Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

Republic of the Philippines

GILLESANIA Engineering Review and Training Center


Cebu

BOARD OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

HYDRAULICS & GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING SET A


Saturday, November 4, 2017 Module 8

INSTRUCTION: Select the correct answer for each of the following questions. Mark only one answer for each item by shading the box corresponding to the letter
of your choice on the answer sheet provided. STRICTLY NO ERASURES ALLOWED. Use pencil no. 2 only. NOTE: WHENEVER YOU CAN ENCOUNTER A
CARET (^) SIGN, IT MEANS EXPONENTIATION

1. Evaluate the plastic settlement, in meters, in a layer of plastic clay 4. A pile of 0.4 m diameter and length of 10 m is embedded in a deposit
due to an increase of pressure caused by loads above it under the of clay. The undrained strength parameters of the clay are cohesion
following conditions: = 52 kPa and the angle of internal friction is 0. The skin friction
capacity, in kN, of the pile for an adhesion factor of 0.62, is:
Initial intergranular pressure = 200 kPa A. 405 C. 362
Increase in intergranular pressure = 150 kPa B. 385 D. 423
Thickness of the clay layer = 12 m
Coefficient of consolidation = 0.315 4
Void Ratio of the Clay = 1.5
D 0.4m Lp 10m cu 52kPa 0.62
A. 0.324 C. 0.409
B. 0.381 D. 0.367 Qf cu ( D) Lp 405.14 kN

1
5. Archimedes, when asked by King JGo if the new crown was pure gold
p o 200 kPa p 150 kPa (SG = 19.3), found the crown weight in air to be 11.8 N and in water
to be 10.9 N. What is the specific gravity of the crown?
H 12m Cc 0.315 eo 1.5
A. 13.11 C. 15.4
B. 19.3 D. 16.7
p f p o p 350 kPa
5
Cc pf Given Wa 11.8N Ww 10.9N
H H log 0.367 m
1 eo po Solution

BF Wa Ww 0.9 N
2. In a hydroelectric power plant, 100 m/s of water flows from an
elevation of 120 m to a turbine, where electric power is generated. Wa = SGc w Vc BF = w Vc
The total irreversible head loss in the piping system from point
(excluding the turbine unit) is determined to be 35 m. If the overall
Ww = BF SGc 1
efficiency of the turbinegenerator is 80 percent, estimate the
electric power output in Megawatts. Ww
A. 72.6 C. 62.4 SGc 1 13.111
BF
B. 83.4 D. 66.7

2 6. A 50-ton, 6-m-diameter hemispherical dome on a level surface is


3 filled with water, as shown in Figure HYD 10.21. Someone claims
m that he can lift this dome by making use of Pascals law by attaching
Q 100 Z 120 m HL 35m Eff 80% a long tube to the top and filling it with water. Obtain the required
s
height of water (in meters) in the tube to lift the dome. Disregard
kN the weight of the tube and the water in it.
HE Z HL 85 m w 9.81 A. 0.524 C. 0.768
3
m B. 2.124 D. 1.236
Pin Q w HE 83.385 MW

Po Pin Eff 66.708 MW

3. A vacuum gage connected to a tank reads 35 kPa at a location where


the barometric reading is 755 mmHg. Determine the absolute
pressure in the tank. Take Hg = 13,590 kg/m.
A. 76.35 C. 65.62
B. 135.62 D. 118.35

3
kg
pg 35 kPa h m 755 mm m 13590
3
m
pabs pg m g h m 65.621 kPa

Figure HYD 10.21


6 kN
kN sw 10.06 p atm 101.325 kPa
M 50tonne D 6m w 9.81 m3
3
m

W M g 490.332 kN r 0.5 D 3 m p 1 ( h ) sw h p atm V1 1

p 2 patm V2 8
2 2 3
W = w r ( r h) r
3
p 1 V1 = p 2 V2
r3 w
W
3 sw h patm V1 = p2 V2
h 0.768 m
r2 w
V2 p 2 V1 p atm
h 70.504 m
V1 sw
7. A contractor has compacted the base course for a new road and
found that the mean value of the test samples shows w = 20.5%, G s
= 2.81, and = 18.2 kN/m3. The specifications require that e 0.80. 10. The normal and shearing stresses at failure plane in a triaxial test of
Has the contractor complied with the specifications? a normally consolidated clay are f = 78 kPa and f = 52 kPa.
A. yes C. maybe Determine the major principal stress in kPa.
B. no D. it depends A. 175.2 C. 196.3
B. 163.2 D. 154.9
7
kN 10
MC 20.5% G 2.81 m 18.2
3
m f 52kPa f 78kPa
kN
w 9.81
m3 f
atan 33.69 deg
f
G G MC 45deg 2 61.845 deg
m = w
1 e1
R f sec ( ) 62.496 kPa
w ( G G MC)
e1 1 0.8251 C f f tan ( ) 112.667 kPa
m
1 C R 175.163 kPa

8. An 80-cm-high fish tank of cross section 2 m 0.6 m that is initially


filled with water is to be transported on the back of a truck. The 11. A 50-mm-diameter nozzle issuing a vertical jet of water supports a
truck accelerates from 0 to 90 km/h in 10 s. If it is desired that no 40-kg load at a height of 1.5 m from the nozzle tip. Neglecting all
water spills during acceleration, determine the maximum possible losses, what is the flow through the nozzle in L/s.
initial water height in the tank in cm. A. 26.8 C. 29.5
A. 72.35 C. 65.32 B. 28.2 D. 28.8
B. 54.51 D. 76.24
11
8
kg
vo 0 vf 90kph t 10s b 0.6m Dn 50mm M 40kg h 1.5m 1000
m3
L 2m H 80cm Wt M g 392.266 N FD Wt 392.266 N

Fd = Q v
atan 14.302 deg
m a

a vf vo t 2.5
g
s2 2
Q = An vn An 0.25 Dn
y 0.5 b tan ( ) 7.648 cm h max1 H y 72.352 cm
2 2 2
v = vn 2 g h v= vn 2 g h
y 0.5 L tan ( ) 25.493 cm h max1 H y 54.507 cm
FD = An vn v
m
Guess vn 10
9. Assuming normal barometric pressure, how deep is the ocean at a s
point where an air bubble, upon reaching the surface, has eight
2
times the volume that it had at the bottom? Use unit weight of Given FD = An vn vn 2 g h
seawater = 10.06 kN/m.
m
A. 50.4 m
B. 80.6 m
C. 60.4 m
D. 70.5 m
vn Find vn 14.664
s
9 L
Q An vn 28.793
s
12. The barometer of a mountain hiker reads 930 mbars at the 14. Which of the following is not a soil component?
beginning of a hiking trip and 780 mbars at the end. Neglecting the A. Organic materials C. Gas
effect of altitude on local gravitational acceleration, determine the B. Minerals D. None of these
vertical distance climbed. Assume an average air density of 1.20
kg/m.
A. 1365 m C. 1058 m 15. Milk with a density of 1020 kg/m is transported on a level road in
B. 1274 m D. 952 m a 7-m-long, 3-m-diameter cylindrical tanker. The tanker is
completely filled with milk (no air space), and it accelerates at 2.5
12 m/s. If the minimum pressure in the tanker is 0 kPa, obtain the
kg maximum force (in kN) acting on one end of the tanker.
p 1 0.93bar p 2 0.78bar air 1.2 A. 338.3 C. 256.9
3 B. 232.2 D. 304.7
m
p1 p 2
H 1274.645 m
air g

13. The pipe flow in Figure HYD 7.32 fills a cylindrical tank as shown. At
time t = 0, the water depth in the tank is 30 cm. Estimate the time
required to fill the remainder of the tank.
A. 52 s C. 30 s
B. 46 s D. 70 s
Figure HYD 3.658

14

Figure HYD 7.32 m kg


a 2.5 L 7m 1020 D 3m
2
s m3

atan 14.302 deg


a
13
g
d 12cm D 75cm H 1m Ho 30cm
m m p cg g ( L tan ( ) 0.5 D) 32.854 kPa
v1 2.5 v2 1.9
s s
2
F pcg D 232.232 kN
4
Apipe 0.25 d 2 Atank 0.25 D2

m3
Q1 Apipe v1 0.028 16. Consider a large cubic ice block floating in seawater. The specific
s
gravities of ice and seawater are 0.92 and 1.025, respectively. If a
m3 12-cm-high portion of the ice block extends above the surface of the
Q2 Apipe v2 0.021 water, obtain the height of the ice block below the surface in cm.
s
A. 105.14 C. 95.14
m3 B. 117.14 D. 90.14
Qtank Q1 Q2 0.007
s 16
so 0.92 sl 1.025 h p 12cm

Vol Atank H Ho 0.309 m3
so
Vol h p = h draft draft = h
time 45.573 s sl
Qtank
so h p sl
hp = h h h 117.143 cm
sl sl so

height of block below w.s.


17. A soil has an angle of shearing resistance of 33. Determine the 19
bearing capacity factor for the overburden pressure at the bottom D 50mm Ls 200 mm d 10mm
of the footing considering general shear failure.
h1 900 mm h2 400 mm t 1min
Hints:
Nq = tan (45 + /2)2 etan
Nc = (Nq 1)cot 2
N = 2(Nq + 1) tan d Ls h1 cm
k ln 10.812 10 3
A. 35.19 C. 26.09
2
D t h2 s
B. 38.64 D. 21.57

17 20. A cylindrical caisson having an outside diameter of 9 m floats in sea


2 water with its axis vertical and its lower end submerged 10.5 m,

Nq ( ) tan 45deg e
tan ( ) below the water surface. If its center of gravity is on the vertical axis
2 and is 3.6 m above the bottom. Obtain the righting couple (kN-m)
when the caisson is tipped through an angle of 8.

Nc ( ) Nq ( ) 1 cot( ) A. 2017 C. 2058
B. 2002 D. 2145

N ( ) 2 Nq ( ) 1 tan ( )
20
33deg kg
D 10.5m d 9m G 3.6m 1000
m3
Nq ( ) 26.092 N ( ) 35.188 Ssw 1.03 8deg

Nc ( ) 38.638 I 4 4
MBo = I d 322.062 m
VD 64
2
VD d D 667981.138 L
18. The 500-kg load on the hydraulic lift shown in Figure HYD 3.25 is to 4
be raised by pouring oil ( = 780 kg/m) into a thin tube. Obtain how
high h should be in order to begin to raise the weight. I
MBo 0.482 m
A. 57 cm C. 65 cm VD
B. 52 cm D. 43 cm
D
GBo G 1.65 m MG MBo GBo 2.132 m
2
2
BF d D g Ssw 6747.177 kN
4
RM BF ( MG sin ( ) ) 2002.137 kN m

21. A soil sample has a water content of 15 percent and moist unit
weight of 18 kN/m3. The specific gravity of the solids is 2.65. Obtain
the porosity of the soil.
A. 0.542 C. 0.661
B. 0.618 D. 0.398

21
kN kN
MC 15% m 18 Gs 2.65 w 9.81
3
m m3
Figure HYD 3.25
Gs Gs MC
m = w
1 eo
18
kg w Gs Gs MC
Load 500 kg D 1.2m o 780 eo 1 0.661
m
3 m
eo
Load g n 0.398
1 eo
2
p 0.25 D
h= h 56.679 cm
o g

19. The permeameter in a falling head permeability test setup involves


a cylindrical soil sample 50 mm in diameter and a height 200 mm.
The hydraulic head ln the 10-mm diameter standpipe through
which test water passed dropped from 900 mm to 400 mm in one-
minute of observation. In that duration, the water collected in the
22. A crane is used to lower weights into the sea (density = 1025 kg/m) 25. A 20-cm-diameter, 60-cm-high vertical cylindrical container is
for an underwater construction project. Obtain the tension (in N) in partially filled with 50-cm-high liquid whose density is 850 kg/m.
the rope of the crane due to a rectangular 0.4-m 0.4-m 3-m The cylinder is rotated at a constant speed. Evaluate the rotational
concrete block (density = 2300 kg/m) when it is completely speed (in rpm) at which the liquid will start spilling from the edges
immersed in water. of the container.
A. 6325 C. 6002 A. 163 C. 214
B. 10826 D. 5478 B. 152 D. 189

22 25
kg kg D 20cm H 60cm h 50cm
w 1025 c 2300
3 3
m m y 2 ( H h ) 0.2 m r 0.5 D

a 0.4m b 0.4m c 3m
2 r2 2 g y
y= 189.131 rpm

T c w g a b c 6001.67 N 2 g r
2

23. In a bakery, water enters a mixing chamber at the rate of 120 per 26. A pressurized tank of water has a 10-cm-diameter orifice at the
liters per sec through Pipe A, while cooking oil with specific gravity bottom, where water discharges to the atmosphere. The water level
of 0.80 is forced at 40 liters per sec through pipe B. Assuming the is 3 m above the outlet. The tank air pressure above the water level
liquids are incompressible and from a homogeneous mixture of oil is 300 kPa (absolute) while the atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa.
globules in water, evaluate the density of the mixture in kg/m Neglecting frictional effects, obtain the initial discharge rate of
leaving through a pipe C of diameter 300mm. water from the tank in m/s.
A. 960 C. 950 A. 0.1263 C. 0.1682
B. 930 D. 920 B. 0.1925 D. 0.0603

26
23
Do 10cm h 3m p air 300kPa
L kg
Qw 120 w 1000
s m
3 kN
w 9.81 patm 100kPa
L kg m3
Qo 40 so 0.80 o w so 800
s m
3
p air p atm
Dc 300 mm Head h 23.387 m
w

kg Ao 0.25 Do2 0.00785 m2


Mf w Qw o Qo 152
s
m3 m3
Qt Qw Qo 0.16 Qo Ao 2 g Head 0.168
s s
Mf kg
Mf = mix Qt mix 950
Qt m
3
27. In tri-axial test, a cohesive soil sample has failed in a normal stress
of 550 kPa and a shear stress of 350 kPa. Obtain the cohesion in kPa
of the soil sample given that the angle of internal friction is 31.
24. An unconfined compression test was carried out on a saturated clay A. 22.3 C. 28.9
sample. The maximum load on the clay sustained was 132 N. The B. 19.5 D. 31.4
size of the soil sample was 38 mm diameter and 80 mm long. The
resulting un-drained shear strength of clay was 56.4 kPa. Evaluate 27
the vertical displacement of the soil sample in mm.
A. 2.84 C. 2.47
B. 1.87 D. 1.65 Given n 550kPa 350kPa 31deg

24 Solution

x 582.5 kPa
tan ( )
C 56.4kPa P 132N Do 38mm L 80mm
z x n 32.5 kPa
Major principal stress: c z tan ( ) 19.53 kPa

2 C 112.8 kPa
Sample area at failure:
P
A 0.00117 m2

Vertical displacement:


D 2
4 o
1 L 2.47 mm
28. Water is pumped from a lower reservoir to a higher reservoir by a 32. The point is 6 m below the load but 3m horizontally from the line of
pump that provides 20 kW of useful mechanical power to the water. application of the load
The free surface of the upper reservoir is 45 m higher than the A. 7.42 C. 8.66
surface of the lower reservoir. If the flow rate of water is measured B. 5.89 D. 10.12
to be 0.03 m/s, determine the lost mechanical power (in kW)
during this process.
A. 6.76 C. 5.89 Situation 1
B. 7.52 D. 2.96 1
Q 1800 kN N ( r z)
28 1.5
r 2
m
3
kN
1 2
Pi 20kW Z 45m Q 0.03 w 9.81 z
s m
3 0.318 Q N ( r z)
P ( r z)
Pi z2
Power = Q w HA HA 67.958 m
Q w
Part 1 r 0 z 3m P ( r z) 63.6 kPa
Head loss HL HA Z 22.958 m
Part 2 r 0 z 6m P ( r z) 15.9 kPa
Ploss Q w HL 6.757 kW
Part 3 r 3m z 6m P ( r z) 8.655 kPa

29. For a constant head permeability test, the following data are given:
Length of the specimen = 460 mm Situation 2 The gravity dam shown in Figure HYD 9.336 has the
Area of the specimen = 23 cm2 following data:
Constant head difference = 0.71 m
Water collected in 3 min = 390 cc B = 15 m a=3m
Porosity = 0.48 H = 20 m c=3m
Find the actual velocity (seepage velocity) in cm/sec.
A. 0.094 C. 0.218 Unit weight of water = 9.81 kN/m
B. 0.196 D. 0.254 Unit weight of concrete = 24 kN/m
Coefficient of friction = 0.80
29
2 Assume that there is uplift pressure that varies uniformly from full
L 460 mm A 23cm H 0.71m hydrostatic head at the heel to zero at the toe.
3 Consider 1 m length of dam perpendicular to the figure.
V 390 cm t 3min n 0.48
Evaluate the following when h = 18 m:
Hydraulic conductivity:
V L cm 33. The factor of safety against sliding.
K 0.061 A. 1.29 C. 1.12
A H t sec B. 1.96 D. 1.57
34. The factor of safety against overturning.
Discharge velocity: A. 1.45 C. 1.71
B. 4.09 D. 1.24
H 0.094 cm 35. The maximum foundation pressure in kPa.
vd K A. 250.4 C. 286.5
L sec B. 400.3 D. 267.9

Actual velocity:
vd cm
vs 0.196
n sec

Situation 1 - According to the Westergaard theory, the vertical stress at a


point below the surface of a semi-infinite, homogeneous, isotropic
soil mass due to a point load Q applied at the ground surface is given
by the equation

P = 0.318QN/z

Where N = 1 / [1 + 2(r/z)]3/2

r = horizontal distance of the point from the vertical line of


application of the load

z = depth of point below ground surface

Evaluate the vertical stress, in kPa, at a point below the ground for
Q = 1800 kN if:

30. The Point is 3 m directly below the point of application of the load
Situation 2
Situation 3 For the three reservoirs shown in Figure HYD 4.302, the flow
of water to reservoir B is known to be 0.386 m/s. Assume friction
factor f = 0.032 for all pipes.

Evaluate the following:

36. The flow in pipe 1 in m/s.


A. 0.651 C. 0.717
B. 0.651 D. 0.806
37. The flow in pipe 3 in m/s.
A. 0.265 C. 0.420
B. 0.331 D. 0.229
38. The diameter of pipe 3 in meter.
A. 0.330 C. 0.270
B. 0.260 D. 0.300

B 15m H 20m a 3m c 3m b 1m
kN kN
h 18m w 9.81 c 24 u pct 100 %
3 3
m m

p u1 w h u pct 176.58 kPa 0.8


Figure HYD 4.302
f B a 12 m d H c 17 m
h h
F w h b 1589.22 kN yF 6m
2 3 Situation 3

W1 c a H b 1440 kN x1 B 0.5 a 13.5 m


1 2
W2 c f d b 2448 kN x2 f 8m
2 3
1 2
U p u1 B b 1324.35 kN x3 B 10 m
2 3

Ry W1 W2 U 2563.65 kN

Rx F 1589.22 kN

RM W1 x1 W2 x2 39024 kN m

OM F yF U x3 22778.82 kN m

Ry RM
FSs 1.291 FSo 1.713
Rx OM

RM OM
xr 6.337 m
Ry
B
ec 0.5 B xr 1.163 m 2.5 m
6

Ry 6 ec
q max 1 250.435 kPa
B b B
Ry 6 ec
q min 1 91.385 kPa
B b B
ZA 358 m ZB 245 m ZC 132 m s
b 5m d 1.8m S 0.0062 n 0.015
13
D1 0.6m L1 2.5km D2 0.4m L2 1.8km m
3
m 2
L3 1.5km f 0.032 Q2 0.386 A b d 9m P b 2 d 8.6 m
s
R A P 1.047 m
c ZA ZC 226 m b ZA ZB 113 m
2 1
f L v2 8 f L Q2 1 3 2 m3
HL = HL =
Discharge: Q A R S 48.698
D 2 g n s
2 g D5
Using the MES
8 f L2 Q2 2
HL2 69.273 m HL1 b HL2 43.727 m
Guess d n 1m
2 5
g D2 2
3 1
2 1 n
d
HL1 2 g D1 5 m3 Given Q = 2 dn S 2
Q1 0.717 n 2
8 f L1 s

d n Find d n 2.114 m b n 2 d n 4.228 m
m3
Q3 Q1 Q2 0.331 HL3 c HL1 182.273 m
s Savings in excavation
0.2 2 2
Ao A 9 m An bn d n 8.94 m
8 f L3 Q32
D3 0.299 m
2 g HL m3
3 SV Ao An 0.0602
m
Savings in lining:

Po 2 d b 8.6 m Pn 2 d n b n 8.457 m

Situation 4 A rectangular channel 5 m wide by 1.8 m deep is lined with m2


a smooth stone, well laid and has a hydraulic slope of 0.0062. Using SL Po Pn 0.143
n = 0.015. m
39. What is the capacity of the channel in m3/s?
A. 37.6 C. 48.7 Situation 5 - An impervious layer underlies 4 layers of permeable soil.
B. 57.2 D. 27.9 The thickness and the coefficient of permeability of each layer, from
40. What savings in earth excavation (per meter length of canal) could the top to bottom layer are:
have been offered by using more favorable proportions but
adhering to the same delivery and slope? Layer k (cm/s) Thickness, m
A. 0.0513 m3 C. 0.0014 m3 1 2 10-4 3
B. 0.0554 m3 D. 0.0602 m3
2 3 10-5 4
41. What savings in lining per meter length by using more favorable
proportions but adhering to the same delivery and slope? 3 2 10-3 2
A. 0.981 m2 C. 0.825 m2 4 1 10-3 3
B. 0.143 m2 B. 0.173 m2

Situation 4 42. Evaluate the equivalent horizontal coefficient of permeability of the


deposit, in cm/sec.
A. 0.000521 C. 0.000854
B. 0.000714 D. 0.000643
43. Obtain the rate of flow per cm width of the deposit, in cc/sec, if the
hydraulic gradient for the soil formation is 0.60
A. 0.624 C. 0.365
B. 0.548 D. 0.463
44. Evaluate the discharge of the aquifer (in m/day) if the total width
of the layers is 750 m.
A. 30 C. 25
B. 35 D. 40

Situation 5
2 10 4 m
3
3 b 4m ss 45deg Q 25
3 10 5 cm s
4
k s H m i 0.6 S 0.003 n 0.013s m
1 3
2 10 3 2
3
3 2
Top width T ( d) b 2 d Area A ( d) b d d
1 10
Perimeter P ( d) b 2 d 2
Ht H 12 m
Hyd radius R ( d) A ( d) P ( d)
k H cm
kh 0.00064333 Normal depth Guess d 2m
Ht s
2 1
cm3

q kh i Ht 1 cm 0.463
s Given
1 3
Q = A ( d ) R ( d) S
2
d Find ( d ) 1.244 m
n

Part 3 W 750 m Froude Number


m3 Q m
Q q W 30.015 m velocity of flow v 3.833
day A ( d) s
A ( d)
hydraulic depth D 1.005 m
T ( d)
Situation 6 Given the following data for a trapezoidal canal:
v
Bottom width = 4 m Froude number FN 1.221
Side slope = 45 g D
Slope of channel bed = 3 m per km
Roughness coefficient, n = 0.013 Critical depth
Discharge = 25 m/s Q A ( d)
v ( d) D ( d)
Evaluate the following: A ( d) T ( d)

45. The normal depth in meters. v ( d)


A. 0.956 C. 1.325 Given 1= d c Find ( d) 1.401 m
B. 1.244 D. 1.724 g D ( d)
46. The stage of flow.
A. critical stage C. lower stage
B. back stage D. upper stage
47. The critical depth of flow in meters. Situation 7 - A long solid cylinder of radius R = 0.8 m hinged at point A is
A. 1.401 C. 1.587 used as an automatic gate, as shown in Figure HYD 12.025. When the
B. 1.254 D. 1.104 water level reaches h = 6 m, the gate opens by turning about the hinge
at point A. Evaluate the following considering 1 m length of gate:
Situation 6 48. The horizontal component of the hydrostatic force acting on the gate
in kN.
A. 45.74 C. 54.24
B. 40.12 D. 43.95
49. The vertical component of the hydrostatic force acting on the gate in
kN.
A. 54.24 C. 40.12
B. 43.95 D. 45.74
50. The required weight of the cylinder per meter length.
A. 40.12 C. 43.95
B. 45.75 D. 54.24

Figure HYD 12.025


Situation 7

w 9.81kN m3 R 0.8m b 1m h 6m

h c h 0.5 R 5.6 m

Vol R ( h R) 0.25 R b 4.663 m


2 3

FH w h c ( b R) 43.949 kN

FV w Vol 45.741 kN

M A = 0

WC R = FV R

WC FV 45.741 kN

PLEASE SUBMIT THIS TEST QUESTIONNAIRE TOGETHER WITH YOUR ANSWER SHEET TO YOUR PROCTOR.

ANSWER KEY MATH 03 SET A:

Оценить