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Standariaze with silver nitrate solution acidified with 20 mL of 2 N nitric acid per 25
mL usind ferric alum indicator.
Amonium thiocyanat As potassium thiocyanat using 8 g of crystals.
Sodium chloride. See primary standards. Use 5.845 g per litre.
Silver nitrat. See primary standards. Dry a grade crystals at 110oC for 2 hours. Use
16.988 g per litre. It is cheaper to use 17 g chloride soln, using potassium chromate
indicator or an adsorption indicator


EDTA solution ( diamino ethane tetra - acetic acid disodium salt).

CH2N(CH2.COOH).CH2COONa]2.2H2O. F.W =372.25 Eq = 372.25 M=N. For 0,1M
soln disolve 37.3 g in 1 litre of water.standardize with standard calcium ion soln at pH
10 using special buffer soln and solochorme black T indicator in the presence of a
known concentration of magnesium ion.
Pottasium ferrocyanide. K4Fe(CN)6. 3H2O. F.W = 422.41 Eq= 422.41 is eqivalen to
98.07 of zinc. Dissolve 42.241 g in water add about 1 g of sodium carbonat and dilute
to 1 litre.
Soap solution. Dissolve 10 g of castile soap in 100 mL of ethanol by warming it in a
beaker of hot water. Add another 500 mL of ehtanol and dilute to 1 litre. Filter after
standing for a day or two. Standardize calcium ion soln.
Calcium ion solution. To 1 g of pure dry calcium carbonate add a little water and
enough 2N hydrochloric acid in a drops to this solve the chalk, boil, cool and make up
to 1 litre . 1 mL = 0.004 g of calcium ion
Zimmermen-Reinhardt solution. This is use for the titration of ferrous ion in the
presence of hydrochloric acid using permanganate solution. Dissolve 70 g of hydrated
manganous sulphate crystals in approx 500 mL of water add in succession, with
stirring 125 mL of cone sulphuric acid and 125 mL syrupy phosphoric acid (85%) and
dilute to 1 litre. Use 25 mL per titration with approx 0,1 N soln.
Clarks soap solution. Dissolve 100 g of Castile soap in 800mL 0f ethanol and 200
mL of water,leave it to stand for 24 hours, decant off the liquid and titrate against
standard calcium solution. Dilute with the same 80% ethanoluntil 1 mL = 1 mg of
chalk, including the lather factor, which is the volume of soap solution needed to
make a permanent lather with 50 mL of distilled water.
Boutron-Boudet soap solution. Dissolve 100 g of Castile soap in 2500 mL of 56%
ethanol (1400 mL ethanol + 1100 water), titrate against 40 mL of a solution of 0.59 g
of barium nitate perlitre. Dilute so that 2.4 mL of the soap of solution after dilution
gives a permanent lather with 40 mL of barium nitrate soln. 2.4 = 220 part per million
calcium carbonat = 22 french degrees of hardness.