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# Encoding Messages into Matrices

## Message to encode: The US Election system was developed by Wagner

Write the message down the columns of matrices with three rows. We will
use 3x4 matrix to encode the message. (The number of columns in the m x
is not relevant. However, using more than one matrix may be convenient)
Make sure you leave empty spaces in the matrix to indicate a space. The
message can be written horizontally or vertically

T - - E I - S M
H U E C O S T -
E S L T N Y E W
A D E P - - G R
S E L E B W N -
- V O D Y A E -

Using the encoding chart provided on the back, translate the matrix letters
into their numerical equivalents.

20 26 26 0 3 26 5 4
13 15 0 6 14 5 20 26
0 5 12 20 22 10 0 1

2 18 0 9 26 26 17 8
5 0 12 0 16 1 22 26
26 21 14 18 10 2 0 26
Multiply each of the matrices on the left by the following matrix:
RULE: YOU NEED TO TRANPOSE THE FOLLOWING MATRIX 7 TIMES BEFORE USING IT.

1 2 3 46 71 62 72 97 66 45 59
C= 0 1 4 13 35 48 86 102 45 20 30
5 6 0
178 220 130 36 99 160 145 176

90 81 66 63 88 34 61 138
109 84 68 72 56 9 22 130
40 90 72 45 226 136 217 196

ENCODING CHART:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z -
2 1 6 1 0 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 2 1 9 2 8 5 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2
6 8 9 7 3 1 7 2 2 4 3 0 5 1 4 0 5 6
To get the numbers in the code range (0, 27), reduce the numbers in the
matrices to their equivalents mod 27

19 17 8 18 16 12 18 5
13 8 21 5 21 18 20 3
16 4 22 9 18 25 10 14

9 0 12 9 7 7 7 3
1 3 14 18 2 9 22 22
13 9 18 18 10 1 1 7
After the calculation, you should have two matrices with new numbers. Using
the coding chart again, write an equivalent letter to its number. You should get
a new message.

F G R D B L D S
H R V S V D T I
B M N P D Z Y O

P E L P K K K I
W I O D A P L L
H P D D Y W W K

## Write the message into 3x4 matrices

F G R D B L D S
H R V S V D T I
B M N P D Z Y O

19 17 8 18 16 12 18 5
13 8 21 5 21 18 20 3
16 4 22 9 18 25 10 14
P E L P K K K I

W I O D A P L L

H P D D Y W W K

9 0 12 9 7 7 7 3
1 3 14 18 2 9 22 22
13 9 18 18 10 1 1 7

Multiply each of the matrices on the left using the inverse matrix of C

## C-1 = -142 -244 296 -297 84 161 -22 4

-24 18 5
20 -15 -4 121 204 -243 249 -67 -130 20 -1
-5 4 1 -27 -49 66 -61 22 37 0 1

## -133 99 54 198 -82 -1 233 359

113 -81 -42 -162 70 1 -194 -289
-28 21 14 45 -17 2 54 80

## Make sure you reduce the numbers to equivalent mod 27

20 26 26 0 3 26 5 4
13 15 0 6 14 5 20 26
0 5 12 20 22 10 0 1

2 18 0 9 26 26 17 8
5 0 12 0 16 1 22 26
26 21 14 18 10 2 0 26
Using the coding chart, the decoded message is: _The US election system was
developed by Wagner.__
ENCODING CHART:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z -
2 1 6 1 0 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 2 1 9 2 8 5 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2
6 8 9 7 3 1 7 2 2 4 3 0 5 1 4 0 5 6

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