 2001

. 7.
( .)

-

.


,
.
. -
-
, ,
. ,
, .
. , ,
,
.
""

.
478

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

() "" ( -
) -
.
90- . 14-
, 15 . . -

(50 . ,
800 , 120 ). -
:
42 . , 12 . 2002 .,
30 . [47-49].
,
,
, , -
,
.
[50].
1999 .
14- -
2002 . 2001 .
"
, " -
, -
6 2001 .

"". -

[51, 52].

.
, 2001 ., -
. ,
. .
, -
. [53].
2002 . -
"Donovan",
.
"Luthe"
.

479

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

"Donovan"

, .
-
, " " [54].
, -
, -
, [55]. -
, ,
14- -
, .
,
42 . , 14-
. , , -
.
, , ,
2001-2002 ., , ,
[56].
14-
0,5 . 1 .
0,25 .
, ,
, , , .
( ). -
. -
,
. [57].
. ,
2003 . 24 .
5 . -
8 [58].
-
,
, , ,
. - 5 .
,
- 7 . 3 -
, 1 -
. -
-6 -8.

480

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-


,
. 4,

( ,
, , -
, .).
2
("" "") .
-
.
1 . .

, .
- .
. -
.

" ".
-
.
,

. -
(, .)
,

. 80 . .
-
( 2 . ). -
14- . [59]. -

( 300 ), -
-
.

481

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

482

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

483

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

21 1992 .

(), , . -
30 1992 .
()
() 5,6 . ( 800 - ):
1,2 . ; 2,8 . - ( 400 - );
1,6 . - ( 400 - ). -
.
1994 .
, . -
20 1998 . ,
, -
500 , 175
.
500
. ,
.
21 2003 . -
.
23 11 .
13 21 71 -
: 40 - 31 - .
17 ,
2003 .
,
1 2003 .
. .
,
.
2001 . ,

[60].

. .
(, -
, , ) .
"
", -
.

484

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

2001 . . ,
"
, , , -
-
" [61].
-
, -
. , , . ,
-
-
-
[62].
, ", -
, ". -

,
2001 ., ,
,
"" -
[63].
26 2002 .
-
,
,
[64].
. , -

. ,

, 1992 . .
. 9 2001 .
. ,
,
[65]. ,
.

, -
. 1999 . -
, ,
14- .

485

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .


2003 . ,
1
2003 ., -
.
-
2003 .
. -
2003 . . ,
-
(
100 .). , -
. -
, -
.
.
,
. , -

-
, [66].
, 14- -
, ,

-
.
.
60 . , 30 % -
. 4 .
14-
, ,
1 .
.

,
.

* *
*

486

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

- -
,
- -
, .

:
-
;
-
;
- -
.
,
, -
. -
,
,
. " "
-
, -
,
.
-
, .
,
, ,

.
, -
( ,
, ,
) - ,

10-15 .
, ,
,
. -
, -
,

487

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

-
.

. -
, -
.
,
, , , --
. -
, -,
,
, ,
.

,
-
.
- - -
:
- , -
, ;
-
, ;
-
;
-
;
-
;
- ;
- -
,
.

- -
.
:
-
;

488

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

- ( -
).

-
. , -
.
-
.
-
,
.
-
, ,
, .
, ,
, , . -,
, , -
.

,
.

489

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

1. . - LOT001 3 0000
B404D . - 2001. - 17 . - 14:46.
2. . . - , 2003. - 28 . -
13:00.
3. .
4. - - // : , ,
. - 2003. - 6 . - 13:45.
5. nitrul ficial al Republicii Moldova. - 1996. - 15. - 16 .
6. . - 1992. - 19 .
7. . - 2001. - 142 (2452). - 4 .
8. - - // . - 2003. -
2 . - 17:03.
9. - // : , , . -
2003. - 3 . - 11:34.
10. //
. - 2003. - 10 . - 00:00.
11. . - 2000. - 87 (345). - 27 .
12. . //
. - 2000. - 21 .
13. . - 90447 3 0201 440
. - 2001. - 28 . - 15:58.
14. Moldova // <http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/CIA - The
World Factbook - Moldova.htm>.
15. . - L10195 3 0123 170
. - 2001. - 17 . - 17:19.
16. . //
. - 2000. - 167 (2229). - 6 .
17. . - 2001. - 24 .
18. . - 94722 3 0207 368
. - 2001. - 10 . - 14:52.
19. - - // . -
2003. - 1 . - 14:53.
20. - - // : , ,
. - 2003. - 6 . - 13:45.
21. Moldova // <http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/CIA - The
World Factbook - Moldova.htm>.
22. "" //
- . - 2002. - 28 . - 00:00.
23. . - 2001. - 54 (3964). - 28 .

490

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


-

24. . - 2001. - 18 (363). - 17 .


25. - - // . - 22 . -
2001. - 16:39.
26. - . - 2003. - 29 . - 10:42.
27. . - 90679 3 0097 862
. - 2001. - 20 . - 18:29.
28. . - 90398 3 0146 812 . - 2001. -
10 . - 09:05.
29. . - LOT001 3 0667
CBA7E . - 2001. - 14 . - 19:54.
30. . - 2000. - 24 .
31. -Daily. - 2000. - 19 .
32. . - 2002. - 38 (2592). - 28 .
33. . - LOT001 3 0000
A9108 . - 2001. - 5 . - 17:34.
34. . - LOT001 3 0622
BD2AB . - 2001. - 26 . - 14:52.
35. . - 2001. - 238 (2548). - 22 .
36. . - LOT001 3 0116 857CB
. - 2001. - 9 . - 20:04.
37. //
. - 2003. - 6 . - 11:23.
38. . //
. - 2000. - 167 (2229). - 6 .
39. . - 2001. - 2 . - 09:11.
40. - . - 94263 4 0457 860
. - 2001. - 10 . - 11:42.
41. . - 2001. - 186 (2496). - 10 .
42. . - L10798 3 0425
270 . - 2001. - 4 . - 17:31.
43. The Military Balance 2001-2002 // The International Institute for Strategic
Studies. - London, 2001. - P. 95.
44. - . - L10979 5 0159 166
. - 2000. - 22 . - 15:13.
45. . - LOT001 3 0535
A5432 . - 2001. - 8 . - 17:30.
46. // .ru. - 2003. -
8 . - 17:21.
47. . - 2002. - 77 (2631). - 17 .
48. . - 2002. - 3 . - 15:27.
49. . - 94961 3 0261 864
. - 2002. - 5 . - 15:04.

491

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

50. . - 2001. - 23 . - 198 (2508).


51. . - 2002. - 10 . - 71 (2625).
52. . - 94656 3 0157 164
. - 2001. - 31 . - 18:43.
53. . - 90964 3 0122 086 . - 2001. -
19 . - 16:36.
54. . - 2002. - 30 . - 14:31.
55. . - 2003. - 18 . - 14:00.
56. - - - //
. - 2003. - 11 . - 13:59.
57. . - 2001. - 140 (2450). - 2 .
58. // . - 2003. - 5 . -
11:16.
59. . - 90553 5 0412 194 . - 2001. -
26 . - 15:36.
60. . // . - 2003. -
22 . - 166.
61. . - LOT001 3 0545
D011B . - 2001. - 19 . - 17:00.
62. . - 2002. - 60 (2614). - 28 .
63. . - 2001. - 182 (2492). - 29 .
64. . - 2002. - 60 (2614). - 28 .
65. . - LOT001 3 0000
B404D . - 2001. - 17 . - 14:46.
66. . - 2003. - 185. - 3 .

492

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


107. : //
. - 2000. - 1 . - 9.
108. . - 2003. - 2 .
109. . - 15 .
110. . - 11
111. . - 24 .
112. . - 25 .
113. . - 27 .
114. . - 1 .
115. . - 17 .
116. . - 22 .
117. . - 25 .
118. . - 13 .
119. . - 11 .
120. . - 19 .
121. . - 20 .
122. . - 21 .
123. . - 22 .
124. . - 27 .
125. . - 2 .
126. . - 29
127. . - 4 .
128. . - 3 .
129. . - 7 .
130. . - 11 .

447

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

................................................................................ 3
................................................................................................. 7
I. ........................................... 9
. . , . . .
.................................. 11
. . .
......................................................................................... 55
. . . ............. 89
II. .................................................. 129
. . .
................................................................... 131
. . .
......................................................................................... 155
III. , , ..................................................... 181
. . , . . .
1998-2004 . ....................................... 183
. . , . . .
: -
.............................. 271
. . .
.................................................. 317
IV. ?.................................................. 335
. . . :
................................................. 337
. . , . . . ................................. 365
. . . -
..................................... 449

493

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com
:

,
.
..
..
..
..
..,
.., ..

066009 22.07.1998. 03.11.2004.


70100 1/16. 1. .
... 39,8. .-.. 29,4. 800 . 11357

()
117393, , ., . 82.
. 334-81-87 ();
./ 334-82-42 ( )

-
121099, , ., 6

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


- .
.. ( .).


.. ..

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.
., ., .
( . 11.09.2004).


-
- . .
( . 13.10.2004). ( . 11.09.2004).

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


14- . 2003 . .

.
. 2003 .

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. , ().

... . , ()
- .
, 2003 .

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.. .

. .. .

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.
.

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


- .
, 2003 .

. , ,
( .). ..

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


, 80- . . 2004 .

80-
. 2004 . ( . 13.10.2004).

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


...
-
1992 . ...

,
- () ( ).

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.. . .. .


. III (14571504).

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


... .. .

.. .

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


- ....

... .

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


...

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


... .

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


...

... .

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


...

...

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


.

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com


. .

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com