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e-ISSN: 1694-2639
p-ISSN: 1694-2620
AAJHSS.ORG
Vol 8, No 2 Special Issue
Table of Contents
The Sources of Knowledge on Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care 1
Protocol (EINC) and its Impact on the Extent of its Implementation in
the Hospitals in Iligan City
Laarni A. Caorong and Ashley A. Bangcola

Soil Loss Mitigation using Synthetic Polymer under Simulated Condition 15


Sheila G. Griengo, Romeo B. Gavino, Victorino T. Taylan and
Sylvester A. Badua

Scientific Perspective of Meranao Students Superstitious Beliefs in Food 26


Preparation and Preservation
Rasmia M. Yahyah - Muti

Into The Woods: A Motif Mainstreaming of Imontanosas 37


Eschatological Legends
Jonnelle Desierto Fagsao, MTE

Application of MODIS Satellite Data in Modeling Total Suspended Solids 48


in Lake Lanao, Philippines
Rakimah Datu Macabalang and Xin Qian

The Relationship of Compliance to Medication among Hypertensive 60


Heads of Units and their Diet and Attitude towards Medical Consultation
Athena Jalaliyah B. Derico-Lawi

The Stages of Female Circumcision Practice among Meranaos Living in 69


the Rural and Marginalized Areas in Lanao
Salmah Lao Basher

Equipment Inventory Management System (EIMS) 76


Belen M. Tapado and Ma. Emmie T. Delluza
Preliminary Evaluation of Lake Lanao fish Hypseleotris agilis Herre for 84
Antimicrobial Activity
N. Barosa, F. Abamo , M. Kabirun and M. Billacura

Protective and Antigenotoxic Potentials of Lantana camara Linn. Leaves 91


L. Roboca, M. Billacura and F. Abamo

Does Farmer Field School Work? Assessing the Outcomes of Madrasah 97


Sa Basak of MSU-PhilRice in Lanao del Sur, Philippines
Leo M. Aguanta

Growth and Yield Performance of the Different Varieties of Pechay 103


(Brassica chinensis) as Affected by the Different Organic Fertilizers under
MSU-Marawi Condition
Saanoding A. Balayo

On a q-Analogue of the Non-central Whitney Numbers 112


Omar I. Cauntongan
1 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences


p-ISSN: 1694-2620
e-ISSN: 1694-2639
Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 1-14, IJHSS

The Sources of Knowledge on Essential Intrapartum and


Newborn Care Protocol (EINC) and its Impact on the Extent of
its Implementation in the Hospitals in
Iligan City

Laarni A. Caorong
orcid.org/0000-0002-1987-4854
laarni_caorong@yahoomail.com
Mindanao State University
Marawi City, Philippines

Ashley A. Bangcola
orcid.org/0000-0002-8228-9930
ashyannaali@gmail.com
Mindanao State University
Marawi City, Philippines

Abstract
The DOH embarked on Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC) to address neonatal
deaths in the country. This descriptive correlation study was made to find out the sources of
knowledge on EINC to the extent of implementation of the EINC protocol in the three areas:
labor and delivery rooms as well as Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of hospitals in Iligan
City. A sample of 62 staff nurses (86.5%) and midwives (14.5%) were purposively selected from
two private hospitals and three public hospitals in Iligan City. A three-part structured
questionnaire was utilized to carry out the rationale of the study. The results revealed that the
staffs were generally applying the steps/procedures in the EINC protocol in their respective
units. The staffs primary sources of knowledge on EINC were the trainings and seminars
provided by the hospitals through its Nursing Service Offices, heads and colleagues. The study
further revealed significant relationship between these sources of knowledge on EINC and the
extent of its implementation in the delivery room and nursery room of the five hospitals in Iligan
City. The findings underscore the need for healthcare institutions to strengthen their information
drive on EINC which can result to its increased implementation which can in turn lead to the
improvement of health care service in institutional deliveries. This may involve empowerment of
staff and educating them on best practices and creating a monitoring and evaluation system.

Keywords: Essential intrapartum, newborn care, EINC knowledge, quantitative research,


Philippines
2 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

Introduction
Childbirth is central event to human nature and one that has a great impact on the life of women
and their families and over the years, remarkable progresses were made in the safety and comfort
of human labor and birth but there is also an increase in maternal as well as neonatal mortality
despite these progresses. Every year there are approximately 3.7 million neonatal deaths and 3.3
million stillbirths worldwide (Wardlaw et.al, 2012). The country is one of the 42 countries that
account for 90% of under-five mortality worldwide. 82,000 Filipino children under five years old
die every year. Thirty seven percent (37%) or 40,000 of them are newborn (United Nations
Development Groups, 2012) The high mortality and morbidity rates in newborn are directly
related to inappropriate hospital and community practices currently employed throughout the
Philippines. Additionally, the current practices in hospitals fell below the recommended World
Health Organization (WHO) standards and robbed the newborns of the natural protection
offered by the basic recommended interventions (DOH, 2009).

In an attempt to provide quality maternal and newborn care, and to address neonatal deaths in
the country, the Department of Health (DOH) embarked on Essential Intrapartum and
Newborn Care (EINC). The unang yakap campaign is a government program aimed at
improving newborn care and reducing neonatal death by half. This DOH initiative employs
EINC protocol as its main strategy (Pena, 2010).

In this paper, the terms EINC and Unang Yakap will be used interchangeably. The newborn
care package is a four step intervention to reduce newborn deaths. Four core steps were
recommended in a time bound sequence which includes drying the baby, skin contact, cord
clamping and keeping newborn and mother together for early initiation of breast feeding (DOH,
2009). According to Banzon (2013), Unang Yakap calls for the end of old, routine health-care
practices that have been previously deemed infallible despite the absence of evidence. For the
mother, routine enemas, restriction of food and drinks during labor, routine intravenous fluid
insertion, perineal shaving and fundal pressure should be abandoned. For the newborn, routine
suctioning upon birth, routine separation of mother and early bathing (less than six hours after
birth) must be discontinued. Application of various substances to the umbilical cord and the
practice of foot printing should be discouraged, which has no value for the baby. The
recommended procedures during intrapartum includes maternal support by a companion during
labor and delivery, freedom from movement and monitoring of progress during labor, as well as
not including episiotomy as part of the routine of care and management of the third stage of
childbirth (World Health Organization Protocol, 2012).

In the early stages, EINC protocol was adopted initially by 11 pilot hospitals in Central Luzon,
Visayas and 2 hospitals in Mindanao (Chattoe-Brown et.al, 2012). Adventist Medical Center-
Iligan, Dr. Uy Hospital Inc., Mercy Community Hospital and Gregorio T. Lluch Memorial
Hospital were among the hospitals in Iligan City, which adopted the guidelines of EINC
protocol subsequently. Accordingly, these hospitals have provided trainings and seminars on
EINC to their staff to ensure that the EINC protocol is implemented correctly in their
institutions.

Statement of the Problem


The birth of children in countries like the Philippines can be risky to both mother and child
hence the need to shift to the EINC protocol. According to Banzon (2013) EINC is easily
3 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

implementable, be it the rural health unit, to lying-in clinic and even the hospital setting.
Moreover, EINC is about health systems. It is a choreographed set of actions requiring team
effort from health professionalsobstetricians, anesthesiologists and pediatricians alike,
administrative/support staff of the birthing facility and the mothers family. Thus, failure to
implement does not mean failure of one, but failure of the system (Banzon, 2013). This study
was made to assess the implementation of the EINC protocol in the hospitals in Iligan City.
Additionally, this study also explored the staffs sources of EINC knowledge, as well as the
relationship between the extent of EINC implementation and the sources of EINC knowledge.

Research Design
This investigation employs a quantitative descriptive correlational design to answer the research
questions. The descriptive design was used to describe the extent of EINC implementation and
the sources of EINC knowledge among staff nurses and midwives in the hospitals of Iligan City.
The correlation method of research was used to investigate the relationship between the extent
of EINC implementation and the sources of EINC knowledge.

Significance
This study aimed to determine the extent of implementation of the EINC protocol and
understand its application in the hospitals in Iligan City. Additionally, the results of this study
may serve as basis for assessment, performance or feedback/evaluation tool of the extent of
implementation of the EINC. It will also be a means to monitor staff in the delivery of quality
care services in the delivery room and neonatal care units. Furthermore, the results of this study
can be used for training, retraining and continuing education for hospital staff members as this
may improve overall organizational performance. Lastly, the results of this study may result in
less maternal and neonatal deaths and complications.

Method of Procedure
To determine the extent of EINC implementation and the sources of EINC knowledge, this
study utilized a survey method with questionnaires. The structured researcher-developed
questionnaire comprised 3 sections. Section A covered the demographic data of the respondents.
Section B dealt with the respondents sources of knowledge about EINC/ Protocol i.e. trainings
and seminars conducted by the DOH, trainings and seminars conducted by the hospital (through
the Nursing Service Office), echo-seminars given by heads and colleagues in the unit, doctors in
the institution, downloadable videos or material sources from the internet, Instructors during
student years, printed or written guidelines handed by immediate supervisor, graphic materials,
and flyers or advertisements. Section C was adopted from the EINC step-by-step procedures as
recommended by the DOH and was further subdivided into three sections: 1) Intrapartum care
composed of seven statements answered by labor room midwives and nurses who were currently
assigned in the said area; 2) Intrapartum care comprised of 18 statements answered by staff
nurses and midwives assigned in the delivery room; and 3) The newborn care-sixteen- step
protocol answered by respondents assigned in the NICU. In this part of the questionnaire, the
respondents were asked to indicate the frequency of their implementation of each of the step in
the DOH recommended EINC protocol. A preliminary step was done for item analysis and
revision of questionnaires

For the purpose of selecting the setting of the study, five hospitals in Iligan City (2 private
hospitals and three public hospitals) were selected as the locale and the delivery room (DR),
labor room (LR), and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were the focus areas of the study.
4 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

These hospitals were purposefully selected since they were among the first implementors of
EINC protocol in Iligan City. The respondents were staff nurses and midwives who were
purposively chosen based on the following criteria: (1) He or she must be currently assigned in
one of the areas of OB-ER, DR, or NICU; and (2) He or she must have been working in one of
the aforementioned areas for at least six months after the implementation of the EINC protocol
in their respective areas. The subsequent sample consisted of 53 nurses and 9 midwives who
were working for not less than six months in one or more of the three areas of LR, DR, and
NICU. The respondents were mostly female with a significant number of the respondents who
were single, with ages ranging from 21 to 51 years old, earning a monthly income of less than
PhP 10,000.00 with 1 to 5 year length of service.

Collection of Data
Prior to the actual conduct of the study, the researcher visited the different hospitals in Iligan
City. A preliminary talk was conducted with the chief nurse of each hospital to explain the
purpose as well as the possible benefits of the research to the hospitals under study. During this
time, the researcher also requested for a list of the registered nurses and registered midwives
assigned in the labor room, delivery room and neonatal intensive care unit with the
corresponding length of service in their respective areas. The purpose of which was to determine
the actual number of respondents. All registered nurses and registered midwives who had served
for less than six months in the three areas of OB-ER, DR, and NICU were eliminated as
potential respondents. Another visit was made again to formally deliver the permission letter to
seek approval of the respondents participation in the study. It was also an opportunity to get the
respective schedules of the respondents to facilitate the easy gathering of data. The final and
subsequent visits were made to invite the respondents to participate in the study. Among the 62
staff nurses and midwives who agreed to participate, all of them completed all the questionnaires
(100% response rate). The data gathered were tallied, tabulated, and then subjected to statistical
treatment.

Treatment of Data
The data was analyzed through the statistical package for the social sciences. A series of Cramers
V correlation was used to examine the association between the extent of EINC implementation
and the sources of EINC knowledge. The alpha level was set at .05 for statistical significance.

Findings

Table 1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution, Respondents Sources of


Information on the EINC Protocol

Sources of Information f %

1. Trainings and seminars conducted by the Hospital (through the 36 58.1


Nursing Service Office)

2. Doctors (Obstetricians, Pediatricians) serving in the institution 32 51.6

3. Echo-seminars given by heads or colleagues in the unit 31 50.0

4. Trainings and seminars conducted by the Department of Health 26 41.9


5 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

5. Printed or written guidelines handed by immediate supervisor 25 40.3

6. Graphic, flyers, advertisements 20 32.3

7. Downloadable videos or material sources from the internet 18 29.0

8. Instructors during student years 17 27.4

As to the respondents sources of information regarding the EINC Protocol, Table 1 shows that
when the eight possible sources of information on EINC Protocol are ranked, the following
order is obtained: 1st - from trainings and seminars conducted by the hospital through the
Nursing Service Office (58.1%); 2nd from doctors serving in the institution (51.6%); 3rd from
echo-seminars given by the heads and colleagues in the unit (50.0%); 4th from trainings and
seminars conducted by the Department of Health (41.9%); 5th from printed and graphic
materials (40.3%); 6th from graphics, flyers and advertisements (32.3%); 7th from
th
downloadable videos/material sources from the internet (29.0%); and 8 from instructors
during the respondents student years (27.4%).

Based on the findings, it can be stated that most of the respondents get their information on the
EINC protocol from the trainings and seminars conducted by their respective hospitals through
the initiative of the Nursing Service Office. This finding suggests the need for hospitals to
promote and facilitate seminars and trainings for their staff nurses and midwives on EINC
Protocol. A study in Zambia (Manasayan, et.al, 2011) to study the cost effectiveness of the WHO
EINC training of health care providers. The results of the study include a decrease in neonatal
mortality rate from 11.5 per 1000 to 6.8 per 1000 live births after ENC training of the clinic
midwives. The study concluded further that ENC training of clinic midwives who provide care
in low-risk facilities is a low-cost intervention that can reduce early neonatal mortality in these
settings. On the other hand, the data further shows that out of the 62 respondents, only 17
obtained their information on EINC from their instructors when they were still students. This
finding is unexpected considering the fact that the EINC protocol was issued for
implementation by DOH Secretary Enrique Duque on December 2009 (DOH, 2009) and was
assumed to have been adopted for instruction in most nursing schools from the time it was
issued for implementation by the Department of Health. The findings suggest a need for nursing
schools to strengthen their instructions on the EINC/Unang Yakap Protocol.

Table 2. Frequency and Percentage Distribution, Extent of Implementation of EINC


Protocol in Terms of Steps/Procedure for Intrapartum Care According to Labor
Room Staff*

Steps/ Procedure 5 4 3 2 1 Mean


Intrapartum Care Always Often Sometimes Seldom Never
F % f % f % f % F % V I
1. Assess client at the 29 85.3 2 5.9 3 8.8 0 0 0 0 4.8 A
start of labor
2. Use partograph to 12 35.3 4 11.8 0 0 9 26.5 9 26.5 3.0 O
monitor progress of
labor
3. Wash hands before 30 88.2 4 11.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.9 A
and after care of
6 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

each client
4. Monitor progress of 29 85.3 2 5.9 3 8.8 0 0 0 0 4.8 A
labor
5. Allow fluids & light 12 35.3 15 44.1 5 14.7 2 5.9 0 0 4.1 O
diet during labor
6. Start IV only when 30 88.2 3 8.8 1 2.9 0 0 0 0 4.9 A
necessary & if
ordered by the
attending physician
7. Allow patient to have 16 47.1 4 11.8 13 38.2 0 0 1 2.9 4.0 O
SO in the labor
room to be present
during labor
GRAND MEAN 4.4 A

Mean LEGEND: Always (A) 4.3 5.0 v= Value


Often (O) 3.5 4.2 I= Interpretation
Sometimes (SO) 2.7 3.4
Seldom (SE) 1.9 2.6 *n= 34
Never (N) 1.0 1.8

The 34 respondents who were assigned in the Labor Room of the five hospitals under study were
surveyed to determine the extent of their application of the seven steps/procedures for
intrapartum care in the Labor Room. The findings indicates that generally the steps/procedures
under intrapartum were always applied by the respondents with a grand mean of 4.4. Four out
of the seven steps/procedures under intrapartum care were always applied while three steps
were often applied. Based on ranking, the procedures of washing hands before and after care of each
client and starting IV only when necessary and if ordered by the attending physician were the mostly
applied steps under intrapartum care in the Labor Room with a mean score of 4.9 for each of the
procedures.

On the other hand, procedure of using partograph to monitor progress of labor was the least applied
step under intrapartum care in the Labor Room with a mean score of 3.0. This finding is
consistent with the findings of a study by Kaur, et. al. (2010), found out in his study that the use
of partograph could be used to monitor the progress of labor. It was also found out in that
study that the use of partograph with strict evaluation and recording is not feasible. However,
EINC promotes the use of the old reliable partographs so that any trained birth attendant can
track the progress of labor and refer complicated pregnancies as early as necessary. According to
Banzon (2013), it is easily implementable, be it the rural health unit, to lying-in clinic and even
the hospital setting.

It is also significant that thirteen respondents only sometimes apply the procedure of allowing
patient to have significant other in the labor room to be present during labor and only five respondents
sometimes allow fluids and light diet during labor. EINC desires continuous support for the
expectant mother by ensuring that she has a companion while in labor and delivery and that she
is able to move around easily (Banzon, 2013). Moreover, Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
states that people having satisfied a need moves on to satisfy another (McLeod, 2007). An
expectant who is denied food and drink during labor will find her needs unfulfilled. The needs of
the expectant mother have to be met as they are vital to her well-being, both physical and
7 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

emotional, and consequently to her process of giving birth. It can be traumatic for a woman to
be left alone in the delivery room while she is being prepped, as she might feel unloved and
abandoned. If an expectant mothers need are not met, her birth experiences can be unsatisfying
and may lead to complications. Conversely, if her needs are satisfied, one outcome is that the
birth experience can lead to self-actualization.

Table 3. Frequency and Percentage Distribution, Extent of Implementation of EINC


Protocol in Terms of Steps/Procedure for Intrapartum Care According to Delivery
Room Staff*

Steps/ Procedure 5 4 3 2 1 Mean


Intrapartum Care Always Often Sometimes Seldom Never
f % F % f % f % F % v I
1. Allow patient to 8 25.0 4 9.4 11 28.1 7 21.9 5 15.6 3.1 SO
have SO to be
present inside the
delivery room
2. Encourage the 17 53.1 3 9.4 12 31.3 1 3.1 1 3.1 4.0 O
mother to void
before lying on
delivery table.
3. Permit mobility & 12 37.5 15 43.8 3 6.3 2 6.3 3 6.3 4.0 O
position of choice
during labor
4. Turn off 8 25.0 8 25.0 12 31.3 5 12.5 2 6.3 3.4 SO
aircon/electric fan
when patient is in
the delivery room
5. Wash hands 31 96.9 1 3.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.0 A
thoroughly
before and after
each care
6. Put on double 11 34.4 6 18.8 11 34.4 4 12.5 0 0 3.6 O
glove if handling
delivery & remove
first glove before
cutting the cord of
infant
7. Assist patient into 19 59.4 9 28.1 2 6.3 2 6.3 0 0 4.3 A
a comfortable
position in the
delivery table, as
upright as
possible.
8. Allow the mother 21 65.6 6 18.8 1 3.1 0 0 4 12.5 4.3 A
to push as she
wishes with
contractions
9. Provide perennial 27 84.4 2 6.3 3 9.4 0 0 0 0 4.7 A
support and
controlled delivery
of head
10. Limit practice of 21 65.6 4 12.5 6 18.8 1 3.1 0 0 4.3 A
episiotomy only
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when necessary
11. No performance 8 25.0 13 40.6 9 28.1 2 8.3 0 0 3.7 O
of fundal push
12. Callout the time 30 93.8 2 6.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.0 A
of birth & gender
13. Place baby on the 29 90.6 3 9.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.9 A
mothers
abdomen.
14. Administer 10 IU 15 46.9 8 25.0 3 9.4 1 3.1 5 15.6 3.8 O
of Oxytocin IM
within 1 minute
after babys birth
15. Perform 24 75.0 5 15.6 2 6.3 0 0 1 3.1 4.5 A
controlled traction
when delivering
placenta with
counter traction
on the uterus
16. Massage the 26 81.3 3 9.4 3 9.4 0 0 0 0 4.7 A
uterus after
placental
expulsion
17. Examine and 27 84.4 3 9.4 3 9.4 0 0 0 0 4.8 A
assess the lower
vagina &
perineum
18. Monitor the 28 87.5 4 12.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.9 A
mother & the
baby immediately
after the delivery
of the placenta
GRAND MEAN 4.3 A

Mean Always (A) 4.3 5.0 v= Value


LEGEND:
Often (O) 3.5 4.2 I= Interpretation
Sometimes (SO) 2.7 3.4
Seldom (SE) 1.9 2.6 *n= 35
Never (N) 2.0 1.8

Table 3 shows the extent of the application of the steps/procedures for intrapartum care among
the Delivery Room staff in the five hospitals under study. The findings indicates that generally,
the steps/procedures under intrapartum were always applied by the respondents in the care of
the patients during the intrapartum period in the delivery room with a grand mean of 4.3. Eleven
out of the eighteen steps/procedures under intrapartum care in the delivery room were always
applied while five steps were often applied and two were sometimes applied in the delivery
room during the intrapartum period.

Based on ranking, the procedures of washing hands before and after care of each client and calling out the
time of birth and gender of the newborn were the mostly applied procedures under intrapartum care in
the delivery room with a mean score of 5.0 for each of the procedures. The findings can be
attributed to the fact that washing of hands before and after providing care to the patient is a
universal practice among healthcare professionals in any healthcare setting and not limited to the
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delivery rooms only to prevent the transmission of microorganisms and cross-contamination


between and among patients. According to the World Health Organization, the most effective
way to reduce cross infection is hand hygiene by health care workers (WHO, 2009). Additionally,
the procedure of calling out the name and gender of the newborn although specific to the
delivery room only is a procedure that is being practiced even before the implementation of the
EINC Protocol.

On the other hand, the procedure of allowing patient to have significant other to be present inside the
delivery room was the least applied procedure in the delivery room with a mean score of 3.1. This
finding may attributed to the fact that in the Philippine setting family members were traditionally
not allowed to enter in the labor room and delivery room on the premise that the woman in
labor may simply adopt the sick role and take to bed. However, the central proposition of the
Birth Territory theory is that when midwives and healthcare professionals endeavor to influence
conditions to create an ideal environment and if significant others are there to provide maximum
support labor will result in an increased likelihood that the woman will give birth under her own
power, be more satisfied with the experience and adapt with ease in the post birth period to an
entirely satisfying experience for the woman as there will be an increased likelihood for her to
take control of her situation which is exactly what the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care
(EINC) protocol intends to accomplish.

Table 4. Frequency and Percentage Distribution, Extent of Implementation of EINC


Protocol in terms of Steps/Procedure of Newborn Care According to NICU Staff*

Steps/ Procedure 5 4 3 2 1 Mean


Newborn Care Always Often Sometimes Seldom Never
f % F % f % f % F % V I
1. Thorough drying of 33 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.0 A
baby for 30
seconds
2. Assess breathing of 31 93.9 1 3.0 1 3.0 0 0 0 0 4.9 A
baby & perform
resuscitation when
needed
3. Place the baby on 27 81.8 4 12.1 2 6.1 0 0 0 0 4.8 A
mothers abdomen
for skin-to-skin
contact
4. Place baby in prone 27 81.8 6 18.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.8 A
position to drain
secretions
5. Clamp the cord 32 97.0 1 3.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.9 A
using plastic sterile
clamp 2 cm from
the base
6. Clamp using 32 97.0 1 3.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.9 A
forceps 3 cm from
the plastic clamp
7. Cut the cord 2-3 28 84.8 4 12.1 1 3.0 0 0 0 0 4.8 A
minutes after the
delivery of the baby
or when cord
pulsation stops
8. Discard the wet 32 97.0 1 3.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.9 A
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cloth use to dry


baby
9. Wrap the mother & 23 69.7 7 21.2 3 9.1 0 0 0 0 4.6 A
baby with linen
10. Put bonnet on 22 66.7 8 24.2 2 6.1 1 3.0 0 0 4.6 A
babys head
11. Apply name tag on 31 93.9 1 3.0 1 3.0 0 0 0 0 4.9 A
babys ankle
12. Initiate early breast 21 63.6 11 33.3 1 3.0 0 0 0 0 4.6 A
feeding
13. Monitor both baby 30 90.9 3 9.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.9 A
and mother
14. After 60mins of 29 87.9 3 9.1 1 3.0 0 0 0 0 4.9 A
skin-to-skin contact
and adequate
latching on, do eye
care, PE, weigh,
measure, inject
Vitamin K, Hepa B
vaccine, BCG
15. Non separation of 29 87.9 3 9.1 1 3.0 0 0 0 0 4.0 O
baby from mother.
16. Transport both 11 33.3 11 33.3 5 15.2 4 12.1 2 6.1 3.8 O
mother and baby to
room together.
GRAND MEAN 4.7 A

Mean Always (A) 4.3 5.0 v= Value


LEGEND:
Often (O) 3.5 4.2 I= Interpretation
Sometimes (SO) 2.7 3.4
Seldom (SE) 1.9 2.6 *n= 33
Never (N) 3.0 1.8

The 33 respondents who were assigned in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) were
surveyed to determine the extent of their application of the 16 steps/procedures for newborn
care in the nursery room. The findings indicate that generally the steps/procedures for newborn
care were always applied by the respondents in NICU. These findings can be attributed to the
fact that 25 out of the 62 respondents were assigned in NICU (40.3%) and other 8 respondents
(12.9%) were rotated in the three areas including NICU. It can be inferred that more staff are
available to provide care to the newborns. Based on ranking, the procedure of thorough drying of
the baby for 30 seconds was the mostly applied procedure with a mean score of 5.0. This finding
signifies that the respondents recognize the importance of drying the baby immediately after
birth because the infant is extremely vulnerable to heat loss because his/her body surface area is
great in relation to his/her weight and he/she has relatively little subcutaneous weight. Heat loss
after delivery is increased by the cool delivery room and the infant's wet skin (Banzon, 2013).

On the other hand, the findings also shows that the respondents did not always apply one of
the important mandates of EINC Protocol which is the non-separation of the newborn from the
mother, not even in the nursery (Banzon, 2013). Aside from the fact that the baby must remain
in skin-to-skin contact so that breast-feeding can begin immediately and skin-to-skin contact
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provides additional warmth to the newborn, the non-separation of the mother and newborn is
essential to the development of attachment between mother and baby. According to Bowlbys
Attachment Theory (1991), attachment between mother and baby had an evolutionary
component; it aids in survival. He stated that "the propensity to make strong emotional bonds to
particular individuals is a basic component of human nature.

Table 5: Cramers V, Respondents Sources of Knowledge and the Extent of Implementation of


EINC Protocol in Area of Assignment

Tested Variables
Cramers Computed Interpretation
Sources of EINC Knowledge by Area of Assignment V Value p Value

Trainings and seminars conducted by the DOH LRIC .235 .391 NS


DRIC .184 .551 NS
NRNC .295 .090 NS
Trainings and seminars conducted by the LRIC .214 .458 NS
Hospital (through the Nursing Service Office) DRIC .421 .045 *Significant
NRNC .420 .016 *Significant
Echo-seminar given by the head and colleague in LRIC .220 .439 NS
the unit DRIC .487 .016 *Significant
NRNC .372 .101 NS
Doctors (Obstetricians, Pediatricians) in the LRIC .325 .166 NS
institution DRIC .359 .105 NS
NRNC .416 .057 NS
Instructors during student years LRIC .122 .776 NS
DRIC .248 .340 NS
NRNC .088 .614 NS
Downloadable videos or material sources from LRIC .170 .613 NS
the internet DRIC .429 .040 *Significant
NRNC .105 .547 NS
Print materials or written guidelines handed by LRIC .235 .391 NS
immediate supervisor DRIC .173 .593 NS
NRNC .385 .087 NS
Graphic, flyers, advertisements materials LRIC .103 .835 NS
DRIC .319 .168 NS
NRNC .354 .127 NS
NS not significant (p 0.05) LRIC Labor Room Intrapartum Care
* Cramers V is significant (p .05 level) DRIC Delivery Room Intrapartum Care
NRNC Nursery Room Newborn Care

Several sources of knowledge on Essential Intrapartum Newborn Care (EINC) and the extent of
EINC implementation were analyzed per area of assignment i.e. Labor Room Intrapartum Care
(LRIC), Delivery Room Intrapartum Care (DRIC); and Nursery Room Newborn Care (NRNC)
using Cramers V Value which was appropriate for the independent variables with nominal
choices. The results show that none of the variables pertaining to the respondents sources of
knowledge on EINC protocol have significant relationship with the extent of implementation of
labor room EINC protocol. This means that the implementation of the said protocol in the
labor room is not in any way influenced by the respondents sources of knowledge on such and it
does not matter where the respondents obtained their information on EINC protocol.
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Additionally, the data revealed that echo-seminars given by heads and colleagues in the unit and
downloadable videos or material sources from the internet have significant relationship with the
extent of implementation of EINC protocol only in the delivery room while trainings and
seminars conducted by the hospital through the nursing service office have been found to have
significant relationship with the extent of implementation of EINC protocol both in the delivery
room and nursery room.

As sources of information, trainings and seminars conducted by the hospital through the nursing
service office and echo-seminars given by heads and colleagues in the unit, were highly correlated
with the extent of implementation of EINC protocol in the delivery room and nursery room.
This could be explained by the fact that 58.1% of the respondents indicated that their primary
source of information on EINC protocol was the trainings and seminars conducted by the
hospital through the nursing service office while 50% of the respondents indicated echo-
seminars given by heads and colleagues in the unit as their primary source of information on the
EINC protocol. This finding suggests the need for hospitals to promote and facilitate seminars
and trainings for their staff nurses and midwives on EINC Protocol.

On the other hand, downloadable videos or material sources from the internet on EINC
protocol is significantly correlated with EINC implementation in the delivery room only but did
not reveal a significant association with EINC implementation in the labor room and nursery
room may be explained by the prevalence of downloadable videos on the internet which focuses
more on the steps related to the process of actual delivery. Furthermore, many of the steps in the
EINC protocol pertaining to the care of newborn are already being done by midwives in the
delivery room such as placing the baby on mothers abdomen for skin-to-skin contact, placing
the baby in prone position to drain secretions, clamping the cord using plastic sterile clamp 2 cm
from the base, clamping the cord using forceps 3 cm from the plastic clamp, and cutting the
cord 2-3 minutes after the delivery of the baby or when cord pulsation stops.

Recognizing the sources of EINC knowledge that have an impact on the extent of its
implementation should be regarded as a key element to strengthening the level of EINC
implementation in health care institutions.

Conclusions and Implications of the Study


This study provided useful information on the sources of EINC knowledge that could have an
impact to the extent of its implementation in health care institutions, be it the rural health unit,
lying-in clinic and even the hospital setting. In line with the foregoing findings, the following
conclusions have been reached: The staff were generally applying the steps/procedures in the
EINC protocol in their respective units/areas however, each of them were on different extent.
The staffs primary sources of knowledge on EINC were the trainings and seminars provided by
the hospitals through its Nursing Service Offices, heads and colleagues. These sources of
knowledge on EINC in turn have an impact on the extent of its implementation in the hospitals
in Iligan City.
To assure prime optimization of the care of women and newborns, there is a need for a shift to
the procedures in the new EINC protocol. The findings underscore the need for healthcare
institutions to strengthen their information drive on EINC which can result to its increased
implementation which can in turn lead to an improved class of healthcare delivery by health
workers. This may necessarily require the synergy of healthcare workers worldwide, and the
empowerment of staff through means such as education and the raising of awareness on best
practices and areas of improvement, discussing potential pitfalls in practicing the protocol, as
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well as introducing it by means of focus group trainings, and establishing mechanisms for
monitoring and evaluation.

Although it has provided important information on the sources of EINC knowledge that could
influence the extent of its implementation, this study has a number of limitations. Firstly, the
study relied on respondents self-reported data, which is prone to bias. Second, the research
method did not include a qualitative component which could have strengthened the study by
providing reasons why some things are not done the way they should be done. Another
limitation of this study is the sample size. There is no previous statistical correlation of the
sample size to any similar study that could have validated the findings as definitive of the state of
EINC protocol implementation in private and public hospitals.

Literature Cited
Brown, A. & Kerrison J., 2008. Independent Progress Review of the UN Joint Program On Maternal &
Neonatal Mortality Reduction, Philippines Final report. Retrived on May 20, 2014 from:
www.aid.dfat.gov.au/.../philippines.
Banzon, E., 2013.Health System Matter: Unang Yakap. BussinessMirror, Opinion, February 5, 2013 Issue.
DOH, 2009. Department of Health Administrative Order No. 2009-0025: Adopting New Policies and
Protocol on Essential Newborn Care. Retrieved from home.doh.gov.ph/ao/ao2009- 0025.pdf.
Kaur, G. & Kaur, B. & Chopra, S., 2010. An exploratory study on 'Nurse Midwife Manpower'
requirement in Labour room, Nehru Hospital, PGIMER, Chandigarh. Retrieved on September
2014 from: http://medind.nic.in/nad/t10/i1/nadt10i1p24.pdf.
Manasyan, A., Chomba, E., McClure, E., Wright, L., Krzywanski, S., Waldemar C., 2011. Cost-
effectiveness of Essential Newborn Care Training in Urban First Level Facilities. Retrieved on
February 25, 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3387868/
McLeod, S. A., 2008. Mary Ainsworth. Retrieved on September 18, 204. Retrieved from:
http://www.simplypsychology.org/mary-ainsworth.html.
Pena A. G., 2012. Essential Newborn Care, Unang Yakap Campaign. Retrieved on September 18, 2014.
Retrieved from: http://www.annakatharinamd.com/2010/03/07/essential-newborn-care-
unang-yakap-campaign/
UNDG, 2013. United Nations Development Group. Consolidated Annual Report on Activities
Implemented under the Joint Programme Strategy to Improve Maternal and Neonatal Health in
the Philippines. Retrieved from:
file:///C:/Users/acer1/Downloads/JPMNH%202012%20Consolidated%20Annual%20Report
%20(2).pdf
Wardlaw T., David, B., Cappa, C., Dwivedi, A, 2012. UNICEF Progress Report 2012: Division of
Policy & Strategy. Retrieved on May 20, 2014. Retrieved from:
www.uu.orglru/publications/pdfs/renewed_progress
WHO, 2009. World Health Organization Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care: A Summary.
Retrieved on August 23, 2014. Retrieved from:
http://www.who.int/gpsc/5may/tools/who_guidelines-handhygiene_summary.pdf
WHOP, 2012. World health Organization Protocol. Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC)
Evidence-based Standard Practices. Retrieved from:
http://www.wpro.who.int/philippines/areas/maternal_child_nutrition/newborn_
mother_care/einc_protocols/en/
14 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

Laarni A. Caorong finished her Master of Arts in Nursing major in


Nursing Administration and Bachelor of Science in Nursing in
Mindanao State University, Marawi City, Philippines. She has twelve
years of undergraduate teaching experience in various specializations
including Fundamentals of Nursing, Psychiatric Nursing, Maternal and
Child Health Nursing, Communicable Diseases, Intensive Care Unit
Nursing, Emergency and Disaster Nursing, Perioperative Nursing,
Community Health Nursing and Geriatric Nursing. She held various
positions in the College of Health Sciences in Mindanao State University. She is concurrently the
Chairperson of the Instruction Committee, Co-Chairperson of the Curriculum and Instruction
Committee, Level I Coordinator, and Secretary to the Accreditation Committee. She was also the
College Secretary of the Nursing Department from 2013-2014. She had been an undergraduate
instructor of the Nursing Department of the College of Health Sciences since 2005 up to
present. As an educator, she has been recognized for having obtained an Outstanding (98%)
Teaching Efficiency Ratings for three consecutive academic years from 2006-2007. In the field of
research, she has taken part in her Universitys Research Capsule Competition during the
Phenomenology Nursing Research Seminar-Workshop on March 2015 where she won First
Place. Currently, she is a co-researcher of a University-funded research on educators perceptions
and understanding of the basis of Outcome-based education and its impact on their assessment
practices.
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International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences


p-ISSN: 1694-2620
e-ISSN: 1694-2639
Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 15-25, IJHSS

Soil Loss Mitigation using Synthetic Polymer under Simulated


Condition

Sheila G. Griengo,
Mindanao State University-Marawi City,

Romeo B. Gavino, Victorino T. Taylan, Sylvester A. Badua


Central Luzon State University,
Science City of Munoz, Nueva Ecija , Philippines
*Email address of corresponding author: sittieayeesha@yahoo.com

Abstract
One of the effects of climate change is soil degradation which is mostly due to soil erosion. The
use of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) as a soil stabilizer is an emerging conservation practice for
mitigating soil loss. PAM can be an alternative to traditional soil erosion control practices rather
than mulching and slope profiling to control erosion. Generally the study aimed to assess the
effect of using synthetic polymer (PAM) in mitigating soil loss under simulated condition.
Specifically it attempted to install a locally fabricated rainfall simulator (spray-nozzle type) to
evaluate the effectiveness of PAM at different rates (no PAM, 7.4 g of PAM per kg of soil and
14g of PAM per kg of soil) at different slope gradients (10, 35 and 60 degrees) and analyze the
relationship of slope gradient versus sediment yield, and soil loss at different rainfall intensities.
Different rates of PAM were applied in soil test boxes filled with medium loam of soil under
simulated condition. Runoff volume was then collected every event to determine the sediment
yield and soil loss. Data were analyzed using the Split-plot design with three replications and a
regression analysis to determine their relationships. The results indicated that PAM applications
significantly reduced sediment yield and soil loss at different rainfall intensities. The most
effective rate of PAM applied in mitigating soil loss was found to be at a ratio of 14g of PAM per
kg of soil. Sediment yield and soil loss were best fitted in a quadratic model in the form of a
second degree polynomial equation. The relationships between slopes versus the above
parameters being used were found to be non-linear. Moreover, the observed soil loss for every
level of PAM was best modelled by the following coefficient of determination and their
corresponding second degree polynomial equations for both rainfall intensities;
at 75 mm/h,
A0 : SL = -0.0002s2 + 0.0138s + 0.084; R = 0.8845
A40 : SL = -9E-05s2 + 0.007s + 0.0015 ; R = 0.7964
A80 : SL = -6E-05s2 + 0.0044s - 0.021; R = 0.8485, and ;
at 100 mm/h
A0 : SL = -0.0008s2 + 0.0652s - 0.06; R = 0.9942
A40 : SL = -0.0004s2 + 0.0251s + 0.0078; R=0.9773
A80 : SL= -6E-05s2 + 0.0034s + 0.1223; R = 0.7536.

Keywords: soil stabilizer, Polyacrylamide (PAM), rainfall simulator, sediment yield, soil loss.
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Introduction
One of the most serious ecological problems here in the Philippines today is soil degradation.
The most widespread process and most studied in the country is soil erosion (Asio, 2010). Soil is
removed through erosion. When soil is removed it, results in the loss of soil fertility in the land
where it came from. Erosion results to loss of organic matter and clay, topsoil and nutrients, and
soil's capacity to retain nutrients and water. Moreover, lower infiltration rates and increased
runoff are also a result of erosion due to the compaction and sealing of soil surface.

A vital resource for the production of renewable resources for the necessities of human
life, such as food and fiber is soil thus, for better land use and conservation practices,
identification and assessment of erosion problems plays an important role. Other than
agronomic measure and other mechanical conservation of soils, another alternative practice is
applying chemical amendments to modify the soil properties. Various polymers that stabilize soil
surface structures and improve pore continuity have long been recognized as viable soil
conditioners, (Orts et al., 2007. Many recent studies have shown that use of synthetic organic
polymers, like polyacrylamide (PAM), as surface soil amendment results in benefits including
reduction of runoff volumes, decrease in sediment yield, and stabilization of soil structure. The
versatility of PAM is one of the aspects that make it attractive. The key to its effectiveness as a
soil amendment is the way in which the polymer is adsorbs to the soil (Green et al., 2000).

Rainfall simulators have been used as tool in research in evaluating soil erosion and
runoff from agricultural lands, high ways etc. It can be used either under laboratory conditions or
in disturbed or natural soil and it is an important tool for the study of runoff generation and soil.
The RS can expedite data collection because it has the ability to create controlled and
reproducible artificial rainfall (Thomas and Swaify, 1989) and soils and management variables
among locations can be easily compared (Sharpley et al., 1999). Thus, a rainfall simulator was
designed and fabricated in this study to simulate rainfall and test the effect of synthetic polymer
as soil stabilizer in mitigating soil loss in a simulated condition.

Generally, the study aimed to assess the effect of the synthetic polymer (PAM) on mitigating
soil loss under simulated condition. Specifically it attempted to: (a) install a locally fabricated
rainfall simulator (spray-nozzle type) to create a controlled condition for the study; (b) evaluate
the effectiveness of the synthetic polymer (PAM) as soil stabilizer at different amount and at
different slope gradients in mitigating soil loss; and (c) determine the relationship of slope versus
sediment yield, and quantity of soil loss at different rainfall intensities.

Methods
Rainfall Simulator Design
The rainfall simulator (Figure 1) was locally fabricated based on the design used in the study of
Kibet, L.C., et al., (2014). Simulator consists of a collapsible frame made of 40 mm galvanized
iron (G.I.) pipe. Frame was 3 meters high bolted on each corner with an area of 2.5 x 2.5 meters
that support a single spray nozzle head above the soil test boxes.
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Nozzle Assembly

Sediment Filter, bypass line, Flow meter, pressure


gauge

Pump and Water Supply

Figure 1. Rainfall Simulator

Wide Angle Full Cone Spray Tip (FL-10VC) centered over a 2.25-m2 plot to deliver
simulated rain. . An electric pump was used to draw water from 200-liter reservoir to supply
water to the nozzle thru a 20 mm G.I. pipe. Bypass line (made of three gates valves assembled
together) just above the reservoir along with flow meter and pressure gauge before the nozzle
assembly, were used to achieve the desired nozzle pressure. Just outside the pump outlet,
plumbing system was equipped with gate valve and shutoff valve to turn the flow on and off
without disturbing valves that control the pressure and flow rate. Sediment filter was used to
reduce solid particulate transported by the water and remove suspended matter such as sand, silt,
loose scale, clay, or organic material from the water that might clogged on the nozzle.
Windscreen made from High Density Polyethylene plastic was used and attached to all sides of
the frame, secured at the top to bottom so as not to affect rainfall simulation.

Calibration
Calibration was done using a method of 10 seconds discharge flow collected at the nozzle and
measured whether or not it corresponds to the required volume of water for every simulation
.The flow was adjusted until it met the desired discharge flow for every rainfall intensity.

Determination of Rainfall Uniformity Coefficient


To evaluate rainfall distribution in the soil test boxes, Christiansen Coefficient of Uniformity
(CU) was used (Christiansen, 1942) as cited by Javellonar, 2013.


= 100(1
) (1)
where : CU = uniformity coefficient, %
m = mean value of simulated rainfall in the boxes, mm
x = absolute deviation of the individual observations from the mean,
n = number of observation

Soil Collection and Preparation


The soil test box with dimension of 40 cm x 20 cm x 10 cm was made from plain galvanized iron
sheet formed into individual rectangular shapes riveted on all sides to keep it in shape, sealed on
both sides to prevent water and soil leak from the boxes and with 5 cm lip on the forward end
where runoff spills. Six 5 mm diameter drain holes were drilled on the boxes to allow water that
infiltrated the soil to drain from the boxes and prevent ponding.
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Samples of disturbed soil were used in the experiment for evaluation. Prior to packing of
soil in the test boxes the approximate bulk density of the field was determined where soil
samples were taken. Cheesecloth was placed on the bottom of the boxes to keep the soil from
washing out of the holes in the boxes while allowing water to flow through when the soil was
saturated. Boxes were then filled with soil half deep up to 3 cm and spread evenly.

The remaining 2 cm was added with soil mixed with dry PAM granules to achieve the
appropriate weight based on the bulk density and until it was levelled with the lower lip of the
boxes which was 5cm. After the desired weight was achieved by soil addition, tamping, and PAM
application, the boxes were then subjected to pre-wetting treatment and left overnight.

Figure 2. Soil test boxes

Experimental Treatments
Each set-up was subjected into two different simulated storm intensities of 75 mm/h for 23
minutes and 100 mm/h for 12-minutes. Factors used in this study and their respective levels
were the following:

A.) Main Plot: Slope Gradient


S1 = 10 degrees
S2 = 35 degrees
S3 = 60 degrees
B.) Sub-Plot: Amount of PAM applied
A0 = No PAM
A40 = 7.4 g of PAM per kg of soil
A80 = 14 g of PAM per kg of soil

Runoff Collection
The 5 cm forward edge lip of the boxes was attached with a Polyethylene (PE) plastic bag where
runoff was allowed to flow during simulation. Runoff volume was then collected in each of the
test boxes after a rainfall of predetermined duration, weighed and measured using a graduated
cylinder.

Data Analysis
Data gathered was evaluated using the Split-Plot Design with three replications. Comparison
among treatment means was also used to identify any differences if found significant in the
analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Least Significant Difference Test at 5% level of
significance.
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Regression analyses were likewise employed to determine the relationship of slope


gradient versus sediment yield and soil loss at different rainfall intensities

Performance Indicators
In order to assess the effectiveness of the Polyacrylamide to prevent soil loss using the locally
installed rainfall simulator, the following parameters were determined:

Sediment Yield (SY) - reflects the total amount of erosion over a specific area at a given
time. In this particular study, this was the mass of the oven-dried sediment collected over the
area of the soil test box and duration of simulation. It was estimated using the formula adopted
by Berboso, et al. (2008) as cited by Junio, et al. (2009).

=
(2)

where: SY = sediment yield, g / m2 -hr


Sm = mass of oven-dried sediment collected, g
Ab = area of soil test box, m2
t = duration of simulation, h

Soil Loss (SL) the total amount of soil erosion or loss generated from a given watershed
or a given area. The total soil loss from each storm event was calculated using Herweg and
Ostrowski (1997);

SL = C (Sy/ A) (3)

where: C = 0.01 conversion factor ( g/m2 to tons/ha)


SL = amount of soil loss for a storm event, tons/ha
Sy = amount of soil loss for the storm event, g
A = area of soil test box, m2

Results and Discussion


Calibration and Coefficient of Uniformity Test
Table 1 shows calibration result of the fabricated rainfall simulator. Effective area for the rainfall
simulator was 2.25 m2 meters.

During the evaluation, the estimated mean Coefficients of Uniformity (CU) of the soil
test boxes were 81.00% and 75.39% at rainfall intensities of 75 mm/h and 100 mm/h
respectively. It depicts that 19% of the soil test boxes in 75mm/h and 24.61 % of the soil test
boxes in 100 mm/h rainfall intensity did not have enough rainfall. The Coefficient of Uniformity
tends to follow a normal distribution when the values is approximately 70% or higher (Esteves et
al., 2000; Maroufpoor et al., 2010).

Table 1. Rainfall simulator calibration result


RAINFALL SIMULATION FLOWRATE TEN (10) SEC. NOZZLE
INTENSITY DURATION SETTING FLOW PRESSURE
(mm/h) (min) (li/min) RESULT READING
(mL) (kPa)
75 23 2.81 465 - 475 134-154
100 12 3.75 620 - 630 200-230
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Soil Bulk Density and Textural Classification of the Soil Sample


The bulk density of the soil samples used in this study was 1.34 g/cm3. The test box was packed
with soil based on the computed bulk density that determines the final weight of the soil in the
box. With a soil height of 5cm at the box the approximate amount of soil was 5.4 kg/box.
Textural classification shows that the sample has a soil type of medium loam with a composition
of 49.94% sand, 30.11% silt, and 19.95% clay.

This soil type has an erodibility factor (K) of 0.42 at an organic matter of 2%. The K
factor indicates susceptibility of certain soil to erosion. The higher the value depending on the
type of soil, the more prone it is to erosion and vice versa.

Soil Loss under Different Rainfall Intensity


Mean soil loss of PAM and slope gradient is shown in Table 2. It can be noted that treatment A80
recorded the lowest soil loss at rainfall intensity of 75 and 100 mm/h, followed by A40 and A0 or
no PAM. At 75 mm/h, soil loss increased as slope increased from 10 to 35 degrees but decreased
as slope stretches up to 60 degrees. Similar trend of soil loss was also observed at rainfall
intensity of 100 mm/h were soil loss was lowest at highest amount of PAM applied and at lowest
slope gradient. Soil loss under 75 mm/h and 100 mm/h rainfall intensity were significantly
affected by amount of PAM applied, slope gradient and interaction (PAM x Slope). Result of
comparison among means for 100 mm/h intensity was noted in Table 2 where soil loss at slope
10 and slope 60 were significantly lower compared to slope 35 and significantly different
sediment yield was noted at A0, A40, A80 amounts of PAM. On interaction of amount of PAM
and slope, the treatment combinations A80 at slope 10, A80 at slope 35, A80 at slope 60, A40 at
slope 60 had no significant differences on soil loss but they exhibited significant differences with
the other combinations. Highest soil loss of 1.20 ton/ha was observed at A0 slope 35 which is
significantly different from other treatment combinations. Significant reduction of soil loss could
be attributed to PAM application on the soil test boxes. The result can be attributed to the
migration of PAM granules in the pore spaces where they act as a mortar to limit erosion. Soil
may become absorbed by activated PAM granules when PAM particles were wetted. They
provide little benefit in terms of infiltration compared to the control (Peterson et.al, 2002).

The lower soil loss at 60 degree gradient was the result of a decrease in the horizontal
surface area of the test box when it was inclined at a higher slope. When the horizontal surface
area was decreased, less rainfall will be intercepted resulting to lower runoff and eventually lower
soil loss (Javellonar, 2013).

Table 2. Mean soil loss (tons/ha) as affected by different amounts of PAM and varying degree of
slope

SLOPE TREATMENT MEAN

Degree Ao A40 A80


Rainfall Intensity -75 mm/hr
10 0.20 u 0.06 w 0.02 x 0.09 c
35 0.35 s 0.13 v 0.06 wx 0.18 a
60 0.28 t 0.09 vw 0.03 x 0.13 b
MEAN 0.28 i 0.09 j 0.03 k
Rainfall Intensity - 100 mm/hr
10 0.51 u 0.22 w 0.15 x 0.29 c
35 1.20 s 0.42 v 0.17 x 0.60 a
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60 0.85 t 0.15 xy 0.11 y 0.37 b


MEAN 0.85 i 0.26 j 0.14 k

Slope Gradient versus Sediment Yield


Relationship between slope gradient and sediment is shown in Figures 3 and 4 for rainfall
intensities 75 mm/h and 100 mm/h respectively. Regression analysis for both rainfall intensities
indicates that sediment yield is best fitted in a quadratic model in form of second-degree
polynomial equation.

Figure 3. Relationship of slope gradient vs sediment yield for 75 mm/h

The following are equations and coefficients of determination (R2) generated for every level of
PAM applied at 75 mm/h,
A0 : SY = -0.0461s2 + 3.5957s + 21.913 ; R2 = 0.8845
A40 : SY = -0.0243s2 +1.8348s + 0.3913; R2 = 0.7964
A80 : SY = -0.0157s2 + 1.1391s - 5.4782; R2 = 0.8485

where 21.913, 0.3913 and 5.4782 are the intercept of the line on the Y-axis when slope is equal
to zero, 3.5957 and -0.0461 ; 1.8348 and 0.0243; 1.1391 and -0.0157s2 are the first and second
degree slopes of the line respectively, the amount of change in sediment yield for every unit of
change in slope.

At 100 mm/h, the following are the equations and coefficients of determination (R2),
A0 : SY = -0.2174 s2 + 17s - 15.652; R = 0.9942
A40 : SY= -0.0991s2 + 6.5478s + 2.0435; R = 0.9773
A80 : SY = -0.0157s2 + 0.8783s + 31.913; R = 0.7536

where -15.652 is the intercept of the line on the Y-axis when slope is equal to zero, 17 and -
0.2174 ; 6.5478 and 0.0991; 0.8783 and -0.0157 are the first and second degree slopes of the
line respectively, or the amount of change in sediment yield for every unit of change in slope;
where: SY = predicted sediment yield, g/m2-h
S = slope gradient, degree
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Figure 4. Relationship of slope gradient versus sediment yield at 100 mm/h

A non-linear relationship was observed between slope gradient 10 to 60 degrees and


sediment yield for all treatments under different rainfall intensities. That is, at lower slope
gradient, sediment yield was likewise lower. When the slope gradient increased to 35 degrees,
sediment yield also increases but when corresponding decrease in sediment yield was registered.

The observed decreased in sediment yield at a higher slope gradient of 60 degrees could
be attributed to the smaller surface area of the soil test boxes. Furthermore the decrease in the
horizontal surface area was the result of the shortened horizontal distance or length of the soil
test boxes when it was tilted into a steeper slope (Javellonar, 2013).

On one of the study from Renner (1936), he found that the percentage of eroded area is
different with the slope gradient after analysing the data of the Boise River watershed, Idaho in
America. If the slope gradient exceeds a threshold value, the relationship takes inversely
proportional form that is when the slope gradient exceeded 40, the volume of soil erosion starts
to decrease instead. In this particular study it was observed at 35 degrees slope gradient.

Slope Gradient versus Soil Loss


Figures 5 and 6 shows relationship between slope gradient and soil loss under different rainfall
intensities. Regression analysis indicates that soil loss is best fitted in quadratic model at second
degree polynomial equation. The following are equations and coefficients of determination ( R )
generated for every level of PAM applied at 75 mm/h,
A0 : SL = -0.0002s2 + 0.0138s + 0.084; R = 0.8845
A40 : SL = -9E-05s2 + 0.007s + 0.0015 ; R = 0.7964
A80 : SL = -6E-05s2 + 0.0044s - 0.021; R = 0.8485
where 0.084, 0.0015, and -0.021 are the intercept of the line on Y-axis when slope is equal to
zero, 0.0138 and -0.0002 ; 0.007 and -9E-05 ; 0.0044 and -6E-05 are the first and second degree
slopes of the line respectively, or amount of change in soil loss for every unit of change in slope.

Figure 5. Relationship of slope gradient versus soil loss at 75 mm/h


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At 100 mm/h, the following are the equations and coefficients of determination (R2),
A0 : SL = -0.0008s2 + 0.0652s - 0.06; R = 0.9942
A40 : SL = -0.0004s2 + 0.0251s + 0.0078; R=0.9773
A80 : SL= -6E-05s2 + 0.0034s + 0.1223; R = 0.7536

where - 0.06, 0.0078 , 0.1223 are the intercept of the line on Y-axis when slope is equal to zero,
0.0652 and -0.0008 ; 0.0251 and -0.0004 ; 0.0034 and -6E-05 are the first and second degree
slopes of the line respectively, or amount of change in soil loss for every unit of change in slope;

where: SL = predicted soil loss, tons/ha


S = slope gradient, degree

Non-linear relationship was also observed between slope gradient (10 - 60 degrees) and
soil loss for all treatments under different rainfall intensities. At lower slopes, elevation is nearly
flat; therefore velocity of the surface runoff is slow. When velocity is low, shear stress which may
cause detachment of soil particles can also be slow. Therefore, when velocity of runoff is slow,
little amount of sediment can only be transported downslope. At higher slope of 35 degrees,
there is expected increase in surface runoff velocity so is with shear stress. Slope gradient also
with velocity of runoff water could be at its maximum level capable of detaching and
transporting significant amount of sediment hill (Javellonar, 2013).

Gradual decline was observed as the slope gradient further increased to 60 degrees.
Observed decrease in soil erosion at higher slope gradient of 60 degrees could be attributed to
smaller horizontal surface area of the soil test boxes when inclined to 60 degrees (Javellonar
2013). This result agrees with theory on erosion as a function of slope adapted from Pierce, FJ
1987, as cited by Javellonar, 2013. On the other hand, another factor which significantly reduced
soil loss is application of PAM. Lentz et al. (1992) hypothesized that PAM could be used to
decrease erosion since it can increase cohesiveness of soil at the surface which was tested in this
study and reflected in the results showing its potential to mitigate soil loss on surfaces applied
with PAM.

Figure 6. Relationship of slope gradient versus soil loss at 100 mm/h

Conclusions
1. The locally fabricated rainfall simulator (nozzle type) was effective in delivering the
required rainfall intensity in this particular study.
2. At any given level of slope gradient under different rainfall intensities, Polyacrylamide
(PAM) effectively acted as soil stabilizer that mitigates soil loss.
3. Treatment A80 at different slope gradients and rainfall intensities had significantly reduced
sediment yield and soil loss.
4 Generally, the relationship of slope gradient versus sediment yield and soil loss were found
to be non-linear and best fitted on a quadratic model in the form of a general equation: y = a +
24 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

bx + cx2, where y represents the predicted value of sediment yield and soil loss while x is the
slope in expressed in degrees. Moreover the generalized equations for soil loss obtained from the
different amount of PAM were:
SL = -0.0002s2 + 0.0138s + 0.084,
SL = -9E-05s2 + 0.007s + 0.0015,
SL = -6E-05s2 + 0.0044s - 0.021, and
SL = -0.0008s2 + 0.0652s - 0.06,
SL = -0.0004s2 + 0.0251s + 0.0078,
SL= -6E-05s2 + 0.0034s + 0.1223, for 75mm/h and 100 mm/h rainfall intensity
respectively.
5. Using PAM as an alternative conservation has repeatedly been proven to be an effective
tool where it is available. However the cost associated with amount of PAM application to a
whole field or repeatedly applications may not be very the most practical way to control rain-
induced erosion.

References

ASIO, V.B., 2010. Soil and Environment;soil and its relation to environment, agriculture, global warming,
and human health. Retrieved on October 16, 2014 http://soil-
environment.blogspot.com/search?q=soil+erosion
BERBOSO, J.L., G.P., PANIEL, A.C.C., PERLADA, and R.J.V., SAN DIEGO. 2008. Assessment of
Combined Hydroseeding and Coconet Reinforcement to Control Soil Erosion. Unpublished
Undergraduate Thesis, School of Civil Engineering and Environmental and Sanitary Engineering,
Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila, Philippines.
ESTEVES M, PLANCHON O, LAPETITE JM, SILVERAI N, CADET P .2000. The Emire large
rainfall simulator: design and field testing. Earth. Surf. Proc. Land. 25: 681-690.
GREEN, V.S., D.E., STOTT, L.D., NORTON and J.G., GRAVEEL. 2000. PAM Molecular Weight
and Charge Effects on Infiltration under Simulated Rainfall. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.,
64:17861791.
JAVELLONAR, R. P. 2013. Rice Straw Geoxtextile As Ground Cover For Soil Erosion Mitigation.
Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy, 3(11).
KIBET, L.C., L.S., SAPORITO, A.L., ALLEN, E.B., MAY, P.J., KLEINMAN and F.M., HASHEM.
2014. A Protocol for Conducting Rainfall Simulation to StudySoil Runoff.
Lentz, R. D., I. Shainberg, R. E. Sojka, and D. L. Carter. 1992. "Preventing Irrigation Furrow Erosion
With Small Applications of Polymers." Soil Sc!. Soc. Am. J. 56: 1926-1932.
MAROUFPOOR E, FARYABI A, GHAMARNIA H, MOSHREFI G 2010. Evaluation of uniformity
coefficients for Sprinkler irrigation systems under different field conditions in Kurdistan
Province (Northwest of Iran). Soil Water Res., 5: 139-145
ORTS, W. J., GLENN, G. M., IMAM, S. H., SOJKA, R. E. 2008. Polymer applications to control soil
runoff during irrigation. PAM & PAM Alternatives workshop, Albany, California, US, 34 37.
PETERSON, J.R., D.C, FLANAGAN, and J.K., TISHMACK. 2002. Polyacrylamide and Gypsiferous
Material Effects on Runoff and Erosion under Simulated Rainfall. American Society of
Agricultural Engineers. Vol. 45.
SHARPLEY, A. N., T. C. DANIEL, R. J. WRIGHT, P. J. KLEINMAN, T. SOBECKI, R. PARRY,
AND B. JOERN. 1999. National phosphorus project to identify sources of agricultural
phosphorus losses. Better Crops 83(4): 1214.
RENNER F G. 1936. Conditions influencing erosion of the boise river watershed.. V S Dept Agric Tech
Bull, 528.
THOMAS, N.P. and S.A., SWAIFY. 1989. Construction and Calibration of a Rainfall Simulator. J. Agric.
Eng. Res., 43: 1-9.
25 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

The Author

Sheila G. Griengo was born at Concepcion, Koronadal City, South


Cotabato on June 23, 1986. She finished her Masters of Science in
Agricultural Engineering major in Soil and Water Management in Central
Luzon State University and Bachelor of Science in Agricultural
Engineering in University of Southern Mindanao. She is a faculty in the
Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Agriculture in
Mindanao State University Marawi City. Engr. Griengo is a licensed
Professional Agricultural Engineer, a member of the Philippine Society of
Agricultural Engineers and recipient of Engineering Research and Development for Technology
(ERDT) scholarship under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST).
26 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences


p-ISSN: 1694-2620
e-ISSN: 1694-2639
Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 26-36, IJHSS

Scientific Perspective of Meranao Students Superstitious Beliefs


in Food Preparation and Preservation

Rasmia M. Yahyah - Muti


rasmiayahyamuti @ gmail.com
Mindanao State University
Saguiaran Community High School
Saguiaran Lanao Del Sur

Abstract
The acquired knowledge of young tribe men and women is one of the local issues. How
Meranao young men and women acquired alternative scientific conceptions towards food
preservation and food preparation are an inevitable concern of some academicians. The goal of
this research is: 1) to determine what are the conceptions of students towards food preservation
and food preparation gathered through their Superstitious beliefs or traditional beliefs and; 2)
how these misconceptions derived from their superstitious beliefs or traditional beliefs be
remedied through classroom intervention. This research used qualitative approach to collect,
classify, analyse and interpret the science-related superstitious beliefs among Meranao high
school students of MSU External units namely, MSU-Marantao Community High School, MSU-
Saguiaran Community High School and MSU-Lanao National College of Arts and Trades. A
total of 146 superstitious beliefs were with scientific basis but only 11 concepts about food
preservation and 10 concepts about food preparations were identified having scientific basis.
Most of the prior knowledge of the respondents on the collected superstitious beliefs had been
handed down by great grandparents from generation to generation. The sources of superstitious
beliefs are the grandparents (34%) parent (father or mother) (26%), Friends and classmates and
relatives (21%), neighbours (17%) and local radio and madrasah (2%) Implementing the
designed intervention to redirect students misconception was done in this study. Results
indicated that misconception was redirected as evidenced by written journals and triangulated by
their administered Likert-scaled questionnaire suggesting that the intervention has redirected the
students conception. It is then recommended that all superstitious belief that does not have
scientific proof should be disregarded no matter relevant it might to the peoples lives. The
superstitious beliefs that are not science related should be substantiated carefully and
methodically and apply it for the development of scientific investigations.

Keywords: Superstitious beliefs, Food Preparation and Food Preservation, Scientific


perspectives of meranao High School students

Introduction
Knowledge acquisition is one of local issues. How Meranao young men and women acquired
alternative scientific conceptions towards food preservation and food preparation is an
inevitable concern among academicians. The goal of this research is: 1) to determine what are
the conceptions of students towards food preservation and food preparation gathered through
27 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

their Superstitious beliefs and; 2) how these misconceptions derived from their superstitious
beliefs be remedied trough classroom intervention. Alternative conception believed to stem
from Superstitious beliefs.

Many people believe that superstitious beliefs originated during the earliest days of
humanity. Human beings attempted to create an understandable world of powers that could be
influenced by actions. The earliest superstitions were created as a way to deal with ignorance and
fear of the unknown. Superstitions are thus, a way of attempting to regain control over events,
particularly when one feels helpless. They are born from casual coincidences and learned
behaviors. The origin of certain superstitions may be centuries old, having been passed down
from generation to generation through observational learning process. Some seem more
widespread from nation to nation and some superstitions are cultures specific. It is more
common among certain groups of people and varies from culture to culture. Some superstitions
are considered harmless and may even be helpful in encouraging people to achieve their goals,
attributing result to an unrelated cause. In fact, some people depend on luck through
superstitious beliefs.

Studies on superstitious belief were conducted in Botswana(Emereole,H., et al. 2001) ;


South Pacific Country (Waldrip and Taylor, 1999) ; Utah (Hand and Tally , 1984) ; North
Carolina (Hand,1964) ; Spain (Meyerson,1990, Castro, 1995 and Franklin, 2005); Nigeria (Baker
and Taylor,1995); Pakistan (Ishaque, Saleem and Qidwar, 2009), in Muslim countries
(Zwemer,2000); and in India (Dickens, 1996) .

In the Philippines, several studies related to superstitious beliefs were also conducted by
different researchers. Among others, Rosa (1949) made a preliminary study on possibilities of
weakening or undermining common superstitious beliefs among Filipinos through the teaching
of general science in the public schools. Likewise, Arada (1959) studied the relationship of
intelligence-test scores, educational attainment, and sex to superstitious beliefs. Meanwhile,
Amor (1968) had done a thesis on magical and superstitious beliefs and practices of the
Subanons in Zamboanga. Zabala (1975) also conducted a thesis on prevalent superstitious
beliefs among college students. Moreover, Flores (1968) and Catacutan (1992) also surveyed
superstitious beliefs and practices concerning pregnancy and childbirth while Fernandez (1980)
worked on superstitions about health beliefs and practices of the people in selected barangays
of Gingoog City. Others work on superstitious beliefs were related to business and agriculture
such as those of .Cabuntucan (1980); Tabaza (1977); Villanueva (1981). Lastly, Kenoh (1977)
worked on superstitious beliefs of the Muslims of Sulu and their implication on health education.

Based on literature on hand, no studies on Meranao superstitious beliefs which can be


explained scientifically have been published in the Philippines. It is along this line of contention
that the researcher became interested in studying. Moreover superstitious beliefs on Meranao
culture, particularly those focused on superstitious beliefs of Meranao high school students
which can be explained scientifically and superstitious beliefs which may not agree with
scientifically explained phenomena. Superstitious beliefs which do not have scientific basis may
be sources of misconceptions and remediation strategies may be conducted in order for them to
form their alternative conception

It is envisioned that this study will in one way or the other help the indigenous cultures
improve and appreciate science education and become more scientifically and technologically
literate. Moreover, it may develop and promote awareness and concern among Meranao learners
about current and new scientific and technological issues in order to become advance and
civilized minority tribe.
28 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

Conceptual Frameworks

Folktale With Scientific Basis


Enviromental
Phenomena
Compendium
Meranao
Society Home Superstitious
Students
(Parents) belief
knowledge
Without Scientific
about
Basis
superstitious
(Misconceptions)
belief
related to
Science
Intervention

Cultural Norms
Redirected Superstitious
Beliefs

Redirection of Meranao Science-related


Acquisition of Superstitious Beliefs
Superstitious
Beleifs Beliefs into Accepted
Concepts in Science.

Figure 1. The Conceptual Framework of the study

Methods

Participants Redirection of Meranao Science-related


The study was conducted in three selected highSuperstitious
schools underBeliefs
the supervision of the Mindanao
into Accepted
State University .These are: The MSU-SaguiaranConcepts
Community High School (MSU SCHS), MSU-
in Science.
Marantao Community High School (MSU MCHS) and MSU-Lanao National College of Arts
and Trade -ofHigh
Acquisition School Beliefs
Superstitious Department (LNCAT- HS). These schools are predominantly
dominated by meranao tribes. The respondents to this study were composed of 417 students
coming from randomly chosen intact sections from 1st year to 4th year in the three high schools
selected as research sites during the school year 2013 2014. The respondents to this study were
composed of 417 students coming from randomly chosen intact sections from 1st year to 4th year
in the three high schools selected as research sites during the school year 2013 2014.

Design
The study used qualitative method in analyzing and interpreting the obtained data. The study
involved an investigative process where the researcher makes sense of a social phenomenon by
collecting, comparing, classifying, analyzing and interpreting the object of the study.

Redirection of Meranao Science-related


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Materials
The researcher used several sets of instruments used to gather accurately individual beliefs of the
respondents. These are: Open- ended Questionnaire, Clinical Structured Interview Schedule,
Focus Group Discussion Questionnaire and Field Observation Notes and Likert Scaled on
Current Views on the Redirected Superstitious Beliefs, Student Journals and the Lesson Plans.
The generated data from these instruments were triangulated to establish validity of the result of
the study.

Procedure
A total of 146 superstitious beliefs were collected from the research participants enrolled at the
MSU-Saguiaran Community High School, MSU- Marantao Community High School and the
Lanao National College of Arts and Trades, High School Department during the school year
2013 2014. The collected superstitious beliefs were categorized according to superstitious
beliefs which agreed with scientific explanation and superstitious beliefs which did not agree with
scientific explanation.

Results and Discussion


Of the 146 collected superstitious beliefs, 108 or 73.97% were found to have scientific basis and
38 of which did not agree with scientific explanation but were found to have led to
misconceptions among the research participants. It was also found out that among the science-
related superstitious beliefs only 11 (10.18%) for food Preservation and 10 (9.26%) for food
preparation.

The percentage of the superstitious beliefs collected related to food preservation and
food preparation is minimal. However, when the students were asked whether these
superstitious beliefs are still practiced and believed today and whether the participants are aware
that these superstitious beliefs have scientific explanations, they have claimed that some of the
common beliefs.
Moreover, the students were probed on some of the superstitious beliefs collected about food
preservation and food preparation that have scientific basis to ascertain their knowledge about
the scientific concept behind the superstitious belief and the extent at which the belief continues
to be practiced. Obviously, the students acquired the superstitious beliefs through what they see
and observe from their elder Through repetitive practice, superstitious beliefs became deeply
rooted in them.

Moreover, superstition is part of the societal traditional practices and culture. The
Meranaos possess certain beliefs and practices which they believe to be useful to them to their
daily lives activities. Protect them from harm. The desire to practice these traditional beliefs in
food preservation and food preparation are still existing and practicing by some of young tribe
meranaos particulary in the remote areas of Lanao and other older and illiterate Meranaos who
believe that they should perpetuate these practices of their ancestors.

Sources of Superstitious Beliefs


Sources of the superstitious beliefs were acquired by the research participants in every year level
from each of the three research setting. It is revealed that except for MSU-Saguiaran Community
High School where the students claimed that they acquired the superstitious beliefs more from
their parents, the students from the two other participating schools acquired superstitious beliefs
were mostly from their grandparents. This is followed by the parents, either the mother or the
father and next to these sources are relatives, friends and classmates, followed by the neighbors.
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Local radio programs, the Madrasahs or Arabic schools have negligible contribution to the
acquisition of these superstitious beliefs.

Findings revealed that grandparents are the major sources of superstitious beliefs is
consistent with the claim of Cayongcat (1989) that cultural traditions, practices and beliefs which
include superstitions are acquired by children especially among Meranaos because of close
kinship. Likewise, neighbors, relatives, classmates and friends also contribute to the acquisition
of superstitious beliefs may be attributed to the frequent interaction or association among them
which is a trait that is unique among Filipinos. As Cayongcat (1989) further wrote, the series of
traditional rituals, practices and beliefs observed and experienced by their children are stored in
their mind and they keep and believe and practice on it. Gowing ,et al. (1974) also concurs that
the traditional practices and cultural values are handed down by the Meranao old folks to the
next generation.

Moreover, it may also be deduced from the results that relatives, friends and classmates
which constitute 21.11% as sources of superstitious beliefs the extent at which they may have
influenced the students to construct their own knowledge based on the knowledge shared to the.
Since learning is an active social process, their current view on the concepts brought about by
the superstitious belief, the students integrate that information into the already rooted belief thus
perhaps making more firmed up misconception

Extent of Utilization of Superstitious Beliefs


The extent of utilization of the sciencerelated superstitious beliefs in their day to day life goes
on to this day. From the interview responses shared by the students, it may be inferred that the
superstitious beliefs and traditional practices still prevail today although they are not aware that
there are beliefs that they or adults experiences can be scientifically explained. It may be inferred
further real life situations and experiences are not used in making connections between theory
and practice.

Consistent with the above analysis, people tend to adhere to superstitious practices when
dealing with uncertainty of outcomes of high interest, before the outcome is revealed by nature
as interpreted by Skinner (1948) in that something incidental event happens and this is taken as a
cause, even if no cause-and-effect happens between two factors. The accidental recurrence of the
events then acts as positive reinforcement and facilitates survival and transmission of such belief.

Superstitious Beliefs that Led to Misconceptions


.All superstitious beliefs may have no scientific basis yet they greatly influence our way of
thinking and doing things. As can be seen in the previous sampled responses ancestors did not
clearly understand the causes of many things in their environment. The occurrence of events was
thought to be bringing either good luck or bad luck. However, with the advent of science and
technology, we have learned to investigate and interpret events scientifically. Superstitious beliefs
we hold as adults may be a by-product of the processes we use to make sense of the world
around us.

As Hood (2009), an experimental psychologist from the University of England, alluded


the idea that we are born with brains that have evolved to make sense of a complex world by
seeking patterns and trying to understand the mechanisms responsible for them. In doing so
and this is an intuitive process the young sometimes come up with assumptions and
misconceptions that later seem to be the basis of adult supernatural beliefs. In effect, these
beliefs are a by-product of the reasoning behaviour we developed as children. Despite what we
may have learned as we grew up, these misconceptions often remain with us as adults.
31 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

One of the points of interest of the researcher is the redirection of the science-related
superstitious beliefs which brought about misconceptions in several science concepts among the
research participants. After the process of classifying and coding the pooled SBs into appropriate
categories, it was found that there were 38 superstitious beliefs collected and classified that do
not agree with scientific explanation. These superstitious beliefs were related to natural
phenomena like for example, formation of rainbow, lightning and thunder, eclipses, superstitious
beliefs related to tooth growth and development and tooth eruption, tooth decay and toothache
treatment, male circumcision, etc.

Superstitious beliefs that do not agree with scientific explanation


The influence of the Meranao ancestors on the young Meranaos to hold on to established
traditional practices and culture, superstitious beliefs included, may bring about many science-
related misconceptions. These 38 superstitious beliefs were identified to have no scientific
explanation but have caused misconceptions among the students.

The manifested superstitious beliefs are socially and culturally adapted by many of the
families of the students and with it formed the information which has been incorporated to the
constructed ideas which resulted to misconceptions. The previously cited interview responses
show the extent of developed misconceptions brought about by the superstitious beliefs.
Tradition dictates that these superstitious beliefs, whether they agree with the scientific concepts
or not, have become part of their culture and it may be difficult for the old and conservative
Meranaos to let go the practice. Meranao customs, traditions and beliefs may have probably
originated from the old folks considering that the Meranao culture were basically resistant to
acculturation (Gowing, 1974)

The earlier responses shared by the students and discussions presented are consistent
with the eight knowledge claims regarding misconceptions (Wandersee, Mintzes and Novak,
1994), as findings of a research on alternative conceptions in science where the researchers
underscored that; Misconceptions are tenacious and resistant to extinction; Misconceptions
often parallel explanations of natural phenomena offered by previous generations of scientists
and philosophers; Misconceptions have their origin in diverse personal experience including
direct observations, peer culture and language as well as in teachers explanation and instructional
materials; and often, teachers subscribe to the same misconceptions as their students.

Effects of Intervention
An intervention was done by the researcher to reduce if the not eradicate the misconceptions.
The researcher utilized several methods such as the use of ICT like webquest, video clips, some
others in the plan lessons and was validated by experts (pedagogy and content). Likewise, try-out
was done prior to intervention. Results of the intervention reveals that very few were in
agreement with the superstitious belief after the intervention in comparison with those who
disagreed. An overall percentage of 95.33% of the 417 student participants either disagreed or
strongly disagreed on the superstitious beliefs on all of the 38 superstitious which were subjected
to intervention in order to redirect the misconceptions to scientifically accepted concepts. The
percentage of respondents disagreeing on each of the 38 superstitious beliefs ranged from 92%
to 97%. This may indicate the extent of redirection of the misconceptions to scientifically based
concepts due to the intervention. The remaining 3% to 7% of the respondents who were found
to be in agreement the superstitious belief may not have fully redirected their misconceptions or
they still adhere to the belief. Perhaps they still want to hold on to these superstitious beliefs it
will make them feel good about themselves when they follow certain behavioral patterns. It can
32 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

be an asset if the superstition promotes positive attitude and approach toward prevailing
circumstances.
Among the Meranaos, especially the very old ones, to them some superstitions have
rooted deeply so much so that they and their families and relatives or even the local population
encounters psychological impact on their lives because of these traditions. These age-old
superstitious beliefs that had been passed on from generation to generation may have taken
shape as a habit. If they are lacking of these beliefs, they become insecure.

Superstitious beliefs are irrational beliefs and notions held by many not only among
Meranaos which are based on fear, magical thinking, ignorance and blind faith. Igwe (2009)
opined that these beliefs and notions lacked evidence or proof and do not have any basis in
logic, fact, common sense or in reality. Many traditional and cultural practices that needed to be
preserved either by written or verbal form. Such cultural practices are beliefs, norms, traditions,
superstitions, myths, legends and other important features of social life and culture. Many of
these superstitious beliefs are to teach certain moral value which when critically observed is
scientific.

In spite of the advancement of science and technology some people still hold many
superstitious beliefs. These superstitious beliefs, according to Olorundare (1998) that negative
influence on lives especially on education as it impedes the individuals conceptualization of
scientific knowledge by creating prior knowledge which is in contrast to science knowledge or
concepts to be learned.

Conclusions and Implication


A total of 146 superstitious beliefs were collected from the research participants, 108 (73.97%) of
the superstitious beliefs were with scientific basis. There were 11(1018%) superstitious beliefs
that are related in food preservation and 10 (9.26%) about food preparation. It was found out
that there are more of the Meranao superstitious beliefs about food preservation and preparation
agree with scientific explanation. Most of the prior knowledge of the research participant about
the collected superstitious beliefs had been handed by great grandparents down from generation
to generation.

Most of the 38 superstitious beliefs, which were found to be the sources of the
misconceptions, were related science concepts such as thunder and lightning, eclipse, rainbow,
menstruation, pregnancy, circumcision tooth development and decay all of which were
associated with unfortunate events that befall them. Implementing the designed intervention, the
student participants to this study claimed that their prior knowledge or misconceptions which
were due to the superstitious beliefs have been redirected as evidenced by their written journals.
It is therefore implied that existing misconception through superstitious beliefs can be
remediated and can be redirected to correct conceptions.

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37 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences


p-ISSN: 1694-2620
e-ISSN: 1694-2639
Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 37-47, IJHSS

Into The Woods: A Motif Mainstreaming of Imontanosas


Eschatological Legends

Jonnelle Desierto Fagsao, MTE


Mountain Province State Polytechnic College
Bontoc, Mountain Province
jonnellefagsao@gmail.com
09473699888 ; 09176725176

Abstract
A noteworthy body of traditional legends in the Philippine hinterland exists, but these narratives
are very challenging to locate, because they are out of print, and/or excluded from the local
literature anthologies. This study focused on the survey of selected eschatological legends that
are untold, published and unpublished in the contemporary society today. Sociological approach
that examines the cultural context through narrative inquiry is used in this qualitative study.
Specifically, it presents the findings of an extensive survey of the selected tales translated in
English and analysis on their cultural connotations; it offers also the classification of these
eschatological legends and their arrangements by geographical regions with in the province of
Mountain in (CAR) Cordillera Administrative Region and provides a thorough narrative analysis
based on Thompsons Motif Index in Folk Literature. Ninety eight traditional tales were chosen
according to the selection criteria, grouped according to Eschatological Legend category by
Linda Degh, classified according to Stith Thompsons motif indexing. Although there are
multitudes of motifs revealed in the narratives, it was found out that common motif in the
selected narratives are concentrated on mythological. Cultural connotations are concentrated on
Og-ogfo (sharing), sanctity of culture, role of men and women in the family, practice of
naming places based from the legends and, lastly, the performance of rituals.

Keywords: Mainstreaming, Eschatological Legends, motif, Stith Thompsons Motif Indexing,


Imontaosa

Introduction
The selected eschatological legends of Mountain Province in the Philippines are rarely included
in some published books by local authors. One possible explanation is that they are not readily
available. In fact, numerous folk tales are transferred orally among the Imontaosa (people of
Mountain Province), however, they are not documented nor translated in English. It is therefore
pointed out that folktale particularly in Mountain Province need to be preserved to avoid from
disappearance as an effect for globalization and profitable or money-making amusements. In
connection, the necessity of eschatological legends preservation does not only concern to the
sustenance of culture and heritage but it goes way beyond. Folktale supports and encourages so
many other things if used carefully. From among the numerous researches, it was perceived
and studied that folktales explain and impart ethical meanings, development and establishments
of ones attitude, introduce self-fortitude, upright and virtuous judgment, and portray uniqueness
38 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

of culture, and also impart value of kindness which is an indications to a certain countrys
inspiration with incomparable cultural standards as mentioned by Babalola and Unanuga (2012);
Kirmani and Freiman, (1997.)

Stith Thompson as cited by Eugenio (2005) defined legend as an account of a strange and
unusual happening believed to have actually occurred. It may be an explanation and justification
of something which transpired and materialized during the ancient times at a particular place. A
legend which has attached itself to that locality will probably also be told with equivalent faith
and belief of many other places. It will be observed that legends are nearly always simple in
structure and narrative organization, usually containing but a single story design and theme.
Legend is traditional story of long ago which is not definitely true. According to Stith
Thompson every legend purports to be an account of an unexpected happening believed and
understood to have actually occurred. Still on Eugenio, she cited from Linda Deghs (1972) Folk
Narrative, that the aim of the legend then is to answer an unuttered question about mans
micro cosmos. What is it? Why is it so? What can be done about it? The legend explains an
extraordinary phenomenon or a memorable event, it communicates traditional learning and
knowledge to the young and the uninitiated, it advises people how to act in critical situations and
warns them against doing the wrong thing. This educational essence is dramatized by an example
that is the narrative content of the legend.

Stith Thompsons Folktale Classification System


Motif indexing is the process of breaking down a story into its smallest individual components
(motifs) and arranging these pieces into an organized structure. Classification is systematically
and logically important in any areas that possess an outstanding body of substances in order for
it to be seriously incorporated as an entity of study (Thompson, 1951). Therefore, the content
of every narrative legend must be divided and reduced known as classification.

Table 1: The Effective Definition of Thompsons Motif in a Folktale

Thompsons Operational Definition Groups


Folktale Class
Motif a. A. Consist of actors, incidents and items A:
b. B. Supports the tale type by providing extra Mythological
arrangements of the legends motifs,
c. C. Capable to exist independently in its own B: animals,
rights as a tale C: taboo,
etc

Linda Deghs Legends Classification System


Linda Degh identified Eschatological Legends as explanatory stories about origins and classified
it into the following categories: (1) stories about the origin of the place, (2) the origin of things,
(3) striking natural phenomena, (4) unusual geographic formations, (5) and the nature of plants
and animals as presented in table 2.
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Table 2: The Eschatological Legends Categories

Linda Deghs Legends Class Categories


Eschatological Legends 1. Stories about the origin of the place
2. Stories about the origin of things
3. Stories about the striking natural phenomena
4. Stories about the unusual geographic formations
5. Stories about the nature of plants and animals

Objectives of the Study


Based on the above background information, there are problems that are formulated. First, it is
essential to collect and document the eschatological legends of Mountain Province and
categorize them according to the Classifications of Legends of Linda Degh; secondly, to
classify, arrange, and define the selected eschatological legends of Mountain Province through
Stiths Thompsons Motif Index of Folk Literature; and lastly, to explore the cultural
connotations of the narratives in terms of practices, beliefs, traditions, and behaviors.

Research Methodology
In the present study, qualitative method is used in analyzing the collected narratives from
Mountain Province. It involves the exploration of different legends from the ten (10)
municipalities of Mountain Province using what was developed by Stith Thompson to break the
legends down into their basic motifs. This process will demonstrate the usefulness of content
analysis in describing both the common motifs found in the legends. Literary reviews,
translations, audio recordings, social media and web pages were used. Sociological approach is
also used to interpret the social content of Imontaosas legends to examine its implication to
the cultural aspect of the province as a whole.

Results and Discussions


The selected eschatological legends of Mountain Province are arranged by geographical settings
and Motif from the different municipalities of Mountain Province. To sum it all, there are
around ninety eight (98) narratives categorized as legends collected, selected, and documented
from the entire ten (10) municipalities of Mountain Province in the Cordillera Administrative
Region (CAR). In using what was developed by Stith Thompson the Motif Indexing, the index
catalogues motifs that appear in many different folk traditions by categorizing them into parts;
for instance, onegroupdealswithmotifsthatinvolve myth, animals, another dealswith
familyrelationships,magicalhelpers, taboo, sex, andsoon.A motifitselfisbasically
achunkofinformationthatappears inatale; canbea character,aplace, anaction, etc.
TheMotif-Indexisquitelengthy but the focus only of this paper, it is only focused on the
common motifs found in the whole eschatological legends of Mountain province which are also
commonlyfoundinfolkliteraturefromothertraditions in the Cordillera Administrative
Region.
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Table 3. The table presents a brief summary of the eschatological legends collected and
documented from the ten municipalities of Mountain Province.
Geographical Setting in Alphabetical Total No. of Legends Collected
Order
Barlig 19
Bauko 14
Besao 5
Bontoc 30
Natonin 2
Paracelis 2
Sabangan 2
Sagada 15
Sadanga 2
Tadian 7
Total: 98
Cited from Eugenios The Legends (2005), she posed a question as to how does classification
of legends compare with the classification systems in the West. According to Linda Degh, an
international committee identified four tentative categories of legends in 1963. One of the four
categories is the eschatological and etiological legends to which the paper is based from. The
table below will present the ninety eight (98) legends that were collected and categorized under
the eschatological category.

Table 4: Classifications of Eschatological Legends According to Deghs Category of


Legends
The Category of Legends Number of Legends
1. Stories about the origin of the place 27
2. Stories about the origin of things 18
3. Stories about the striking natural phenomena 26
4. Stories about the unusual geographic formations 10
5. Stories about the nature of plants and animals 17
Total: 98
UsingThompsonsMotif-IndexofFolkLiterature, motifs that appear in each story were
studied and analyzed and compare each of the tales selected from the municipalities of
Mountain province. The analysis of motifs will break the content of the tales down into
manageable portions, a process useful, in the next section, in attempting to draw connections
between bits of meaning to come up with cultural connotations based on each municipalitys
beliefs, traditions, customs and behavior as depicted from the stories presented.

Common Motifs in the Eschatological Legends

1. Mythological Motif
Based from the legends content analysis, common motifs were found in the eschatological
legends of Mountain Province. Themotifthatappears dominantly inthetalesisan
extremelycommonone, identifiedbyThompsonasA-, mythological motif: a motif that
deals with the creation which involves the gods, goddesses, deities, cultural heroes, etc. . . .This
motifisfoundin every legends and myths from different cultures thus, itis extremelya
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popular motif in Mountain Province. This motif, however, is presented with some
specificallyBontoktwist:

In the olden days, there lived the son of God called Lumawig (A125:Deity in human form)) who came
down to earth in search for a wife (T111.1: Marriage of a mortal and a god)). It was in Bontoc where he
found a life time partner who lived at Kal-lat. (The Origin of the Stone of Kallat. Bontoc)

These particular descriptions utilize specifically a Bontok formulation, such as the description of
Lumawig, to describe a sun god who gave everything to the Bontok people.

With the abundance of foods all around, the people became lazy and lax. They did not attend
to their fields (kaingins), and every day they spend so much for fiestas (P634). They did nothing but eat and
drink, and they forgot to make offerings to the great Lumawig. With this, he then asked his father Kafunyan to
punish (Q321: laziness punished) the people for their laziness. Due to Lumawigs anger (A102.17:
Anger of god), he then curses the people by sending in pestilence (Q595: loss or destruction of property as
punishment).

Another narrative from Barlig legend shows the names of their popular mythological gods that
are common in their own legends.

Supreme Being (A101: supreme god)) as could be proven in the various descriptive names they have
attributed to Cabigat (A125: Deity in human form)). The names of the gods (A2: multiple creators) given
were not limited to the following creators companions (A30: creators companions): Mamayang (the
life-givers), Omos- oschong (the watcher of overall things), Fumayug , the creator(A0: creator)),
Nan An-na , literally meaning the one/ the Supreme Being(A101: Supreme god), Sumugsug- ang
(the merciful) and Cafuniyan (god). The plural of Cafuniyan is Cacafuniyan of Ca-cafu-cafuniyan.

Religiously, the people of Mountain province believe in the existence of a Supreme Being which,
in a way, hs brought out some similarities of the Igorots in Mountain province and the
neighboring Igorots in Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) in terms of their religious
beliefs.

2. Animals
Another extremely common motif found in the legends of Mountain Province is the
presence of an animal helper classified as motif B300, specifically in the municipality of Bontoc
where dogs were mentioned, in Tadian, an enchanted eel is also mentioned, and in Sagada, a rat
was mentioned in one of their legends to name a few. In Besao, Comiyap is an example of a
helpful animal:

Comiyap (D101: transformation: god to animal) landed in Bauko, a town in the Province of Bontoc. He
was in the form of a tiny four-legged animal. He hid himself in a big hallow tree. At night, Comiyap shouted
at the top of his voice. The barrio was filled with a queer noise that disturbed the people in their sleep. (The
Legend of Comiyap: Besao)

Another story from Bauko that provides a motif of an animal helper:

As the dog (B421: helpful dog) dug a small groove, water slowly sprung beneath to fill it to its brim. The
dog then dipped its tail into the groove of water and through its tail, set drops of water to ooze into the mouth
of his master. With it, the hunter eventually regained consciousness and managed to walk back home. (The
Legend of Cotcot aso: Bauko)
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In some legends from Barlig:

One of the dogs (B211.1.7.speaking dog) met him yelping joyously as if to say, master where in earth you
have been? We had been waiting for you here is your game.(A Hunter from Lofoc: Barlig)

Another story from Barlig:

The dragon (B11: Dragon) was very big, it looked like a lizard and it eats people. The dragon was also
the one who scattered the people who were living here in Barlig, so they went to live in different places like
Namilikian, Tanodan and Ferwang.(The Dragon: Barlig)

3. Taboo
A story in Barlig shows how taboo motif is depicted:

There was one family with four children, three girls and one boy who was just beginning to walk. One day
their mother told them to take care of their baby brother so that she could go dig camotes. She advised them
saying, dont you go away because someone will enter our house and eat our food and I will not stay long but
return quickly. And if later the water becomes warm you may go to bathe you younger brother at the spring
but do not go to bathe at Pikak because it is forbidden (C615: Forbidden body of water) place as it is deep,
slippery, and to be feared because of the still water. They replied, yes.

4. Marvels
In the story from Sagada:

Long before our generation, there lived and old couple who had been married for many years but never had
a child. Both man and woman desired to have a baby but for many years, the woman had been barren. They
earnestly prayed and offered sacrifices to Kabunyan, asking for a child, even if its a pisi that is, half a body
(F525: Person with half body). It was not very long before the woman gave birth to a baby boy who was
exactly one half of a boy. In spite of his appearance, his parents were overjoyed. He was called Pisi.

In Bontoc about the story of the Origin of Kilaw and Pisit:

An in-ina (old woman) was called to communicate with the anitos (F403: Good spirits of ancestors) to ask
what the people must do to drive away the pestilence. The spirit advised the old woman to tell the elders to
make the town offer a mangmang to Lumawig.
In Sadanga:
One day the guy went on hunting trip (F679.5: Skillful hunter) which took him too long before he came
home. In one particular place overlooking the village called opokan. The maiden was seen pensively sitting
on a stone under the shade obviously waiting her lover to return. It must have taken her several hours waiting
that she became impatient. She kept on sighing.

4. Sex
Another common motif in the legends of Mountain Province is on Sex which Thompson
identified under letter T. Falling in love (T10) as depicted in the Legend of the Orange Tree
from Bauko:

Many years ago, there lived in a small village of Palay a group of consisting of only a few families.
Among this small tribe of people lived a man named Masedman who was loved by two women. The names
of these women were Baddasan and Kayman. Baddasan, being more beautiful, won the love of Masedman
and they were married.
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As depicted in the story The Love of Cayam from Barlig:

There was young man who courted a young maiden. While the two grew more and more in love with each
other, the parents of the girl grew more and more resentful of the suitor for he was the son of one of the
families who had the least in life. At first, it was to the girls that her parents often strongly expressed their
disapproval of the courtship, but when they found that all their words were being ignored, they turned to the
young man.

Another common feature under this motif is the (T111: Marriage of mortal and supernatural
being) as depicted in the story A Hunter who Married a Deer from Barlig:

Ogsang nodded and smiled at him sweetly. Carayyo was amazed by her beauty and manners that he could
no longer hold his feelings. Ogsang, he stammered and could not continue because shyness took hold of
him again. He remembered how the girls in their village made fun of him whenever he expresses his love.
What if this beautiful maiden would reject him? Oh! He cannot bear it; he had been rejected many times.
What is it? Ogsang replied.
Carayyo replied slowly, would you hate me if i ask you to marry me?
Ogsang giggled and smiled at him that made Carayyo even more at a loss to continue. He fell dumb.
Go ahead, Ogsang entreated him again.
His heart was beating rapidly because he dreaded the verdict of his answer. Then Ogsang looked seriously
at him and said, Yes, I will marry you.

Love at first sight (T15) is depicted in the story from Sagada Al-alaan:

Meanwhile, a very handsome young man named Gatan heard the story of Bangan. He lived in the village
of Maudan. He decided to pursue Bangan and try his luck. She accepted him at once and when Gatan asked
her to marry him, she consented. The wedding was a huge feast. They soon were blessed with a baby boy and
their life seemed perfectly happy and full of love.

and Man falls in love with woman he sees bathing (T16) :


When they were through bathing they picked up their wings and put them on. All the maidens flew up into
the sky except one who could not find her wings. When she find out how futile her search was, she sat down
and begun to weep. The hunter, seeing all this, took pity on her and came out of his hiding place to approach
her. He persuades her to come along to his house and finally he convinced her to marry him. (The Star Wife:
Bontoc)

5. Society
Another common motif in every story is the feast / wedding ceremony (T135).

One day one of the villagers invited the husband because there is an occasion called jumnu
(P634: feast). Then the husband go and do the ayeng (a chant done by the elders) where he told what is all
about the tag-ong and the vanew which Kopkopatti gave him, that should not be boasted upon because
it is sacred and the magic will be gone.

6. Nature of Life
In a story from a Bontoc origin entitled The Legend of Ngawit and Khayapon (Cawed.
1972), this motif was exemplified:

Man and woman looked at each other mute with love that grew in their hearts. So a love was born, only
to be denied by the youths arrogant and powerful father. He (Ngawit) was forbidden to love the poor girl
Khayapon and as a kachangyan (rich) (U61.1: Why are some people rich and others poor?) he was betrothed
44 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

to a rich relative.

This legend further reveals the truth about the existence of two distinct social classes of Bontoc,
the kachangyans and the posi (poor) which is very similar to the caste system of India about the
untouchables that it was a taboo to marry outside ones class. Although there are twenty three
(23) motifs grouped by Stith Thompson, the following motifs presented are the most common
legends around the municipality of Mountain Province which in fact, common also to some
other legends around Philippine traditions.

Cultural Connotations of the Legends of Mountain Province

Practice of Sharing
This is what the Imontaosa called as og-ogbo/ og-ogfu which is portrayed in every story.
The people of Mountain Province have to share what they have as long as there is to be shared
from among the people of the place. It is already a practice among the people of Mountain
Province to help those who are in need. It is usually observed during work, during wakes and
funerals, when there is a calamity. In the western side of Mountain Province, this is called the
binnadang which is considered as a collective and unwritten initiative to extend ones labor and
strength for the good of the community.

Common and shared work is when a congregation will takes place to achieve and complete every
tasks within the community or to hold a competition among the residents themselves. A number
of cultures have such gatherings, often for the purpose of providing a manual labor not only
within Mountain Province but to the entire tribes within the Cordillera hinterlands.

Sanctity of Culture
Culture is understood to be sanctified for it holds the different views, ethnicities, conducts,
customs and faiths of the people which reflect their features and characters. The people of
Mountain Province no matter what tribe they belong respected their own culture because they
truly believe on the practice of lawa/inayan (taboo) to the western part of Mountain Province,
nga-ag (taboo) to the central part, and ngawi-ngawi (taboo) which is always connected with
their own beliefs. In a legend of central Bontoc, marriage or close bond between a brother and a
sister is a taboo in the community. In a Sagadas story, actions of a god show that close bond
between siblings are also a taboo and very much unacceptable in the community.

Practice on the Conservation of Environment


From interviews, ancestors have protected and preserved the environment because they have an
intense sense of commitment in the preservation of nature. To the Imontaosas, the land, the
forest, the waters coupled with social institutions, the rituals and traditions are sacred parts of
community life that are preserved and handed down to another.

Natural surroundings and the otherworldly beliefs and practices are often interconnected in a
communal relationship. Indigenous cultures recognize a sanctified or consecrated
interconnectedness to the nature as well as to the spiritual economic and social life and the
unrelenting subsistence of the people.

Role of Men and Women in the Family


The role of men and women is very much emphasized in the stories. For some mens role as
mentioned in the legends of Bontoc is proliferation. Wife to bore him children is very much
emphasized in the narratives. A husband is depicted as a good one who provides a home for his
entire family and their necessities. A proper celebration which among the Bontoks termed it as
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chomno should be conducted in marrying a woman after asking her from her fathers hand.
From this custom, it shows the paternal authority of the father to his family.

Womens role on the other hand is specifically mentioned too. As usual, women in general have a
character trait that focuses on obedience. Women in Mountain Province should obey their
husbands and serve their needs; failure to conform is an ample cause for separation. Women in
all the stories have common character traits that include patience, industrious, and self-sacrifice.

Practice of Naming Places based from the Legends

Since the stories talks about the origins, the places in the collected stories were named based on
the historical events it holds or language confusions from visitors who visited the places during
the earlier years.

Practice of Ngilin or Tengao (Rest Day)


This is usually depicted in the stories around the province especially after planting season or
harvesting season. In some other places it is practice if something happened in the village that
causes the villagers to have rest day.

Performance of Rituals
Performance of rituals is depicted in the stories. One significant ritual mentioned in the some
stories is the caao, mangmang, or bayas (feast). These are all associated with stories
connected to Lomawig or Kabunyan (god).

The performance of mangmang in Mountain Province legends is performed to appease the


angry god. These shows how ritualistic and superstitious the Igorots of this province are.
Performance of rituals develops unity and cooperation among themselves and recognized the
elders to be wiser and that they should be respected.

Summary
This study has been concerned with the survey of eschatological legends of Mountain Province.
Specifically, the study sought to answer given problems. Based on the collected narratives from
each of the (10) ten municipalities of Mountain Province in (CAR) Cordillera Administrative
Region there are at least (100) one hundred narratives that were collected, examined and
analyzed in terms of their contents for the content analysis and on their motifs based on
Thompsons Motif Index in Folk Literature.

Although, there are (4) categories of Linda Degh as to what the international committee had
identified, this paper ought to choose only the first category which is based on the eschatological
stories that explains the origin of the place, origin of things, striking natural phenomena, unusual
geographic formations, and the nature of plants and animals.

In the eschatological legend category, there are at least (29) twenty nine for the stories about the
origin of the place, (18) eighteen stories of the origin of things, (26) stories about striking
phenomena, (10) ten about unusual geographic formation, and (17) seventeen stories about the
nature of plants and animals that makes a total of (97) ninety seven selected narratives on
eschatological legends from each municipality of Mountain Province in CAR.

The motifs are arranged in the following groups as classified by Uther, Hans-Jrg. In his
"Classifying Tales: Remarks to Indexes and Systems of Ordering". He grouped them using the
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English alphabet that starts from; A. Mythological motifs, B. Animals, C. Tabu, D. Magic, E. The
Death, F. Marvels, G. Ogres, H. Tests, J. The Wise and the Foolish, K. Deceptions, L. Reversal
of Fortune, M. Ordaining the Future, N. Chance and Fate, P. Society, Q. Rewards and
Punishments, R. Captives and Fugitives, S. Unnatural Cruelty, T. Sex, U. The Nature of Life, V.
Religion, W. Traits of Character, X. Humor, and the last is Z. Miscellaneous Groups of Motifs.

These motifs were based from Stith Thompsons motif index of folk literature. Most of the
narratives collected from the different municipalities of Mountain Province were mostly
mythological that enlightens the origin of a place, creation of the world, supernatural beings
falling in love with mortals but ultimately release them because of their values and charisma, and
the involvement of the immortals to the mortals.

The cultural connotations found in the literary legends from Mountain Province are the practices
of taboo (inayan), sharing (og-ogfu) as well as the rest day (tengao), it also connotes the sanctity
of each culture, the practice of preservation of environment, role of men and women in the
society, practice of naming places based from history and language confusions and the
performance of rituals.

Conclusions
One would be amazed by the number of folklore that really exists within the small population of
the municipalities of Mountain Province. Folktales in Mountain Province depict many motifs
which are really similar to the other folktales within the minority groups in the Philippines.
However, such rich traditions of folktales are no longer being told within the contemporary
society today. Only when these [folktales] are to be required in school that these folktales will be
compiled as partial fulfillments to finish ones course. The changes of lifestyle in the community,
with the introduction of the usage of electronic gadgets, radio and television have caused the
traditional folktales disappear from the people's life.

It also concluded that this paper has only discussed a few of the folktales of Mountain Province
compiled. It is obvious that there are many more folktales in Mountain Province left unstudied
and most of these narratives do provide cultural connotations depicted in every stories from the
municipalities of Mountain Province and these includes the practice of sharing which in some
parts of the province termed it as binnadang, og-ogfo or og-ogbo; the sanctity of culture
which is popular in every part of the province which is the inayan, the lawa, the ngawi or
the nga-ag; and others. A documentation of all the folklore in Mountain province could
provide valuable literary resources; these resources could be applied for literary study; cultural
study; and literary education. Although the traditional folklore in some parts of Mountain
Province are no longer actively read and told as in the past, there are villagers who can still
narrate these tales. Every type of folklore from the municipalities of Mountain province has its
own literary motif.

References
Babalola, E. T., & Onanuga, P. A. 2012. Atrophization of Minority Languages: Indigenous Folktales to
the Rescue. International Journal of Linguistics.
Degh, Linda.1972. Folk Narrative. In Folklore and Folklife: An Introduction. Ed. By Richard M. Dorson.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Eugenio, Damiana L. 2005. Philippine Folk Literature. The Legends. University of the Philippines Press.
Harun, Harryizman and Jamaludin, Zulikha. 2013. Folktale conceptual model based on folktale
classification system of type, motif, and function.
Jason, Heda. 2000. Motif, Typ and Genre. A Manual for Compilation of Indices & A Bibliography of
Indices and Indexing. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia (FF Communications, 273).
Kirmani, M., & Frieman, B. 1997. Diversity in classrooms: Teaching kindness through folktales.
47 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

International Journal of Early Childhood.


Thompson, Stith. 1955. Motif-Index of Folk Literature.[...] Revised and Enlarged Edition. Bloomington:
Indiana University Press 1955-1958, etc.
Uther, Hans-Jrg. 1997. "Indexing Folktales: A Critical Survey". Journal of Folklore Research
34/3:209-220.
_________ "Classifying Tales: Remarks to Indexes and Systems of Ordering", Croatian Journal of
Ethnology & Folklore Research / Narodna Umjetnost/05472504, 20090601

About the author:


Jonnelle D. Fagsao is an instructor of literature of the Mountain Province
State Polytechnic College (MPSPC) from where he graduated with a degree
in Bachelor of Science in Secondary Education major in English and Master
of Teaching in English. He wrote and published researches related to
literature particularly on Bontok indigenous songs and tales. He presented
some papers that includes Sounds and Society: Exploring Felix Khensays
Contributions to the Bontok Community, who received some distinctions like best paper and
best presenter. Mr. Fagsao is currently a faculty member under the Teacher Education
Department. In 2005, he founded the MPSPC MINSTRELS choral group. The group won
several local choral competitions as well as the 2012 Regional CARASUC choral competition
held in Tabuk city, Kalinga Province of which they represented the whole CAR during the 2012
national PASUC choral competition in Manila.
48 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences


p-ISSN: 1694-2620
e-ISSN: 1694-2639
Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 48-59, IJHSS

Application of MODIS Satellite Data in Modeling Total Suspended


Solids in Lake Lanao, Philippines

Rakimah Datu Macabalang1,*, and Xin Qian1


1
State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment,
Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046, PR China
*
mikarrezh@yahoo.com

Abstract
Remote sensing technique is commonly used in monitoring different water quality parameters.
Moderate- Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the remote sensing
techniques. MODIS satellite imagery nowadays was widely used by different researchers to carry
out monitoring freshwater ecosystem. This study conducted in Lake Lanao, Philippines uses the
application of MODIS with the effort in deriving Total Suspended Solids (TSS) concentrations
from MODIS Terra Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 500m. TSS in-situ measurement
together with the corresponding MODIS reflectance measurements over the Lake in different
sampling periods were compared to observe significant correlation using a linear regression
analysis. Regression shows that the best correlation coefficients were found during first and second
sampling periods with 8 4(MODIS Band 1), (MODIS Band 4 +MODIS Band 1); and (MODIS
Band 4+MODIS Band 1)/ (MODIS Band 4 /MODIS Band 1). Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE)
were also used 7to 5 examine the accuracy of each algorithm developed. The root mean square
(RMSE) of the TSS algorithm developed (Eq. (6), (10) and (14)) from MODIS and in-situ
measurement resulted in a good correlation with a RMSE values of 1.546 mg/l, 1.553 mg/l and
1.546 mg/l, respectively. This 1 implies the potential of MODIS data to model water quality
parameter like suspended solids particularly in Lake Lanao, Philippines. Moreover, it is the first
study conducted to model suspended solids using remote sensing (MODIS) in the said area; and it
may help those environmental managers in shaping policy decisions in protecting and saving Lake
Lanao.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Water Quality, Correlation, Regression, Reflectance

Introduction
Remote sensing technique effectively used in monitoring water quality parameters such as Total
Suspended Solids (TSS), Nitrate, Phosphate, etc. to assess water quality. This technique is far more
advance compared to the traditional methods. Remote sensing technology is more advantage
both in macro and dynamic monitoring of lake water surface area. Many researchers like Feng and
49 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

Li, (2006) had carried out lake water monitoring based on a remotely sensed data. They studied
Qinghai lake water area variation characteristics through the use of remote sensing technology.
Huang et al., (2012) also investigated surface water variations monitoring and flood hazard analysis
in Dongting Lake area using long-term Terra/MODIS data time series; and Min et al., (2009) used
the application of MODIS satellite data in monitoring quality parameters of Chaohu Lake. The U.
S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) also used MODIS during the launched
into Earth orbit a Scientific Instrument through the Moderate Resolution Imaging. On board with
the instrument are Terra (EOS AM) and 2Aqua 3(EOS PM) satellites. These instruments captured
data in 36 spectral bands ranging in wavelength from 0.4 m to 14.4 m and at varying spatial
resolutions (2 bands at 250 m, 5 bands at 500 2 m and 29 bands at 1 km). The instruments image
the entire Earth every 1 to 2 days. This is designed to provide measurements in large-scale global
dynamics including changes in Earth's cloud cover, radiation budget and processes occurring in the
oceans, on land, and in the lower atmosphere (http ://modis. gsfc.nasa.gov/about 66/).

MODIS Terra and Aqua began generating data in 2000 and 2002, respectively. This means
that MODIS data could give possible answers left behind on the question on the real status of Lake
Lanao in terms of Total Suspended Solids For lake managers managing water quality for 3large
lakes like Lake Lanao, it is a necessity and with precise understanding on the existing condition and
trend of the lake water quality. However, development of reliable and cost-effective monitoring
techniques, with appropriate spatial and temporal resolution still remains as a challenge. In order to
have a clear understanding on the Total Suspended Solids in Lake Lanao, MODIS (MOD09A1)
was used to know the impacts of Total Suspended Solid in the lake in four different sampling
periods, respectively. Thus, this study examined the effectiveness of MODIS data in measuring
water quality in Lake Lanao, Marawi City, Philippines the in-situ concentration of Total Suspended
Solids obtained in four different sampling periods in Lake Lanao, Philippines.
For lake managers managing water quality for large lakes like Lake Lanao, there is a need and
with precise understanding with the trend and the existing conditions on the quality of our lake
water system; nevertheless, an enormous challenge remains in the development to have reliable
and yet cost-effective monitoring techniques that will help managers to make suitable plans in
protecting and conserving lake waters. In order to have a clear understanding on the Total
Suspended Solids in Lake Lanao, MODIS (MOD09A1) was used to know the impacts of Total
Suspended Solid in the lake in four different sampling periods, respectively. This study investigate
how effective is MODIS data in measuring lake water quality using the in-situ concentration of
Total Suspended Solids obtained in four different sampling periods in Lake Lanao, Philippines.

Materials and Methods

Description of the Study Area


According to Naga (2010), Lake Lanao is one of the 17 ancient lakes of the world, located in the
Province of Lanao del Sur, ARMM Philippines. About 37 municipalities around the Lake and
of which 19 municipalities and 1 city located along its shorelines. Climatological data defines the
lake with humid tropical climate thats has a rainfall relatively distributed during the course of the
year. The lake has an area of 35, 468 hectares with a depth of 112 meters. There are about
thirty rivers which feed the lake, and among the largest rivers that empty into the lake are the
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Taraka River, Ramain River, Gata River and the Masiu River.

Field Data
The collections of samples gathered in this study were restricted in Marawi City and the
lakeshores of the municipalities around Lake Lanao. Figure 1 shows the specific location of the
municipalities were the samples are collected. During the collection of the samples, the sampling
stations and its coordinates were identified and recorded using Global Positioning System (GPS)
and were plotted in Geographic Information System Maps (GIS Maps). Lake water sampling was
done in 4 different periods. Water samples were collected in 24 sampling sites along Lake
Lanao during the month of June and October of 2011; March and May of 2012, respectively.

Every sampling stations, 3 water samples were collected as replicate to have an accurate
results in each parameter tested. A Water Quality Checker (Horiba 50) was used to test the
parameter Total Suspended Solids in-situ. This Horiba 50 water quality checker was submerged
5 meter depth from the lake surface. Horiba 50 water quality checker was then pulled up after 3
minutes and results will be recorded. Table 1 in the appendix represents the in situ measurements
of Total Suspended Solids during the (4) sampling periods.

MODIS Data
MODIS MOD09A1 8-day surface reflectance images from NASAs Terra satellite were taken at
an internet server of Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) of the US
Geological Survey (USGS) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) through
Earth Explorer. Images of MOD09A1 were selected to be used because it is the only MODIS
product that matched the dates of the in situ measurement for the parameter Total Suspended
Solids. Figure 2 in the appendix shows the MODIS Images derived for the days corresponding
to in-situ measurements.

MODIS Data Processing and Algorithm Development


The MODIS data after downloading from Internet server of LP DAAC, reflectance bands in
corresponding to the in-situ measurement of Total Suspended Solids were obtained through pixel
locator and cursor value tool in ENVI 4.7. Different reflectance bands (Band 1), (Band 4+ Band
1) and (Band 4+Band 1/ (Band 4/Band 1)) obtained in the said MODIS downloaded data were
used to develop Algorithm to observe significant correlations between satellite and in-situ data.
To test its accuracy (Eq. 2, 3 and 4), the correlation coefficient, Root Mean Square Errors
(RMSE) (Eq.1) were evaluated in each model. (Wong, et al., 2008, Milton and Arnold, 1995, and
Guzman and Santaella, 2009).

(Eq. 1)

(Eq. 2)

(MODISk+MODISi) (Eq. 3)
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(MODISk+MODISi) (Eq.4)

(MODISk/MODISi)

Where, A0, Ai are constant of regression models. MODISi and MODISk is the band reflectance
values, xi is original data, i is modeled data.

Result and Discussion


Reflectance Band values and the in-situ measurement of Total Suspended Solids gathered during
the different sampling periods were depicted in Table 1 in the appendix. The Total Suspended
Solids in- situ measurement during the 4 different sampling periods yield a result ranges from
1-20 mg/L, with a mean of 4.37mg/L, 2.46mg/L, 4.08mg/L and 2.63mg/L for the first
sampling, second sampling, third sampling and fourth sampling, respectively, A Positive
correlations were found between the red, green and the combination of the said bands with the
in situ measurements of Total Suspended Solids during the 4 sampling period.

Within the 4 sampling periods, (Band 4+Band 1/ (Band 4/Band 1)) performed with higher
correlation with TSS (R2=0.026) during the first and second sampling (Figure 3(a) and (b) in the
appendix) followed by MODIS Band 1 with a correlation coefficient of R 2=0.025 and R2=0.021
during the second sampling and first sampling (Figure 3(c) and (d), in the appendix) then
MODIS Band 4+MODIS Band 1 with a correlation coefficient of (R2=0.017) during second
sampling, (Figure 3(e) in the appendix). Using linear regression (Table 2 in the appendix) showed
that (R2=0.006) was obtained in third and fourth sampling for the Band 4+1/Band 4/1 (Figure 4
(a) and (b) in the appendix). A correlation coefficients of (R2=0.0113, R2=0.012 and R2=0.005)
were obtained during the first, third and fourth sampling periods for the combination of bands,
MODIS Band 4+MODIS Band 1 (Figure 5 (a),(b) and (c) in the appendix), respectively. MODIS
Band 1 (Figure 6 (a) and (b) in the appendix) resulted in a correlation coefficient (R2=0.009 and
R2=0.005) in third and fourth sampling periods and considerably lower among others. This
suggests that a combination of bands is representative ability of higher correlation coefficient
than a single band given that its correlation coefficient is higher compare with a single band.

Based on the analyses made, the following algorithms were implemented and tested:
(5) TSS1=5.502-36.142*(MODIS Band 1)
(6) TSS2=2.099+22.928 *(MODIS Band 1)
(7) TSS3=3.739+14.426* (MODIS Band 1)
(8) TSS4=2.548+2.056 *(MODIS Band 1)
(9) TSS1=5.412-13.799 *(MODIS Band 4 + MODIS Band 1)
(10) TSS2=2.045+9.588 *(MODIS Band 4 + MODIS Band 1)
(11) TSS3=3.489+9.265 *(MODIS Band 4 + MODIS Band 1)
(12) TSS4=2.533+1.045 *(MODIS Band 4 + MODIS Band 1)
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(13) TSS1=5.508-20.868*(MODIS Band 4+ MODIS Band 1)


(MODIS Band 4/MODIS Band 1)
(14) TSS2=2.111+13.406*(MODIS Band 4+ MODIS Band 1)
(MODIS Band 4/MODIS Band 1)

(15) TSS3=3.833+5.969*(MODIS Band 4+ MODIS Band 1)


(MODIS Band 4/MODIS Band 1)

(16) TSS4= 2.548+1.124*(MODIS Band 4+ MODIS Band 1)


(MODIS Band 4/MODIS Band 1)

Validating RMSE the equations (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (11), (12), (13), (14), (15) and (16) were
evaluated. Table 3(appendix) shows the RMSE values of each equation. The RMSE resulted
ranges from 1-4.8 mg/L. The highest RMSE were recorded with Eq. (5), (7), (9), (11), (13) and
(15) with a RMSE values of 4.688 mg/L, 4.360 mg/L, 4.710 mg/L, 4.353 mg/L, 4.674 mg/L
and 4.366 mg/L, respectively. Eq. (8), (12) and (16) resulted in the same RMSE values of 2.287
mg/L while Eq. (6), (10) and (14) resulted in less RMSE values of 1.546 mg/L, 1.553 mg/L and
1.546 mg/L, respectively. Comparison between these validation results indicates that the
equations (6), (10) and (14) were able to better estimate TSS concentration. It is noticeable that
the correlation coefficient observed was less in value. Possible errors for this less correlation
coefficient in this study may be caused by the following reasons: (1). MODIS data gives an
average (weekly) reflectance value while water samples from fixed points gives a daily result
values, (2). A reflectance value is influenced by adjusted pixels; and (3). Less number of water
samples.

Conclusion
This study attempts to model total suspended solids using MODIS and in-situ data. Different
reflectance bands (MODIS Band 1, MODIS Band 4+MODIS Band 1 and (MODIS Band
4+MODIS Band 1/(MODIS Band 4/MODIS Band 1) obtained in MOD09A1 8-day surface
reflectance images were used to develop Algorithm to model suspended solids. A positive
correlation were found between the MODIS Band 1 (R2=0.025), MODIS Band 4+MODIS
Band1 (R2=0.017), and (MODIS Band 4+ MODIS BAND 1)/ (MODIS Band 4/ (MODIS
Band 1) (R2=0.06) with the in-situ measurements of Total Suspended Solids. Validation results
also showed that TSS algorithm developed (Eq. (6), (10) and (14)) from MODIS and in-situ
measurement resulted in a good correlation with RMSE values of 1.546 mg/L, 1.553 mg/L and
1.546 mg/L. This implies the potential of MODIS data to model water quality parameter like
suspended solids particularly in Lake Lanao, Philippines where there is a lack of effort to
monitor any kind of water quality parameters. Additionally, it is the first study conducted to
model suspended solids using remote sensing (MODIS) in the said area. With this study, it may
help those environmental managers in shaping policy decisions in protecting and saving Lake
Lanao. Further studies such as numerical modeling, neutral network modeling and modeling
other water quality parameters are highly recommended.
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References
Feng Zhongkui, & Li Xiaohui. (2006). Remote Sensing Monitoring Study for Water Area Change and
Lakeshore Evolution of Qinghai Lake in last 20 years (J). Journa; of Paleogeography
8(1):131-141.
Guzman V.R., & Santaella F.G. (2009). Using MODIS 250M Imagery to Estimate Total Suspended
Sediment in a Tropical Open Bay. International Journal of Systems
Huang S., Li J., & Mei X. (2012). Water Surface Variation Monitoring and Flood Hazard Analysis in
Dongting Lake Area using Long-term Terra/MODIS Data Time Series. Nat Hazards (2012)
62:93-100. DOI 10.1007/s11069-011-9921-6.
Milton J.S., & Arnold J.C. (1995). Introduction to Probability and Statistics: Principles and Applications
for Engineering and Computing Sciences. McGraw- Hill Publishing Company, Singapore, pp.
811.
Naga, P.O. (2010). Lake Lanao: An Ancient Lake in Distress. (Cited October 2012) Available from
http://wldb.ilec.or.jp/data/ilec/WLC13_Papers/S17/s17-14.pdf
Wong M.S., Nichol J.E., Lee K.H., & Emerson N. (2008). Modelling Water Quality Using
Terra/MODIS 500M Satellite Images. The International Archieves of the Photogrammetry,
Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Science. Vol. XXXVIII. Part B8. Beijing
54 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

Appendix

A. Acknowledgement
The authors wish to acknowledge NASA, and LP DAAC of the USGS for providing the
MODIS images; the Department of Environment and Natural
Resources-Environmental Management Bureau, Region 10 (DENR-EMD, 10) for
providing the in-situ data.

B. LIST OF TABLES
Table1. In situ measurement of Total Suspended Solids and MODIS Bands Reflectance Values

1st 2nd 3rd 4th MODIS Band MODIS Band MODIS Band
Stations Name 1 4+ MODIS 4+MODIS Band
Band 1 1/(MODIS Band
4/MODIS Band 1)
Marawi City 4 5 6 4 0.3729 0.7539 0.737872205
Marantao 4 3 14 1 0.013 0.0432 0.018596026
Wato Balindong 20 5 6 1 0.0014 0.0163 0.001531544
Tugaya 3 1 8 7 0.0464 0.1056 0.082767568
Bacolod 2 5 10 1 0.0177 0.0473 0.028284122
Madalum 2 1 16 1 0.0155 0.0467 0.023200321
Madamba 4 1 7 2 0.0217 0.0576 0.034816713
Ganassi 5 3 2 1 0.0473 0.115 0.08034712
Binidayan 3 3 4 4 0.0196 0.0524 0.031312195
Bayang 3 1 1 7 0.0087 0.0327 0.01185375
Lumbatan 1 1 1 1 0.0477 0.1137 0.082174091
Lumbayanague 8 2 1 4 0.0112 0.0361 0.016237751
Masiu 7 3 1 1 0.0142 0.0393 0.022233466
Masiu 4km 2 2 1 8 0.0025 0.0191 0.002876506
Poona Bayabao 2 1 3 5 0.0051 0.025 0.006407035
Tamparan 1 1 5 1 0.0337 0.0778 0.059452608
Taraka 1 1 1 1 0.0359 0.0854 0.061936566
Mulundo 4 2 1 1 0.0207 0.056 0.032838527
Buadi Puso 6 5 1 1 0.0406
0.014 0.021368421
Bentong
Ramain 15 5 2 1 0.0218 0.0576 0.03507486
Poona Bayabao 2 2 1 4 0.0167
0.0014 0.001528105
4km
Taraka 4km 2 1 1 1 0.0022 0.0182 0.0025025
Ramain 4km 1 2 1 3 -0.0004 0.0161 -0.000390303
Agus 1 Intake 2 3 4 2 0.1195 0.2374 0.240621713
Sum 105 59 98 63 0.8937 2.1097 1.635443408
Mean 4.37 2.46 4.08 2.63 0.0372375 0.087904167 0.068143475
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Table2. Correlation coefficient using linear regression with different bands and TSS values.
Sampling Periods Band 1 Band 4+ Band 1 Band 4+1/(Band 4/1)

First Sampling 0.021 0.0113 0.026


Second Sampling 0.025 0.017 0.026

Third Sampling 0.009 0.012 0.006


Fourth Sampling 0.005 0.005 0.006

Table3. RMSE and R squared assessment of TSS models


Equations R Squared RMSE
Eq. 5 0.021 4.688
Eq. 6 0.025 1.546
Eq.7 0.009 4.360
Eq.8 0.005 2.287
Eq.9 0.011 4.710
Eq. 10 0.017 1.553
Eq. 11 0.012 4.353
Eq. 12 0.005 2.287
Eq. 13 0.026 4.674
Eq. 14 0.026 1.546
Eq. 15 0.006 4.366
Eq. 16 0.006 2.286

C. LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Specific location where samples were collected


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Figure 2 (a) Figure 2 (b)

Figure 2 (c) Figure 2 (d)

Figure 2. MODIS Terra images acquired during the 4 sampling period done in Lake Lanao,
Philippines. (a). during the first sampling period in June, 2011. (b). second sampling period in
October, 2011, (c). Third sampling period in March, 2012 and (d). Forth sampling
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First Sampling Second Sampling


25 y = 5.5079-20.868*X y = 2.1112+13.406*X
6 R = 0.026
20 R = 0.026
5
TSS mg/L

15 4

TSS mg/L
10 3
2
5
1
0 0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 -0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06
MODIS Band 4+MODIS Band 1 MODIS Band 4+ MODIS Band 1
__________________________ __________________________
MODIS Band 4/MODIS Band 1 MODIS Band 4/MODIS Band 1

Figure 3 (a) Figure 3 (b)

Second Sampling First Sampling


y = 2.099+22.928*X 25 y = 5.502-36.142*X
6 R = 0.021
R = 0.025 20
5
TSS mg/L
TSS mg/L

4 15
3
10
2
1 5
0 0
-0.01 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08
MODIS Band 1 MODIS Band 1

Figure 3 (c) Figure 3 (d)

Second Sampling
y = 9.588x + 2.044
6
R = 0.017
5
TSS mg/L

4
3
2
1
0
0 0.05 0.1
MODIS Band 4+MODIS Band 1

Figure 3 (e)
Figure 3. Correlation between in situ TSS and reflectance bands MODIS Band 4+MODIS Band
1/(MODIS Band 4/MODIS Band 1), MODIS Band 1 and MODIS Band 4+ MODIS Band 1
during first and second sampling session.
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Third Sampling Fourth Sampling


20 y = 3.833+5.969*X 10
y = 1.1245x + 2.5484
R = 0.006 8 R = 0.006
15
TSS mg/L

TSS mg/L
6
10
4
5 2
0 0
-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 -0.5 0 0.5 1
MODIS Band 4+MODIS Band 1 MODIS Band 4+MODIS Band 1
__________________________ __________________________
MODIS Band 4/MODIS Band 1 MODIS Band 4/MODIS Band 1

Figure 4 (a) Figure 4 (B)


Figure 4. Correlation between in situ TSS and reflectance bands MODIS Band 4+MODIS Band
1/(MODIS Band 4/MODIS Band 1) during third and fourth sampling.

First Sampling Third Sampling


25 20
y = 5.412-13.799*X y = 3.489+9.265*X
20 R = 0.0113 R = 0.012
15
TSS mg/L

TSS mg/L

15
10
10
5 5

0 0
0 0.1 0.2 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
MODIS Band 4+MODIS Band 1 MODIS Band 4+MODIS Band 1

Figure 5 (a) Figure 5 (b)

Fourth Sampling
10
y = 2.533+1.045*X
8 R = 0.005
TSS mg/L

6
4
2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
MODIS Band 4+MODIS Band 1

Figure 5 (c)
Figure 5. Correlation between in situ TSS and reflectance bands MODIS Band 4+MODIS Band
1 during first, third and fourth sampling.
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Third Sampling Fourth Sampling


10
20 y = 2.548+2.056*X
y = 3.739+14.426*X R = 0.005
8
15 R = 0.009
TSS mg/L

TSS mg/L
10
4
5
2
0
0
-0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15
-0.5 0 0.5
MODIS Band 1 MODIS Band 1

Figure 6 (a) Figure 6 (b)


Figure 6. Correlation between in situ TSS and reflectance bands MODIS Band 1 during third and
fourth sampling
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International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences


p-ISSN: 1694-2620
e-ISSN: 1694-2639
Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 60-68, IJHSS

The Relationship of Compliance to Medication among


Hypertensive Heads of Units and their Diet and Attitude towards
Medical Consultation

Athena Jalaliyah B. Derico-Lawi


ORCID No. 0000-0002-8199-9543
Mindanao State University
Marawi City, Philippines
athenajbdlawi@gmail.com

Abstract
Higher arterial blood pressure is called hypertension. This is an abnormal high systolic blood
pressure ranging from 19 to 140mmHg or greater while a diastolic blood pressure is about
90mmHg or greater. Hypertension is common among adults and sometimes they were not aware
of its existence. The study aimed to find out the compliance on medication among hypertensive
heads of units. This study utilized a descriptive-correlational research design to determine
relationships between variables. Purposive sampling was used to obtain the respondents of the
study, and a researcher-constructed survey questionnaire was implemented to gather data. The
data were analysed utilizing percentage distribution, weighted mean, standard deviation, Pearson
Moment Correlation Coefficient, and Multiple Regression Analysis. The findings of the study
revealed that majority of the respondents had a monthly income of 16,000 to 20,000, have 4 to 6
children, are chairmen of a department in a government agency, taking antihypertensive
medication for less than a year likewise for 1 to 5 years, diagnosed with stage 2 hypertension and
taking 2 types of antihypertensive medications. As to the level of knowledge on hypertension,
majority strongly agreed on the information about hypertension. As to their perception on the
effects of medication, most of them agreed on the effects of medications to their body system.
Lifestyle in terms of diet and attitude towards medical consultation are factors for compliance of
antihypertensive medications.

Keywords: Hypertensive, Compliance, Medications, Diet, Attitude, Marawi City, Philippines

Introduction
Hypertension is one of the most common diseases affecting humans worldwide. It is with
associated morbidity and mortality among the populace. The presence of hypertension can be
detected by routine blood pressure checks at clinics or doctors offices
(http://www.abct.org/docs/dmembers/Factsheets/Hypertension 2009). For the past several
decades extensive research, widespread education and concerted efforts towards health care
professionals have led to the decreased morbidity and mortality rate due to hypertension and its
complication. Hypertension could be the most modifiable risk fctors for coronary diseases,
stroke, congestive heart failure and other internal diseases (Smeltzer and Bare 2004).

One of the major health challenges that we faced today is the increased number of cases
of non-communicable diseases which include hypertension. This growing challenge is threatened
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the economic and social development as well as the lives of millions of people. In the
Philippines, urbanization, lifestyle changes, and increasing life expectancy brought a considerable
change on the health status of the populace in the country (Palaganas 2003). Monitoring and
diagnosing are unique position of responsibility of the physicians. They have roles to portray in
actively encourage patients compliance to their regular checkup and treatments (Eracker,
Kirscht, and Becker 1984). After decades research on compliance of health care issues were not
given so much attention. There were very few consistent information is available. People argued
that much of the existing compliance literature also lacks conceptual rigour. Despite of individual
knowledge that people do not take their medications consistently, individuals do not know
specifically the reason why these people have done it so. This is due maybe to lack of
understanding on compliance in perspective of the health care. One reason for this lack of
understanding is that compliance research has been dominated by the perspective of the health
professionals instead to include also the patients perspective to better understand medication-
taking behavior.

Untreated or sub optimally treated hypertension can lead to increased risk of morbidity
and mortality due to cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, or renal diseases. Hypertension affects
close to one billion individuals worldwide. In Malaysia, the prevalence of hypertension among
adult aged 30 years and above has increased from 32.9 percent in 1996 to 40.5 percent in 2004.
The number is continuously growing due to the progressive aging of the population. The World
Health Organization (WHO) reported that suboptimal blood pressure (>115 mmHg systolic
blood pressure) was the cause of 62% cerebrovascular diseases and 49% of ischemic heart
diseases. Based on the national survey conducted in 2004 in Malaysia, the prevalence of
hypertension is among aged 30 years and above.

Adherence to medication pertains to 17the extent to which the medication-taking


behaviour of a patient corresponds with agreed recommendations from a health care provider.
Unfortunately, poor compliance to medication is widespread especially in the treatment of
chronic disorders such as hypertension leading to poor health outcomes and large medical
spending on drug-related morbidity. The World Health Organization 9reported that compliance
to medication in patients with chronic diseases averages only around 50 percent in developed
countries. The scenario is reported to be worse in developing countries because of poor
accessibility to medications and health care services. The asymptomatic nature of this disease
condition intensifies the problem of non-adherence in hypertension (Ramli, Ahmad, and
Paraidathathu 2012).

In 2005, nearly one-fifth of the Sri Lanka population suffered hypertension and the prevalence is
expected to further increase in the coming decades. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases
hypertension is an important risk factor, are the leading causes of hospital deaths in Sri Lanka. It
had caused high mortality rates 1among Sri Lankans in comparison to affluent countries
(Kumara, Perera, Dissanayake, Ranasinghe, and Constantine 2013).

Hypertension is the fifth leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Philippines
(FHSIS Annual Report 2003). It is also the third leading cause of morbidity and fifth leading
cause of mortality in IPHO Lanao del Sur (IPHO Annual Report 2002). In this era, early
detection and aggressive treatment of hypertension have lessened associated morbidity and
mortality. Current practice standards call for a more diligent management including prevention
through avoidance of known risk factors, particularly in persons with a family history of
hypertension. It also includes cofactors which are known to increase the risk of cardiovascular
damage in persons with hypertension such as smoking, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes
mellitus (Pugh 2000).The treatment for hypertension are: regular checking of blood pressure,
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changes in ones eating and living habits, and taking the prescribed medication every day. If
hypertension is detected and treated on time, hypertension may not lead to complications that
will affect the persons productive life (Wolff 2008).

Statement of the Problem


The rapid increase on the cases of hypertension threatened and challenges the health workers
(Palaganas 2003). Untreated hypertension could lead to increased risk of cardiovascular,
cerebrovascular and renal diseases. Policy makers and health educators need to continuously
search to find ways to lower down if not eradicate cases of hypertension. Since hypertension is
one of the leading risk factors of morbidity and mortality in the Philippines (FHSIS Annual
Report 2003), the researcher being a health worker was motivated to look into the extent
relationship of compliance to medication among hypertensive heads of units and their diet and
attitude towards medical consultation.

Research Design of the Study


The purpose of this quantitative research was to independently examine the relationship between
the level of knowledge on hypertension, perception on the effects of medication, lifestyle in
terms of diet, physical activity, and emotional aspect, and attitude towards medical consultation
to the compliance to medication of the participants of this study. To accomplish the purpose of
this study, the following research questions were posited: First, what is the socio-demographic
profile of the participants?, second, what is the extent of compliance to medication among
hypertensive heads of units?, third, what is their level of knowledge on hypertension, fourth,
what is their perception on the effects of antihypertensive medication to their body systems,
fifth, what is the relationship between lifestyle in terms of diet, physical activity, and emotional
aspect to the compliance on medication?, and lastly, what is the relationship between attitude
towards medical consultation and their compliance to medication?

Significance of the Study


This study has both national and international significance to policy makers on the relationship
between hypertension and compliance to medications. Health practitioners/health workers will
find the study significant considering the need to curve down cases of hypertension. The heads
of units may be able to acquire significant information on the prevention of hypertension
through proper diet and regular medical check-up and the taking of medication as ordered by the
physician.

Method of Procedure
This quantitative study was designed to examine the relationship between compliance to
medication among hypertensive heads of units and their diet and attitude towards medical
consultation. A researcher-made survey was administered to 46 participants of the study after
testing for validity and reliability. Collection of Data Before conducting the data collection
informed consent was obtained. The data was gathered by the use of a researcher-constructed
survey with six (6) Parts. Part I is the profile of the respondents which includes age, gender, civil
status, educational attainment, monthly family income, number of living children,
position/designation, type of institution, number of years taking anti-hypertensive medication(s),
latest blood pressure, and anti-hypertensive medications presently taking. Part II pertains to the
level of knowledge on hypertension among the participants. Part III is regarding their perception
on the effects of anti-hypertensive medication(s), Part IV is about the lifestyle of the respondents
in terms of diet, physical activity, and emotional aspect, Part V pertains to their attitude towards
medical consultation, and lastly, is the Part VI regarding their extent of compliance to medication
Triangulation procedure was done to validate their responses.
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Treatment of Data
The study utilized frequencies and percentages to determine the respondents profile; weighted
mean to determine the mean of the responses of the participants and standard deviation to
describe the variations of the responses of the participants; Pearson Product Moment
Correlation Coefficient to correlate the independent variables such as level of knowledge on
hypertension, perception on the effects of anti-hypertensive medication, lifestyle in terms diet,
physical activity, and emotional aspect to compliance to medication; In addition, multiple
regression analysis particularly the f-test was used to determine whether the profile of the
respondents intervene with the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.

Findings
The participants of the study are mostly 51 years old and older (63.043%), female (60.87%),
married (82.61%), college graduate (30.435%), monthly family income of Php 16,000-20,000
(34.78%), 4-6 children (50.00%), Department Chairpersons (32.608%), employed in government
institutions (80.43%), number of years taking antihypertensive medications less than 1 year
(34.78%) and for 1-5 years (34.78%), in Stage 2 hypertension (47.82%), antihypertensive
medications presently taken is captopril (25.00%). This signifies that as age advances, people
become potential to having health problems (Black and Hawks 2005) Further implies that heads
of units are in the older adult as being supported by Black and Hawks (2005) that the incidence
of hypertension increases with age 50 to 60 of clients who have a blood pressure over 140/90
mmHg.

Epidemiologic studies, however, have shown a poorer prognosis in clients whose


hypertension occurs primarily in people older than 50 years. Among older adults, systolic blood
pressure readings are a better predictor of possible future events such as coronary heart disease,
stroke, heart failure, and renal disease than are diastolic readings. However, according to Nettina
(2011), older clients systolic blood pressure may be elevated due to loss of elasticity of the
arteries (arteriosclerosis).Further, about 40 percent of all deaths below age of 65 years are due to
consequences of high blood pressure. (Wolff 2008). After menopause, when the estrogens
protective effect is lost, atherosclerosis develops rapidly. Once into their sixties, men and women
have similar risk of myocardial infarction due to atherosclerosis (Nowak and Handford 2005).
According to Abolfotuh (2005), marital differences in blood pressure and psychological status
such as prolonged stress and low social support may explain the marital diversity in blood
pressure and the risk of hypertension.

For the educational attainment, managers have finished a college degree that has given
them the chance to hold a position. This implies that heads of units are educationally prepared.
However, they have to attend to their health concern in order for them to function to the
optimum. Furthermore, individuals who have lowest eduactioanl attainment are more prone to
hypertension problems than those with highest educational attainment. This is true because
poorly educated individual were not more knowledgeable about hypertension and its risk factors.
This is due to less understanding of the particular health problem
(http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2007/apr/06_0062.htm).

Monthly family income also relate to hypertension issues and compliance of medication.
Those who has lower income tend to have more health problem due to hypertension and have
least compliance in medication. This maybe because on the lack of financial aspect that could
hinder them having regular checkup. Health care expenditure could be a huge portion of living
expenses for patients suffering from chronic disease. In the case of a well-compensated
individual, health care cost is not a big burden specially if the patient has a relatively high income
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or health insurance. Studies have found that patients who had no health insurance cover or who
had low income were more likely to be non-compliant to treatment (Jin 2008).

For the number of living children, the bigger the number of children, the bigger the
amount they need and the lesser the possibility of compliance to medication. Furthermore,
individuals with greater number of children have high stress level because they have many
dependents to feed and to manage (http://www.webmd.com/hypertension 2009). In terms of
position or designation, the respondnets believed that stress is normally part of life. However,
unknowingly excessive stress experienced will lead to psychological, emotional, and even physical
problems including heart disease, high blood pressure, chest pains, or irregular heartbeats.
Mental stress is the form of stress encountered by heads of units because they are the one who
always think of solutions to problems, decides, commands, and guides subordinates if tasks given
to them are done well (http://www.webmd.com/hypertension 2009). Most of the participants
are women and working in government institutions. Women in government jobs are highly at
risk of hypertension than those women who are farmers or self-employed, this could be due to
less physically active lifestyle, work pressure, and psychological stress
(http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2007/apr/06_0062.htm).

The respondents are taking anti-hypertensive medications for less than a year and a year
to 5 years already. It implies the participants tend to comply with the medications since they
become aware of the consequences of having hypertension thru the massive campaign of the
Department of Health with healths objective on proper information, education, and
communication (Palaganas 2003).

Majority of the respondents have stage 2 hypertension, which means that they have a
systolic blood pressure of 160-179mm Hg and a diastolic blood pressure of 100- 109mmHg.
According to Wolff (2008) a further cause of increased blood pressure is the lack of exercise, the
occupational disorder of so many who spend their working life behind desks, factory benches, or
the wheel of a car. Most of them take captopril (Capoten) as their anti-hypertensive medication.
Recent evidence suggests that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor drugs such as
captopril may be particularly beneficial (Smeltzer and Bare 2004). Angiotensin-Converting
Enzyme Inhibitors inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), which in turn inhibits the
formation of angiotensin II which is a potent vasoconstrictor and blocks the release of
aldosterone that promotes sodium and water retention and potassium excretion. Capoten
(captopril tablets, USP) is a medication for treatment of hypertension. Based on it phytochemcial
components Capoten, should be given to the risk of neutropenia/agranulocytosis and may be
used as initial therapy for patients with normal kidney function, in whom the risk is relatively
low. Captopril should be reserved for hypertensives that have either developed unacceptable side
effects on other drugs, or have failed to respond satisfactorily to drug combinations. This drug is
effective alone and in combination with other antihypertensive medications, especially thiazide
type diuretics (http://www.rxlist.com/capoten-drug/indications-dosage.htm). However,
captopril may cause life-threatening effects such as acute renal failure, bronchospasm,
angioedema, and agranulocytosis. Its side effects and adverse reactions are cough, nausea,
diarrhea, headache, dizziness, fatigue, insomnia, hyperkalemia, tachycardia, hypotension, oliguria,
and urticarial (Udan 2009).

In terms of their extent of compliance to medication, the heads of units sometimes


take their anti-hypertensive medications which mean that they take their medications if there is
available medication. They take their medications sometimes because of the following reasons
that they tend to forget because of their busy schedule at work they have less knowledge on the
effect of not taking their medications regularly as mentioned by the respondents during the
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interview. According to Longmore, Wilkinson and Rajagopalan (2004), it is important to be


committed to taking anti-hypertensive medication everyday as most people do not have any
symptoms from high blood pressure. In addition, a long-term adherence to treatment is always a
problem in any chronic disease condition, and hypertension is no exception. More than 50% of
patients who are prescribed antihypertensive medications actually discontinue therapy within 12
months. A primary reason given for stopping medications relates to adverse effects and the cost
of medications
(http://www.clevelandclinicmed.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/nephrology/arterial-
hypertension 2009).

The mean of knowledge of the participants regarding hypertension is 4.28 with the
average standard deviation of 0.65 and qualitative description of strongly agree. This is due to
their educational level and they are conscious about their health, and have more information
pertaining to hypertension as shown in the television and lecture heard in the radio about the
disease. The statement indicators Contraceptive pill can cause hypertension and Giving up
coffee drinks will help reduce blood pressure ranked the lowest which means that few believe
on the following statement regarding hypertension. Therefore, even if they are already heads of
units they still need enhancement on their knowledge regarding hypertension. Patients
knowledge about hypertension is a contributory factor for adherence to treatment or medication
(http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/nephrology/arterial-
hypertension 2009).

The mean participants perception on the effects of medication is 3.70 with the average
standard deviation of 0.88 and qualitative description of Agree. The statement indicator that
states that hypertensive people must be aware of the effects of their medications ranked
highest which signifies that majority believe that hypertensive clients must know the effects of
their medications while statement indicator that states medications prescribed are always
available in the locality ranked lowest because not all medications are available in a nearby
pharmacy and most of the time it has to be bought in Iligan or Cagayan De Oro City. According
to the Health Promotion Model by Nola Pender, the persons level of cognitive abilities plays a
major role in the development of health-promoting behaviours. Therefore, if the level of
knowledge is high then the development of health promoting behaviour is likewise high. Further,
adherence to medication depends on the personal health beliefs and to the adverse effects of
medication
(http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/nephrology/arterial-
hypertension 2009).

For the lifestyle in terms of diet, physical activity, and emotional aspect, the mean
respondents lifestyle in terms of diet is 3.04 with the average standard deviation of 1.17 and
qualitative description of sometimes with item #1 that states I eat proper diet is the highest.
It implies that the respondents are somehow knowledgeable about the food they eat while item
#3 that states I drink fat free milk is the lowest because they seldom drink fat free milk. This is
because of the following reasons: they eat calories they can burn up every day, they eat more
spicy foods and foods high in carbohydrates, & they eat more of the non-nutrient food group
(http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml/identifier=851 2009).
Diet plays a very significant role in blood pressure. Foods high in cholesterol thicken the blood
with fat, and that forces the heart to work harder, thereby raising the blood pressure
(http:www.americanheart.org/presenter 2008). According to Hutchinson (2003), high blood
pressure can cause damage to the heart as it forces the heart to work harder. A diet high in
saturated fat, obesity and lack of exercise can put a person at risk. They all contribute to a rise in
the cholesterol and blood fats (lipids) that clog or block coronary arteries. The mean of
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participants physical activity is 3.27 with the average standard deviation of 1.38 and qualitative
description sometimes. This is because they do not have regular physical activity, they ride
their vehicles in going to and from their offices, and they usually spend most of their time on
their desk. The statement indicator that states I do office work 8 hours a day is ranked highest.
It implies that heads of units are rendering their services to their assigned institution adequately
while the statement indicator that states I play badminton as my exercise ranked lowest
because they do not play badminton at all. According to Wolff (2008) a further cause of
hypertension is lack of exercise, the occupational disorder of so many who spend their working
life behind desks, factory benches, or the wheel of a car. This signifies that the participants do
not maintain a regular physical activity. In addition, sedentary individuals are more likely to
develop atherosclerosis than those who are more active. Generally, it appears that increased
exercise levels are associated with reduced blood pressure, increased levels of plasma high
density lipoprotein (HDL), and lower plasma values of cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density
lipoprotein (LDL). (Nowak and Handford 2005) Managers or heads of units do not usually find
time for exercise or performing physical activity due to their hectic schedule in their work. In
fact most of them do have sedentary lifestyle.

In terms of their emotional aspect, the mean is 3.55 with the average standard deviation
of 1.09 and qualitative description of often Item #11 that states that I feel comfortable with
my work is ranked the highest while item #12 that states that I speak in modulated voice even
if I am angry is ranked lowest. This means that few use a modulated voice when angry. Living a
healthy lifestyle also calls for paying keen attention to emotional well-being. When a person is
able to maintain a balance and enjoy a positive outlook in life, stress levels are likely to be lower
and so is overall satisfaction with life (http://www.megahealth.lifestyle.com 2009).

For the attitude towards medical consultation, the mean is 2.91 with the average standard
deviation of 0.94 and a qualitative description of sometimes which means that the heads of
units visit or consult a doctor every after 3 months. Going to medical consultation entails money
and time which could be the reason respondents sometimes go for medical consultation.
Further, heads of units sometimes go for medical consultation due to the following reasons:
hectic schedule, lack of consciousness on health, distance from where the doctors have their
clinic, and long waiting before seeing the physician due to many clients. Patients may not be able
to take time off work for treatment and as a result their rate of compliance could be threatened.
Therefore, shorter traveling time between residence and health care facilities could enhance
patients compliance. For patients with chronic diseases they would do their own cost-benefit
analysis of therapy, either consciously or subconsciously. It means that they have to weigh the
complications) against constraints on their daily lives and perceived risks of therapy such as side
effects, time, and effort involved (Jin 2008).

According to Nola Penders Health Promotion Model (2002), the perceived benefits of
action refer to the anticipated outcomes that will occur from health behaviour. Based on the
results of the study, respondents do not perceive benefits in going to or visit their physician
regularly for medical check-up or medical consultation. Of all the variables present in the study,
only the lifestyle in terms of diet and the attitude towards medical consultation have a significant
relationship on the compliance to medication of the heads of units diagnosed with hypertension.

Conclusion and Implication of the Study


Diet and attitude towards medical consultation are that factors that affecting the compliance to
medication among heads of units diagnosed with hypertension. This implies that heads of units
need to be educated on the different health problems particularly caused by diet. Dietary
Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) has to be given emphasis. And that they have to be
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provided with adequate knowledge on the importance of regular check-ups or medical


consultation as well as compliance to medication. In addition, continues health education has to
be given to the public or in the larger part of the society to be aware of the cause, prevention,
treatment and recovery of clients with hypertension thereby improving also their perception on
the effects of medication. The Department of Health has to intensify its campaign on the
prevention of lifestyle diseases.

References
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Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Iranian Adults according to Educational levels: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.
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2006-06-17
Bautista, Joy N. (2009). Theoretical Foundation of Nursing: A Beginners Journey into Professional
Nursing. First Edition. Educational Publishing House, Incorporated. United Nations Avenue.
Ermita. Manila. Philippines
Eracker, Stephen A. John P. Kirscht and Marshall H. Becker. (1984). Understanding and Improving Patient
Compliance. Retrieved on 2016-03-15 from http://www.annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=697861
Hutchinson, Jim. (2003). Readers Digest. Asias Heart Failure: Are you at risk? Vol. 80 N. 480. Petaling
Jaya. Malaysia.
Jin,Jing. Grant E. Sklar. Vernon Min S. Oh and Shu C. Li. Factors Affecting Therapeutic Compliance: A Review
from the Patients Perspective. Retrieved on 2008-02-04
Kumara, WA Nuwan. Thisara Perera. Mekhala Dissanayake. Priyanga Ranasinghe and Godwin R.
Constantine. (2013). Prevalence and risk factors for resistant hypertension among hypertensive patients from a
developing country. BMC Research Notes. BioMed Central Ltd DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-6-373.
Retrieved on 2016-03-15 from http://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-
0500-6-373
Longmore M. Wilkinson IB and Rajagopalan. (2004). Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine. Oxford. Oxford
University Press. United States of America.
Morris, L.Stockwell and RM Schulz. Patient compliance- an overview. Division of Health Care Policy and
Evaluation. United Health Care Corporation and College of Pharmacy. University of South
Carolina. United States of America. Retrieved on 2016-03-15
Nettina, Sandra M` (2001). The Lippincott Manual of Nursing Practice. Seventh Edition. Volume 1. Lippincott
Williams and Wilkins. J.B. Lippincott Company. Philadelphia.
Nowak, Thomas J. and Gordon A. Handford. (2005). Pathophysiology. Concepts and Applications for Health
Care Professionals. Third Edition. Mc Graw Hill Companies, Incorporated. Higher Education. New
York. United States of America.
Palaganas, Erlinda C. (2003). Health Care Practice in the Community.
Philippines.Pugh, Maureen B. Barbara W. Filardo TW. Binns PW. Fernetti BL. (2000). Stedmans Medical
Dictionary. Gwenty Seventh Edition. Lipincott Williams and Wilkins. Wolters Kluwer Company.
Baltimore. Maryland. United States of America.
Ramli, Azuana. Nur Sufiza Ahmad and Thomas Paraidathathu. (2012). Medication adherence among
hypertensive patients of primary health clinics in Malaysia. August 31, 2012.doi:10.2147/PPA.S34704
Smeltzer, Suzanne C. and Brenda G. Bare. (2004). Brunner and Suddarths Textbook of Medical-Surgical
Nursing. Tenth Edition. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. J.B. Lippincott Company. Philadelphia.
Wolff, Hanns P. (2008). Your Health Guide: Speaking of High Blood Pressure. A Comprehensive Guide for
Hypertensives and their Partners. First Indian Edition. Sterling Publishers Private Liited. Okhla
Industrial Area. Phase II. New Delhi-110020.
Udan, Josie Quiambao.(2009). Medical-Surgical Nursing: Concepts and Clinical Application. Second
Edition. Educational Publishing House.526-528 United Nations Avenue. Ermita, Manila.
Philippines.
68 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

The Author

Athena Jalaliyah Bacaraman Derico-Lawi, RN, MN, MAN, PhD finished pre-
school and elementary education at the Mindanao State University-Integrated
Laboratory School Main Campus Marawi City. She finished her secondary
education at the MSU University Training Center Experimental Campus
Marawi City. She obtained a degree Bachelor of Science in Nursing at the
Mindanao State University College of Health Sciences Marawi City. She
finished her graduate degree Masters in Nursing and Masters of Arts in
Nursing Major in Medical-Surgical Nursing at the Liceo De Cagayan University, Cagayan De
Oro City and earned her postgraduate degree Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Planning
and Management at the Mindanao University of Sciences and Technology in Cagayan De Oro
City. She has presented researches in local and international research conferences (both in
oral/podium presentation and poster presentation).
69 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences


p-ISSN: 1694-2620
e-ISSN: 1694-2639
Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 69-75, IJHSS

The Stages of Female Circumcision Practice among Meranaos


Living in the Rural and Marginalized Areas in Lanao

Salmah Lao Basher


College of Nursing
Mindanao State University
Marawi City, Philippines

Abstract
Female circumcision (FC) is a literal translation from the Meranao term Turi which 6refers to
several traditional procedures that involve injuring women genitals. This cultural practice has
long been treated a critical women health concern by the World Health Organization and other
national and international health organizations due to its dangerous effect to physical and mental
implications. This study intends to explore the different stages of female circumcision among
Meranaos, the prevalence rate of this practice and the stand of religious leaders on FC. This
study utilized a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods using a specially designed
questionnaire, interview and focused group discussions with the 30 Manunuris (the one who
perform FC) and 30 religious leaders as respondents. The results showed that there are three
stages of FC. The first stage is done during childhood that is preferably the girl is below ten years
tice of age. The second stage is done once the girl turned to be a woman and still in the early
marriage of her life. And the last stage is during late adulthood when the woman reaches 50 years
old and above. The religious leaders confirmed that the verse in the Hadith (teachings of
Prophet Mohammed PBUH) concerning circumcision is not clear and inconclusive and
expressed their agreement in the eradication of this practice. The prevalence rate of this practice
is indeed high in the rural areas, which is 86%. In conclusion, each stage has meanings and is
symbolic among the respondents. The reasons of following this vary from cultural to religious
basis though the common viewpoint is the prevention of committing immorality. FC is still
rampantly performed in the different rural areas of Lanao del Sur, Philippines.

Keywords: Sociology, female circumcision, qualitative- quantitative research

Introduction
Female circumcision is known to be a common practice in a society where Muslims
predominate. This practice that usually involves cutting or injuring some part of the genital area
of a female has been a source of controversies around the globe because of its devastating effect
to the well being especially the health of women (Gele, Bo and Sundy, 2013). The prevalence rate
of this procedure that is performed in many countries in Africe, Middle East, Asia and within the
newcomer populations throughout the world is 5-99% (Ismael, 2002) and its is also disclosed
that this practice is also observed among settler communities in North America, Australia, Asia
and Europe (Oloo et al., 2011). Girls having an age of 4 and 12 are usually the recipients of
female circumcision although in some cultures, newborns and adolescence can also have the
procedure (Feldman 2008). According to Tucker, 2009, there are types of FC and each form of
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female mutilation requires a various change of physical aspect; in the procedure called
clitoridectomy, the clitoris and labia minora are being removed, while infibulation requires
detaching the labia majora and closing the genital area. Female circumcision or what is popularly
named internationally as female genital mutilation (FGM) has long been a source of
controversies because of its unfavorable effects to the physical and mental aspect of women.
The most common problems that reported include hemorrhage, pain, shock, formation
of cysts, sexual disturbances, and infection (Ruderman, 2013). In Sweden, perinatal death among
children of immigrant women was perceived to be associated with FC (Essen 2002). An
approximated 100 to 140 million women and girls worldwide have experienced the said
procedure and 3 million girls are at prone of undergoing FC ever year which indicates enormous
number of human rights violation. In the African continent specifically in the Sub-Saharan,
Egypt and Sudan, three million girls and women are circumcised each year. This statistic is
remarkably higher than the former estimate of two million. Some countries in Asia, Middle East
and North America also practice FC (UNICEF, 2008). In the Philippines, there is no data
showing the number of females who have undergone female circumcision as well as the number
of children who are at risk of undergoing the procedure.
However, there is a study about the performance of female circumcision among the
Yakan by Calsalin (2008), which states, In the Philippines, female circumcision is also being
carried out by the Yakan tribe of Basilan. Results showed that all respondents have common
beliefs regarding female circumcision including cleanliness, reason, dignity, honor and religious
duty. FC is primarily executed to young girls aging infancy up to 15 years of age. Sometimes, it is
done to adult women. (Multi Cultural Center for Womens Health, 2013). In the Philippines, FC
is also known to take place particularly among Muslim women of the Yakan tribes in Basilan
(Calsalin, 2008). Although no authoritative and definitive study have yet been published about
the practice of female circumcision among the Meranaos which is one of the Muslim tribes that
supports this practice in Southern Philippines, conversations with many adults and religious
leaders in the area have confirmed the occurrence of female circumcision among the women
populace. In the past, the practice of Female Circumcision (FC) went unnoticed except for
recognition of its cultural value to various communities where it was practiced.
Recently, the practice has attracted the attention of many individuals, agencies,
institutions, leaders, educators, heath workers and many other people coming from different
sectors of society as a public health issue within the context of Reproductive Health. This is due
to the complications that are currently known to be precipitated by the practice (WHO, 2013). In
the broad context of reproductive health, female circumcision no health benefits. It is deleterious
in a sense that it may cause pain, trauma and it may interfere with the normal processes of the
body and may even result to health alteration. Social and religious aspects are the reported
reasons for continuing the practice. Basing from a human righs angle, FC displays complex
inequality between male and female and embodies enormous discernment against women. (Jacob
and Clifton, 2008). The dispute among Muslim cleric on this subject has thrown the practicing
communities into confusion on whether to maintain the classical status quo, which describe and
present the practice as a noble religious duty, or abandon it in favor of the contemporary wave
of some Muslim scholars who have declared the practice illegitimate in Islamic law (Walusimbi,
2012).

Statement of the Problem


There were several studies on female circumcision in the different countries in Africa but very
few researches that dig on this practice in the Philippines, particularly in Mindanao where various
Muslim tribes live. This study intended to determine the stages of female circumcision. It also
sought to give an insight on the prevalence rate of this practice in the area and the stand of
religious leaders concerning the basis of this practice.
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Research Design of the Study


This study utilized two approaches to research, namely quantitative and qualitative methods. The
quantitative component was based on the data collected through a structured questionnaire,
which comprised of the respondents demographic profile and answers to the specific questions
written in the questionnaire. Subsequent data were then collated and analyzed as a basis for
preliminary conclusions. The qualitative component utilized the ethnographic approach wherein
in-depth interview, focus group discussion, and direct observation were used to collect the
qualitative data. The type of data that these three methods generated were field notes, transcripts,
audio and video recordings.

Significance of the Study


Female Circumcision has been a source of international controversies. The World Health
Organization and other foreign agencies had sponsored many studies regarding its nature and
complications. African countries have remained the source of information and venue of various
researches. Their outcomes have served as references in formulating a policy on the prohibition
of this practice regardless of its nature. The Department of Health, being the agency responsible
for the provision of programs and activities geared towards the attainment of health for all
Filipinos, may have the interest of sponsoring researchers on female circumcision among other
tribes. The agency may also become curious about the implication of this practice on the physical
and psychosocial health of female children and even adults. Most importantly, this agency can
facilitate the implementation of programs that can monitor the complications of this practice and
institute measures of correcting them. The research may also serve as reference for future studies
relating to female circumcision.

Collection of Data
Quantitative data like the prevalence rate of female circumcision was gathered with the use of a
survey questionnaire. The qualitative component utilized the ethnographic approach wherein in-
depth interview, focus group discussion, and direct observation were used to collect the
qualitative data. The type of data that these three methods generated were field notes, transcripts,
audio and video recordings. The in-depth interview is particularly useful when sensitive topics
such as female circumcision are being explored. The interview allowed the researcher to collect
qualitative data on the respondents personal histories, perspectives, and experiences about
female circumcision to clarify points and issues raised in the replies to the questionnaires. The
objective was to validate the veracity of the responses and whether the answers were in the
context intended by the respondents. Focus group discussions using open-ended and semi-
structured questions were used to elicit data on the cultural norms of the different groups of
respondents in order to explore the practice of female circumcision. The research questions were
grouped according to its similarities and differences. The answers of the respondents were
utilized to develop themes that were used in subsequent data analysis Lastly, direct observation
as a qualitative method of collecting data was used to record the procedure of female
circumcision on video. Direct observation was used instead of participant observation to gain a
more detached perspective of the procedure so as not to bias the observation.

Data analysis
Data analysis on the qualitative component of the study was based on the responses that were
gathered after the distribution of the questionnaire and structured interviews. The answers of the
respondents were verified and read several times as transcribed verbatim and translated to
English, to establish whether the answers were in fact what the participants have mentioned as
their answers to questions pertaining to their experiences and feelings when they had undergone
female circumcision. For the quantitative aspect of the study, descriptive statistics (frequencies
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and percentages) were used to describe the demographic profile of the respondents and their
answers on the questions provided. Based on these statistics, analyses were made to correlate
responses to demographic factors.

Treatment of Data
The researcher utilized mixed method. For the quantitative method, frequency and percentage
were used in the presentation and analysis of the demographic profiles of the respondents. These
included personal and family details, as well as information pertinent to the study. Their answers
to each specific question were then tabulated to discern patterns or inclinations. The qualitative
aspect of the study on the other hand, required one-on- one in-depth interviews, using open-
ended questions that inquired about the bases of the respondents in selecting answers to each
question. Another round of focused group discussions for the Manunuris was also done. This was
to enable the researcher to delve into any deeper motivations for both parties involved in the
female circumcision ceremony. This was also done to validate their answers and avoid errors in
interpretation by the researcher. To avoid misquoting or misinterpreting the responses of the
participants, the final transcripts of the interviews were repeated to them in the local Meranao
dialect for final validation.

Findings
Female circumcision is a component of the culture and traditions of the Meranaos and it is an
old observance with disputed origins. More than half of the respondents believed it to have been
handed down to them by Muslim ancestors who resided in the Philippines (66.6%), while the
rest believed that the practice of FC was a foreign influence from Indonesia, Brunei, and
Malaysia (33.3%). According to some of the Manunuris, female circumcision is actually
performed three times; the first time is during childhood that is preferably the girl is below ten
years of age. The reason of doing this is to facilitate the transformation of girl into becoming a
woman in order for her not only socially accepted by women in the society but also by males. It
is also believed that a woman should undergo female circumcision to have worth in society. A
woman who has not undergone the procedure should no perform any task that can benefit other
people and society, as this is considered useless in the eyes of God and men and that the work
and services rendered by a non- circumcised woman is considered as prohibited or haram.
Traditionalists argue that the practice ill facilitate maturation and readiness in entering a marriage.
It also enables them to assume for other functions in the community. One of the women
respondents stated, An uncircumcised woman should not help in social activities like helping in
wedding preparations and cleaning a dead body in preparation for burial (post-mortem care).
Illiberal also argue that the procedure provides honor to the Meranao women. In the rural areas
of Lanao del Sur, uncircumcised women are considered to be unholy, tainted and thus occupy a
lower stature in society.

According to one of the respondents, even the seat which had been occupied by a non-
circumcised woman should not be occupied by any Muslim individual because it is haram.
Momoh (2005), In the United Kingdom, FC is perceived as a strategy of ensuring the future
marriage of their daughters due to their belief that uncircumcised women are not saleable to the
marriage market. In the municipalities of Lanao del Sur, FC is braces by cultural beliefs.
Additionally, this practice is seen in the community as something that can bring dignity to both
women and girls, and preserving their chastity. A circumcised girl is recognized as virgin until she
is married which connotes pleasure to her family and family of her future husband. The second
time to perform it is once the girl turned to be a woman and still in the early marriage of her life.
The rationale for this is to strengthen faithfulness and loyalty of woman to her husband. It is
perceived that this could strengthen couples relationship and could also prevent any act of
immorality like adultery.
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One of the justifications for FC that was given by the respondents was: it entails a
woman to have a good married life with full of blessings in terms of children and resources. The
third time is during late adulthood when the woman reaches 50 years old and above and this
signifies that circumcision during this time is a symbolic activity of disposing sins that the
woman had committed for the past years of her life. In Somalia, female circumcision is done
during childhood and many of them follow the process of infibulation (suturing the labias to
close the vagina). Reopening is done days before the marriage. This practice poses major health
risks among women like infection, bleeding, abnormal scarring and many others. Statistics about
the number of girls circumcised in the different municipalities of Lanao del Sur are difficult to
obtain because of the lacking of information on the number of women circumcised by
Manunuris. In the majority of situation, this procedure is performed in the countryside due to
the fact that it is done secretly. \Information revealed that the prevalence rate of female
circumcision in the different municipalities of Lanao del Sur is 86.8% Majority of the religious
leaders believed that the practice of FC is a foreign practice and that Muslims in the Philippines
only adapted the tradition. It is possible that Filipino Muslims believe that Muslims in Arab
countries have a wider range of knowledge pertaining to Islamic culture and tradition than they
do, and thus adapted the practice also. As people who are more exposed to the Qur-an, the
Hadiths, and the Islamic practices and teachings in general, the religious leaders are more
knowledgeable than the average Muslim. For them, FC is not an obligatory practice, as shown
when majority of the respondents said no to the necessity of FC for a woman to be called a
follower of Islam is the observance and performance of the five pillars of Islam (i.e. believing in
Allah as the one true God and Prophet Mohammad as his Messenger, praying that is performed
five time a day, charity, fasting during month of Ramadan and pilgrimage to Mecca.

Therefore those Muslim women who do not or cannot undergo FC should no longer be
treated as if they are disbelievers of Islam. Moreover these Islamic leaders believed that the
original Islamic jurisprudence literature endorses only male circumcision and regards female
circumcision as not being sunnah. They said, it is never mentioned in the Quran-an that
circumcising women is obligatory. What is mentioned in the Qur-an is male circumcision.
Another respondent mentioned that, The act of circumcision for females is not one of the
requirements to be a true Muslim, because the Prophet had never stated it to be obligatory in the
first place.

Conclusion and Implication of the Study


Female circumcision is rampantly being practiced especially in the rural and marginalized areas in
Lanao del Sur as shown b y the prevalence rate 86% of FC in the municipalities of Lanao.This
study explored the beliefs of Manunuris in every stage of FC, the prevalence rate of this practice
and the perception of religious leaders concerning the procedure. The main perpetuators of FC
in Lanao del Sur were found to be the Manunuris who are the persons solely responsible for
performing female circumcision in the study setting. On a personal context, the Manunuris
wields numerous rationales in explaining their performance of the practice in every stage of FC.
They consider it as gaining socio-cultural expectation, aiming for chastity, morality, and their
own economic motives. Cultural motives appear as the main basis of this practice. Other and
there was a hereasons include normality and religion and have to be performed to women to
have worth in society. However, this paper revealed, that the financial benefits were not
conclusive for their intention. That the Manunuris were not able to disclose economic benefit
and are hesitant to mentioned the hidden motive. This study has shown that Manunuris are
important stakeholders in perpetuating FC. By recognizing Manunuris for their significant
function in the locality related to the holistic well being of the women and children. The society
needs to recognize the anunuris to be the group most capable to influence people in the
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prevention of FC. FC. The religious leaders whose mastery is the Islamic jurisprudence were
asked relating to the beliefs and stages of FC. Some of the religious leaders confirmed that there
is a verse in the Hadith concerning circumcision but it is not clearly stated if females are to be
circumcised. Though circumcision is mentioned in the Hadith but the evidence that the Prophet
Mohammad (PBUH) commanded it was weak that is why religious leaders have different views
concerning this practice. Some of them accepted the procedure for as long as it is not overly
done or as long as it is Sunnah. For some, doing it has no significance among females and it can
only result problems as it can affect the reactions and desires of women. While other religious
leaders conformed that there are no Islamic laws that support FC and that the practice is
traditional and in conflict with Muslims jurisprudence. They have affirmed that there is no clear
verse as to the religious justification of the practice; hence, it is not obligatory.

The researcher believes that these obscure religious justifications and equivocal
interpretation of Islamic laws are accountable for the pursuance of this practice. The
government, educators, religious leaders have moral responsibilities to explain these concerns
and assure that FC is eradicated.

References
Essen, Birgitta. Bodker, Birgit (2002) Is There an Association Between Female Circumcision and Perinatal
Death, Health Organization Bulletin of the World Health Organization 80.8: 629-32 Calsalin.
Sittinursamia A. (2008)Female Circumcision Among Yakan in Basilan, Philippines, April, 2008.
Cormack D. (2000) The Research Process in Nursing. 4th edn. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, Great
Britain. Retrieved on from http://goo.gl/hysN79
El Hadi, A. A. (2000) Female genital mutilation in Egypt. African Womens Health, 145-166. Retrieved
on from http://goo.gl/SvBgw6
Feldman-Jacobs, C., & Clifton, D. (2008) Population Reference Bureau. Female genital
mutilation/cutting: data and trends. Retrieved on Nov 4, 2013 from http://goo.gl/FXSWcp
Gele, A. A., B, B. P., & Sundby, J. (2013) Have we made progress in Somalia after 30 years of
interventions? Attitudes toward female circumcision among people in the Hargeisa district. BMC
research notes, 6(1), 122. Retrieved on from http://goo.gl/crWQ1p
Gele, A. A., B, B. P., & Sundby, J. (2013) Attitudes toward Female Circumcision among Men and
Women in Two Districts in Somalia: Is It Time to Rethink Our Eradication Strategy in Somalia?.
Obstetrics and gynecology international, 2013. Retrieved on from http://goo.gl/crWQ1p
Ismail, E. A. (2002) Female genital mutilation survey in Somaliland. Hargeisa: Somaliland: Edna Aden
Maternity and teaching Hospital, 2009, 2009. Retrieved on from http://goo.gl/nwEU9R

Johansen, R. E., Barre, A., Sundby, J., & Vangen, S. (2004) Just a little incision]. Tidsskrift for den Norske
lgeforening: tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny rkke, 124(19), 2506. Retrieved on from
http://goo.gl/9nNqbj
Multicultural Center for Womens Health (2013) Female Genital Mutilation Cutting. Retrieved on Oct 10,
2013 from http://goo.gl/y7LLQZ
Mackie, G. (2000) Female genital cutting: the beginning of the end. Female" circumcision" in Africa:
culture, controversy, and change. Boulder, Colorado, Lynne Rienner, 253-282. Retrieved on from
http://goo.gl/BpoGVp
Oloo, Habil, Wanjiro, Monica, Jones, Katy, N. (2011) Female Genital Mutilation: Practices in Kenya.
Retrieved on Nov 2, 2013 from http://goo.gl/BQyDGP
Royal College Nursing (2006) Female Genital Mutilation: An RCN Educational Resource for Nursing and
Midwifery Staff. Retrieved on Oct 10, 2013 from http://goo.gl/stQkK0
Ruderman, R. Female Circumcision: The Ethics of Harm Reduction Policies. Michigan Journal of Public
Affairs, 95. Retrieved on Oct 10, 2013 from http://goo.gl/g6n7NH
Shell-Duncan, B. Ylva Hernlund, eds. (2000) Female" Circumcision" in Africa: Culture, Controversy and
Change. Retrieved on from http://goo.gl/SLGtVJ
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National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers (2012)Questions about Female


Circumcision. Retrieved on Nov 2, 2013 from http://goo.gl/wek09o
Tucker, Elizabeth (2009)Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives, Western Folklore 68.1 (Winter
2009): 84-86.
UNICEF (2008) Changing Harmful Social Convention: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting. Retrieved on
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UNICEF (2009) Female Genital Mutilation/ Cutting: A Statistical Overview and Exploration of Dynamic
of Change. Retrieved on October 10, 2013 from http://goo.gl/slE10I
United Nations (2012) United Nations bans female genital mutilation. Retrieved on January 3, 2014 from
http://goo.gl/slCpYP
Walusimbi, AbdulHafiz (2012) Female Circumcision between Juridical-Religious and Medical revelations:
A Critical Analysis, Pakistan Journal of Womens Studies: Alam-e-Niswan Vol. 19, No. 1, 2012,
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World Health Organization (2013) Female Genital Mutilation. Retrieved on Nov 2, 2013 from
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76 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences


p-ISSN: 1694-2620
e-ISSN: 1694-2639
Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 76-83, IJHSS

Equipment Inventory Management System (EIMS)

Belen M. Tapado
College of Information & Communications Technology
Catanduanes State University
Virac, Catanduanes, Philippines
Email: bmtapado@gmail.com

Ma. Emmie T. Delluza


College of Information & Communications Technology
Catanduanes State University
Virac, Catanduanes, Philippines
Email: emsdell@yahoo.com

Abstract
Inventory management systems are mostly developed and implemented in production companies
wherein the raw materials used in manufacturing a product are inventoried against the number of
products developed, and the actual expenditures made until a finished product is produced.
Inventory management systems are scarcely utilized in schools since the priority is focused on
the offering of quality instruction. The paper is about the automated system for conducting
equipment inventory management for the State Universities and Colleges of the country.
Specifically, the system captures data as regards records of equipment of each employee, tracks
the history of the equipment issued for each employee, and performs automated inventory
management and generates reports as regards inventory management of the equipment. The
study made use of prototyping method in the design, development, implementation and
deployment of the system at the Catanduanes State University by which the users of the system
were involved in the course of the study which was done in from July, 2014 to May, 2015. PHP,
MySQL and Macromedia Dreamweaver were the software utilized in the development. Pilot
testing was done in the said university since the researchers are both faculty members of the said
university. Utilizing the study in the state universities and colleges in the country would result to
a simplified, organized and facilitative equipment inventory management process. This will result
to an improved productivity and effectiveness in the performance of inventory management
duties of personnel and would be an input to the decision making process of the school.

Keywords: equipment, equipment inventory, equipment inventory management, information


system

Introduction
In todays business environment, even the smaller businesses have come to rely not just with
hardware technologies but also in software systems. Automating every processes is a scheme that
is embraced in every modern organization of today. It demands employees that could perform
his duties in fast, accurate and effective way with less amount of resources wasted [1]. Business
experts often say that managing and controlling inventories is an important component in
conducting business and can be a basis for the companys top placement over their competitors.
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Excessive amount of raw materials purchased or stock outs of finished products can lead to
organizations bankruptcy [2].

Inventory management system involves tracking, monitoring, management and control of the
resources is a pattern for a total quality management in every organization [3]. Muller (2011)
categorize inventory into raw materials, finished goods and work-in process. Raw materials are
the items needed to produce finished goods, finished products are the outcomes of the
conversion of unprocessed resources to their expected outcome or deliverable; work-in-process
is the procedure of transforming the unprocessed resources to their expected outcome or
deliverable [4].

Carlson, et. all (2001) pointed out that basically, inventory management systems work by writing
down the transaction details instantaneously and re-order stocks whenever it goes a critical level.
[5]. Conrad (2016) specifies the following advantages and disadvantages of an automated
inventory management system. Its advantages are its fast and efficient document production and
a well-timed and appropriate data. Its disadvantages however ranges from dependence on
technology, issues relating to accuracy and threats of deception. Accuracy according to Conrad is
an issue since manual counting or checking of raw materials and finished products is necessary
and computerized system needs thorough security measures must be employed to the system [6].

Inventory management nowadays is no longer confided to the manual process. Computerizing


processes in the offices of today is already a mandate for every organization. In the Philippine
setting, making use of Information Technology products and application are sought-after by
government institutions. This was even mentioned as early as the year 2000 when the former
President Joseph Ejercito Estrada addressed his keynote speech on the Knowledge Economy
Conference that he would specially want to see the broader, effective, widespread and extensive
use of information and communications technology in all sectors of government specifically in
making sure that citizenry has open use of information and an immediate and the governments
effective giving out of service to the people. [7].

This was even part of the Government Information Systems Plan (GISP) since this could mean
making government services visible to the citizens. The GISP envisions that Filipino citizens in
the country and abroad as well as those from foreign lands who are willing to invest in the
Phiippines could have an open contact to Philippine government information and could easily
avail of its services GISP will not just an aid for the countrys progress but also an approach for
development, increase in income and the countrys placement in the international market. It
provides a strategic direction of the government for the next five to ten years. It will be a
government thrust to people to maximize ICT use for the welfare of the people.

Developing an information system application like the Equipment Inventory Management


System (EIMS) could be one of the ways by which this GISP would be attained. Information
about developing and utilizing a computerized system for the conduct of inventory process in
the government especially in the Philippines is very scarce. This system could somehow be an
eye opener for the government agencies to adopt this kind of information system to have a full
grasp of its benefit to the organization. EIMS is classified as one of the inventory management
software. Although the process of conducting inventory in almost all government institutions is
almost similar, however EIMS is focused on the equipment aspect only and inventory
management system is focused on the management of entire assets of the organization.

Equipment Inventory Management System (EIMS) is an automated system that was developed
by the researchers for the Catanduanes State University and can be utilized also in all state
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universities and colleges all over the Philippines. This system captures data as regards records of
equipment issued to the employees in this university, tracks the history of the equipment issued
for each employee, performs automated inventory management and generates reports as regards
inventory management of the equipment. This system was developed to facilitate the conduct of
the manual inventory process for this university by which complex and unorganized procedures.
This system was focused on the inventory management of the equipment that was delivered and
issued to some employees in this institution. This system organizes, simplifies and monitors the
conduct of inventory and recording of the devices and equipment including the issuance of
Property Accountability Report (PAR).

This has been developed using programs such PHP for the codes, MySQL for the database,
graphics software for the Graphical User Interface and run in the intranet of the university.
Prototyping was the approach utilized by the developers in developing the system. Completion,
implementation, deployment and utilization of the developed system in this university facilitated
the doing of transactions in the office particularly inventory management and improved the
productivity and effectiveness in the performance of inventory management duties of personnel
and served as an effective inputs for strategic decision making of the administration of this
university.

The need for effective control and utilization of the resources and equipment in schools and the
scarcity of inventory management systems developed and utilized for schools is a gap observed
that made the researchers embark on the development and evaluation of the effects of an
inventory system in state universities and colleges.

Statement of the Problem


The research was conducted to develop an automated equipment inventory management system
for the Catanduanes State University for school year 2014 to 2015. Specifically, this research
determined that different issues or lapses of the existing manual system of conducting equipment
inventory management system in the university, developed and implemented the system at the
university.

Research Design of the Study


This research made use of developmental method wherein observation and informal interview to
clarify some observation on the lapses, issues and difficulties meet by the employees involved in
the process of conducting equipment inventory management at the university. After gathering
the necessary information the development of the system was done, and the design of the
prototype of the system was employed by the researchers. After which that the prototype of the
system was approved by users of the system, development and implementation of the system at
the university was executed.

Significance of the Study


This study has institutional and national significance for the total quality management of state
universities and colleges of the country. Facilitative manner of effective use and control of the
utilization of public material and fiscal resources in schools in different parts of the country
would mean an additional savings on the coffers of the government.

Method of Procedure
This study is developmental in nature and made use of the prototyping approach in developing
the system. This method ensured that users were involved in the course of development. This
method was used in this approach: (a) perception on the institution needs for an information
system; (b) identification of the priority need of the institution which is the inventory
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management system; (c) meeting with the concerned individuals regarding inventory process,
observation and interviews; (d) preliminary analysis and development of the system; (e)
coordination with the inventory management people of the organization while developing the
system; (f) integrating the suggestions made by the inventory management; (g) finalizing the
system and its implementation.

The system was designed using the following technologies: a) MySQL served as a back-end of
the system; b) PHP has been employed as the front-end of the system; c) User interface has been
designed using Macromedia Dreamweaver together with Adobe Photoshop for the graphics; d)
Animation was designed using Macromedia Flash. Pilot testing were also employed at the
Catanduanes State University (CSU). The already an established Local Area Network using Start
Topology at the Catanduanes State University was used in the installation of the system. The
communication, coordination and interconnection of the departments were done using this
network. Having an established Wireless Internet Connection within the organization served as
an advantage for easier communication, coordination and interconnection of departments.

The development and design of the system made use of process models and other schematics to
visually present the design concepts of EIMS. Such schematics are the System Architecture,
Context Diagram and Data Flow Diagrams. System architecture describes the schema or
framework and contents of a computer system which may include specifications for hardware,
software and networking capabilities of the system developed [8]. Context diagram shows the
top-level view of the border or margin of the system, the interaction of the entities outside of the
system and the flow of information between these entities [9]. Data flow diagram depicts the
transfer of data between entities, processes and data stores within the system [10].

EIMS System Architecture (Figure 1) showed a two-tier level of design -the server side and the
client side. There is only one server used and that is the Application and Database Server that
will cater to the request for operation of the clients. Clients are the users of the system-
Employee(s), Department Head(s), the Vice President for Administration and Financial Affairs
(VP AFA) and Supplier.

Figure 1 and 2 shows the context diagram of CSU-EIMS. Context diagram is an initial diagram
that is constructed to show which are being employed in the system. It shows the interaction of
the users to the system as well as the flow of data from one user (entity) to the system and vice
versa. It also shows what information is provided to the system and what information is
provided from the system. It also documents who are using the system and what data will be
stored in the system. The figure shows that there are seven entities that are interacting with CSU-
EIMS. These are the Human Resources Officer, Supplier, Supply Officer, Employees,
Accountant III, Vice President for Administration and Finance and the Supervising
Administrative Officer. As could be seen from the figure there are arrows that comes from the
entities towards the system and from the system to the entity. Such arrows indicate the direction
or flow of data, files, reports and processes that are going to and from the system.
80 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

Figure 1
System Architecture of EIMS

Figure 2
System Architecture of EIMS

Findings
At the Catanduanes State University the following lapses were observed in the existing manual
system of conducting inventory: (a) Process of inventory is not simplified, excessive documents
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and long procedures are being observed; (b) Assets of the institution are not properly identified
and maintained; (c) Records of inventory are not accurate, updated and not easily obtained, and;
(d) Equipment that are unserviceable are not properly monitored.

This system does the following functions: (1) allow access to all concerned personnel (log-in and
log out) for the purposes of data entry, viewing of records, retrieval and updating of records); (2)
provide a user-friendly environment of doing inventory process through graphical user interface,
and an interactive and menu-driven operations; (3) capture details of corporate equipment and
store in a database; (3) perform an organized and defined process of identifying, capturing data
on an equipment, tracking and managing the inventory process; (5) provide a common
repository of equipment data for protection, security and reliability; and (6) produce a full range
of reports to aid in the decision making process of the organization.

The system works by having every system user logs in. Granting of access, uploading data,
viewing of information and reports, and performing operations on the system varies depending
on the access privilege set by the system administrator. The employees with account regarding
the properties issued to them could only see their individual records regarding this matter from
the system. Human Resources Management Offices role is of keying in employees data. Supply
officer could only view his work responsibilities as regards inventory process supplier could only
view his profile and the information he/she upload into the system and any other
announcements and information due him/her. The system administrator has all the rights to
access the system and change the data and information entered in it. All the data entered will be
stored in the systems database. Such manner of storing data and information in the database
would eliminate storing of separate records of the inventory process in every office. The stored
data in systems database and will be updated regularly.

The following reports were generated by the system: (a) Property Acknowledgement Receipt
(PAR) of Employees; (b) List of Equipment Issued to Employees; (c) List of Equipment by
Departments; (d) List of Equipment by Type (e.g. Purchased or Donated); (e) List of Equipment
by Category (e. g. Agricultural, Communications, Fire Fighting, IT Equipment, etc.); (f) List of
Equipment by Period (e.g. daily, monthly, yearly); (g) List of Equipment that are Under
Warranty; (h) Status of Equipment (under warranty, etc.); (i) Equipment that are Returned to the
Supply Office, and (j) Equipment that are Returned to the Suppliers

Security was employed in the system since it establishes an authentication and authorization
approach; when doing the log-in, the password will be passed in an encrypted form. Data
entered are authenticated by key persons involved in inventory procedures, access rights and
privileges are ensured for every users of the system hence viewing and modifications of records
and any information uploaded in the system are restricted depending on the users access rights
and privileges defined in the system.

Utilizing this web-based solution at the Catanduanes State University resulted to: (a) an
organized and user-friendly inventory management process of equipment; (b) fast and efficient
process of identifying corporate equipment; (c) captured details of corporate equipment and
stored in databases; (d) an effectively-managed enterprise-wide inventory of equipment; (e)
organized and defined process by which corporate equipment are identified, captured, tracked
and maintained in the inventory system; (f) easy and convenient inventory system access to all
concerned personnel (data entry, view and update); (g) a common repository of data for
equipment protection, security and reliability; (h) a full range of reports that will satisfy
informational requirements especially for managements decision making process.
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Conclusion and Implication of the Study


Based from the perceived needs of the institution and the deficiencies observed from the existing
university inventory system, the system that was developed simplifies, defines, organizes and
standardizes procedures of conducting inventory procedure in the institution. Assets
(equipment) are easily be identified, information as regards equipment and inventory process are
easily captured, tracked, maintained. Inventory data and information is easily accessible and
reports are generated by the system.

With EIMS, excessive papers and paper works, waiting time and turnaround time of the process
and long procedures of doing inventory process are minimized, procedure in doing inventory
was simplified, streamlined, become coherent and standardized. Having the data updated,
available, readily accessible and printable, this will aid in the decision making process of the
university. Lastly, equipment that are no longer serviceable and for disposal could easily reported
in the system.

It is therefore recommended that the system would be utilized by all entities in this organization.
Initially, this will incur a large cost; however as the system is being used utmost benefits over the
cost will be attained. The system however is open for suggestions and any other
recommendation from the stakeholders. Phase 2 of this system might include inventory of all the
assets and the supplies of the institution, as well as warehouse management. Inputs from such
Phase 2 would be needed for Phase 3 determining of available stocks and advice for purchase
of supplies and equipment.

References

Parnaby, J. (1991). Designing effective organizations. International Journal of Technology


Management, 6(1-2), 15-32.
Porras, E., & Dekker, R. (2008). An inventory control system for spare parts at a refinery: An empirical
comparison of different re-order point methods.European Journal of Operational
Research, 184(1), 101-132.
Salvo, J. J., Mackenzie, P. D., Bennett, J. S., Relyea, H. A., & Thomas, A. M. I. (2002). U.S. Patent No.
6,341,271. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Muller, M. (2011). Essentials of inventory management. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.
Carlson, A., Hosley, T., Boettger, B., Dennis, P., Bayley, D., Khouri, C., & Tran, C. (2001). U.S. Patent
Application No. 09/838,007.
Conrad, B. (2016), Advantages & Disadvantages of a Computerized Inventory Management System,
Hearst Newspapers, LLC, Houston Chronicle | P.O. Box 4260 Houston, Texas 772104260,
Available: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-disadvantages-computerized-inventory-
management-system-22513.html
Executive Order No. 265 - Approving and Adopting the Government Information Systems Plan (GISP)
as Framework and Guide for all Computerization Efforts in Government
Definition of System Architecture glossary-U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education
Sciences National Center for Education Statistics. Available:
http://nces.ed.gov/pubs98/tech/glossary.asp
Definition of Context Diagram, Kinzz Business Analysis Consulting (2009), Available:
http://kinzz.com/resources/articles/110-context-diagram?showall=1
Definition of Data Flow Diagram, Kinzz Business Analysis Consulting (2009), Available:
http://kinzz.com/index.php/resources/articles/116-data-flow-diagram
83 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

The Authors
Belen M. Tapado is from San Andres, Catanduanes, Philippines. She was a
graduate of Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering at the Polytechnic
University of the Philippines in 1991 and earned her Master of Science in
Management major in Public Administration at the Catanduanes State University
in 2002. She is presently a candidate for graduation for Master of Science in
Information Technology (MSIT) from the Polytechnic University of the
Philippine Open University. She is connected at the Catanduanes State University
in the Philippines and presently holding a rank of Associate Professor III. She is also designated
as Research Coordinator of the College of Information and Communications Technology at the
Catanduanes State University. She is a member of Philippine Computer Society and Philippine
Schools, Universities, and Colleges Computer Education and Systems Society (PSUCCESS),
Philippine Society of Information Technology Educators (PSITE), Philippines Association of
Researchers and Statistical Software and IAMURE Multidisciplinary Research Organization. She
is also a member of the pool of Accreditors of the Accrediting Agency of Chartered Colleges and
Universities in the Philippines, Inc. (AACCUP).

Ma. Emmie T. Delluza is from Virac, Catanduanes, Philippines. She was a


graduate of Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering at the Adamson
University in and earned her Master of Information Systems (MIS) at the
University of the Philippines-Open University, Los Banos, Laguna.
She is connected at the Catanduanes State University in the Philippines and
presently holding a rank of Assistant Professor III. She had been designated as
the Dean of the College of Information & Communications Technology from
school year 2012 until 2015. She is a member of Philippine Computer Society and Philippine
Schools, Universities, and Colleges Computer Education and Systems Society (PSUCCESS),
Philippine Society of Information Technology Educators (PSITE), Philippines Association of
Researchers and Statistical Software and IAMURE Multidisciplinary Research Organization.
84 http://aajhss.org/index.php/ijhss

International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences


p-ISSN: 1694-2620
e-ISSN: 1694-2639
Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 84-90, IJHSS

Preliminary Evaluation of Lake Lanao fish Hypseleotris


agilis Herre for Antimicrobial Activity

N. Barosa, F. Abamo and M. Kabirun


Biology Dept.
Mindanao State University,
Marawi City, Lanao del Sur,
Philippines

M. Billacura
Chemistry Dept.,
Mindanao State University,
Marawi City, Lanao del Sur,
Philippines

Abstract
The search for bioactive compounds from a variety of living organisms as alternative source of
cure is a relentless effort of man to fight various diseases. Recently, natural products from
freshwater fish have been exploited. Hence this study was conducted primarily to tap the
dominating invasive fish species Hypseleotris agilis Herre of Lake Lanao, Philippines as possible
source of indigenous drugs. The fish is locally known as Katulong belonging to the family
Eleotridae which believed to have been accidentally introduced sometime in the 1960s along
with tilapia and milkfish fry stocking in the lake for aquaculture. This preliminary study
specifically aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of the freshwater fish.
Crude methanol extract of the whole fish were assayed for antimicrobial activity using the filter
paper disc diffusion assay against one fungal strain Candida albicans, two Gram-negative bacterial
strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli and two Gram-positive strains Staphylococcus aureus
and Bacillus subtilis. As shown in the measured zones of inhibition, the fish extract significantly
inhibited the growth of S. aureus, B. subtilis, and P. aeruginosa but not the C. albicans and E. coli and.
Results indicated the potential of the fish as source of natural products with antibacterial
properties.

Keywords: Hypseleotris agilis, Eleotridae, Lake Lanao, methanol extract, antibacterial activity

Introduction
The search for new drugs as source of cure for human infirmities from various forms of life
spanning from simple bacteria to complicated organisms of kingdoms Plantae and Animalia is
never ending as long as humanity continues to survive. Fish, for instance contribute to a major
resource for natural products with bioactivity. Antimicrobial studies on fish epidermis, mucus
and gills were reported; the gills and mucus may supply antimicrobial compounds since these
parts provide mechanical protective barriers and lubricant to the fish. Mucus and different
organs, tissues and fish peptide of snakefish Channa spp. had been evaluated and positively
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demonstrated properties of pharmaceutical values (Rakers et al. 2013). In fact, wound healing
creams and ointments have already been formulated from Channa sp. (Baie & Sheikh, 2000).

Lake Lanao of Lanao del Sur, Philippines, one of the ancient Lakes in the world, is a home of
many freshwater indigenous endemic and invasive fishes. Personal interviews with the local
people and market landing surveys revealed that currently the most dominant fish in the lake is
the invasive eleotrid Hypseleotris agilis. This fish locally known as katulong is a freshwater fish
belonging to family Eleotridae first described by Herre in 1927 as endemic species of Lake
Mainit in Agusan del Norte, Philippines. The species may have been accidentally introduced to
Lake Lanao, sometime in the 1960s, along with milkfish and tilapia fry stocking in Lake Lanao
(Rosagaron, 2001). This fish are voracious predators that quickly flourished in the lake to the
detrimental extinction of the endemic species along with other environmental pressures. The
study takes this poignant invasive dominating condition of the fish into an opportune juncture
by exploiting its abundance into drug discovery. No studies have been reported to date regarding
the antimicrobial potential of the methanol extract of H. agilis, hence this study was conducted
against selected test microbes using filter paper disc diffusion assay.

Materials and Methods

Collection of fish sample and extract preparation


Freshly caught H. agilis fish samples from Lake Lanao were collected from Marawi City public
market. The body weights ranged from 23-25g and body lengths from 11-13cm (Figure 1). Five
individual fish samples (130g), were washed with distilled water (DW), cut into sections and
soaked in 100mL 90% methanol for two days. The methanol extract was then filtered and
concentrated under vacuum in a rotary evaporator at 40C and 115rpm. The crude methanol
extract was assayed for antimicrobial activities using filter paper disc diffusion method.

Figure 1. Hypseoletris agilis, Herre

Microbial cultures and inoculum preparation


One fungal strain Candida albicans, two Gram-negative bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa and
Escherichia coli and two Gram-positive strains Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were used as
test microbial organisms. All strains are clinical isolates obtained from the Department of
Biology, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Mindanao State University, Main
Campus, Marawi City, Philippines.

Nutrient broth was prepared by dissolving 1.04g of Scharlau powder in 80mL DW; 10 ml
was dispensed into test tubes and autoclaved at 121 C at 15 psi for 15 minutes. A loopful of
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each bacterial strain from agar slants was inoculated separately into broth tubes and incubated at
37C for 24 hours. For fungal subculture, Saborauds broth was prepared by dissolving 0.26g of
Saborauds broth powder in 20 ml DW; 10 ml was also dispensed into tubes and sterilized. A
loopful of fungal strain was then inoculated aseptically into the broth tubes and incubated at
37C for 48 hours.

Filter paper disc diffusion assay (FPDDA)


Agar plates were prepared by pouring 5 ml nutrient agar (Scharlau, 23 g dissolved in 1000 ml
DW then autoclaved) aseptically into sterile petri dishes and allowed to solidify to serve as the
base. Seeding of the agar plates was done following the agar top method. In preparing the sterile
top, 50 mL of melted nutrient agar was dispensed into flasks, inoculated respectively with a
loopful of test microorganism from each of the previously prepared broth tubes. Using a syringe,
3 ml of inoculated melted agar was dispensed on top of the petri plates with agar base, swirled
for even distribution of the sterile top and allowed to solidify.

Filter paper discs (6 mm) were cut using a paper puncher; discs were wrapped with
aluminum foil and sterilized. Sterile discs were then impregnated with crude methanol extract of
H. agilis, allowed to dry (as methanol evaporated) and were placed at the respective bacterial and
fungal plates. For negative control, discs were dipped in methanol then dried; and for positive
controls Amoxicillin (500 mg dissolved in 10 ml) and Nystatin (100,000 units/ml suspension)
were used for bacteria and fungi, respectively. All the tests were performed in triplicates. The
zones of inhibition were measured from all plates after incubating 12 hours for bacteria and 72
hours for fungi at 37C.

Statistical Analysis
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) both the one-way and two-way tests as well as the Tukey
Multiple Comparison test were the statistical tools used to analyze the results.

Results and Discussion


The measured zones of inhibition (Figure 2) exerted by the extract (E), positive control (+) and
negative control (-) against the test bacteria including the ANOVA and Tukeys range tests are
shown in Tables 1-3. Data revealed that the fish extract significantly inhibited the growth of
bacterial strains B. subtilis, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa but not against the bacteria E. coli and fungus
C. albicans (negative results were not shown).

Table 1 shows the zones of inhibition elicited by the treatments against B. subtilis; ANOVA
confirmed that the differences caused by the treatments were highly significant. Moreover,
C

B. subtilis S. aureus P. aeruginosa

Figure 2. Antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract (E) of H. agilis fish against B. subtilis, S. aureus, and P.
aeruginosa showing zones of inhibition; (+) positive control and (-) negative control.
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Tukeys test revealed that wider zone exerted by the extract against the bacteria was
significantly higher than the negative control; though it was significantly lower than the positive
control. Similar results were also observed in S. aureus and P. aeruginosa (Tables 2-3). Wider zones
were consistently produced by the extract, though they were statistically lower than the positive
control (Table 4). These results implied that the effects of the extract in inhibiting bacterial
growth was moderately active compared with amoxicillin which was highly active.

The 2-way ANOVA (Table 5) further confirmed that both the treatments and the test
microorganisms significantly causedBvariations, i.e. the treatments (extract and controls) have
different effects on the test organisms; and the 5 test microorganisms have different
susceptibility to the treatments, particularly to the fish extract. Table 6 compares the
susceptibility of the microbial strains against the fish extract wherein S. aureus was the most
susceptible though it was not significantly different from B. bacillus; both are Gram-positive
bacteria and were more susceptible than the Gram-positive P. aeruginosa. E. coli and C. albicans
were not affected at all by the extract.

Methanol extracts from Boal Fish Wallago attu (Sattar et al. 2006), mucus extracts from
fish Channa striatus, Indian carps and Chinese carps were reported earlier to have antibacterial
activities (Wei et al. 2010, Islam 2014). Antibacterial effects were also obtained in the present
study using eleotrid fish methanol extract. The bioactivity observed in the current study could
probably be attributed to glycoproteins, proteins and peptides present in the fish extracts as
mentioned and explained in the above studies. Antimicrobial proteins are important component
of the innate immune system which may confer microbial resistance through metal ion chelating
mechanism, enzyme inhibition or hydrolytic enzymatic action. Incidence of bacterial presence in
the fish habitat and their interaction may stimulate the fish to produce compounds with
antimicrobial activities. In the case of the negative activity of the extract against the fungi,
Malarvizhi et al. (2012) explained that fishes are rarely in contact with fungi and its mediated
infection. The rare presence of fungus in the fish habitat may account for meager antifungal
effect.

Table 1. Diameter of zones of inhibition (mm) elicited by the H. agilis methanol extract, positive
and negative controls against the B. subtilis observed 12 hours after treatment with ANOVA and
Tukeys test
Replicates

Test Bacteria Treatments R1 R2 R3 Sum Means TUKEY* ANOVA

Bacillus subtilis Positive control 35.5 29. 28.5 93.5 31.167 a


5
(amoxicillin) P-value: 0.00**

H. agilis fish 17.5 25. 21 64 21.333 b F-crit: 6.94


(extract) 5
F comp: 75.115
Negative control 0 0 0 0 -1.096E- c
15
(methanol)

*means with different letters are significantly different at 0.05


** if p-value < 0.01, it is highly significant
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Table 2. Diameter of zones of inhibition (mm) elicited by the H. agilis methanol extract,
positive and negative controls against the S. aureus observed 12 hours after treatment with
ANOVA and Tukeys test

Replicates

Test Bacteria Treatments R1 R2 R3 Sum Means TUKEY* ANOVA

Staphylococcus Positive control 35 36 32 103 34.333 a

aureus (amoxicillin) P-value: 0.00**

H. agilis fish 23 15 25 63 21.000 b F-crit: 6.94


(extract)
F-comp: 83.39
Negative control 0 0 0 0 -3.067E- c
15
(methanol)

*means with different letters are significantly different at 0.05


** if p-value < 0.01, it is highly significant

Table 3. Diameter of zones of inhibition (mm) elicited by the H. agilis methanol extract,
positive and negative controls against the S. aureus observed 12 hours after treatment with
ANOVA and Tukeys test

Replicates

Test Bacteria Treatments R1 R2 R3 Sum Means TUKEY ANOVA


*

Pseudomonas Positive control 16 20 19 55 18.333 a P-value: 0.00**


aeruginosa
(amoxicillin) F-crit: 6.94

H. agilis fish 11 11 11 33 11.000 b Fcomp: 176.846

(extract)

Negative control 0 0 0 0 -1.203E-15 c

(methanol)

*means with different letters are significantly different at 0.05


** if p-value < 0.01, it is highly significant
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Table 4. Tukeys test comparing the effects of the treatments in causing zones of inhibition

Treatments Mean Tukey

Positive control (amoxicillin) 24.067 A

H. agilis fish (extract) 10.667 B

Negative control (methanol) 0 C

*means with different letters are significantly different at 0.05

Table 5. Two-way ANOVA on the interaction between treatments and the test microorganisms
Source of Variations DF Sum of Squares Mean Square F Value Pr > F

Treatments 2 4362.711 2181.356 325.575 .000*

Test microorganisms 4 1317.589 329.397 49.164 .000*

Treatments*microorganisms 8 811.178 101.397 15.134 .000*

Error 30 201.000 6.700

Total 44 6692.478

*Significant at 0.05 level of significance

Table 6. Tukeys test comparing the susceptibility of the test microorganisms against the fish
extract
Test Microorganisms Mean Tukey*

Staphylococcus aureus 18.444 A

Bacillus subtilis 17.500 A

Pseudomonas aeruginosa 9.778 B

Escherichia coli 0 C

Candida albicans 0 C

*means with different letters are significantly different at 0.05

In this preliminary study, though the potential of the bioactive compounds in H. agilis
fish was not broad-spectrum as some test microbes in the study were not affected nevertheless
the effect of fish extract was potent enough to bring about the antibacterial activity against the
two Gram-positive test pathogens and one of the Gram-negative test bacteria hence the results
cant be readily discarded. Narrow-spectrum results were also obtained from previous works on
crude fish extracts as mentioned by Mat Jais et al. (2008) in his work with fish Channus striatus.
Other extraction procedure as well as purification of the crude methanol extract may enhance its
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antimicrobial potential. The future direction therefore of this research is towards the analysis of
possible active compounds present in the fish extract and the compound purification and
isolation responsible for the antibacterial activity.

Conclusion
By using filter paper disc diffusion assay, antimicrobial property was found exhibited by the
methanol extract of the freshwater fish H. agilis against bacterial test organisms S. aureus and B.
subtilis and P. aeruginosa but not against E. coli and fungus C. albicans. The results indicated the
potential of fish H. agilis as alternative source of natural products with antibacterial activity.
Further studies must be conducted to exploit this potential.

Literature City

Baie, S., & Sheikh, K. (2000). The wound healing properties of Channa striatus-cetrimide cream wound
contraction and glycosaminoglycan measurement, 73(1-2):15-30.
Herre, A. (1927). Gobies of the Philippines and the China Sea. Monographs of the Bureau of Sciences,
Manila. Monograph, 23, 1352.
Islam, M., Hossain, M., Islam, S., Khondoker, S., and Khatun, A. (2014). Competitive antibacterial
activity of two Indian major carps and two Chinese carps fish mucus against common pathogenic
bacteria at aquaculture pond, Int. J. Fish. Aquat. Stud., 2(2), 158-162.
Malarvizhi, R., Anandhan, V., Ganesan, T., and Muthuviveganandavel, V. (2012). Antimicrobial activity of
crude extracts of some sciaenidae fishes (vertebrata: actinopterigii; perciformes) from puducherry
(south east coast of india), Am. J. PharmTech Res., 2(4).
Mat Jais, A., Zakaria, Z., Luo, A., and Song, Y. (2008). Antifungal activity of Channa striatus (Haruan)
crude extracts. J Trop Med., 3(3): 4348.
Rakers, S., Gebert, M., and Uppalapati, S. (2013). Fish matters: the relevance of fish skin biology to
investigative dermatology. Exp Dermatol, 19, 313-324
Rosagaron, R. P. (2001). Lake Lanao: Its past and present status. p. 29-39. In: C.B. Santiago M.L. Cuvin-
Aralar and Z.U. Basioa (eds). Conservation and Ecological Management of Philippine Lakes in
Relation to Fisheries and Aquaculture, SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, Iloilo,
Philippines. 187p.
Sattar, M., Paul, D., Arafat, S., Khan, M., and Mia, M. (2006). Antibacterial Activity of Methanol Extract
of Boal Fish (Wallago attu), CMU. J, 5(3), 323.
Wei, O., Xavier, R., and Marimuthu, K. (2010). Screening of antibacterial activity of mucus Extract of
snakehead fish, Channa striatus (Bloch), 4(8), 675-81.
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International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences


p-ISSN: 1694-2620
e-ISSN: 1694-2639
Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 91-96, IJHSS

Protective and Antigenotoxic Potentials of Lantana camara


Linn. Leaves

L. Roboca1, M. Billacura2 and F. Abamo1


1
Biology Dept., 2Chemistry Dept.
Mindanao State University, Marawi City, Philippines

Abstract
Peripheral blood micronucleus assay was used to evaluate the antigenotoxic and protective
potentials of crude methanolic extract of air-dried leaves of Lantana camara (Linn.) against methyl
methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced genotoxicity in albino mice. Mice pre-treated with MMS prior
to extract treatments served as the antigenotoxic tests while those pre-treated with the extract
before MMS treatment were the protective tests. The frequencies of micronuclei in the
erythrocytes of the treated mice were scored 36 hours after the last treatment. Results
demonstrated that the extract has possessed both the protective and antigenotoxic properties
against MMS-induced genotoxicity in mice in a dose-dependent manner. The study indicated that
the plant could be a potential source of cure against genotoxic-related problems.

Keywords: Micronucleus assay, Lantana camara Linn., methyl methanesulfonate, antigenotoxicity


test, protective test

Introduction
Unknowingly, some of the natural substances in the environment are genotoxic that may bring
damage to the genetic material (DNA, RNA) in any organisms including humans which usually
leads to mutations in different cells of the body causing various problems and diseases to the
host. Mutations can cause genetic aberrations which may lead to serious abnormalities such as
cancer and birth defects, and in worst cases could be heritable (Shah, 2012). Interestingly,
micronuclei present in cells have been utilized as biomarker of genotoxity. These micronuclei
appear as small satellite nucleus surrounding the cell nucleus; these are actually chromosomes or
fragments of chromosomes which are left behind after cell division (Gentile et al. 2012 &
Heddle, 1973). Nowadays, peripheral blood micronucleus assay in mice is widely utilized in
assessing the genotoxic potential of some substances against living systems (CSGMT, 1992).

Significance of the study


Presently, researches in ethnomedicinal plants as possible source of cure for various diseases are
growing tremendously in the Philippines. Lantana camara Linn. is a well-known ethnomedicinal
weed not only in Philippines but also in many countries which can cure myriads of common
diseases including coughs and colds, pains, headaches and fever (Joy et al. 2012). This flowering
plant is ornamental which belongs to family Verbenaceae. Lantadenes, the natural compounds
present in all L. camara are probably accountable for almost all of its biological activities.
Phenolics, alkaloids and terpenoids are some of the secondary metabolites found in the plant
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which could account for some of its biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal,
anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-helminthic, antioxidant, and larvicidal activity (Kalita et al.,
1997). But to date there are no studies on the protective and antigenotoxic potentials of the
crude methanolic extract from air-dried leaves of L. camara using peripheral blood micronucleus
assay in mice. Thus, this study was conducted primarily to evaluate such potentials utilizing the
assay.

Figure 1. Lantara camara Linn.

Methodology

Extract preparation
Fresh leaves of the L. camara collected from the 4th Street of Mindanao State University campus,
Marawi City, Philippines were washed with distilled water, air-dried for 2 weeks and powderized
using an electric grinder. Powdered leaves (250g) were soaked up to 1000 ml 95% methanol for
72 hours, and the supernatant was filtered by filter paper Whatman # 1. Methanol was
evaporated to dryness using rotary evaporator at 115 rpm, 40C. The extract was dissolved in
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and diluted with distilled water just before use to prepare 250 ppm
and 500 ppm concentrations.

Treatment administration and research design


The mice were grouped into seven treatments (Table 1) with three replicates composing one
mouse per replicate. Distilled water (T1) and DMSO (2) were used as negative controls. Methyl
methanesulfonate (MMS) (Sigma Aldrich) was the mutagen used to induce mutations and DNA
damage in mice (T3, positive control). To evaluate the antimutagenic potential of the extract
against MMSinduced mutation, the mice were pre-treated with MMS 2 days prior to extract
administration at two different concentrations, 250 ppm (T4) and 500 ppm (T5). To determine
the protective potential of the extract against MMSinduced micronuclei formation, the mice
were pre-treated with the leaf extract for 3 days at two different concentrations, 250 ppm (T6)
and 500 ppm (T7), before MMS treatment. MMS was diluted with distilled water just before use
to a final dose of 50mg/kg mouse body weight during treatment. MMS, extract, DMSO and
distilled water were administered to mice once daily at 24-hour interval by oral gavage at
0.2mL/20g mouse body weight.
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Table 1. The experimental set-up and treatment administration


TREATMENTS ADMINISTRATION/DURATION
Control Tests
T1 (negative) Distilled water only, 5 days
T2 (negative) DMSO only, 5 days
T3 (positive) Distilled water, 3 days + MMS, 2 days
Antimutagenic Tests
T4 MMS, 2 days + 250 ppm extract, 3 days
T5 MMS, 2 days + 500 ppm leaf extract, 3 days
Protective Tests
T6 250 ppm leaf extract, 3 days + MMS, 2 days
T7 500 ppm leaf extract, 3 days + MMS, 2 days

Peripheral blood micronucleus assay (PBMA) using albino mice


Albino mice (Mus musculus) used in the study were 712 weeks old of either sex, with 10-30
grams body weights. PBMA outlined in CSGMT (1992) was followed in this study with minor
modifications. Peripheral blood in all treatments was collected 36 hours after the last treatment.
Blood was obtained by cutting the tails of the mice. A drop of blood was smeared into glass
slide, air-dried, fixed by dipping once in 95% methanol for two seconds then air-dried again. The
fixed blood samples were stained with Acridine Orange (Sigma Aldrich) at 0.1g/100mL dilution
by distilled water, air-dried overnight, then finally covered with cover slip ready for micronuclei
scoring. Five blood smears (slides) were prepared per replicate and 1000 erythrocytes per slide
were scored blindly for micronuclei using a Ken--vision light microscope at 1000x
magnification.

Statistical Tests
Kruskal Wallis and Tamhane tests at 1% and 5% levels of significance were the statistical tools
used to analyze the results.

Results and discussion


Micronucleated erythrocytes were observed in all treatments (Figure 2). Expectedly, the positive
control with MMS-treatment had the highest frequency of micronuclei (Figure 3) while the
negative controls had the lower scores of micronuclei. The minimal number of micronuclei
observed in the negative controls was probably due to spontaneous chromosomal aberrations in
the mice erythrocytes (CSGMT, 1995). Both the protective and antigenotoxic tests had lower
micronuclei counts than the positive control. Kruskal Wallis Test (Table 2) confirmed that the
variations of the treatment means were highly significant at p value of 0.003. Furthermore,
Tamhane Test demonstrated that the positive control having the highest score for
micronucleated erythrocytes was significantly higher than the rest of the treatments. This result
implied that the mutagen MMS used effectively induced micronuclei formation in the treated
erythrocytes.
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Figure 2. Mean frequency distribution of micronucleated erythrocytes in seven treatments

Figure 3. Photomicrograph of mice erythrocytes (1000x) showing


MMS-induced micronuclei stained with
acridine orange.

Table 2. Kruskal Wallis and Tamhane Tests on the treatment means of micronucleated
erythrocytes
Treatments R1* R2* R3* Mean Tamhane Kruskal
Test** Wallis
Test
T1 (Distillled Water) 5.4 4.6 5.4 5.133 A
T2 (DMSO) 5.6 5.2 5.8 5.533 A Chi-square
value
T3 (MMS) 44.6 46 45.0 45.2 D
22.025
T4 (MMS + 250 ppm 12.4 14.6 15.2 14.066 B
extract) p value
T5 (MMS + 500 ppm 8.4 8.2 7.6 8.066 A = 0.003***
extract)
T6 (250 ppm extract + 23.6 23.8 23.4 23.6 C
MMS)
T7 (500 ppm extract + 14.6 15.2 15.4 15.066 B
MMS)

*values of the replicates are means of the five blood smears


**means having the same letters are not significantly different at 0.05
***highly significance at p value 0.01
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For antigenotoxic evaluation of the extract, mice were pre-treated with MMS prior to extract
treatments. This test was designed to induce first the micronuclei formation in mice by MMS but
it should reverse the mutation after the treatment of the extract thus, antimutagenic (CSGMT,
1992). Indeed the results conformed to the premise; T4 and T5 yielded remarkably lower
frequencies of micronuclei (Figure 2 and Table 2), significantly lower than the positive control
T3 as confirmed by Tamhane test demonstrating the antimutagenic properties of the extract.
Somehow the treatment reversed the mutagenic effect of MMS on micronuclei formation.
Tamhane test further demonstrated that the effect of extract in reducing MMS-micronuclei
worked in dose-dependent manner, i.e. the higher the dose, the lower the number of
micronuclei. In fact the micronuclei count at higher dose of 500 ppm (T5), was not statistically
different from the negative controls.

For protective evaluation, mice were pre-treated with the extract prior to MMS treatment. This
design should inhibit or reduce the formation of micronuclei in mice erythrocytes when treated
with MMS, thus protective (CSGMT, 1992). Interestingly, the data corroborated the argument;
much lower counts of micronuclei in T6 and T7 than that of the positive control T3 were
observed (Figure 2) and the reduced counts were statistically significant by Tamhane test which
decreased as the dose was reduced (Table 2). Though the reduced counts of micronuclei were
significantly higher than the negative controls, nevertheless, the counts were lower significantly
than the positive control implying that the extract effectively reduced the ability of the MMS to
induce micronuclei formation in mice thus demonstrating its protective property.

The mutagen MMS as positive control showed the highest count of micronuclei. MMS is
commonly used in experimental research with chemicals such as catalyst for chemical synthesis
(Merck 1989; and IARC 1974 & 1999). MMS, being a monofunctional alkylating agent is known
to cause damage to DNA because it can directly interact with DNA forming O-alkylated and N-
alkylated DNA bases (Sylianco, 1998). Figure 4 shows the metabolic activation of MMS in the
formation of the alkylated DNA. If repair is not immediately carried out when alkylation occurs,
destabilization of the DNA base pair follows leading to chromosome breakage.

Figure 4. Metabolic activation of methyl methanesulfonate

Major phytochemical groups present in the L. camara Linn., which include proteins,
carbohydrates, oligosaccharides, glycosides, iridoid glycosides, phenolic compounds, phenyl
ethanoid, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, sesquiterpenoides, triterpens, tannins, quinines, and
saponins were suspected for its antimutagenic and protective potentials against MMS induced
mutagenicity in mice erythrocytes. There are several mechanisms by which chemopreventive
agents can bring about antimutagenic effects, i.e. inhibiting tumour progression, carcinogen
activation, replication and modulation of DNA metabolism and repair; promoting apoptosis and
detoxification of carcinogenic agents; or control of gene expression (Kumar et al. 2008).

In this study, the protective effect of the crude methanolic leaf extract of L. camara is probably
due to the antioxidant property of natural compounds in the extract that traps free radicals, and
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interacts with the mutagen. Related studies on garlic, curcumin and saffron conducted by Goud
et al., (1993) Oda et al. (1995) and Premkumar et al. (2004) mentioned that the antimutagens may
work by changing the activation and detoxification of the mutagens; by modulating the
metabolism of xenobiotics through absorption; or by inhibiting the functions of superactive
oxygen species. In desmutagenic manner, the antimutagens in the extract may directly interact
with MMS without affecting the DNA molecules. The bio-active compounds may inactivate the
MMS by reacting directly with the latters methyl cation. Another mode of action is possibly
through the interaction of the DNAs nucleophilic sites with the bioactive compounds present in
the extract hence the mutagen could no longer bind to these sites.

Conclusion
The study significantly illustrates that L. camara methanolic leaf extract has antimutagenic and
protective properties against the MMS-induced mutagenicity using PBMA in albino mice. The
extract worked in dose-dependent manner in which the dosage is inversely proportional to the
MMS-induction of micronuclei formation. Further studies should be conducted to exploit the
potential of L. camara Linn. as possible source of cure against genotoxic-related problems.

References
CSGMT (The Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test). (1992). Micronucleus test with
mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes by acridine orange supravital staining: The summary
report of the 5th collaborative study by CSGMT/JEMS.MMS. Mutation Research, 278, 83-89.
Gentile, N., Maas, F., Bosch, B., Peralta, L., Gorla, N., Aiassa. D. (2012). Micronucleus assay as a
biomarker of genotoxicity in the occupational exposure to agrochemicals in rural workers.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 88(6), 816-22.
Goud, V. K., Polasa, K., Krishnaswamy, K. (1993). Effect of turmeric on xenobiotic metabolizing
enzymes. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 44(1), 87-92.
Heddle, J. A. (1973). A Rapid In Vivo Test for Chromosomal Damage. Mutation Research, 18, 187-190.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). (1974). Methyl methanesulfonate. In Some
Anti-thyroid and Related Substances, Nitrofurans and Industrial Chemicals. IARC
Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, 7, 253-260.
Joy, J. M., Vamsi, S., Satish, C., Nagaveni, K. (2012). Lantana camara Linn: A REVIEW. International
Journal of Phytotherapy, 2(2), 66-73.
Kalita, S., Kumar, G., Karthik, L., Rao, K. V. B. (2012). A Review on Medicinal Properties of Lantana
camara Linn. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 5(6), 711-715.
Kumar, M. S., Maneemegalai, S. (2008). Evaluation of larvicidal effect of Lantana camara Linn. against
mosquito species Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Advances in Biological
Research, 2, 39-43.
Merck. (1989). The Merck Index, 11th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Company, Inc.
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International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences


p-ISSN: 1694-2620
e-ISSN: 1694-2639
Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 97-102, IJHSS

Does Farmer Field School Work? Assessing the Outcomes of


Madrasah Sa Basak of MSU-PhilRice in Lanao del Sur,
Philippines

Leo M. Aguanta
leaguanta@yahoo.com
Mindanao State University
Marawi City, Philippines
+639103428479

Abstract
The farmer field school (FFS) is an extension teaching method conducted in farmers field to
enhance their problem solving and decision making skills. Madrasah sa Basak (MSB), a Meranao
term for farmer field school was implemented in Lanao del Sur, Philippines. This study assessed
MSB outcomes based on rates of awareness-knowledge-adoption (AKA) sequence and its
consequences in terms of production, difference in net income of MSB barangays, food security
status among its recipients and the factors associated with its outcomes. Using a descriptive-
correlational method, this study found that the rates of Meranao rice farmers awareness,
knowledge and adoption of MSB practices were fastest when MSB disseminated rice farming
practices which were consistent to their existing practices. Additionally, they have attained
optimal production level and food security status. The MSB barangay with active presence of
farmers organization realized the highest net income. The outcomes of MSB are significantly
associated with the appropriateness of its strategies. This implies re-implementation of the MSB
program over a wider coverage in collaboration with different line agencies both government
and non-government that could provide varied infrastructure support vital to its sustainability.
Keywords: farmer field school, Madrasah sa Basak, Meranao, outcomes, rice farmers

Introduction
Farmer Field School (FFS) is a participatory training that can reach numerous farmers with
principles of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and scientifically derived knowledge and
practices (Simpson & Owens, 2002). The launching of FFS in Indonesia and its success by
training large number of farmers led to the birth of FFS movement that has spread worldwide
(Quizon, Feder, & Murgai, 2001). Gonsalves et al. (2005) described FFS as an experiential
learning. In FFS, farmers attend weekly field meetings where they learn from their experiences.
Facilitators demonstrate different practices and participants are empowered to decide
appropriate practices in their situation. Erbaugh et al. (2010) pointed out that proper method like
FFS enhances the adoption of new technologies. Rogers (2003) disclosed that technology needs
to show a relative advantage, either economically or socially, for the adoption of the new
technology. Many farmers in developing countries put greater value on social approval and less
on financial return. On the other hand, Miller and Cox (2006) revealed that the adoption of new
technology is often the key to a profitable farming operation.
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Consequently, Madrasah sa Basak (MSB) was implemented by the Mindanao State University
(MSU) and Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice). It considered the backward rice farming
situations in Lanao provinces due to poor technology transfer and the resistance to changes
among Meranaos (most dominant Muslim tribe in the Philippines). Masnar, Macabalang &
Dimalna, (2003) explained that Madrasah Sa Basak is a Meranao term for field school,
Madrasah meaning school and Basak a lowland paddy or a rice farm. It is designed to
promote rapid technology transfer, and founded on the principles of to see is to believe and
learn by doing. It is anchored on a training team selected by virtue of its involvement in
religious undertakings. The school has six work components, such as: on-farm training and take
home seed, techno-demo, weekly field meetings, weekly radio broadcast and barangay seed
production. MSB is consistent with Campbell and Barker (1997) assertion that a program should
be culture-centered of the target group.
Gallagher (2002) described the resistance of Meranao culture to extension due to lack of
participatory extension strategies and ineffective process of involvement. Likewise, Roling (1997)
revealed that participatory extension should be interactive and empowering in order to induce
change among its recipients. Cristovao and Portela (1997) emphasized the need for continual
evaluation of extension program to avoid frequent failure. Thus, this study assessed the
outcomes of MSB based on the conceptual theme emphasized by Evenson (1997) and the levels
of judging extension program by Bennett and Rockwell (1995).

Statement of the Problem


The outcomes of any extension program depend on how it fits to the needs, problems and
interests of the farmers. It depends also on how the farmers react, participate and adopt the
program based on their interest, resources, situation, and abilities. Moreover, the participation of
the researchers and outside resources is contributory. Thus, outcomes of any program are
associated with the interplay of factors. In line with this, FFS is concerned with collaboration
among researchers; availability of resources and interaction with farmers to promote adoption of
agricultural innovations. Rogers (1995) explained that awareness and knowledge are requisites of
adoption process through human interaction. This is supported by Erbaugh et al. (2010)
illustration that FFS is a participatory and interactive method in promoting awareness and
knowledge on agricultural innovations, which develop farm management and decision making
skills among farmers. Van den Berg (2004) noted that several studies on FFS evaluation were
already conducted, however, there is little consensus as to the model of evaluations. Thus, this
study is an effort to combine models of extension evaluation with emphasis on adoption of MSB
practices and its consequences.

Research Design of the Study


This study used the descriptive-correlational type of research. This study assessed the outcomes
of MSB program based on rates of awareness-knowledge-adoption (AKA) sequence and its
consequences in terms of production, difference in net income of MSB barangays, food security
status among its recipients and the factors associated with its outcomes. This assessment used
the extension evaluation model of Evenson (1997) which emphasized the awareness-knowledge-
adoption (AKA) sequence. Likewise, it used the level of judging extension program by Bennett
and Rockwell (1995) which focused on the consequences of adoption, particularly on
production, difference in net income of MSB barangays, food security status among its recipients.
The Bennett and Rockwell model is composed of different stages which will guide the program
evaluators in determining program outcomes. It is arranged with increasing order of formality,
therefore determining higher order of program outcomes become more difficult. This study
focused only on stage 5 (behavioral changes of target group) and stage 6 (consequences for
target group).
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Significance of the Study


This study has national and international significance to policy makers and extension education
practitioners regarding the nature of the MSB program and the importance of determining its
outcomes. Without evaluation, implementers could not determine whether program goals and
objectives are attained or not. Hence, evaluation sustains program implementation and guides its
implementers. Cristovao and Portela (1997) emphasized the need for continual evaluation of
extension program to avoid frequent failure. In addition, Rola, Jamias and Quizon (2002)
delineated that a program like FFS is expensive, requires great effort and time in disseminating
agricultural innovations. Nevertheless, if program recipients themselves teach others on their
experiences and acquired knowledge, then it will turn into a practical method in extension on a
large scale.

Method of Procedure
The descriptive-correlational study was used to conduct the research study in order to determine
the outcomes of MSB program in terms of farmers rates of awareness, knowledge, adoption of
MSB practices, productivity, difference in net income of MSB barangays, food security status and
the factors associated with its outcomes. The data collection instruments were designed to be
self-coding; however they were read and explained to each recipient during interview. The target
population of the study was the Meranao rice farmers in the MSB barangays of Lanao del Sur,
Philippines. A complete list of the Meranao rice farmers who were involved in the MSB program
was obtained from the Office of the Director of MSU-PhilRice in order to determine a sample
size of sixty (60) Meranao rice farmers, who were selected through systematic sampling
procedure whereby every Kth number was randomly selected from a list or set of direction (Gay
& Mills, 2006). The Mc Call (1980) table on selecting sample size at 0.05% error rate was used to
determine sample size.

Collection of Data
The data of the study are gathered using a content validated and pre tested questionnaire with
coefficient alpha=0.9498 indicating high reliability of questions used in data gathering. Prior to
the conduct of the study, the completion of the entry protocol was duly considered. The home
visit and face- to- face interview with the respondents were conducted. Farm visit was done only
in a limited extent in order not to disturb the respondents while working on their farms. The
difficulty of finding respondents during working hours led the researcher and enumerators to
conduct interview after the noon prayer as Muslims pray five times a day. Thus, knowledge of
the location of Mosque in every barangay is indeed helpful. The data collection is also facilitated
by the farmer cooperators and the relatives of enumerators residing in the barangay by helping
locate the house of the respondents and accompanying the researcher and enumerators during
the interview.

Treatment of Data
In describing the outcomes of the MSB program, percentages, frequency counts, mean and
standard deviation are used. The production in rice farming is measured using the PhilRice
Handbook (2006) and the respondents net incomes from rice farming are determined and
organized into brackets according to household distribution per person per day. The U.S.
Household Food Security/Hunger Survey Module (2000) is used to measure food security status
among Meranao rice farmers recipients of MSB program. The change in knowledge level
among Meranao rice farmers as regards MSB practices in pre and post MSB program is
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determined through t-test. The factors associated with the outcomes of MSB program are
determined using correlation analysis. The analysis of variance is utilized to examine the
difference in the net income realized among MSB barangays in Lanao del Sur, Philippines. All
tests of significance were set at 0.05% level and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social
Sciences (SPSS).

Findings
Descriptive statistics were used to determine the outcomes of the MSB program. It revealed that
the rate of awareness-knowledge-adoption of MSB practices among Meranao rice farmers
recipients was fastest for good quality seeds (GQS), followed by high yielding varieties (HYV)
and integrated pest management (IPM) with straight row planting (SRP) as the slowest. These
were aided by the take home seed component of MSB after the on-farm training which provided
good quality seeds of high yielding varieties. With the weekly field meetings at the MSB
technology demonstration center, the Meranao rice farmers become aware of the integrated pest
management and integrated nutrient management practices. On the other hand, the Meranao rice
farmers practiced direct seeding contrary to the promoted straight - row planting of the MSB
program. The slowest flow of information is on the integrated nutrient management because of
the difficulty of the split application of nitrogen fertilizer and the straight row planting due to its
incompatibility with the common practice of direct- seeding among Meranao rice farmers.
Moreover, the change in knowledge level among Meranao rice farmers as regards MSB practices
in pre and post MSB program is determined through t-test. It revealed significant difference on
the change of knowledge or comprehension level of the Meranao rice farmers in pre and post
MSB program particularly on the application of high yielding varieties (HYV), straight row
planting (SRP), and integrated nutrient management (INM). The production level of the
respondents is measured based on the PhilRice Handbook on Palay Check System (2006), which
revealed that clienteles attained optimal production level based on the prevailing land use
pattern. The Analysis of Variance was used to determine how MSB barangays differ in net
income realized from rice farming. The income of the Meranao rice farmers in a barangay with
active farmers organization was significantly higher than the other barangays. Food security is
measured using the USDA Guide (2000), findings show that more than one half (57%) of the
respondents perceived to be food insecure without hunger; while 42% of them perceived to be
food insecure with hunger (moderate). The factors associated with the outcomes of MSB
program are determined using correlation analysis. The findings show that MSB strategies such
as; integration of Islamic principles like zakat, experiential learning, the use of small group and
learner-centered curriculum are significantly associated with its outcomes.

Conclusion and Implication of the Study


The Madrasah sa Basak program of MSU-PhilRice had positive outcomes in Lanao del Sur,
Philippines. It has strengthened the comprehension of the Meranao rice-farmers recipients to use
or integrate MSB practices in their farming system. The rates of Meranao rice farmers
awareness, knowledge and adoption of MSB practices were fastest when MSB disseminated rice
farming practices which were consistent to their existing practices. This is supported by Rogers
(2003) findings that the more compatible an innovation or technology is perceived with the
farmers social values and beliefs, the higher is its adoptability. The value of the MSB program
was also evident in the attainment of optimal production level based on the prevailing land use
pattern and food security status among its clienteles. The MSB barangay with the active presence
of farmers organization realized the highest net income. The outcomes of MSB are significantly
associated with the appropriateness of its strategies such as; integration of Islamic principles like
zakat, experiential learning, the use of small group and learner-centered curriculum. This
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finding is consistent with Adekunle (2013) assertion that an extension program, which is based
on the needs of the farmers, motivates its extension workers and determines its outcomes will
increase productivity among small farmers. The findings of study propose MSB programs re-
implementation with wider coverage taking into account appropriate strategies needed to sustain
its implementation in Lanao del Sur, Philippines. For a viable extension program, the MSB calls
for integration of Islamic principles like zakat, experiential learning, the use of small group and
farmer-centered curriculum in its implementation.

References
Adekunle, O. (2013). Implement policies on agricultural extension for food sustainability-don. NON
(News Agency of Nigeria). Retrieved January 24, 2016, from:
http://www.nanngronline.com/section/agriculture/implement-policies-on-agricultural-
extension-for-food-sustainability-don
Campbell, D.A. & Barker, S.C. (1997). Selecting appropriate methods in program delivery. In B.E.
Swanson, R.P. Bentz& A.J. Sofranko (Eds.), Improving Agricultural Extension: A Reference Manual
(pp 67-72).Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome, Italy. FAO
Cristovao A., Koehnen, T. & Portela, J. (1997). Developing and Delivering Extension Programmes. In
B.E. Swanson, R.P. Bentz& A.J. Sofranko (Eds.), Improving Agricultural Extension: A Reference
Manual (pp 57-66).Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome, Italy. FAO
Department of Agriculture 2000. Guide to Measuring Household Food Security. Food and Nutrition
Service. Office of Analysis, Nutrition and Evaluation. United States. Retrieved June 10, 2007,
from: http://www.fns.usda.gov/fsec/FILES/FSGuide.pdf
Evenson, R. (1997). The Economic Contribution of Agricultural Extension to Agricultural and Rural
Development. In B.E. Swanson, R.P. Bentz& A.J. Sofranko (Eds.), Improving Agricultural
Extension: A Reference Manual (pp 27-38).Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations: Rome, Italy.FAO
Gay, L. R. & Mills, G. E. (2006). Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications (8th
ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
Masnar, A.O., Macabalang, B.S. & Dimala, A. (2003). Madrasah SaBasak: A Participatory Field School for
Meranao Rice Farmers. Mindanao Journal, The New Annual Series X(VI). 130-133.
McCall, C. (1980). Sampling and Statistic Handbook for Research in Education. National Education
Association. USA.
Miller, R., & Cox, L. (2006). Technology transfer preferences of researchers and producers in sustainable
agriculture. Journal of Extension [On- Line] 44 (3). Retrieved from
http://www.joe.org/joe/2007june/rb2p.shtml
Erbaugh, M., Donnermeyer, J., Amujal, M., & Kidoido, M, (2010) Assessing the impact of farmer field
schools participation on IPM adoption in Uganda. Journal of International Agricultural and Extension
Education, 17(3). doi: 10.5191/jiaee.2010.17301
Gallagher, T.J. (2002). Employee Participation in Decision Making in Extension: A Ladder of
Participation to Reduce Cynicism. Journal of Extension (on-line) 40 (5). Retrieved from
http://www.joe.org/joe/2002october.
Quizon, J., Feder, G., & Murgai, R. (2001). Fiscal sustainability of agricultural extension: The case of the
Farmer Field School approach. Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education, 8(1), 13-
23.
Pinoy Knowledge Bank. (2013). Palay Check System. http://www.pinoyrkb.com. Retrieved on
15.01.2013.
Rogers, E. (2003). Diffusions of Innovations (5th ed). New York, NY: Free Press.
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Rola, AC., Jamias, S. &Quizon, J. (2002). Do Farmers Field School Graduates Retain and Share what they
learn? An investigation in Iloilo, Philippines. Journal of International Agricultural and Extension
Education, 9(1) 65 76. DOI:10.5191/jiaee.2002.0918
Roling, N. (1997). Extensions Role in Sustainable Agricultural Development. In B.E. Swanson, R.P.
Bentz& A.J. Sofranko (Eds.), Improving Agricultural Extension: A Reference Manual (pp 181-
192).Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome, Italy.FAO
Simpson, B. M. & Owens, M. (2002). Farmer Field Schools and the future of agricultural extension in
Africa. Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education, 9(2), 29-36.
Van den Berg, H. (2004). IPM Farmer Field Schools: A synthesis of 25 impact evaluations. Global IPM Facility,
Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. Retrieved November 20, 2007, from:
http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/AD487E/AD48

The Author

Leo M. Aguanta was born at Governor Generoso Davao Oriental Philippines on November 10,
1979. He finished his Master of Science in agricultural extension and Bachelor of
Science in agriculture major in agricultural education in Central Mindanao
University (CMU), Musuan, Bukidnon, Philipines. He was the former College
Secretary (2010-2011) and Assistant Dean (2011-2014) of the College of
Agriculture, Mindanao State University (MSU), Marawi City. He wrote and
published 2 researches related to agricultural education and extension. He is a
member of the Philippine Association of Agriculturists (PAA) and the Philippine
Association of Extension Program Implementers (PAEPI). He is a licensed agriculturist and
licensed secondary agriculture teacher. Prior to his employment in MSU, he worked as a Para
Teacher in Sigaboy Agricultural Vocational High School at Governor Generoso, Davao Oriental
Philippines. He presented some papers in the international conference held in the Philippines
namely; ICAEM 2014: the 6th International Conference on Agribusiness Economics and
Management and the 1st Joint International Conference on Agribusiness and Cooperatives.
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International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences


p-ISSN: 1694-2620
e-ISSN: 1694-2639
Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 103-111, IJHSS

Growth and Yield Performance of the Different Varieties of


Pechay (Brassica chinensis) as Affected by the Different
Organic Fertilizers under MSU-Marawi Condition

Saanoding A. Balayo
Mindanao State University
Marawi City, Philippines
balayo2010@yahoo.com
Contact Number: +639199941975

Abstract
Most farmers traditionally use chemical or inorganic fertilizers in their farms because of its
availability in the market. However, these types of fertilizers are expensive and develop soil
acidity if continuously used. Organic fertilizers are now a promising method for sustainable
farming in which most affordable compared to synthetic fertilizers. Organic fertilizers are
produced from animal manures, crop residues, organic wastes through earthworm and other
farm by-products. These improve the physical, chemical and microbial status of the soil.
However, the use of organic fertilizers are not widely adopted by farmers due to low nutrient
composition, bulky and require more time and labor for collection, storage, transport and
application. Thus, this study aimed to determine the growth and yield performance of the
varieties of pechay treated by the different organic fertilizers. Specifically it sought to determine
and compare the effects of the different sources of organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of
the different varieties of pechay; to determine which of the different sources of organic fertilizers
gives the highest yield using the different varieties of pechay; and to determine which of the
different treatment combinations (varieties of pechay and sources of fertilizers) gives the highest
yield. The organic fertilizers used in the study were F1 (carabao manure), F2 (goat manure), and
F3 (vermicast). Twenty five (25) grams per hill as recommended rate was applied basally in each
source of organic fertilizer. The experimental design used was a 2x3 factorial experiment in a
Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The primary distinguishing feature of the RCBD
is the presence of blocks of equal size, each of which contains all the treatments. It is composed
of six (6) treatment combinations; two (2) varieties of pechay as factor A and three (3) different
organic fertilizers as factor B and replicated three (3) times. The result of the study revealed that
the highest yield was obtained in the treatment T3 (V1F3 -Black Behi x vermicast) that differed
significantly from the treatment T4 (V2F1 -Haridigma x carabao manure).

Keywords: growth, pechay, fertilizers, organic, farmers

Introduction
Intensive agriculture through the use of modern technologies and innovative schemes has been
the answer to increase food production for the growing population. However, this approach has
brought in some negative effects to human health and the environment. Hence, alternative
means have been explored to address both the need for food and environmental conservation.
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One such means is sustainable agriculture through organic farming. Advocates of sustainable
agriculture both local and abroad believe that organic agriculture is the remedy to the worlds
problem of environmental degradation (PCARRD 2008).

Organic materials when added to the soil have numerous beneficial effects, which include
increased soil fertility, balanced supply of nutrients, and build-up of organic matter (OM).
However, these effects are strongly influenced by the nature of the organic materials, their
nutrient content, and the process of the decomposition in the soil. There is a diverse array of
organic materials, which can be processed and composted for application in the farm. Most of
these are called wastes but some are by-products that can be put to good use by simple processes
or treatment. These include plant residues, animal manures, green manures, agro-industrial
wastes, and garbage. Such materials are abundant in the Philippine farms and urban areas.

PCARRD (2008) emphasized that organic materials are known to improve rhizosphere
ecosystem, suppress soil-borne phytopathogens, and promote root growth. Plants treated with
farmyard manure have been found to have better root development during the early growing
stage. It is believed that among the factors affecting the root growth, rhizosphere micro flora,
root growth regulators, and behaviour of fungi in the rhizosphere may be of particular
importance because of their high saprophytic/parasitic activities.

Purpose of the Study


The general objective of this study was to determine the growth and yield performance of the
varieties of peachy as affected by the different organic fertilizers. Specifically it sought to (a)
determine and compare the effects of the different sources of organic fertilizers on the growth
and yield of the different varieties of pechay (b) determine which of the different sources of
organic fertilizers gives the highest yield using the different varieties of pechay; and (c) determine
which of the different treatment combinations (varieties of pechay and sources of fertilizers)
gives the highest yield.

Materials and Method


Experimental Design

The experimental design used was a two-factor experiment in a Randomized Complete Block
Design (RCBD). It consisted of six (6) treatment combinations; two (2) varieties of pechay and
three (3) different sources of organic fertilizers and replicated three (3) times. The treatments
compared are as follows:

Factor A (Varieties of Pechay)


V1 (Black Behi)
V2 (Haridigma)
Factor B (Sources of Organic Fertilizers)
F1 (carabao manure)
F2 (goat manure)
F3 (vermicast)

Table 1 Treatment combinations used are shown in the following matrix:


Source of Organic Fertilizer
Pechay Variety F1 F2 F3
V1 V1F1 V1F2 V1F3
V2 V2F1 V2F2 V2F3
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The treatments are:


T1 (V1F1 -Black Behi x carabao manure)
T2 (V1F2 -Black Behi x goat manure)
T3 (V1F3 -Black Behi x vermicast)
T4 (V2F1 -Haridigma x carabao manure)
T5 (V2F2 -Haridigma x goat manure)
T6 (V2F3 -Haridigma x vermicast)

Randomization and Layout


The experimental area of 59.5 square meters was divided into three (3) blocks, which correspond
to the number of replications. Then each block measuring one meter (1m) by two meters (2m)
was divided into six (6) experimental plots for the six (6) treatments. The distance between plots
was 0.5 meter and between block was 0.5 meter. The randomization was done by drawing lots
for all the three (3) replications. The layout of the experimental area is shown below.

Block I Block II Block III

Data Gathering
Ten (10) randomly selected plants at the center of each plot were measured as data plants.
Growth parameters such as plants height in centimeter were measured from the base to the tip
of the longest leaf as well as plants leaf length. The initial and the final heights of the plants and
were measured at 23 and 45 days after emergence (DAE). In terms of yield, weight of plants in
gram was measures. Ten (10) data plants were taken at 45 days after emergence (DAE) in every
plot.

Data Analysis
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in 2 by 3 (2x3) factor-experiment in a Randomized Complete
Block Design (RCBD) was used as statistical tool in interpreting and analyzing the collected
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numerical data. Level of significance was determined at 5% and 1% levels. Significant differences
of treatment means were determined using Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT).

Results and Discussion


There are two data that were gathered from the experimental plants which are statistically
analyzed. These are plants height at 45 days after emergence and the yield per plant per hill at 45
days after emergence. The gathered raw data are presented in Tables 1 and 2 while the statistical
Tables are presented in 1a and 2a for the analysis of variance, Tables 1b and 2b for DMRT for
treatment combinations; Tables 1c and 2c for varieties and Tables 1d and 2d for fertilizers. The
treatment combinations are as follows: (V1F1 -Black Behi x carabao manure) T1, (V1F2 -Black
Behi x goat manure)T2, (V1F3 -Black Behi x vermicast) T3, ( V2F1 Haridigma x carabao manure)
T4, (V2F2 - Haridigma x goat manure) T5 and (V2F3 - Haridigma x vermicast) T6. The sources
of organic fertilizers are: F1 (carabao manure); F2 (goat manure); and F3 (vermicast). The
varieties used are V1 (Black Behi) and V2 (Haridigma).

Average Plants Height (cm) at 45 DAE


Plants heights at 45 DAE were obtained and data are shown in Table 3. It can be seen from the
table that Black Behi (V1) fertilized with vermicast (F3) shows the tallest plants with mean plant
height of 25.19 cm. The next taller plant is noted from V2 (Haridigma) fertilized with F2 (goat
manure) with mean height of 24.82 cm.

On the average, when the two pechay varieties are compared, Black Behi (V 1) is relatively
taller than Haridigma (V2) with mean values of 22.85- and 22,53-cm, respectively. Similarly, when
the effects of the three different sources of fertilizers are compared, vermicast (F3) produce the
tallest plant height, followed by plants fertilized with goat manure (F2) and the shortest plant is
seen in plants applied with carabao manure (F1) with mean values of 25.01-, 23.89- and 19.19-cm,
respectively.

Statistical analysis of the data shown in Table 3a indicates that the effects of the different
treatment combinations (T) and the different sources of fertilizers (F) show highly significant
mean plant height differences at 45 days after emergence while the interactions of the three
different sources of organic fertilizer (VxF) and varieties (V) do not reveal significant mean plant
height differences.
To compare the effects of treatment combinations (T) and fertilizers (F), DMRT were
computed and the results are shown in Tables 3b and 3c, respectively. It can be noted that T 1
(V1F1-Black Behi x carabao manure) and T4 ( V2F1-Haridigma x carabao manure) do not differ
significantly in terms of their effects on plant height at 45 DAE but they both differ significantly
from the effects of the rest of the treatment combinations, the latter also do not differ
significantly. The Black Behi (V1) fertilized with vermicast (F3) produces the tallest plant height
that differ significantly from the V1 Black Behi (V1) fertilized with carabao manure (F1). As to
the effects of different sources of organic fertilizers, carabao manure (F1) reveals the shortest
plant height at 45 DAE that differ significantly from the effects of F2 (goat manure) and
vermicast (F3), the latter produces the tallest plant.
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Table 1. Average Plants Height (cm) at 45 Days After Emergence (DAE) of the Different
Varieties of Pechay as Affected by the Different Organic Fertilizers, Replicated Three Times.
Treatment Average Plants Height (cm)
Combination R1 R2 R3 Treatment Treatment
(Organic Fertilizer) V1 Total Mean
T1 (F1) 19.28 20.57 17.94 57.79 19.26
T2 (F2) 25.09 23.85 23.40 72.34 24.11
T3 (F3) 28.25 23.60 23.71 75.56 25.19
V2
T4 (F1) 19.30 18.30 19.75 57.35 19.12
T5 (F2) 23.82 23.56 23.60 70.98 23.66
T6 (F3) 26.56 24.70 23.20 74.46 24.82
Rep. Total (R) 142.30 134.58 131.60 136.20
Grand Total (G) 408.48
Grand Mean 22.69

Table 1a. ANOVA of Table 1 (Average Plants Height (cm) at 45 Days After Emergence (DAE)
of the Different Varieties of Pechay as Affected by the Different Organic Fertilizers, Replicated
Three Times)
Source Degree Sum Mean Computed Tabular F
Of of of Square F 5% 1%
Variation Freedom Squares
Replication 2 10.165 5.083 3.233ns 4.10 7.56
Treatment 5 114.743 22.949 14.598** 3.33 5.64
Variety (V) (1) 0.467 0.467 0.297ns 4.96 10.04
Fertilizer (F) (2) 114.201 57.101 36.323** 4.10 7.56
(VxF) (2) 0.075 0.038 0.024ns 4.10 7.56
Error 10 15.716 1.572
Total 17 140.623
cv = 5.53%
** = highly significant
ns = not significant

Table 1b. DMRT Table on Treatments of Table 3 (Average Plants Height (cm) at 45 Days After
Emergence of the Different Varieties of Pechay as Affected by the Different Organic Fertilizers,
Replicated Three Times.)
Treatment Combination Mean Plants Leaf in cma DMRTb
T1 (V1F1 -Black Behi x carabao manure) 19.26 b
T2 (V1F2 -Black Behi x goat manure) 24.11 a
T3 (V1F3 -Black Behi x vermicast) 5.19 a
T4 (V2F1 -Haridigma x carabao manure) 19.12 b
T5 (V2F2 -Haridigma x goat manure) 23.66 a
T6 (V2F3 -Haridigma x vermicast) 74.46 a
a
Average of three replications
b
= Any two means having a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level of
significance.
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Table 1c. DMRT Table on Fertilizer of Table 1 (Average Plants Height (cm) at 45 Days After
Emergence (DAE) of the Different Varieties of Pechay as Affected by the Different Organic
Fertilizers, Replicated Three Times.)
Source of Fertilizer Mean Plants Leaf in cma DMRTb
F1 (carabao manure) 6.05 b
F2 (goat manure) 8.95 a
F3 (vermicast) 9.32 a
aAverage of three replications
b = any two means having a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level of significance.

Average Plants Weight in Gram per Plant per Hill at 45 DAE


The yields obtained from the experiment are shown in Table 5. As indicated in Table 5, the
highest yield is obtained from Black Behi (V1) fertilized with vermicast (F3) with mean yield of
159.93 grams per plant per hill. The next higher yield is taken from Haridigma (V2) fertilized also
by vermicast (F3) with mean yield of 107.40 grams per plant per hill. On the average, Black Behi
(V1) produces higher yield than Haridigma (V2) with mean values of 118.07- and 107.40-grams,
respectively. Similarly, the fertilizer that gives the highest yield is vermicast (F 3) while the lowest
yield is found in carabao manure (F1) with mean yields of 154.83- and 66-grams per plant
respectively. The yield obtained from plant fertilized with goat manure (F2) is 117.37 grams per
plant.

Analysis of variance as shown in Table 5a indicates that the treatment combinations (T),
varieties (V), and fertilizers (F) as sources of variation produce effects that are all highly
significantly different from each other in terms of the yield. To compare these effects, DMRT
were computed and results are presented in Table 5b, 5c, and 5d, respectively.

From Table 5b, the highest yield is found in plant treated with T3 (V1F3 -Black Behi x
vermicast) that differed significantly from the plant treated with T4 (V2F1 - Haridigma x carabao
manure). The yield obtain from the rest of the treatment combinations did not differ
significantly, namely: T1 (V1F1 -Black Behi x carabao manure), T2 (V1F2 -Black Behi x Goat
manure), T5 (V2F2 - Haridigma x goat manure) and T6 (V2F3 - Haridigma x vermicast).

Similarly, Table 5c shows no significant mean yield differences between the two pechay
varieties used in the experiment, though numerically Haridigma variety (V2) produces higher
yield than Black Behi (V2) variety.

Further, from Table 5d, it is shown that specific test using DMRT indicates no
significant fertilizer mean differences which mean that the effects of the different sources of
organic fertilizers do not statistically differ. This implies that the three sources of organic
fertilizers may produce yield at different ranks as observed in this experiment, meaning carabao
manure or goat manure may give higher yield than the vermicast.
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Table 2. Average Plants Weight (in gram per plant per hill) at 45 Days After Emergence (DAE)
of the Different Varieties of Pechay as Affected by the Different Organic Fertilizers, Replicated
Three Times
Treatment Average Plants Weight (gram)
Combination R1 R2 R3 Treatment Treatment
(Organic Fertilizer) V1 Total Mean
T1 (F1) 171.80 61 32 264.80 88.27
T2 (F2) 113.80 118.40 85.80 318 106.00
T3 (F3) 217.40 117.20 145.20 479.80 159.93
V2
T4 (F1) 37.60 44.40 49.20 131.20 43.73
T5 (F2) 106.20 136.60 143.40 386.20 128.73
T6 (F3) 160.60 135.20 151.40 447.20 149.73
Rep. Total (R) 807.40 612.80 607 675.73
Grand Total (G) 2027.20
Grand Mean 112.62

Table 2a. ANOVA of Table 2 (Average Plants Yield in Gram per Plant per Hill at 45 Days After
Emergence (DAE) of the Different Varieties of Pechay as Affected by the Different Organic
Fertilizers, Replicated Three Times).
Source of Degree of Sum of Mean Tabular F
Variation Freedom Squares Square Computed 5% 1%
F
Replication 2 6454.351 3227.176 1.582ns 4.10 7.56
Treatment 5 23909.764 4781.953 4.032* 3.33 5.64
*
Variety (V) (1) 1600.333 1600.333 0.393 4.96 10.04
Fertilizer (F) (2) 18435.524 9217.762 8.648** 4.10 7.56
(VxF) (2) 3873.907 1936.953 1.237ns 4.10 7.56
Error 10 14457.08 1445.708
Total 17 44821.191
cv = 32.87% ** = highly significant
* = significant ns = not significant

Table 2b. DMRT Table on Treatments of Table 2 (Average Plants Yield in Gram per Plant per
Hill at 45 Days After Emergence of the Different Varieties of Pechay as Affected by the
Different Organic Fertilizers, Replicated Three Times).
Treatment Mean Plants Leaf in cma DMRTb
T1 (V1F1 -Black Behi x carabao manure) 88.27 ab
T2 (V1F2 -Black Behi x goat manure) 106.00 ab
T3 (V1F3 -Black Behi x vermicast) 159.93 a
T4 (V2F1 -Haridigma x carabao manure) 43.73 b
T5 (V2F2 -Haridigma x goat manure) 128.73 ab
T6 (V2F3 -Haridigma x vermicast) 149.73 ab
aAverage of three replications
b = Any two means having a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level of significance.
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Table 2c. DMRT Table on Variety of Table 2 (Average Plants Yield in Gram per Plant per Hill
at 45 Days After Emergence of the Different Varieties of Pechay as Affected by the Different
Organic Fertilizers, Replicated Three Times.)
Treatment Mean Plants Leaf in cma DMRTb
V1 (Black Behi) 8.06 a
V2 (Haridigma) 8.14 a
aAverage of three replications
b = Any two means having a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level of significance.

Table 2d. DMRT Table on Fertilizer of Table 2 (Average Plants Yield in Gram per Plant per
Hill at 45 Days After Emergence of the Different Varieties of Pechay as Affected by the
Different Organic Fertilizers, Replicated Three Times).
Treatment Mean Plants Leaf in cma DMRTb
F1 (carabao manure) 6.05 a
F2 (goat manure) 8.95 a
F3 (vermicast) 9.32 a
aAverage of three replications
b = Any two means having a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level of significance.

Generally plants height at 45 DAE, Black Behi (V1) fertilized with vermicast (F3) shows
the tallest plants with mean plant height of 25.19 cm followed by Haridigma (V2) fertilized with
goat manure (F2) with mean height of 24.82 cm. On the average, Black Behi (V1) plant is
relatively taller than Haridigma (V2) with mean values of 22.85- and 22, 53-cm, respectively.
Vermicast (F3) produces the tallest plant height, followed by plants fertilized by goat manure (F 2)
and the shortest plant is seen in plants applied with carabao manure (F1) with mean values of
25.01-, 23.89- and 19.19-cm, respectively.
On the other hand, plants yield in gram per plant per hill at 45 DAE showed that the
highest yield is obtained from Black Behi (V1) fertilized with vermicast (F3) with mean yield of
159.93 grams per plant per hill followed by Haridigma (V2) fertilized also by vermicast (F3) with
mean yield of 149.73 grams per plant per hill. On the average, Black Behi (V 1) produces higher
yield than Haridigma (V2) with mean values of 118.07- and 107.40-grams, respectively. Similarly,
the fertilizer that gives the highest yield is vermicast (F3) while the lowest yield is found in
carabao manure (F1) with mean yields of 154.83- and 66-grams per plant. The yield obtained
from plant fertilized with goat manure (F2) is 117.37 grams per plant.

Conclusions and Recommendations


The effects of the different treatment combinations (T) and the different organic fertilizers (F)
are highly significant in terms of plant height differences at 45 days after emergence; while the
interactions of the three different sources of organic fertilizers (VxF) and varieties (V) do not
reveal significant mean plant height differences. T1 (V1F1 - Black Behi x carabao manure) and T4
( V2F1 - Haridigma x carabao manure) do not differ significantly in terms of their effects on
plant height at 45 DAE but they both differ significantly from the effects of the rest of the
treatment combinations, the latter also do not differ significantly. Black Behi (V1) variety that is
fertilized with vermicast (F3) with the treatment combination of ( V1F3 Black Behi x vermicast)
produces the tallest plant height that differ significantly from the Black Behi (V 1) fertilized with
carabao manure (F1) with the treatment combination of (V1F1 -Black Behi x carabao manure).
Carabao manure (F1) reveals the shortest plant height that differ significantly from the effects of
goat manure (F2) and vermicast (F3), the latter produces the tallest plant.
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The Treatment combinations (T), varieties (V), and fertilizers (F) as sources of variation
produce effects that are all highly significantly different from each other in terms of the yield.
The highest yield is found in plant treated with T3 (V1F3 -Black Behi x vermicast) that differs
significantly from the plant treated with T4 (V2F1 -Haridigma x carabao manure). The yield
obtained from the rest of the treatment combinations did not differ significantly, namely: T1
(V1F1 -Black Behi x carabao manure), T2 (V1F2 -Black Behi x goat manure), T5 (V2F2 - Haridigma
x goat manure) and T6 (V2F3 - Haridigma x vermicast). There is no significant fertilizer mean
difference between goat manure (F2) and vermicast (F3) but both F2 and F3 differ significantly
from carabao manure (F1). Also there is no significant mean yield difference between the two
pechay varieties used in the experiment. Thus, the study recommended that vermicast should be
used for fertilizing pechay; any of the variety of pechay used is recommended for production;
treatment combination is also recommended is (V1F3 -Black Behi x vermicast) T3; and similar
study is recommended using other vegetable crops.

References

Bautista, O. K. and R. MABESA, 1990. Vegetable Production. Published by University of the Philippines,
Los Baos, Laguna.
Cosico, W. 1976. High Profits from Organic Fertilizers Crop of Soils Countryside Banking,
May 1976.
De la Cruz, A. M. and O. K. BAUTISTA. Pechay Production in the Philippines. Published by
University of the Philippines, Los Baos, Laguna.
Golabi, M. H., T. E. Marler, E. Smith, F. CRUZ, J.H. Laurence and M.J. Denney, 2003. Use of
Compost as an Alternative to Synthetic Fertilizers for Crop Production and Agricultural
Sustainability for Island of Guam, Extension Bulletin 531, Food and Fertilizer Technology
Center. Department of Agricultural Technology, Taiwan, ROC.
Gomez, K.A. and A.A. Gomez,m1990.Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd ed. An
International Rice Research Book. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Singapore
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (2008).
The Philippines Recommends for Organic Fertilizer Production and Utilization.
Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (2008).
Sustainable Development Through Organic Agriculture.
Sangatanan, P.D. and R.L. Sangatanan (2000). Practical Guide to Organic Gardening. 1st ed.

Web Sources

http://www.edis.efas.ufl.edu.com
http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_cabbage
http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs.com
http://www.gardeningknowhow.com/composting/manures/goatmanure-fertilzer.html
http://www.goatkingdom.tripod.com/goat-manure
http://www.googlearthworms.com/vermicompost.html
http://www.morarkango.com/biotechnology/app_benefits.php

The Author
Saanoding A. Balayo was born on March 5, 1976 at Marawi City. He is a faculty
member of Mindanao State University, Marawi City, Philippines where he
finished his Master of Science in Farming System (MSFS) and Bachelor of
Science in Agricultural Engineering (BSAE). He was the College Secretary of the
College of Agriculture from August 1, 2012 to May 14, 2014 and Assistant Dean
from May 15, 2015 to present.
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International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences


p-ISSN: 1694-2620
e-ISSN: 1694-2639
Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 112-123, IJHSS

On a q-Analogue of the Non-central Whitney Numbers

Omar I. Cauntongan
Department of Natural Sciences and Mathematics
Mindanao State University-Maigo School of Arts and Trades
Maigo, Lanao del Norte 9206
Philippines
o.cauntongan@yahoo.com
o.cauntongan@gmail.com

Abstract
In this paper, a q-analogue of the noncentral Whitney numbers of both kinds are define in terms
of horizontal generating functions. Some properties such as recurrence relations, explicit
formula, generating functions, orthogonality and inverse relations are established. Matrix
decomposition of these q-analogues is presented in an explicit and non-recursive form.
Moreover, a q-analogue of the noncentral Dowling numbers and polynomials are defining and
establish some of their properties.

Keywords: Whitney numbers, noncentral

Introduction
Stirling numbers was extensively studied by several mathematicians due to its applications in
deferent field of discipline and its relatively interesting correlation properties with other branches
of mathematics. The Whitney numbers is an extension of the classical Stir- ling numbers.
Translated Whitney numbers by Belbachir and Bousbaa (2013), r-Whitney numbers by Cheon
and Jung (2012) and noncental Whitney numbers by Mangontarum et al. (2014) are few of many
extensions of the classical Whitney numbers.

On the other hand, Stirling numbers was extended into r-Stirling numbers by Broder
(1984)) noncentral Stirling numbers by Koutras (1982) and (r; )-Stirling numbers by Corcino
(2012). To unify all extensions of Stirling-type and Whitney-type numbers, Hsu and Shiue (1998)
introduced the unified generalized Stirling numbers in which all former extensions of these
numbers were just a special case. Though some extensions are equivalent by proper choice of
assignment of variables but their motivations and methodlogies in defining those numbers are
different. Hence, more extensions of Stirling-type and Whitney-type numbers are still common
interest of some mathematics researchers.
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Recently, Mangontarum et.al (2014) defined a noncentral version of Whitney numbers parallel to
the work of Koutras (1982) as follows:

In this paper, a q-analogue of the noncentral Whitney numbers of the first and second
kind in terms of horizontal generating functions are introduced. Some properties such as
recurrence relations, explicit formula, generating functions, orthogonality and inverse relations
are established. We give a matrix decomposition of these q-analogue in an explicit and non-
recursive form. Moreover, a q-analogue of the noncentral Dowling numbers and polynomials are
defined and some fundamental properties are established.

Noncentral Whitney Numbers of the First Kind


For convenience, let [t] = [t]q to denote the q-analogue of a real number t throughout this paper.
Before we can define analogues of this study, let us first state the usual definition of a q-analogue
of the falling factorial with increment n as;
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Taking the coefficients of [t-a] l yields (10).


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Noncentral Whitney Numbers of the Second Kind


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Similarly, we can show the converse using similar argument.

Matrix Representation of q-Whitney Numbers


In the paper of Pan (2012) the matrix representation of the unified generalized Stirling numbers
was defined and established a matrix decomposition of this numbers in an explicit and non-
recursive form. Parallel to this work, we will establish matrix decompositions for the q-analogue
of noncentral Whitney numbers. From (7) and (17), we have the matrix representation of the q-
analogue of noncentral Whitney numbers of the first and second kind respectively as

and
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respectively.

Remark 3.8. By orthogonality relation in (27), we have

where E is an in_nite-dimensional identity matrix. Hence,Mq m;a = InvNq m;a , where InvNq m;a
is the inverse of Nq m;a and vice versa.

Theorem 3.9. The following matrix decomposition formulas hold:


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Noncentral q-Dowling Numbers


Dowling (1973) defined a class of geometric lattices based on finite groups. This is called
Dowling numbers. Mangontarum et al. (2016) defined the noncentral and translated Dowling
numbers and established some of its properties. A q-analogue of the noncentral Dowling
numbers is introduce and obtain some combinatorial properties of it such as exponential
generating function and Dobinski-Type formula.

Definition 4.1. The noncentral q-Dowling polynomials denoted by D[n; x]q, is defined as
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References

Belbachir, H. and Bousbaa, I. E. (2013). Translated Whitney and r-Whitney


Numbers: A Combinatorial Approach, J. Integer Sequences 16 (2013) Article 13.8.6.
Benoumhani, M. (1996) On Whitney numbers of Dowling Lattices, Discrete Math.
159 (1996),13-33.
Benoumhani, M.(1997). On Some Numbers Related to the Whitney Numbers of
Dowling Lattices, Advances Appl. Math., 19 (1997), 106-116.
Broder, A.(1984). The r-Stirling numbers, Discrete Math. 49 (1984), 241-259.
Carlitz, L.(1984). q-Bernoulli numbers and Polynomials, Duke Math. J. Vol. 15
(1984),pp.987-1000.
Cheon, G.-S and Jung, J.-H. (2012). The r-Whitney Numbers of Dowling Lattices,
Discrete Math., 312 (15) (2012), 2337-2348.
Conrad, K., A q-Analogue of Mahler Expansions I, Adv of Math Vol. 14(2), 1999.
Comtet, L.( 1974). Advanced Combinatorics, D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1974.
Corcino, R.B. (1999). The (r; )-Stirling Numbers. Mindanao Forum. Vol. 14(2)
Corcino, R.B. and Barrientos, C. (2011). Some Theorems on the q-Analogue of the
Generalized Stirling Numbers. Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society 34(3),
(2011), 487-501.
Corcino, R.B., Hsu, L.C. and Tan, E.L. (2006). A q-Analogue of Generalized Stirling
Numbers. The Fibonacci Quarterly, 44, (2006), 154-167.
Corcino, R.B. and Montero, C.B. (2006). A q-Analogue of Rucinski-Voigt numbers.
ISRN Disc. Math., ARTICLE ID (592818) (2012) 18 pages.
Dowling, T. A. (1973). A Class of Geometric Lattices Based on Finite Groups, J.
Combin.Theory, Ser. B, 15, (1973), 61-86.
Hsu, L. and Shiue, P. J. (1998). A Uni_ed Approach to Generalized Stirling
Numbers, Advances in Applied Mathematics, 20 (1998), 366-384.
Gould, H.W. (1994). The q-Stirling Numbers of the First and Second Kinds. Duke
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Math. J. 28, (1994), 281-289.


Koutras, M. (1982). Non-central Stirling Numbers and Some Applications, Discrete
Math. 42 (1982), 73-89.
Mangontarum, M., Cauntongan, O. and Macodi-Ringia A. (2016). The Noncentral
Version of the Whitney Numbers: A Comprehensive Study. International Journal of Mathematics
and Mathematical Sciences
Mangontarum, M., Macodi-Ringia A. and Abdulcarim, N., The Translated Dowling
Polynomials and Numbers. International Scholarly Research Notices (2014) 8 pages.
Pan, J.( 2012). Matrix Decomposition of the Uni_ed Generalized Stirling Numbers
and Inversion of the Generalized Factorial Matrices. Journal of integer sequences. Vol. 15(2012).
pp.1-9.
Rahmani, M. (2014). Some Results on Whitney Numbers of Dowling Lattices, Arab
Journal of Mathematics Sciences Vol. 20 No.2 (2014) pp. 11-27.
Stirling, J. (1749). Methodus Di_erentialissme Tractus de Summatione et
Interpolatione Serierum In_nitarum, London, 1730. [English translation by F. Holliday with the
title\The Di_erential Method", London, 1749].

The Author
Omar Ibrahim Cauntongan born at Poblacion Munai Lanao del
Norte Philippines on April 28, 1986. He finished both B.S. and
M.S. in Mathematics at Mindanao State University-Main Campus,
Marawi City Philippines. He is currently pursuing Ph.D. in
Mathematics under DOST ASTHRD Scholarship at Mindanao
State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City
Philippines. He is a faculty member of Department of Natural
Sciences and Mathematics, Mindanao State University-Maigo
School of Arts and Trades where he taught basic mathematics,
calculus, ordinary differential equations and linear algebra. He
wrote 8 researches related to Stirling-type and Whitney-type numbers. Four of his eight
researches are under review for publication in some international peer-reviewed journals. Prof.
Cauntongan is a member of Mathematical Society of the Philippines, DOST-SEI Scholar Society
and a licensed secondary mathematics teacher. He presented some papers in national and
international conferences namely: 1st International Multidisciplinary Research Conference 2016
of the Alliance of Teachers for Innovative Education and Excellence, Inc., 2015 MSP National
Conference, 2015 MSP Cebu Research Congress and Convention and 1st In-House Research
Conference of MSU-Marawi City. Recently, he published one of his researches entitled The
Noncentral Version of the Whitney Numbers: A Comprehensive Study in which he co-
authored Prof. Mahid M. Mangontarum and Prof. Amila P. Macodi-Ringia at International
Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences (Scopus Indexed Journal).