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Engineering Fundamentals Series

Designs ofBins and Feeders

for Reliable Minerals Flow

J.W. Carson

Introduction aware of problems that can arise the appropriate type of bin and
during storage and flow of bulk feeder to establish the desired
Many bulk solids such as coal, solids: flow pattern. There are three
limestone, and fine moist ores of- No @w. A stable arch or pipe types of flow patterns that may oc-
ten flow unpredictably out of (rathole) develops within the cur in a bin: funnel flow, mass
bins, hoppers, and boreholes. solid, stopping flow. flow, and expanded flow.
Vast amounts of time and money Erratic flow. Momentary Funnel flow occurs when some
are spentwith or without suc- arches form within the solid, of the material in the bin is sta-
cesson flow promoting devices. (ratholes), partly or completely tionary while the rest is in motion.
In addition, many solids segregate empty out, and then collapse. Funnel flow bins, shown in Fig. 1,
in storage, feed erratically, flood, Flushing. Powders become are characterized by
arch, rathole, and stick to bin fluidized, aerate, and flush Low head room. A flat bottom
walls reducing the live capacity. uncontrollably through the bin or shallow hopper bin has large
This article discusses bulk sol- outlet. storage capacity with minimum
ids flow properties and provides Lack of design capacity. A large height. Unfortunately, all this
guidelines for designing storage part of the stored material re- storage capacity may not be usa-
bins, hoppers, and feeders to pro- mains stable around a rathole. ble (live).
vide reliable flow. Manual prodding, severe vibra- First-in-last-out $OW sequence.
tion, and even explosives may be The first material put into a fun-
used to restore flow. nel flow bin is the last material
Bulk Solids . Segregation. Smaller particles withdrawn because the flowing
A bulk solid is a granular mate- tend to sift through the voids be- material is concentrated in the re-
rial consisting of discrete solid tween larger particles causing ac- gion directly above the outlet.
particlessubmicron to several cumulations of fines and coarse Ratholes. Because of the flow
inches in sizethat is handIed in in various areas of the bin. channel that forms, a stable rat-
bulk form (for example, in a bin or . Product degradation. Some ma- hole develops if the material has
silo). The gas filling the voids is terials spoil, cake, or oxidize if sufficient cohesive strength.
generally insufficient to fluidize they remain in a bin too long. This Erratic BOW. Once a rathole
the material and the liquid (usu- is usually caused by a first-in- becomes partially or completely
ally water) content is assumed to Iast-out flow sequence. empty, it may collapse creating a
be less than saturation. Level control. Measuring the stable arch and erratic flow.
volume of material left in a bin is Flushing. Collapsing ratholes
difficult if a rathole develops. In cause flushing and flooding of
Types of Flow Problems one portion of the bin the level fine material.
control device may indicate the Segregation. If a bulk solid has
To design an efficient storage bin is full; in another portion it a tendency to segregate, this tend-
system, an engineer must be may indicate it is empty. ency will be accentuated as the
material is discharged from a fun-
J. W. Carson is senior vice president of nel flow bin.
Jenike & Johanson, Inc., 2 Executive Eliminating Flow Problems Funnel flow bins are suitable
Park Drive, North Billerica, MA 01862. for coarse, free flowing, nonde-
This updated article is based on a pre- All flow problems can be mini- grading solids, when segregation
sentation made at the Third interna- mized or prevented by suitable is not important.
tional Symposium on Transport and design of the bin/feeder unit. This Mass flow occurs when all the
Handling of Minerals, Oct. 1979, involves knowing the flow prop- material in a bin is in motion
Vancouver, BC. erties of the solid, then choosing whenever any is withdrawn. Char-
acteristics of mass flow bins chemical reaction occurs between component, tests need to be run at
(shown in Fig. 2) are: materials stored in a bin, solids various rates to see if the flow
. Smooth, steep hoppers. The flowability may be affected. properties are affected.
hopper walls have to be steep and Relative humidity. High rela-
smooth enough to force material tive humidity air causes the sur- Ste s to Proper Bin
flow along them. face moisture ofa hydroscopic ma- an f Feeder Design
First-in-first-out flow se- terial to increase, which may have
quence. The first material put a significant effect on its flow One of the most important con-
into a mass flow bin is the first properties. siderations in the design of a bin
material withdrawn, thus elimin- Time at rest. During the time and feeder is the cost of capital
ating problems with product deg- that a material remains at rest in a equipment, operations, and main-
radation. bin it may compact, making it tenance. The designer needs to
Deaeration of fine powders. more difficult to remove from the find the least expensive means of
This eliminates the problems of bin. obtaining reliable material flow.
flooding and flushing with fine . Strain rate. Most bulk solids Table 1 shows an overall proce-
powders. are not strain rate sensitive. How- dure to use with detailed descrip-
A minimum of segregation ever, if the solid contains a viscous tions given below.
problems. As material is with-
drawn it is pulled from the side Table 1A Procedure to Design Bins and Feeders
walls and the center of the bin re-
sulting in the same distribution of Is segregation important? yes
fines and coarse exiting the bin as
was charged into it.
Uniformfeed of constant density Will the material degrade with extended
matetial. Because all the material storage time?

undergoes the same amount of

compaction as it flows through
IS the fines level greater than 100/. through
the hopper, its bulk density and a 150 pm (100 mesh) screen? yes _ IS accurate feed rate
control important? yes
rate of flow at the outlet are
nearly constant. no ,<
no I
Mass flow bins are suitable for
cohesive solids, for solids that de-
Try the, Funnel Flow Bin Design Procedure.
grade with time, and when segre-
gation needs to be minimized. $
Is the required feeder size reasonable
Expanded flow combines some for your flow rate? yes You likely have the least costly bin design
for this material.
of the solids flow advantages of
mass flow and the economics of no
funnel flow. A mass flow hopper
is used at the bottom to expand the
flow channel sufficiently to over- 1
At an effective head of 3 m (10 ft), is the critical
come any ratholing tendencies in rathole greater than 3 m (10 ft)? yes

the upper funnel flow section.

Figure 3 shows some expanded no

flow bins. i
WIII moderate segregation
cause process problems? yes
Variables Affecting
Solids Flowability no

It is necessary to know the flow Can the b!n level be lowered
properties of the solid before de- periodically to ensure
movement of all material? yes , Use the Expanded Flow Bin
signing a bin. In some cases, these Design Procedure. This will likely
properties can be estimated; in give the least costly bin design.
others it is necessary to measure
them. Whichever method is used,
it is essential that the conditions no

existing in the bin, feeder, or 1

other process equipment be du- Use Mass Flow Bin Design
plicated. These include: Procedure as this is the
pressure. The only type of bin for this material.
magnitude of stress exerted by I
one particle on another usually IS the outiet large enough
provide the maximum

has a significant impact on the required discharge rate? no Enlarge the outlet
(see Maximum Rate of or use an air
bulk solids flow properties. Controlled Discharge) permeation system.
Moisture content. Solids are
generally least flowable when
their moisture content is in the J
range of 70-9070 of saturation. Is the lowest speed of the selected
feeder reasonable for the flow
Temperature. Many solids, es-
rate required ? yes You likely h
best bin des
pecially those with low softening no (See Feedel
points, are affected by absolute Repeat th+e design procedure using the continuous flow properties of the material with an
temperature or temperature vari- overpressure factor of at least 25% (aaa Effect of Overpressures). Uae flow aids to dislodge material
after time of storage at rest (sse Flow Aid Devices). This will allow the use of a smaller feeder thus
ations. increasing the feeder speed (SW also Feeder Design).
. Chemical composition. If a


DF enough
iwl- for

Fig. 1Examples of funnel flow bins.

Funnel Flow Bin flow bin is used for the upper sec- less steep than that of a cone
Design Procedure tion. The size of the bottom of this Theta-C and still provide mass
section must be greater than the flow.
In funnel-flow design, it is nec- critical rathole diameter DF. A
essary to determine only the out- mass flow hopper then is de- Often, both continuous flow and
let size needed to prevent arching signed beginning at the bottom of time friction tests are run. If the
and ratholing. the funnel flow section using the solid adheres to the wall with
To prevent a stable arch from mass flow characteristics of the time, the tests will indicate an in-
forming with a slotted outlet, its material. See the following Mass crease in friction angle that re-
width must be at least equal to the Flow Bin Design Procedure. quires steeper slopes, considera-
minimum outlet width BF deter- tion of another wall material, or
mined from tests and its length at use of flow aid devices to initiate
least three times the width. The flow.
minimum diameter of a circular Mass Flow Bin
outlet is set from ratholingnot Design Procedure
archingconsiderations (Fig. 1). Effect of Overpressures
In a funnel flow bin the solid is The first step is to determine
held up at the walls and, if it does the minimum outlet size needed to Overpressures due to vibration,
not arch, flows within a circular prevent a stable arch from form- impact during charging into the
channel whose diameter is about ing. This dimension, expressed as bin, external loading, and fluid
equal to the effective diameter of either the diameter of a circular (gas) flow loading can have a pro-
the circular outlet or length of the outlet BC or the width of a rectan- found effect on material flow
slotted outlet. If this flow channel gular or oval outlet BP, can also be properties. The magnitude of this
is less than the critical rathole di- determined from tests (Fig. 2). effect can be estimated from tests.
ameter DF, a stable rathole is When considering the effect of
likely to form. Then the live capac- The minimum width BP is usu-
ally about half the minimum diam- overpressure that acts on a solid
ity of the bin will be essentially during time of storage at rest, it is
only that material that is in the eter BC. The length L of a slot or
oval should be at least three times not necessary that the overpres-
flow channel above the outlet. sure act continuously. The critical
The critical rathole diameter its width,
outlet dimensions will be essen-
DF is a function of the consolidat- The next step is to determine tially the same even if the over-
ing pressure that acts on the solid the hopper slope and wall mate- pressure acts only for a short time.
in the bin and can be determined rial. The recommended hopper
from tests. slope angles are calculated from
friction tests using the bulk solid Maximum Rate of
Expanded Flow Bin on samples of hopper wall mate- Controlled Discharge
Design Procedure rial. As a rule, the side wall of a
transition hopper can have a slope If the solid is coarse, say 100%
As described earlier, a funnel angle Theta-P approximately 11 +2.36 mm (+8 mesh), and free
ity of * 1 to 2% provided the criti-
cal flow rate described above is
not exceeded. Often, weigh feed-
ers are not needed unless a closer
tolerance is required.

Flow Aid Devices

Flow aid devices such as air
blasters, vibrators, vibrating dis-
chargers, etc. can be used to assist
material flow. Care must be taken
in determining the proper size,
position, and number of such de-
vices. An overpressure maybe ap-
plied to the material, thereby
compacting it and possibly stop-
ping flow.

Calcine Dust
Feeding a dry ground iron or
calcine dust with 80q0 45 Km
(-325 mesh) at ,54t/h (60 stph) and
71C (16WF) can be a problem. At
Falconbridge Nickel Mines re-
Fig. 2The transition hopper (left) and the conical hopper (right) are examples of
finery in Ontario, the first incli-
mass flow bins.
nation was to use a pneumatic sys-
tem for handling such a fine
flowing, this rate is about as cross-section of the outlet if mass material. But this was not feasible
follows: flow 1s to be achieved. This is es- because of the high capacity re-
pecially important when feeding quired, and because immediately
Q = A Y<Bg/[2 (1 + m) tanO] fine powders from long slotted from storage the dust was to be
where Q = solids flow rate (Ibs outlets. Typical commercial feed- mixed with water in preparation
per see); A = cross sectional area ers tends to draw material either for balling. Another possibility
of outlet (sq. ft); y = bulk density from the back or the front of the was use of a rotary airlock or star
(lbs per cu ft); o = hopper slope an- slot, which results in a high veloc- valve. At the rate of 54 t/h (60 stph),
gle measured from vertical ~); B = ity channel. The powder may re- however, the cost would be pro-
diameter or width of outlet (ft); g = main fluidized within this chan- hibitive and uniformity of feed
acceleration due to gravity (32 nel and flush on exiting the bin. rate questionable. A screw feeder
ft/sec/see); m = 1 for conical hop- The feeder capacity must in- also was considered, but not used
per; and m = O for slotted outlet crease in the direction of draw. because of concern about extreme
hopper. With screws, this is accomplished wear and maintenance problems
Predicting the maximum con- by using a variable pitch, tapered at the required high tonnages. A
trolled discharge rate of fine sol- shaft, or combination of the two. belt feeder appeared to be the
ids is more complicated because Because of fabrication tolerances best and most economical solu-
their rate is critically affected by the ratio of the length under the tion.
the amount of air (or gas) en- bin outlet to screw diameter It was recognized that mass
trained in the solid and by air should be limited to about 6 to 1. flow is essential in preventing
pressure gradients, particularly Tapered flight screws are usually formation of stable ratholes and
near the outlet. If the amount of not compatible with mass flow. the accompanying problems of
entrained air is large, the solid Hanger bearings should only be flushing such a fine material. A
may be fluidized and flow used in a conveying section when similar condition also could occur
uncontrollably. If the powder is the screw loading is 35% or less. in mass flow bins when the criti-
deaerated, the flow rate is much A similar design consideration cal gravity flow rate is exceeded
smaller. should be used for belt or apron or when the interface between the
Estimates of this critical flow feeders. The interface between hopper and belt is not designed
rate can be made from permeabil- the bin and feeder should be ta- correctly.
ity and compressibility tests. This pered in the feed direction with This problem was overcome
flow rate can be exceeded with all dimensions increasing at least through proper taper of the inter-
the use of an air permeation sys- a quarter of an inch per foot. face to provide increasing capac-
tem. Flat belts are acceptable for ity in the feed direction. Two
weigh feeder applications; other- 0.76 m (2.5 ft) wide belt feeders
wise, troughing idlers should be were used. The width of each hop-
Feeder Design used to minimize belt wear and per slot was varied from 229 mm (9
power requirements. in.) at the back to about 254 mm (10
The design of the feeder is as im- A properly designed mass flow in.) at the front over a length of 5.5
portant as that of the bin. It must bin and volumetric feeder should m (18 ft).
draw uniformly through the entire be capable ofa feed rate uniform- Air was injected at several pre-

Fig. 3Examples of expanded flow bins

determined levels by a special air c The air pressure in the pores trough angle belt. Since the belt
permeation system to achieve the of the shale-discharging on~o the needs to be reversible, the chutes
desired flow rate. Short term belt feeder must be close to ambi- must have pivoted skirts to permit
rates as high as 82 t/h (80 stph) have ent air pressure. If pore pressure each outlet to discharge about the
been achieved without dusting. is too high, shale will flush same layer of material on the belt.
The initial design called for seal- uncontrollably and flood the belt; Calculations indicate that an ex-
ing skirts on the belt to contain if it is too low, flow will be inter- cess of air is likely to be entrained
any possible dusting or flushing mittent with arching followed by into the borehole. That excess will
but these have been unnecessary. flushing and flooding. be evacuated at the free surface of
A good volumetric feed controlled c The outlet area must be large the hopper by keeping the air
by belt speed is maintained as enough to ensure unobstructed pressure at the top of the hopper
long as the calcine level in the bin flow at the specified rate. lower than the pore pressure of
is kept above the converging hop- The chute and skirt design at the shale issuing from the bore-
per section. The bed of dust on the the outlets must ensure fully live hole (estimated at 80 kpa, or 11.6
belt comes out consistently com- outlets. psia).
pacted. c In addition to ensuring con-
trolled flow under continuous Agricultural Lime
flow conditions, it is necessary to
Retorted Oil Shale provide for start-up during filling Problems were experienced at
The Cleveland Cliffs Iron Co., of the borehole and for restarting Brookville Manufacturings Saint
under contract with the US Bu- after a flow stoppage. John, New Brunswick plant in
reau of Mines, has been devel- A proposed design that incorpo- feeding agricultural lime from a
oping the concept of borehole rates these considerations would 218 t (240 st) Ioadout bin. Attempts
transport of retorted oil shale for have a borehole with a diameter of were made to aerate the material
backfilling. Retorted shale is to 3 m (10 ft) at the top 30-61 m and feed it directly onto a weigh
flow down a 610 m (2,000 ft) deep (100-200 ft) and a diameter of2.4 m belt, but this resulted in surging
borehole and onto a belt feeder at (8 ft) for the remainder. Aeration and erratic flow.
a rate of up to 2.7 kt/h (3,000 stph). rings would be placed at 152 m (500 These problems were solved by
Although this design 1s concep- ft) intervals of the borehole, first determining the flow prop-
tual, it does illustrate some con- closer in permeable rock, to main- erties of the lime in the labora-
siderations that must be given to tain or restore borehole air pres- tory, then redesigning the bin for
facilities of this type. They in- sure during and after shutdown, mass flow using two screw feed-
clude: thus allowing easy restart. ers.
The flow of shale in the re- The borehole would discharge The particle size is much larger
gions of the hopper above the out- into a hopper. The shale would than that of the materials dis-
let must be steady, meaning the flow down the mass flow hopper cussed previously. Typically 100VO
hopper must be designed for mass into two 0.9 m (3 ft) diameter out- passed 2 mm (10 mesh) and ls-zo~.
flow. lets that feed onto a 1.8 m (6 R), 37 passed 75 Km (200 mesh). However,
for the maximum design rate of References
72.5 t/h (80 stph) through each of Testing and Analysis:
Mining Regs. . .
two outlets, it was necessary to Jenike, A. W., 1964, Storage and Flow of Solids, Bulle-
tin 123, Engineering Experiment Station, University of
(Continued from page 212)
add an air permeation system to Utah. Nov.
achieve a reliable flow rate. At Johanson, J. R., 1978, Know Your MaterialHow to
claims. State law requirements for
Predict and Use the Properties of Bulk Solids, Chemical county filings can easily be fulfilled
the lower level, the maximum air Engineering, Ott 30, pp. 9-17. and the claims lost for failure to fulfill
flow rate is set at 0.03 m3/min (1 Bin and Feeder Design: the federal requirements in FLPMA
cfm) and the maximum pressure at Carson, J. W., and Marinelli, J. A., 1981, Establishing for county filings on the calendar year
4.8 kPa (0.7 psig). At the upper Reliable Coal Flow ]n Power Plants, Power Engineer-
ing, Nov. pp. 90-93.
level, the corresponding maxi- Jenike, A. W., 1964, Why Bins Dont Flow, Mechanical
For example, take a case where the
mum values are 0.08 m3/min (3 cfm) Engineering, Vol. S6, No. 5, May, pp. 40-43. claims are located in Nevada or Wyom-
and 10.3 kPa (1.5 psig), respec- Jenike, A. W., and Carson, J. W., 1975, Feeding Solids ing where state law calls for the filing
with Mass-Flow Btns, Chemical Engineering
Vol. 71, No. 2, Feb., pp. 69-70.
of evidence of assessment work within
This modified bin has been Johanson, J. R., 1969, Feeding, Chemical Engineer-
60 days of work completion. Annual la-
;rlg, Ott 13, pp. 75-83. bor was performed in July 1981for the
operating since March 1976. At no Johanson, J. R., 1978, Design for Flexibility in Storage 1980-81 assessment year and in Oct.
time has the material flow to ei- and Reclai m, Chemical Engfneer!ng, Oct. 30, pp. 19-26.
1981 for the 1981-82assessment year.
ther outlet been obstructed due to Case Histor!es: The assessment affidavit for the Octo-
arching of material within the bin. Bruff, W., and Jenike, A. W., 1967-68, A Silo for Ground ber work was filed with the county no
Similarly, the problem of uncon- Anthracite, Powder Technology, Vol. 1, pp. 252-256. later than Dec. 1981according to state
trolled flow followed by flooding Laszlo, L. G., Williams, L., and Carson, J. W., 1977,
Brookville Solves Fine Limestone Feed Problem, Pro-
law, but the earlier filing with the
and flushing of the material also ceedings, Powder and Bulk Solids Conference, BLM for the July work met BLM re-
has been solved. This has not only
Philadelphia, May.
quirements for 1981 so filing for the
Moaveni, M., and Carson, J. W., 1980,Solving Coal Flow
eliminated a major headache for Problems at Detroit Edison Company, Pr?ceed!ngs.
October work was not made with the
Coal Handllng and Storage Symposium, Ch[cago. BLM until Jan. 1982.
plant managementloss of mate- Reed, G. B., and Johanson, J. R., 1973, Feeding Calcine In this case the claim became void
rial during flooding-but it has Dust with a Belt Feeder at Falconbndge, ASMEJoumal
on Dec. 30, 1982because the proof ofla-
;~-;;~neering for Industry, Vol. 95, No. 1, Feb., pp.
done away with the need for addi- bor for the October work was filed
tional plant personnel to continu- Turco, M., Gaffney, C., and Johanson, J., 1979, Feeding with the county in 1981 and with the
ously monitor the air system and Dry Fly Ash Without Flooding and Flushing, Proceed-
ings, Powder and Bulk Solids Conference, Philadelphia,
BLM in 1982. The FLPMA requires
bin operation. Service and main- May. filing the same document with the
tenance are simple and, to date, Underground Disposal of Retorted Oil Shale for the county in 1982that was filed with the
the only mechanical problem has
Paraho Retorting Process, 1978, Cleveland-Cliffs
Co. USBM Contract J0265052, Appendix E, May.
BLM that year. Unless the same proof
been a bearing failure in a screw Womack, W., Tufts, W., and Carson, J. W., 197S, Feed-
of labor for the October work that was
ing Coal Into a Pulverizer at Monsantos Soda Springs filed in Dec. 1981was filed again with
conveyor speed reducer.~ Plant, Proceedings, Powder and Bulk Solids Confer-
the county in 1982,the claim becomes
ence, Chicago, May.
void by automatic operation of federal
Two-Phase Flow:
law on Dec. 30, 1982(assuming a notice
Johanson, J. R., 1979, Two-Phase Flow Effects in Solids
GLOSSARY Processing and Handllng, Chem!cal Engineering, Jan. of intent to hold or an assessment
Archinga no-flow condition in which mate-
1, pp. 77-86. affadavit for the next assessment
rial forms a stable arch (dome, bridge) Vibration in Bins:
years work was not filed in 1982with
across the bin. Johanson, J. R., and Carson, J. W., 1977, Vibrations
both the county and the BLM in addi-
Caused by Solids Flow in Storage Bins, Proceedings, tion to proof of labor).
Bincontainer for bulk solids with one or International
Powder and Bulk Solids Conference,
Furthermore, the consequence of
more outlets for withdrawal of solids either
Wei, M. L., and Johanson, J. R., 1974, Elimination of Vi-
failing to meet a state mining law
by gravity alone or by flow-promoting de-
bration in an Ore Unloading Bin, ASMEJourna/of Engi- deadline for filing an annual proof of
vices which assist gravity. neering for Industry, Vol. 96, No. 3, Aug. Pp. 761-766.
labor does not involve cancellation of
Bunkersame as bin, often used in refer- Irrsens: possessory rights. Such a failure, when
ence to storing coal. Johanson, J. R:, and Kleysteuber, W. K:, 1966, FlowCor- contested, merely involves a shifting
Cylindervertical part of a bin.
recttve Inserts In Bins, Chemical
Vol. 62, No. 11, pp. 79-83.
Engineering Progress,
of the burden of proof. Instead of the
Johanson, J. R., 1966, The Use of Flow-Corrective in-
junior locator having to prove that the
Dischargerdevice used to enhance mate- serts in Bins, ASME Journal of Engineering for lndus- senior locator did not do his assess-
fry, Vol. S8, No. 2, May, pp. 224-230.
rial flow from a bin but which is not capa- ment work, then the senior locator
ble of controlling the rate of withdrawal. Johanson, J. R., 1982, Controlling Flow Patterns in Bins
by Use of an Inseti, Bulk Solids Handling, Vol. 2, No. 3,
must prove that he did do his assess-
Expanded flowflow pattern which is a Sept., pp. 495-49S. ment work.
combination of mass flow and funnel flow. Segregation and Blending: Thus reliance on inadequate recor-
Johanson, J. R., 1970, In Bin Blending, Chemical Engi- dation regulations may jeopardize the
Feederdevice for controlling the rate of
neering Progress, Vol 66, No. 6, June, pp. 5C-55. claims of small prospectors and min-
withdrawal of bulk solid from a bin.
Johanson, J. R., 1976, Particle Segregation and What ers as well as large corporations. And
Flooding & flushingcondition where an To Do About It, Chemlca/ Engineering, May S, pp.
183-16a. according to Hoelscher, experience
aerated bulk solid behaves like a fluid and indicates that the state BLM office ei-
flows uncontrollably through an outlet or Bin Loads:
ther may not understand the problem
feeder. Jenike, A. W., Johanson, J. R., and Carson, J. W., 1973,
Bin LoadsPart 2: Concepts, ASME Journal of Engi-
or may refuse to touch it. This policy
Flow channel-apace in a bin through which neering for Industry, Vol. 95, No. 1, Feb., pp. 1-5. denies the claimant the courtesy and
a bulk solid is actually flowing during Jenike, A. W., Johanson, J. R., and Carson, J. W., 1973, benefit of a cancellation letter.
Bin Loads-Part 3: Mass-Flow Bins, ASME Jourrra/ of Hoelscher goes on to say there are
withdrawal, Engineering for Industry, Vol. 95, No. 1, Feb., pp. 6-12.
Funnel flowflow pattern in which solid Jenike, A. W., Johanson, J. R., and Carson, J. W., 1973,
two ways to solve the problem. One is
flows in a channel formed within stagnant
Bin Load~PatI 4: Funnel-Flow Bins, ASME Journal for FLPMA to be amended to require
;j-~~neer(ng for Industry, Vol. 95, No. 1, Feb., PP. recordation of evidence of assessment
Jenike, A. W., 1980, Effect of Solids Flow Properfiesand
work or a notice of intention to hold for
Hopperconverging part of a bin. Hopper Configuration on Silo Loads, ASME Unit and each assessment year instead of dur-
Bu/k Materia/s Handling, pp. 97-106.
Maas flowflow pattern in which all the ing each calendar year. The second al-
solid in a bin isin motion whenever any of it Other Topics: ternative is to retain the calendar year
is withdrawn. Johanson, J. R., 1965, Method of Calculating Rate of for federal recordation but eliminate
Discharge from Hoppers and Bins, Trans. SME-A/ME,
Vol. 232, Mar., pp. 69-80.
use of assessment affidavits, requir-
Pipinga no-flow condition in which mate-
ing calendar year recordation of only
rial forms a stable vertical hole within the Johanson, J. R., 1971-72, Modeling Flow of Bulk Sol-
ids, Powder Technology, Vol. 5, pp. 93-99. notices of intention to hold. There are
Johanson, J. R.. and Royal, T. A.! 1962, Measurin and a number of other problems with the
Ratholingsame as piping. Use of Water PropeRiesfor Predicting Life of Bulk k ata-
rials Handling Equipment, Bu/k Solids Handling, Vol. 2,
revised regulations that are outlined
Sil*same as bin. No. 3, Sept., pp. 517-523. in Hoelschers paper.