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RESEARCH

BY :

INDRASARI

1652044001

ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND LITERATURE

STATE UNIVERSITY OF MAKASSAR

2017
CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LIREATURE

This chapter covers the previous related findings, some pertinent ideas, resume,

theoretical framework, and hypothesis.

A. Previous Related Findings

There have been a number of studies performed concerning how the use of group work

affects the students speaking.

Agustinah (2010) in her research Implementation of Cooperative Learning Method in

Increasing Students Achievement in SMP Negeri 12 Malang found that using cooperative

learning enhance the students speaking classroom interaction, and they are not ashamed and

afraid of speaking and also because they have self confidence in speaking.

Rukmana (2010) found that the use of Think-Pair-Share could develop the

students speaking performance because there were many positive things that the students get

during the treatment was conducting.

Ilmi (2012) in her research Improving Students Speaking Performance through

Rotating Trio Exchange found that the students speaking performance improved after

receiving treatment by using rotating trio exchange and aroused their interest.

All the researchers above have similarity to the writers research. They found that

cooperative learning is an effective way in improving the students ability in speaking.


B. Some Pertinent Ideas

1. The Concept of Speaking

a. Definitions of Speaking

Speaking is mean tools of communication to other or speaking is ways to bring a


message from one person to another interact with them. Communication will not be
running well without speaking and it is essential way in which the speakers can express
themselves through the language. Communication is a collaborate venture in which the
interlocutors negotiate meaning in order to achieve their communication ends.

Clark and Berbert in Rukmana (2010:5) states that speaking is fundamentally an


instrument act speaker talk in order to have some effects on them. They assert things to
chance their state of knowledge.

Bygate in Chandra (1991:41) suggests that oral interaction can characterized in


terms of routines which are conventional ways are preceding information which can either
focus on information or interaction.

Harmer (1991:46) stated that communication between human is an extremely


complex and ever changing phenomenon. There are many variables that involved but
there are certain generalizations that we can make about majority of communication
events and these will have particular relevance for learning and teaching language.
Further he states that when the people are engaged in talking to each other we can be
fairly sure that they are doing for good reasons:

1) They want to say something; want is use here in general way to suggest that speaker
make definite decision to address other people. Speaking of course be force upon them,
but we can still say that they feel need to speak otherwise they would be keep silent.

2) They have some communicative purpose; speakers say something because they want
something to happen as a result of what they say. They may want to charm their
listener. They want to give some information or express pleasure, they may decide to
be rude, to agree or complain in each of this case.

3) They select from their language store; speakers have an infinite capacity to create new
sentences in order to achieve this communicative purpose they will select from the
state of the language that they think is appropriate.

4) They want listen something; once again, want is used in general way. But in order for
someone to understand what they are listening or reading, they must have some desire
to do so. They are interest in the communication purpose of what is being said. In
general people listen to language because they want to find out what the speakers are
trying to say.

Speaking is very important in communication. Speaking happens in everyday in


communication of human interaction.

b. Speaking Performance

When someone speaks, he produces some verbal aspect likes word, pronunciation,
grammatical, pattern (Amin, 2004: 7). He saying and expressing ideas, opinion, or emotion.
He not only use knowledge about the language he speak itself, but also empowers and
enhances strength to show about how the language he speak can be understood and
meaningful. This called speaking performances. Speaking performance covers accuracy,
fluency, and comprehensibility.

As speaker in any practical situation, someone will try to reach communicative purpose
because it is not only about others can understand what the point he speak but also he is
required to speak as appropriately as he can. Speaking performance actually covers accuracy,
fluency, and comprehensibility. When we acquire a language, we do not only learn how to
compose and comprehends correct sentences and as isolated linguistic unit of random
occurrence, we also learn how to use language appropriately to achieve a communicative
purpose. In speaking, we do not only concern about the grammar but also make good
pronunciation.

1) Accuracy

Accuracy in speaking performance deals with pronunciation, grammar, and


vocabulary. Brown (1994) defined accuracy in speaking performance as the extent of the
speakers to focus on the elements of phonology, grammar, and discourse in their spoken
output. Beside that accuracy also defined as exactness, exact conformity to truth, or
correctness, or a precision.

a) Pronunciation

Pronunciation is stress, rhythm, and intonation within the role of articulation in


word. The utterance do not flow as like what the language learner convey necessarily
but the utterance are functioned as the role of organ speech to pronoun the acceptable
articulation of the words.

Simon and Schuster in Amin, 2004:8 define pronunciation is:

i) The act or manner of pronouncing words with reference to the production of


sound, the placing of stress, intonation, etc.

ii) The manner of uttering a discourse or oration.

Besides that, pronunciation is an act or result of producing the sound of speech


including articulation, vowel formation, accent and reflection, often with reference
to some standard of consents or acceptability. The concept of pronunciation may be
said to include:

i) The sound of the language

Some of the sound of the language may well meaningless. If you said /t/ (the
line show that this is phonetic scrip) a few times, e.g. tu,tu,tu it will not mean in
English. Neither will be sound /k/, /a/, or /s/.

ii) Stress

Native speaker of a language unconsciously know about the stress and how
it works. They know which syllables of words are stressed and they know how
to use stress, to change the meaning of phrases, sentences and questions.

iii) Intonation

Intonation is clearly important item and competent user of the language


recognize what meaning it has and can change the meaning of word they say
through using it in different ways. When we taught English, students need to use
rhythm and stress correctly if they are to be understood.

b) Grammar

Grammar is the system of sentences analysis, rules, and labeling, (Allen,


Brown, & Yatvin, (1986:121). It is rather the way of speaker to construct sentences in
speech.

Simon and Schuster (1979:792) defined grammar as in the following:

i) The study of language which deals with the form and the structure of words
(morphology), and their customary arrangement in phrases, and sentences
(syntax),

ii) The system of word structures and word arrangement of a given language at a
given time,

iii) A system of rules for speaking and writing a given language,

iv) A book containing such rules,

v) Ones manner of speaking or writing. It has to be learned because the valuable


transmission in speech through the understanding of structural pattern.

Other definition, grammar as subject matter is the organization of words into


various combinations, often representing many layers of structure, such as phrases,
sentences, and complete utterances (Badulu, 2001:15). The fact however, shows that
the learners mastery of English structure is still less as found by some previous
researchers.

c) Vocabulary

Vocabulary put any words of speech to be understood. The language learners


should produce the appropriate utterance to be understood. In the sense of word choice,
he must choose the appropriate word as in the context. Since the words reveal the
meaning of the utterances, the language learners labors under the necessity of using
the words that relates to the need of what he is talking about in the communicative
context.

Simon and Schuster (1979:2046) defined vocabulary is:

i) A list of word and sometimes phrases usually arranged in alphabetical order and
defined; a dictionary, a glossary, a lexicon,

ii) All the words of a language,

iii) All the words used by a particular person, class, profession, etc.

Rivers (1991:117) argues that the articulation of an adequate vocabulary is


essential for successful second language use because without an extensive vocabulary.
We will unable to use the structures and functions that we have learned for
comprehensible communication.

2) Fluency

Based on Webster Dictionary (1961), fluency is ready an expressive in the use of


language. Fluency, that is highly complex ration relate mainly to smoothness of continuity in
discourse, it is include a consideration of how sentence pattern vary in word-order and omit
element of structure, and also certain aspect of the prosily of discourse (Heaton, 1988).

Based on the definitions above we can conclude that fluency refers to be able to
speak, to write, or to read smoothly and easily. Fluency is probably best achieved by allowing
the stream of speech to flow them, as some of this speech spills over beyond
comprehensibility, the smoothness of instruction on some details of phonology, grammar or
discourse.
2. The Concept of Rotating Trio Exchange

a. Definition of Rotating Trio Exchange

Many kinds of grouping students strategies are developed since classroom


management give some advantages. Silberman in Khanafiyah (2011:99 ), said that
active learning is one of set of comprehensive learning strategies to make students
active from the beginning, through group work activities, so in short time, make them
think about the material. Sardiman (2007: 14) said that learning by doing or practice
and face it directly will be an effective way to improve the attitude, skill, and way of
thinking, rather than only memorize. Scannapieco in Kennedy (2007) said that active
learning can improve the ability of complex thinking. One of the ways to activate
learning is using cooperative learning. Cooperative learning is an instructional strategy
where small teams of students, usually two to six members, work together to maximize
their individual and collective learning. After team members are organized into these
small groups and receive instruction from their teacher, students within the team
cooperate with one another and work through the assignment until each team member
successfully understands and completes it (Foltz, 2009:1). Beside that cooperative
learning also defined as the instructional use of small groups that allows students to
work together to maximize their own and each other as learning (Johnson, 1994:3). One
of cooperative learning types is rotating trio exchange (Isjoni, 2010:51). Some key
elements of cooperative learning are (Bennet in Isjoni, 2010:41):

1) Positive interdependence occurs when a gain for one student is associated with
gains for other students.

2) Face to face interaction occurs when students meet each other physically (eye to
eye and knee to knee) to promote each supports learning contributing and sharing.

3) Individual accountability begins from standing on the main purpose that the
students need to increase their academic achievement therefore posing them study
the lesson and responsible for each given task will put them in their accountability
individually.
4) Social skills include the ways of students interact with each other to achieve
activity or task objectives (asking and explaining) and the ways of students interact
as teammates (example praising and recognition). Since the students will be free
to express their ideas to the others, others will appreciate and help if necessary.

5) Group processing (whereby the students are assessed of what they have learned,
how they have learned best, and how they might do better as a learning group or
team. This will be one of wonderful impressions that each students in a team tries
to master the material or the lesson.

Rotating trio exchange is one of cooperative discussion technique that applied


in many lessons. This is an in-depth way for participants to discuss issues with some
(but usually not all) of their fellow participants. The exchanges can be easily geared to
the subject matter of the teaching or learning (Silberman, 2005:92). Rotating Trio
Exchange also can be said as a way where teacher or trainer composes a variety of
questions that help students begin discussion of the course content, (Wolfe, 2010:5).
The question should be questions that can be discuss, not only need yes or no answers.
As Wolfe, (2010:5) said that in giving question for students in form of rotating trio
exchange should use questions with no right or wrong answers. Divide students into
trios. Arrange them around the room so that each trio can clearly see a trio to the right
and left. Give each trio an opening question that the same for each trio to discuss. It is
similar to explanation of rotating trio exchange procedure in Silberman 2005:92-93.

Rotating trio exchange is one of direct learning models. It can be applied for
all lessons or subjects, (Yelismasu, 2011: 1). This technique is a way for students to
discuss a problem by using three students in a group. The application of this technique
that contains three people guided to the subject material or lesson material that will be
taught in the classroom. Rotating trio exchange technique is a detail way for students
to discuss a topic to some but usually not all of the other students in the classroom. The
students opinion change can be guided easily to materials that taught in the classroom,
(Yelismasu, 2011: 1). Darkenwald and Merriam (2011:1), said that in learning by using
exchange the role is similar to (self-directed learning) and private learning. The other
definition is someone learns the material and practice the skill with the other people as
a learner and source for learning. Rotating trio exchange technique principally has
many similarities with the other learning strategies concept. Learning exchange as a
learning way that emphasize to context of group dynamics, and behavior changes,
(Yelismasu, 2011:1).

Rotating trio exchange is one of technique where the students can share with
other friends. It is a technique that allow students to discuss a topic to some but usually
not all of the other students in the classroom.

b. The Role of Rotating Trio Exchange

Silberman (2005:92), stated that procedures of doing rotating trio exchange are:

1) Compose a variety of questions that help participants begin discussion of the course
content.

2) Divide participants into trios. Position the trios in the room so that each trio can clearly
see other trios to its right and to its left. (The best configuration of trios is a cycle or
square.)

3) Give each trio an opening question (the same question for each trio) to discuss. Select
the least threatening question you have devised to begin the trio exchange. Suggest
that each person in the trio take a turn answering the question.

4) After a suitable period of discussion, ask the trios to assign a 0, 1, or 2 to each of their
members. Direct the participants with the number 1 to rotate one trio clockwise or the
participants with the number 2 to rotate two trios clockwise. Ask the participants with
the number 0 to remain seated. They will be permanent members of a trio site. Have
them raise their hands high so that rotating participants can find them. The result of
each rotation will be entirely new trios.

5) Start each new exchange with a new question. Increase the difficulty or sensitivity of
the questions as you proceed.

6) Instructor can rotate trios as many times as he has questions to pose and the discussion
time to allot. Use the same rotation procedure each time.

Yelismasu (2011:1) describe the procedure of doing rotating trio exchange are:

1) Teacher gives question to help students begin the discussion the lesson material.

2) Teacher should avoid the questions that only have yes or no answers.

3) Teacher divides students into three groups (trios). Position the trios in the room so that
each trio can clearly see other trios to its right and to its left

4) Teacher gives every trio first question. It should be the same questions for each group
to discuss as soon as possible. To make it more effective, teacher can give students
exact time.

5) Teacher chooses the easiest question to begin the opinion share of students. Every
student in the group trios has to get his or her turn to answer the question.

6) After students doing the discussion based on the time given by teacher, teacher asks
each group to assign number for each member, for example 0, 1, and 2.

7) Teacher asks student 1 to move to other trios clockwise and or the participants with the
number 2 to rotate two trios clockwise. Ask the participants with the number 0 to
remain seated. (This exchange happen when teacher give other question or new
question to every trios).

8) Teacher asks every student to raise their hands. It is way to make sure every student
has gotten their new trio. The result is there will be new trios in the classroom. Teacher
can ask the students to discuss again by using the new question.

9) Teacher better give the different difficulties for each new question. Teacher can do the
rotation as many as the question or topic, or make it suitable with the time. Teacher
also should use the same steps or procedures.

10) Let students do the discussion in the classroom.

Based on explanation, it can be conclude that there are three main steps in rotating
trio exchange:
1) Preparation

Compose a variety of questions and divide participants into trios. The best
configuration of groups is circle or square.

2) Main activities

Give each group an opening question to discuss. After a suitable period of


discussion, ask the groups to assign each of their members. After one section, give the
students rotation. Start each new exchange with a new question. Increase the difficulty
or sensitivity of the questions as you proceed.

3) Closing

Closing consists of general discussion and evaluation of the activity.

Here is the example of rotating trio exchange design when it is applied in the
classroom:
c. Variations of Rotating Trio Exchange

Silberman, (2005: 92), said that there are some variations in applying rotating
trio exchange technique. They are:

1) After each round of questions, quickly poll the participants about their responses
before rotating individuals to new trios.

2) Use pairs or quartets or other number instead of trios.

The variations that will be applied must be suitable for the students. Thats
why the teacher has to consider many things before use of these variations. For
example, to apply the variation of using other number instead of trios, the teacher
should make it suitable with the number of students in the classroom.
d. Advantages of Rotating Trio Exchange

Rotating trio exchange has some advantages. Silberman in Silberman 3 pdf,


(2011:219) listed advantages of positive aspects of change:

1) Can be a growth opportunity for individuals and the company

2) Can provide challenges

3) Can allow the organization to remain competitive

4) Can help solve problems

5) Can be a means of reaching higher goals

There are some of advantages of using change. All the positive aspects hoped
can give positive effects too for teaching and learning process, especially for students
to reach their motivation in the classroom so they can join the teaching and learning
process well.

Further, the advantages of rotating trio exchange are:

1) Rotating trio exchange itself

a) The technique can be applied for all lessons, (Yelismasu, 2011: 1). Rotating
trio exchange, like other cooperative learning, can used in all curriculum areas
and important of the creativity of the teachers. This structure along with
number head together is an excellent substitute for the normally competitive
structures in a question and answer session.

b) Rotating trio exchange gives student chance to share with friends even to
different group in regulated time. Beside that students can do this activity
communally. They also have many chances to process the information and
increase their communicative skill (Anggraeni 2010: 33-34).

c) It is flexible since gives some variations. It is not restricted only for three
students in a group. According to Silberman, (2005: 92) the teacher or trainer
can use pairs or quartets instead of trios in applying rotating trio exchange.
2) Students benefits

With rotating trio exchange, the students are given time to think through
their own answers to the question. They can also share the information and discuss
it with other friends, and can give them a new and an interesting technique. This,
in turn, increases their sense of involvement in classroom learning and also their
interests.

3) Teacher benefits

Students spend their time to ask and listen, in this case do discussion to
each other more when they are in rotating trio exchange activities. More students
are willing to respond in large group after they have thought about something then
share it with others. The quality of the students responses also improves. Since
rotating trio exchange is a new technique, it gives students time to work actively
with the other friends, and make them more interested in the learning process.

e. Tips to Solve Some Problem May Occur

Like other cooperative learning types, some problem may occur when rotating
trio exchange applied in the classroom. There are some problems and tips in rotating
trio exchange activity (Anggraeni, 2010: 33-34).

1) In doing the activity, the topic that they talk may extend, so teacher can give limited
time to do discussion in each rotation.

2) Discussion possibly dominated by one student and others only become passive
members of the activity so teacher should give the rule to students that everyone
must understand about the topic and be active in doing the activity because it will
be given recognition or reward.

3) Many rotations can make student dizzy or confuse. To decrease the rotation,
teacher can give more than one topic for each rotation.
f. Supported Factors in Rotating Trio Exchange

There are some factors that can affect the application of rotating trio exchange
(Yelismasu, 2011:1)

1) Teacher role: A teacher has important role to reach the success in the classroom,
especially in application of rotating trio exchange technique. A teacher should have
good relation with the students. Teacher demanded develop learning activities as
much as possible make students enjoy it, should not make students feel under
pressure, because it is like a tradition when students are keep in the traditional ways
of teaching, where students just receive, make note, and save the materials. A teacher
also needs to know about the students competence, because every student has their
own competence.

2) Students: Every student has their characteristics. To aware this fact, there should be
a cooperation of all class role. In rotating trio exchange this problem tried to solve,
because in rotating trio exchange, as in many other developed strategies and methods,
prioritize the students involvement in teaching and learning activities. By using this
technique, students try to work and solve problem together.

3) Media: Media also has important role for students to be success. Media can be use as
a tool for students in learning process. Media not only from school, but can be
developed by teacher, like card, picture, etc, because by using media, teaching and
learning process hoped can be more interesting and isnt boring for teacher and
students.

4) Environment: Education environment as one factors in supporting the success of


teaching and learning process, should be planned and arranged well. It can become
one of ways to make students enjoy the learning process. Before begin the class; class
should become a safe, comfort, and motivated place. In this environment, student will
open self and open mind to receive and do some new case. It is an ideal condition to
do teaching and learning process optimally. After that we begin introduce them an
academics skill. Of course to make students become well, not only in the beginning
and while learning process, but after that activity, especially for society in the future
time.

Rotating trio exchange is one of techniques that can be applied in the classroom.
In doing the activity, other factors must be considered, like teacher role, students, media,
and environment.
3. The Concept of Interest

a. Interest

Interest usually refers to an activity that a person prefers to engage in would not
avoid and would choose in preference to many others activities. Interest also refers to the
kinds of thing we appreciate and enjoy (Eggen and Kauchak, 1997: 1). Thus, the selection
of any occupation and satisfaction we get from our work usually depend more on our
interest than our ability. Interest and ability are closely related but our interest gives us
motivation to use our ability. If we are strongly in doing something, we will work hard at
it than if we are not interested in.

Good (1959) states that an interest is a subjective-objective aptitude concern or


condition involving a perception or an idea in attention and combination of a feeling
consciousness may temporary or permanent, based on active curiosity, conditioned by
experience. Basically interest is positive attitude toward something that we are really like
and enjoy. Caplin (in Jalil, 1989) says that interest is an attitude which continuously
accompanist ones attention in choosing an interesting object, is a feeling which
determines activities, liking or disliking object that are aims.

Robert (1968) says that interest is response of liking or disliking. It is present when
we are aware of an object or when we are aware of our disposition towards the object we
like, the object we prepare to react to.

Hilgard and Atkinson (1967) see interest as a part of personality that is usually
defined according to objects or activities, that is one maybe interested in reading, music,
or sport.

Basically, interest mentally condition of someone produces a response to


particular situation an object that gives pleasure as well as satisfaction. So, in this case,
interest should be considered because of whatever the students do, they will not do it well
unless they are interested in what they are doing as Palmer in Byrne (1989) states that
people learn anything well unless they are interested in what they are learning.
b. Types of Interest

James et al (1982) categorize interest into four types, they are:

1) Expressed interest

In general expressed interest is the verbal expression of liking or disliking


something. This expression term is related to maturity and experience.

2) Manifest interest

Manifest interest is what is observable because of individuals participation in


a given activity may be necessary or certain fringe benefit to occur. It is usually
valuable to observe the activities related to the event as well as the individual
participation the degree manifest interest.

3) Tested interest

Tested interest can be curtained by measuring the knowledge of vocabulary or


other information the examinee has in specific interest idea. This measure is based
on the accumulation of the relevant information as well as specialized vocabulary.

4) Inventoried interest

Inventoried interest is those determined by interest checklist. Usually an


examinee is asked to check whether he or she likes or dislikes certain activities or
situation. Pattern of high or low interest normally result, so that the test taker can
began to areas of liking or disliking.

c. Factor Influencing Student Interest

Junaid (1992) says that basically, there are two factors that can influence the
students motivation as well as their interest in learning, they are: internal and external
factors. Internal factors such as the students attitude toward a subject and the students
aptitude or linguistic ability. External factors such as school factor, which may involve the
teachers, the students, and the lesson material. Family factors such as: mental support and
social environmental factors.
Jalil (1989) said that generally there are two factors that can influence
students interest. They are internal factors and external factors. The first one such as:
students attitude, aptitude, physical condition and sex. And the latter is the teachers
method in teaching, material used and environment.

d. The Measurement of Interest

Interest is about two dimensions, strong or weak. There are two principle procedures
in the measurement of interest. First, the items dealt with the respondents liking or dislike for
a wide variety of specific activities, objects, or types of person that he or she commonly
encountered in daily. Second, the reason was empirically keyed for different occupation
(Anastasia,1982)

This interest inventoried were those among the first tests to employ criterions on
keying of items. It was found that person engaged in different occupation was characterized
by among interest that differentiated them from person in other occupations. These difference
in interest extended not only to matter sprinkling directly to job activities but also to school
subjects, hobbies, sports, types of plays or books the individual enjoyed, social relation and
many others facets of everyday life. It thus proved feasible to prepare on inventory that explore
an individuals interest in familiar things and thereby to determine how closely his or her
interest as seemed those of persons successfully engage in particular occupation in subjects.

The students interest has received its strongest input from educational and career
counseling. In general, interest inventoried compare an individual expressed interest with
these typical of person engaged in different occupations, this is done ether in the scoring of
individual item responses or in the interpretation of scores in board interest areas, or both.

Bidu (2000:11) introduced some various ways to get information of someone interest
of preferences. Some those ways as follow:

1) Asking people what they are interest. People may have little insight into what they are
interest or what particular occupation detail.
2) Observing person behavior in various situation or participation in various activities,
inferring interest from knowledge of specific occupation, administer, and interest
inventory.

In addition, Mapparrewa (2002: 9) introduced one way to measure the students


interest. To know one interest, the researcher can use questionnaire that consist some questions
that may be positive or negative statements. We can score for positive alternative answers
have high score, and for negative alternative answers have low score.