You are on page 1of 91

International Journal of Computer Science

and Business Informatics


(IJCSBI.ORG)

ISSN: 1694-2507 (Print)


VOL 16, NO 2
ISSN: 1694-2108 (Online) JULY-DECEMBER 2016
IJCSBI.ORG
Table of Contents VOL 16, NO 2 JULY-DECEMBER 2016

Scalable Rough C-Means clustering using Firefly algorithm .................................................................. 1


Abhilash Namdev and B.K. Tripathy

Significance of Embedded Systems to IoT ................................................................................................. 15


P. R. S. M. Lakshmi, P. Lakshmi Narayanamma and K. Santhi Sri

Cognitive Abilities, Information Literacy Knowledge and Retrieval Skills of Undergraduates: A


Comparison of Public and Private Universities in Nigeria ........................................................................ 24
Janet O. Adekannbi and Testimony Morenike Oluwayinka

Risk Assessment in Constructing Horseshoe Vault Tunnels using Fuzzy Technique ................................ 48
Erfan Shafaghat and Mostafa Yousefi Rad

Evaluating the Adoption of Deductive Database Technology in Augmenting Criminal Intelligence in


Zimbabwe: Case of Zimbabwe Republic Police ......................................................................................... 68
Mahlangu Gilbert, Furusa Samuel Simbarashe, Chikonye Musafare and Mugoniwa Beauty

Analysis of Petrol Pumps Reachability in Anand District of Gujarat ....................................................... 77


Nidhi Arora
International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Scalable Rough C-Means clustering


using Firefly algorithm

Abhilash Namdev
School of Computer Science and Engineering
VIT University, Vellore - 632014, India
E-mail: abhilash.namdev8@gmail.com

B.K. Tripathy
School of Computer Science and Engineering
VIT University, Vellore - 632014, India
E-mail: tripathybk@vit.ac.in

ABSTRACT
Our main interest is in dealing with the disadvantages of old clustering algorithms and
coming up with a method that can generate clusters which produce optimal results when
compared with previous approaches. Firstly, our focus is on analyzing the limitations of
most widely used clustering algorithm. Here we choose K means clustering algorithm for
the purpose. To provide the optimal results from the initial stage of algorithm we use firefly
algorithm. The bioinspired algorithm that generates optimal minimum or maximum values
based on certain parameters. To avoid the strictness on the boundary area in k means
algorithm, we choose Rough C means algorithm, which provide some flexibility during the
clustering process. Our proposed method provides most efficiency both in terms of time
and space. We used efficient data structures which help us to avoid waste of memory while
computation and also our algorithm utilizes maximum resources of the machine to make
the execution rate as fast as possible.
Keywords
Clustering, datasets, firefly, threads, k-means, rough c mean

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 1


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

1. INTRODUCTION
The process of clustering is the organization of patterns into sensible
groups which helps us to find the similarities and dissimilarities among the
patterns and to derive conclusion about them. We can easily find such type
of grouping in the fields of medical science, geography, biology,
engineering and sociology. This process of grouping comes under the
unsupervised learning. The basic steps involve in this grouping task starts
with feature selection, and followed by proximity measures, clustering
criterion, clustering algorithm, then validation of results and interpretation
of results come under the process. There are many directions where cluster
analysis is in use, some of them are data reduction, hypothesis generation,
hypothesis testing and prediction based on cluster.
To understand the fundamentals of any clustering process, lets take
any dataset named X. Now k-clustering defines that the partition of dataset
X into k groups G1 , G2 ,...Gk such that the following conditions must be
satisfy
Gi ; i =
1, 2,...k
k
G i =X
i =1

Gi G j = ; i j i, j = 1, 2,...k
This type of clustering is sometimes called hard or crisp. The alternative
of above clustering are fuzzy and rough type of clustering, where element
from the dataset X can belong to more than one clusters. One of the most
popular and well known examples of hard clustering algorithmic scheme is
k means or c means algorithm. Here squared Euclidian distance is used to
find the dissimilarity among the elements of dataset. However, the results
of this version of algorithm highly depend on the order in which initial
centroids are chosen. (McCullock John, 2012) The main advantage of c-means
or k-means algorithm is its simplicity in computing the process. But k
means is not suitable for the categorical data i.e., it results well only with
continuous data valued.
Lingras proposed a clustering approach which was based on the
concept of rough set theory, known as Rough c means algorithm. This
algorithm describes the group by the value of its centroids as well as upper
and lower approximation. Rough c means algorithm solve the problem of k
means algorithm to some extent by allowing element to be the part of either
one cluster or between two clusters. Elements in the lower approximation
are considered to be completely belonging to that class of elements.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 2


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
The problem with both the above discussed algorithm is that they
both are sensitive to the initial cluster-centroids. Since initial centroids are
chosen randomly, many times the algorithm doesnt produce optimal
results. Therefore, in the proposed system, we have used firefly algorithm to
determine the values for the initial class centroids. Then these optimal
values are applied to rough c-means algorithm, which ultimately increase
the accuracy of cluster. The firefly algorithm is implemented on both these
clustering approaches and the results are comparatively analyzed. The idea
behind the firefly algorithm work around the flashing behavior of the
fireflies. Each firefly has its degree of attractiveness and intensity of light.
Based on these parameters the firefly is attracted toward other firefly in the
working space. On the basis of this brightness parameter, the firefly with
low brightness takes a moment towards the firefly high brightness value at
each of the iterations. And the values of this parameters update on usual
period. The best position of the firefly is selected after running for the
specific period of time. These optimal values are considered as the centroid
values for our algorithm.
The system is designed in java technology, which is one of the most
efficient and widely used high-level object oriented language of the world.
The implementation in java is very easy, manageable and understandable by
the programmer. To make the system efficient and flexible many dynamic
approaches has been adopted in the side of data structure. Data structures
are the arrangement of the data inside the computers memory. And
algorithm ultimately modifies this structure in various ways. Data structures
are chosen to make the system efficient in terms of both space and time;
Like Arraylist acts as dynamic array which can grow or shrink as per the
requirement. This ultimately avoids the wastage of memory as compared to
normal array concept, where size of the array is fixed in advance. Which
lead to the waste of memory when the part of memory doesnt even used
during the computations. Another measure adopted in order to utilize the
waste of time during the user interaction, which is the concept of
multithreading. Java provides the built in support for the multithreaded
programming. The multithreaded program contains more the one part that
can work simultaneously. (Singh Chaitanya, 2016) Multithreading provide
us the facility to write efficient program that utilize the maximum
processing power. Since Multithreading is important for interactive systems,
we have used it in our proposed system. To time spent by the user to
interact with the system, this time is in background utilize to run the basic
operations of clustering. The task performed in the background is usually
not dependent on the activity of user.
The system is tested over different datasets collected from the dataset
repository available on the internet. At the present stage all the dataset used
for the experiments are in the excel format, since Microsoft excel is the one

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 3


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
which is most widely used for storing data across the world. The datasets
consist of the large scale and high dimensional data. The number of
instances and attributes of the datasets are varied from 5 to 5000 in
numbers.

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
In 1967, J.B MacQueen has first proposed the K means algorithm
(MacQueen, 1967), which is now the most widely used clustering algorithm
in the field of data mining. (Mathew et al, 2014a) have introduced the
concept of parallel clustering approach of K-means algorithm. They found
in (Mathew et al, 2014a) that average number of iterations the program
takes was lower than the old approaches. In (Swamy et al, 2015) it is
concluded that as the size of the data increases, the time taken by K-means
algorithms also increases with high rate. They (Swamy et al, 2015)
suggested the concept of parallel processing was introduced to decrease the
execution time during the clustering process. Then Yang (Yang, 2010) has
introduced the concept of firefly in 2008. According to them (Swamy et al,
2015) firefly algorithm is the swarm intelligence algorithm, inspired by
insects with their unique property of flashing. In (Raja et al, 2013) the
various randomization parameters are analyzed and the conclusion that the
value which is best suited on respective condition are provided. In (Lohrer
et al, 2013) it is suggested that firefly algorithm is a very efficient algorithm
that achieves optimal results when compared with Particle swarm
optimization (PSO). Also time taken to execute this algorithm is very less as
compared to other approaches. They (Lohrer et al, 2013) are still working
on the area to develop firefly on the hardware of system, which leads to
even lesser time as compared to current approach.
In (Zhang et al, 2006) the concept of dynamic load balancing is
introduced. They also suggested the use of parallel programming to
implement k means algorithm and step up the efficiency by using load
balancing between the core of the machine. They have adopted the strategy
of master/slave design model. (Karinor et al, 2015) tried two different
approaches for k means algorithm. One is for small scale dataset and other
is for large scale data using both serial and MapReduce implementation of
parallel algorithm. And concluded that with the increase in iterations of
algorithm, the computation overload also increases, i.e., they both are
directly proportional. In (Aamir et al, 2014) it is explained as how to use
parallel programming in java. This is the fact that if we want to enhance the
execution rate of our program then we must have to learn the concept of
parallel programming. They have explained very well as how parallel
programming tools and techniques are used in both shared and distributed
environment.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 4


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
(Chen et al, 2011) studied the performance issues of java program
using multithreading on multicore machine. They examined the tuning of
JVM in their research. To utilize the maximum benefits of multithreading
concept we must have to efficiently utilize the cache memory. Firefly
algorithm can give its best results only when the best parameters and
objective functions are selected. (MO et al, 2013) closely examined the
effect of each parameter in firefly algorithm. They suggested certain
guidelines in determining the values of these parameters. They used
different functions that test the effect on fireflies by parameter change.
Since proper start is important for K-means algorithm to achieve optimal
results, (Xu et al, 2014) have proposed K-means++ algorithm. This
algorithm increases the productivity of standard k means approach by using
Map reduce technique. They successfully tested their approach on both real
and synthetic data.

FIREFLY ALGORITHM
Inspired by the flashing property of fireflies, in (Yang, 2010) the firefly
algorithm is proposed. Every firefly is having its unique property with
respect to light and fitness. Attractiveness is directly proportional to light
intensity.
a. Fireflies are also known as agents and let x i be the position of the i th
firefly in d dimension.
b. Initial fitness values for all the fireflies can be set by using
D
F(X) = i=0 X 2 ; X xi

c. The distance rij between the two fireflies, say the i th and jth ones can
be calculated as
D
=rij (x
d =1
id x jd ) 2

d. The firefly with lower brightness values is attracted towards the


firefly with higher brightness value.
e. In that case the position update of firefly can be calculated by

Where is degree of attractiveness and is a random parameter.


f. After that, light intensity is updated using the formula

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 5


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
I (r ) = I 0 e d
2

Where I0 is initial intensity, and is absorption coefficient.


g. Arrange the firefly in order and find the best firefly.
The position of theses optimal fireflies is considered to be the optimal
values. These values are selected as the optimal centroid values for our
system.

3. PROPOSED METHOD
After studying the previous approaches, we got the first thing to
design good clustering algorithm is to select the optimal centroid values at
the start. Also we have seen that the firefly algorithm is best suited when
there is the need of optimal values. Hence, in our proposed method, we used
the firefly algorithm to get the optimal initial centroid values at the early
stage of the algorithm. To provide some sort of flexibility in the process of
clustering, we implemented firefly algorithm on Rough C Means
algorithms. Since we studied that K means algorithm is crisp or hard in the
boundary region, we tried some new approach which is not tested yet.
Rough C means algorithm allow the element to become the part of either
completely in one class or in between two classes. This approach is used to
make the clustering flexible.
Our proposed method is to implement Rough C means algorithm
and provide the optimal result to it by adding the firefly algorithm. The
results of this approach are tested on different set of data. The experiment
was performed on a dataset whose number of instances varies from 5 to
5000. Mostly the dataset used for the experiment is the real numbered data,
because it is quite easy to perform and handle real data for the purpose of
experiment. The dataset is collected from the online repository available on
the internet. The system is developed in JAVA technology because it is easy
to program and highly manageable as compared to other programming
language. (Oracle-Java-Documentation, 2015) The efficient data structures like
Arraylist and concept of multithreading is used that allow the system to
avoid wastage of time and space. The approach has been followed to make
the code run on multiple processors. This can make the system to run faster
than other approaches. The proposed method is then compared with existing
method in terms of execution time.

Pseudo-code for proposed method


1. Start
2. Ask user to enter number of clusters needed noc

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 6


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
3. Ask user to view his dataset
4. If yes, then display the dataset file
5. Call store() method, to store the data in temporary storage, to avoid
accidental modification
6. Call firefly() method to initialize the value of centroids
a. set the parameters , ,
b. calculate initial fitness values of each firefly I[i]
c. calculate distance between each two fireflies r[i][j]
d. if (I[i] < I[j])
e. then firefly i move toward firefly j
f. Update and fitness value I
g. Repeat until maxGen < noc
h. Sort the fireflies and select best positions
7. Calculate the minimum distance of element from centroid of cluster
8. Calculate next to minimum distance of element from another
centroid
9. Check if the difference between both the distances is less the
threshold
10. If yes, the element belongs to boundary
11. Else, Assign elements to respective cluster
12. Recalculate mean based of each cluster and boundary elements
13. Repeat from step 7 until new centroid values are not equal to old
centroid values
14. Display the final results by printing elements with respective cluster
15. Display, number of iterations algorithm took

The important function during the program execution carried out


from the calculation of Euclidean distances in each iteration. The distance
of the element from every centroid is computed. Then the minimum and
second to minimum distance is collected for the use. If the difference
between these two distances is less than some threshold value, then that
particular element is considered to be the part of boundary between those
two clusters. And other are considered being the part of lower
approximation of that cluster. The system diagram of proposed method is
shown next.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 7


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Fig.1. Model for proposed system

The figure clearly shows the interaction of User with the system.
User is allowed to ask for his required number of clusters and he can also
see his dataset on the console screen of the system. The diagram also
projects the interaction of system with the secondary storage. User has to
specify the address of his dataset in advance before performing clustering
operation. The data from the file is collected in some temporary storage, and
all the further operations are carried out from that data. This is done to avoid
the accidental modification on original dataset during the operation. At this
stage the system can only able to read the datasets from excel file. Since
most of the datasets use Microsoft excel to store and manage data, hence
our system in its early state is developed to work with only excel
worksheets.

4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
We have implemented our proposed system in java technology,
because program in java is easy to manage. The execution of code is done
on Intel(R) core(TM) i3 CPU with 2.53 GHz processor, installed memory
(RAM) is 4.00 GB, while the system has 64-bit operating system (Windows
10).
Dataset description
Dataset 1: The voter dataset is used which has two attributes. The one
represents age and another represents sex of the candidate. It has 439
numbers of instances. The data in the file is of type integer. While the age
with value 1 represents female candidates and value 2 represents male
candidate. Data with NULL values are left blank which is ignored by the
algorithm.
Dataset 2: The weather dataset, which has 4 attributes named by city name,
Year, Lowest temperature and highest temperature. The dataset has 3000

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 8


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
number of tuples or instances. The type of the data in the dataset is integer.
In this dataset Null values are treated as zero.
Dataset 3: The third dataset is also weather dataset but with different size.
Here the number of attributes is 9 named by order country, city, year, low T,
high T, warm, cold, and average. This dataset has 5000 instances. This is
the largest dataset we have tested on our system.
In addition to the technology, we refer certain tools in the process of
development of the system. The program is developed in NetBeans IDE
8.0.2 because using NetBeans IDE is we can easily develop java desktop,
mobile and web applications. It provides fast and smart coding environment
for the developer. Another tool used for analyzing the outcomes and
comparing with proposed work is WEKA. The WEKA is the tool for
performing experiments with various algorithms from the data mining field.
It is an open source software. It provides various datasets of different size
for performing experiments. It also provides various visualization
techniques for better understanding the results like graphs, tree etc.
To make it easily understandable, we are presenting the screen of
outcomes produced while experimenting. Here we took the dataset with 5
instance and 2 attributes.

Fig.2. Sample dataset for demonstration

Optimal Centroid values collected using the firefly algorithm

Fig.3. Results of Firefly algorithm

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 9


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
There are certain parameters, which are very carefully selected from
previous researches. The sphere optimization function is adopted in firefly
algorithm, because it easy to implement and mostly used for research. The
other parameters like , , are put as constant values. Final results
collected after running on Rough C means algorithm

Fig.4. Final Results after Clustering

On each run, the system will show the elapsed time. For example,
the elapsed time of the above sample experiment is 16 milliseconds or 0.016
seconds. As given on the above results, the output of the algorithm appears
in two categories. One with the elements belongs to lower approximation of
the cluster and another with the element which are the part of boundary
region. The performance of the system is also measured on the CPU scale.
The number of cycles processor takes to execute the algorithm is also the
point of concern. The frequency of our machine is about 2.48 GHz. The
next chart taken during the time of execution, which primarily shows the
basic details about the machine include cache size, memory, core and speed
of processor. With the fundamental details, the chart clearly shows the
amount of CPU utilization during the time of execution. We have calculated

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 10


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
97% of CPU utilization during the process of execution. The chart also
displays the number of processes as well as number of threads running on
the system.
The performance noted by task manage is shown below

Fig.4. CPU utilization graph

The CPU usage in the above graph shows that processing power is
utilizes up to 97 %. As discussed early, the experiment is carried out on
different set of data collected from the repository available on Internet. The
readings of the experiment are shown below by the table. The datasets are
varied from different size in terms of both attribute and instances. The table
below shows the execution time of different datasets when size of the
dataset varies. And we found that as the size of the dataset increases, the
execution time also increases. The execution time is measured in
milliseconds. The first dataset covered in the table is same as the one shown
previously.
Table 1: Comparison of execution time
Dataset No. of No. of Execution time
attributes instances (milliseconds)

Sample 2 5 16

Voter 2 439 832


Weather_1 4 3000 7953
Weather_2 7 5000 39298

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 11


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

The graph is plotted to understand the results with the mark. The
points covered in the graph are execution time, number of instances and
number of attributes. The execution time is measured with respect to
different number of attributes and instances.

Fig.5. Execution time chart

The above chart shows that execution time is directly proportional to


the increase in number of instances and attributes. The vertical axis is taken
for time and horizontal axis is for number of attributes.
The selection of different parameters plays a vital role in the final
results. Parameters like the threshold, alpha (), beta (), Gama ( ) are
mostly taken from the previous researches performed on the selection of
optimal parameters. Out of the above mentioned parameters, the threshold
value of rough c-means generally varies with different dataset and users
requirements.

5. CONCLUSIONS
We observed that although the K-means algorithm for clustering is
easy to implement and is the most widely used one, there are many
drawbacks in this algorithm which pulls it away from resulting optimal
output. Couple of main gaps in the algorithm are, first it is sensitive to the
selection of initial centers for its cluster and another, that it doesnt permit
any element to take a part of more than one cluster group. This motivated us
to design something to solve this problem. So, we used the firefly algorithm,
to get better start to the proposed clustering algorithm. After this we used

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 12


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
the rough c-means algorithm instead of the K means clustering, which
provides more flexibility to the clustering phase by allowing elements to
belong to more than one cluster. Our proposed method is successfully tested
on datasets of different sizes. It is proposed to apply this approach by
replacing the rough c-means algorithm with other algorithms and perform
comparative analysis to find out the most suitable combination of firefly
algorithm with clustering algorithm in this direction.

REFERENCES

Aamir, S. Akhtar, A. Javed, A. and Carpenter, B. (2014). Teaching Parallel Programming


Using Java. Workshop on Education for High Performance Computing, pp.56-63.
Chen, K Y. Chang, J M. and Hou, T W. (2011). Multithreading in Java: Performance and
Scalability on Multicore Systems. IEEE Transactions on Computers, pp.1521-1534.
Javier, F G,. (2012). Java 7 Concurrency Cookbook. Packet publications.
Karimov, J. Ozbayoglu, M. and Dogdu, E. (2015). k-means Performance Improvements
with Centroid Calculation Heuristics both for Serial and Parallel environments. IEEE
International Congress on Big Data, pp.444-452
Lohrer, M. F. (2013). A Comparison Between the Firefly Algorithm and Particle Swarm
Optimization. Graduate Thesis, submitted to Oakland University
MacQueen, J. (1967). Some methods for classification and analysis of multivariate
observations. 5th Berkley Symposium, pp.281-297.
Mathew, J. and Vijayakumar, R. (2014a). Scalable parallel clustering using modified
Firefly algorithm. IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering. Volume 16. Issue 6, Ver. I,
pp.14-24.
Mathew, J. Vijayakumar, R. (2014b). Scalable Parallel Clustering Approach for Large
Data using Possibilistic Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm. International Journal of Computer
Applications. Volume 103. Number 9.
Mathew, J. and Vijayakumar, R. (2014). Scalable Parallel Clustering Approach for Large
Data Using Parallel K Means and Firefly Algorithms. International Conference on High
Performance Computing and Applications, pp.1-8.
MO, Y B. and MA, Y Z. (2013). Optimal Choice of Parameters for Firefly Algorithm, In:
Fourth International Conference on digital manufacturing and automation (ICDMA). pp.
887-892.
Raja, M S M. Manic, K S. and Rajinikanth, V. (2013). Firefly Algorithm with Various
Randomization Parameters: An Analysis. Springer International Publishing Switzerland,
pp.110-121.
Scheldt, Herbert. (2011). Java - the Complete Reference. 8th edition. Mc-Graw Hill
Companies. USA.
Swamy P, Raghuwanshi, M. and Gholghate, A. (2015). An Improved approach for K-
Means using Parallel Processing. Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on
Computing, Communication, Control and Automation. pp.358-361.
Theodoratos, S. and Koutroumbas, K. Pattern Recognition, (2008). 4th edition, Academic
Press.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 13


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
Xu, Y. Qu, W. Li, Z. Min, G. Li, K. and Liu, Z. (2014). Efficient k-Means++
Approximation with MapReduce. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems.
pp. 3135 3144..
Yang, X.S. (2010). Nature Inspired Metaheuristic Algorithms. Luniver Press. BA11 6TT.
UK.
Zhang, Y. Xiong, Z. Mao, J. and L, Ou. (2006). The Study of Parallel K-Means Algorithm.
Proceedings of the 6th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation. Dalian,
China, pp. 5868 5871
Singh, Chaitanya. (2016). Beginners Book for multithreading. [Online 1] available at:
http://beginnersbook.com/ 2013/03/multithreading-in-java/.
Oracle Java Documentation. (2015). Fork-join framework. [Online 2] available at:
https://docs.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/ essential/concurrency/ forkjoin.html.
McCullock, John.(2012). Implementation of K-means clustering. [Online 3] available at:
http://mnemstudio.org/ clustering-k-means-introduction.htm.

This paper may be cited as:


Namdev, A. and Tripathy, B.K. 2016. Scalable Rough C-Means clustering
using Firefly algorithm. International Journal of Computer Science and
Business Informatics, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 1-14.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 14


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Significance of Embedded Systems


to IoT
P. R. S. M. Lakshmi
Assistant Professor, Department of IT,
VFSTR University
Guntur

P. Lakshmi Narayanamma
Assistant Professor, Department of MS,
VFSTR University
Guntur

K. Santhi Sri
Associate Professor, Department of IT
VFSTR University
Guntur
ABSTRACT
Internet of Things is the concoction of solely assured computing devices which are
embedded inside the accessible Internet Infrastructure. So, Internet of Things essentially is
connecting Embedded Systems toward Internet. Hence, before going to IoT, first
understand the concept of Embedded Systems. In this paper, first section describes about
Embedded Systems and their boards, importance of Arduino. Second section explains the
concept of basic architecture of IoT and devices of IoT. Third section consists of various
platforms of IoT in detail.
Keywords
IoT, internet, systems

1. INTRODUCTION
Embedded controllers like DEC Alpha, MIPS, SuperH and so on are the
spirit of Embedded systems. Mainly those make a distinction of embedded
controllers through Microprocessors is their interior memory of read and
write. Thus anyone be capable of developing light weight programs using
Embedded C or Assembly language among application resembling Keil and
blaze the application addicted to the hardware. This application keeps track
of runs on a loop [1][2]. The majority of the ES contains a solitary
application is blaze through numerous sequence of program instructions.
Hence, distinct users of Personal Computers, embedded controller devices
in an Embedded System run on a single application considerably. The users

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 15


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
are able to attach numerous IO devices through these embedded controllers
are either I/O Mapped or Memory mapped. These easy components of
hardware devices include Printers, Key boards [3][5], LCD monitors and so
on. By using Analog to Digital convertor interfaces the user can attach
various sensors.

These strategies preserve the organize of high voltage, power and present
ranking strategies such as Bulbs using drive devices, motors, fans like
Relayoptocoupler etc. From simple DIY Robots to additional business
systems such as ovens, Washing Machines, Cars, AC Controllers, hand held
devices, Railway and Bus Bill printers Embedded System is throughout the
world[7][8].

Internet of Things (IoT) is a contemporary message sending exemplar that


envisions a in the vicinity of future, in which the objects of daily life resolve
and outfitted amid Micro-controllers, Transceivers used for digital
statement, and appropriate set of rules load with the purpose of making
them to Communicate with one to one and with the specific users, to turn
into a primary component of the Web. Internet of Things aims by building
the Internet flat further immersive and omnipresent additionally, through
enable simple right of entry and dealings with a extensive range of devices
like, for example, Appliances of house, Supervision Cameras, Monitoring
Sensors, Actuators, Displays, Vehicles etc.,

Internet of Things force cultivate the expansion of a quantity of applications


to make an utilization of the potential gigantic quantity and mixture of
generated data by such things for providing innovative services to society,
companies and public administrations. The archetype undeniably finds
appliance in several dissimilar domains, like Automations of homes and
industries, medicinal aids, healthcare on mobiles, old aid, intellectual vigor
administration and Smart grids, Auto-motive, Traffic Management and so
on. To expand skills to archetype Mobile enabled products use state of the
art techniques. Develop a software and hardware environment to guide users
through the IoT.

IoT is connection through internet of embedded systems and smart objects


further than those wireless phones can be attached through external devices
of hardware and personal computers, tablets, wireless phones and laptops
are remotely access core of IoT[5][6]. To analyze the importance of
Embedded Systems in the Internet of Things, this paper is organized into
three Sections. In this paper, first section describes about Embedded
Systems. Second section explains the concept of basic architecture of IoT

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 16


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
and devices of IoT. Third section consists of various platforms of IoT in
detail.

2. EMBEDDED SYSTEMS AND ITS BOARDS

Embedded Systems are most attractive because the following are the some
factors such as autonomous, less cost, less space and less power etc.

According to the autonomous factor users build specific systems to a


meticulous application. Regular peripherals of a program can be able to
move embedded controller unit into new smart controllers such as oven
controller and washing machine controllers etc. Embedded systems can be
built these type of smart devices based on their requirement. The distinct
users cant work without monitors like that an embedded system cant
specifically need output devices [9][8].

As per the factor of less expenditure, the expenditure of the embedded


controller unit is lesser than the developed one.

Along with less space, apparently Embedded System takes very minute
space compared to other mini laptops.

In relation with many embedded controllers are admired options for


embedded systems access at same voltages and same voltage power
supplies. Here voltage regulators rectify through filters.

Other factors like input and output devices cost and speed, consumption of
energy per instructions and so on.

DragonBoard 410c is a Single Board Computer which is proficient of


consecutively a diversity of dissimilar Operating Systems, to facilitate
individual told the users can be open to select the Operating System and the
user thinks it is most excellent fit for users. Now, users know that it is a
varied user support for this DragonBoard. Whether Windows user or a Mac
user, or prefer Android over Ubuntu, select an Operating System to greatest
agile to user requirements, download, installation process and flashing pro
all presently offered Operating Systems. As the varied scenery of this board
follow multiple ways to flash users new Operating System and grant an
advantages and disadvantages for the different methods. By the end
switching between Operating System can be simple and exhilarating to
users of each and every level of skills.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 17


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
2.1. Common Embedded Boards for ES

These embedded boards are supported for various embedded controllers and
can be developed by standard software and hardware units. The following
table shows the various sample boards can be used for embedded system
applications [16].

Table.1: Common Embedded Boards for Embedded Systems

CatalystBT Ultra low power CoM based on Intel


CatalystCV Ultra stumpy clout and multicore CPU based on latest
Intel processor
CatalystTC Small form factor of Intel
CatalystLP stumpy power and high concert solution based on
Intel
CatalystFX Stretchy elucidation operational with Intel for multi-
media and IO applications.
Vector stumpy power, EPIC SBC in Intel
ALUDRA solitary embark computer with grain processor
CatalystEC EPIC solitary embark computer with grain processor
ISIS XL Central processing unit module with extensive
warmth Intel atom stumpy power
Catalyst Module solitary embark computer based on Intel processor
XL

Integrated Development Environment can be developed for easily accessing


of develop, burn and debug software for the production [11][12]. Managing
hardware in the chips users can use compact kits for most complex
applications instead of embedded controllers.

Arduino is the truly evolved embedded kit by a DIY .It will give knowledge
to understand the boards of embedded systems also used in Internet of
Things [14]. This architecture is the combination of Atmel embedded
controller family through particular hardware towards a board which
contains built-in boot loader for plugs and run embedded applications. This
Arduino software helps to write, debug and burn applications into Arduino
through an IDE [16]. This IDE may get the serial data from the board
through serial communication. This software is common to embedded
systems and Internet of Things. Users can use communication devices such
as Bluetooth, CDMA, USB, Wi-Fi and so on. Embedded system can be
remotely reconfiguring one or more Embedded Systems as middle wares on
a remote terminal like computers, Laptops, Tablets and so on. As per
module unit control and Embedded System category will be checkered, it

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 18


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
offers the support for easier managing of multifaceted System. Among
these strategy to persuade interoperability, ensure security and defend
privacy and possessions rights, the Internet of Things will starts to get total
potential particularly hold close decision making of data driven.

3. BASIC ARCHITECTURE OF IOT AND ITS DEVICES

Internet of Things and its devices are mix with smart things and embedded
systems through internet with different IP addresses those were discover
and communicate. IoT are basically Embedded Systems and elegant
substance coupled to Internet with exceptional IP address which can be
naked and communicated on Internet. These comprise Sensors external
peripheral devices and actuators external peripheral devices.

Coming to day to day activities cell headset is principally an Embedded


System through a CPU by the innermost component has flaunt on output
devices. These sustain broad diversity of sensors like accelerometer,
ambient light sensors, gyroscope etc. These are associated to internet cell
phones get unique IP addresses, know how to access internet. Further it can
be fit virtually on each and every IoT descriptions. Smart objects are the
objects that are not only have a state, have specific data which is associated
through a state but an object and also verify the character, duration and
protocols of connectivity[10][15]. Some techniques like Near Field
Communication, Bluetooth Low Energy and Radio Frequency Identification
create it the usage of cell phones.

Radio frequency identification, Blue-tooth stumpy oomph and Near Field


Communication craft it doable to exploit our headset as a whilst of readers.
Tap the devices with specific objects users can be capable of extracting the
information [9]. RFID and NFC tags have not any type of embedded
systems [1]. However, the data may be from internet with the help of
readers. This type of objects is called as smart objects. The devices of
Internet of Things can be divided into two broad categories. These are
Wearable and embedded controllers. One of the important examples of this
is digital watches. The following are the five features of wearable devices.

1. Easy to use: These devices are successful innovative products for reality
of services and easy to use. Wearable devices are most waterproof products.
2. Better battery life: These devices can be able to work with less power and
contains greater life of battery.
3. Ecosystems: This app contains proper set of instructions to get the real
life examples.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 19


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
4. Data security: Physically assist the devices from others and assist as
information related things like secure mail applications, secure browsers
and secure clouds.
5. Managing hands free: These things manage in reality of applications
through phone.

Figure 1: Basic architecture of IoT`

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 20


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
4. SOME PLATFORMS OF IOT

These platforms can be divided into two ways that are wearable and
embedded. Programmers develop their apps for wearable like Samsung
gear, peeble and make own platform for embedded solutions and build apps
for that platforms [6].
4.1 Wearable Platforms
Most powerful platform for mobile and wearable devices is Tizen. It makes
to build some solutions for this platform. Digital or smart watches are
familiar in daily life. These types of Android applications can be building
and tested in Eclipse environment. Another wearable platform is salesforce
through this the users can develop good applications. These can be
upgraded from peeble to googleglass.
4.2 Embedded Platforms
The best platform for embedded IoT is Arduino. In this platform users want
to set Android through Ethernet shield. These platforms work with serial
communications and develop smart applications with this.
4.2.1Raspberry Pi is perhaps the greatest thing to ensue in DIY Internet of
Things. Broad series of data drive applications such as domicile compact
disk servers, automations of home server; file server can be built with this
Pi. Pi has commonly used these IO pins like Arduino. But working of these
sensors is little much dreary in Pi.
4.2.2 Intel Edison is another IoT platform incorporated Wi-Fi and BLE. It
covers huge place of industries with seventy pin interface. It supports some
other platforms like node.js and Arduino.
4.2.3Intel Galileo is an extra platform by Intel which chains the Arduino
Uno. It is the first Arduino compatible device of Intel devices.
4.3 Cloud Platform for IoT
In the predictable vending machine the user wants to compress a button or
locate a coin to generate the procedure of fluid flow, which stops once
particular magnitude. At present how to integrate Google or Paypal hard
cash through the retailing contraption? How a client discovers the retailing
contraption as Website in conjunction through this place and then pays
online pro a glass of beverage. Formerly after successful payment client get
an access of token [13]. Client knows how to surpass the indication to the
contraption through NFC and bingo punter receives his/ her slurp. This is
for the most part proficient and vital logic to understand the Internet of
Things and various services such as online payment gateway. Different
hardware platforms reminiscent of implanted embark of the retailing
contraption and elegant things or objects, data such as GPS, Near Field
Communication towards this environment [12]. At present the user can be
able to mix payment through online into potion retailing contraption, and

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 21


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
not deliberate for a district Washing Machine, payment services of toll gate
and data of ECG for medical diagnosis into cloud and various doctors may
view it and give their valuable suggestions about the state of patients.
All the above things are possible in cloud environment and to understand
the web and designing the applications towards the cloud. Various modules
like web of machines in M2M, M2O, any communication modules are
common and demand the data which is available for sharing and API s of
Cloud also help for this. The user can make a discovery of devices in web
and to allocate permanent IP address, manage routers and for various skills
of networking. The user can not have any knowledge to make the network
for Internet of Things.
Yaler is an enormous exemplar of what Services and Cloud is able to
convey to table. This provides alliance when a Service is to facilitate the
gadget is simply ascertain and commune on the network exclusive of a lot
hassle and takes much care on beneath security. Some of the following are
examples of these platforms [13]. Axeda provide Infrastructure for Machine
to Machine architecture. OpenIoT is free open source platform to provide
other services and different Sensing as a Service (Se aa S).Google also
previously combines the location services during the cloud. It knows how to
be extracted some devices and keep updates of status in Face book and
Twitter for other searching purposes. Hence, CloudAPI has a enormous
talent in IoT of all architecture levels from firmware to hardware to most
top level architectures.

5. CONCLUSION

In this paper explained about significance of embedded systems and Internet


of Things. Embedded systems can be able to develop single applications
like ovens, washing machines etc. By using this Internet of Things the users
can be able to develop smart applications like automation of homes, health
care data etc. To develop these types of applications we know about
embedded boards which are used in embedded systems and Internet of
Things. And which platforms are related to this.

6. REFERENCES

[1] J. A. Stankovic, "Research directions for the Internet of Things", IEEE Internet Things J., vol. 1,
no. 1, pp. 3-9, Feb. 2014.
[2] Laurence T. Yang, Hong Liu, Huansheng Ning, "Cyberentity Security in the Internet of Things",
Computer, vol. 46, no. , pp. 46-53, April 2013, doi:10.1109/MC.2013.74
[3] Steven Lanzisera, Andrew R. Weber, Anna Liao, Dominic Pajak, Alan K. Meier
Communicating power supplies: Bringing the internet to the ubiquitous energy gateways of
electronic devices, IEEE Internet Things J., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 153160, Apr. 2014.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 22


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
[4] Yan Chen, Feng Han, Yu-Han Yang, Hang Ma, Yi Han, Chunxiao Jiang, Hung-Quoc Lai, David
Claffey, Zoltan Safar, and K. J. Ray Time-reversal wireless paradigm for green Internet of
Things: An overview, IEEE Internet Things J., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 8198, Feb. 2014.
[5] J. Yang and Z. Fei, Broadcasting with prediction and selective forwarding in vehicular
networks, Int. J. Distrib. Sensor Netw., vol. 2013, pp. 19, 2013.
[6] Tao Zhang, Helder Antunes, Siddhartha Aggarwal Defending connected vehicles against
malware: Challenges and a solution framework, IEEE Internet Things J., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 10
21, Feb. 2014.
[7] Andrea Zanella, Nicola Bui, Angelo Castellani, Lorenzo Vangelista, Michele Zorzi Internet of
Things for smart cities, IEEE Internet Things J., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 2232, Feb. 2014.
[8] Panagiotis Vlacheas, Raffaele Giaffreda,, Vera Stavroulaki, Andrey Somov and Abdur Rahim
Biswas, Klaus Moessner Enabling smart cities through a cognitive management framework for
the Internet of Things, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 102111, Jun. 2013.
[9] Antonio M. Ortiz, Dina Hussein, Soochang Park, Son N. Han, Noel Crespi The cluster between
Internet of Things and social networks: Review and research challenges, IEEE Internet Things
J., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 206215, Jun. 2014
[10] C. E. A. Mulligan and M. Olsson, Architectural implications of smart city business models: An
evolutionary perspective, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 8085, Jun. 2013.
[11] ] N. Walravens and P. Ballon, Platform business models for smart cities: From control and
value to governance and public value, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 7279, Jun.
2013.
[12] Stefan Foell, Gerd Kortuem, Reza Rawassizadeh, Marcus Handte, Umer Iqbal, Pedro Marrn
Micro-navigation for urban bus passengers: Using the Internet of Things to improve the public
transport experience, in Proc. 1st Int. Conf. IoT Urban Space (Urb-IoT), Rome, Italy, 2014, pp.
16.
[13] ] Marcus Handte, Eva Maria Muoz, Sara Izquierdo Crowd density estimation for public
transport vehicles, in Proc. Workshop Min. Urban Data (MUD) Joint Conf. EDBT/ICDT,
Athens, Greece, Mar. 2014, pp. 315322.
[14] Henrich C Phls, Vangelis Angelakis, Santiago Suppan, Kai Fischer, George Oikonomou, Elias
Z Tragos, Rodrigo Diaz Rodriguez, Theodoros Mouroutis RERUM: Building a reliable IoT
upon privacy- and security- enabled smart objects, in Proc. IEEE Wireless Commun. Netw.
Conf. Workshops (WCNCW), Apr. 2014, pp. 122127.
[15] L. Tan, Z. Zhu, F. Ge, and N. Xiong, Utility maximization resource allocation in wireless
networks: Methods and algorithms, IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Syst., vol. 45, no. 7, pp.
10181034, Jul. 2015
[16] V. Angelakis, I. Avgouleas, N. Pappas, and D. Yuan, Flexible allocation of heterogeneous
resources to services on an IoT device, in Proc. IEEE Conf. Comput. Commun. Workshops
(INFOCOM), Apr. 2015, pp. 99 100.

This paper may be cited as:


Lakshmi, P. R. S. M., Narayanamma, P. L. and Sri, P. L., 2016.
Significance of Embedded Systems to IoT. International Journal of
Computer Science and Business Informatics, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 15-23.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 23


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Cognitive Abilities, Information Literacy


Knowledge and Retrieval Skills of
Undergraduates: A Comparison of Public
and Private Universities in Nigeria
Janet O. Adekannbi, Testimony Morenike Oluwayinka
Africa Regional Centre for Information Science
University of Ibadan, Nigeria

ABSTRACT
This study investigated the differences in the cognitive abilities, information literacy knowledge
and skills as well as information retrieval skills between students in public and private
universities in Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was adopted. Two colleges, Natural
Sciences and Management Sciences were purposively selected from the Federal University of
Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB) while three schools, Basic and Applied Sciences,
Computing and Engineering and Babcock Business School were selected from Babcock
University. The colleges/schools were later stratified into six related departments/courses for
ease of comparison. Convenience sampling was used to select the total of 235 respondents that
participated in the study. Four hypotheses were tested. Result of the test of hypotheses showed
no significant difference in the cognitive abilities, information literacy knowledge and skills of
students in public and private universities. However, a significant difference was observed in
information retrieval skills of the students. Students of Babcock University, a private institution
had higher level of information retrieval skills than FUNAAB students, a public university. The
study recommends library and information professionals in public universities should be
encouraged by administrative heads of such institutions to periodically organize practical
workshops on information retrieval skills for students.
Keywords
Cognitive Abilities, Information Literacy, Information Retrieval, University, Nigeria.

1. INTRODUCTION
Information has obviously been an important part of human lives. Humans have
long been processors and users of information to help in their decision making
[1], a trend that has also been widely observed among students. However, the
various trends and level of information explosion, and the emergence of new
technologies [2] in the information society have made students to rely on
electronic resources found in the University libraries, technology centers and

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 24


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
computer laboratories to meet their information needs. [3]. Hence, in order to
satisfy their information needs, students engage in information retrieval
activities.
Information retrieval basically involves retrieving documents that a user
perceives to be relevant his information need as expressed by his request [4].
According to Omuinu [5], such request which must have been defined might
not be a perfect expression of the users information need. In spite of this, the
user is still the only person who can tell the relevance of the document retrieved
to his information need [4]. The implication of this is that the relevance of a
document might be different for two users with identical requests. According to
Royal College of Nursing [6], steps to ensuring effective information retrieval
skills include: identifying where relevant information can be found; checking
the suitability of information sources to meet the information need; consults
with colleagues and information specialists to help identify other tools, such as
indexes, for accessing information; using appropriate information services to
retrieve information, among others.
For students to efficiently retrieve information, information literacy is
important [4,7]. Information literacy (IL) is the set of skills and knowledge that
enables us to find, evaluate and use the information we need, and at the same
time filter out the information we do not need [1]. With adequate Information
literacy skills, potential information users can successfully explore the
landscape of information with less stress especially in the era of information
explosion and society. According to Eisenberg [1], there are many information
literacy standards, some of these are the Big6 model [8], AASL/AECT IL
Standards [9] and ACRL IL Competency Standards for Higher Education [10].
In most cases, the relationship between some independent variables and
information retrieval skills are being interfered with users characteristics such
as cognitive abilities [11]. Some cognitive processes involved in information
retrieval include learning, comprehension and speed in spotting information.
These factors have a role to play in the effectiveness of users during a search
process [11].

Previous studies have investigated students information literacy skills [12,13],


cognitive skills [14,15] and information retrieval skills [2,16-20]. However,
none of these studies have considered another variable which has received
some attention in other study areas, namely whether these skills will be
different between students in public and private universities.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 25


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
Public universities are generally funded by governments while private
universities rely heavily on tuition fees paid by students. Mazumber [21]
investigated the satisfaction of students with the quality of higher education in
public and private universities in Bangladesh. The study showed students from
private universities are more satisfied than those of public universities. A later
study comparing Bangladesh and USA however showed that while there is a
larger gap in student satisfaction in public universities compared to private
universities in Bangladesh, smaller gaps were observed between private and
public universities in USA. This indicates that there is no significant difference
in student satisfaction with public and private universities in USA [22]. An
earlier study carried out in Nigeria revealed that while there is no significant
difference in student entry requirement between public and private universities
in Nigeria, there is significant difference in resource availability, resource
utilization, governance, and students academic performance [23]. Moreover,
Fordjour et al [4] and Ilogho and Nkiko [24] linked students search difficulties
and poor academic performance in school to ignorance of information literacy
and retrieval skills. Hence, this study investigated and compared the following
in public and private universities:

i. information literacy knowledge possessed by students


ii. information literacy skills.
iii. cognitive abilities.
iv. information retrieval skills

Based on these objectives, the following hypotheses were tested:


H1: There is no significant difference in the information knowledge of students
in public and private universities.
H2: There is no significant difference in the information literacy skills of
students in public and private universities.
H3: There is no significant difference in the cognitive abilities of students in
public and private universities.
H4: There is no significant difference in the information retrieval skills of
students in public and private universities.

2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A survey research design was adopted for this study. The location of this study
is Ogun State, Nigeria. Ogun State was purposively selected for this study
because it has the highest number of tertiary institutions in Nigeria as shown on

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 26


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
the list of universities in Nigeria on the website of National Universities
Commission (nuc.edu.ng). The study was carried out in two selected
universities. These are Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (Public
university) and Babcock University (Private university). These universities
were purposively selected for two reasons, namely, accessibility to the
students population statistics and the fact that the two universities have some
departments in common as shown in Table 1.
Table 1a: Sampling Distribution - Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta
Colleges Departments Population Respondents
Per
Department
Natural Sciences Biochemistry 93 19
Computer Science 88 18
Microbiology 91 18
Science Accounting 22 4
Business Enterprise (Business 200 40
Administration)
Economics 103 21
Total 597 120
Source: Administrative Unit, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta,
2014
Table 1b: Sampling Distribution - Babcock University
Schools Courses Population Respondents
Per Course
Basic and Applied Sciences Microbiology 45 9
Biochemistry 55 11
Computing and Engineering Computer Science 140 28

Babcock Business School Accounting 157 31


Business 92 18
Administration
Economics 164 33
Total 653 130
Source: Data Services and Archival Unit, Babcock University, 2015

The target population of this study comprised the undergraduate students in


both universities. The study purposively selected 300 level students from both
universities because it is assumed that students at this level are already familiar

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 27


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
with their academic activities. However, 400 level students were excluded from
this study because of their preparation for the examinations.
A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select respondents for the study.
Two colleges, Natural Sciences and Management Sciences were purposively
selected from the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta while three
schools, Basic and Applied Sciences, Computing and Engineering and Babcock
Business School were selected from Babcock University. The colleges/schools
were later stratified into six related departments/courses which were
purposively selected from both institutions. This was done to ensure uniformity
across the departments.
The total population for the six selected departments/courses in both
universities is 1,250. Nwana [25] proposed that if a population is a few
hundreds, we need a sample of 20%. Hence, using a sample size of 20%, 120
and 130 respondents were selected from 300level undergraduates in Federal
University of Agriculture, Abeokuta and Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo,
Ogun State respectively (Table 1). Convenience sampling was however used to
select the 300 level students in the selected departments/courses that
participated in the study based on their accessibility, availability and readiness
to participate in the study.

2.1 Data collection and analysis


Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was
carefully designed to ensure that information and data obtained are relevant to
the objective of the study. The study adopted the questionnaire used by Ekenna
and Mabawonku (2013). The questionnaire was divided into four major
sections namely:
Section A: This section consisted of demographic characteristics of the
respondents which included gender, age group, faculty/college, course of study
etc.
Section B: This section assessed the information literacy knowledge through an
achievement test and information literacy level of the respondent.
Section C: This section assessed the cognitive abilities of the respondents.
Section D: This section assessed the students information retrieval skills
The items in Section B of Information Literacy Knowledge Test were
structured on four (4) options of multiple choice questions with only one
correct answer. Each respondent was scored and the pass mark was set at 40%.
Information Literacy skill Questions were structured on four (4) point rating
scale of Highly Skilled (HS), Moderately Skilled (MS), Weakly Skilled (WS)

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 28


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
and Not Skilled (NS). The items in section C of Cognitive Abilities were
structured on 4 point rating scale of Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree
(D) and Strongly Disagree (SD) and the items in section D of Information
Retrieval Skills was structured on 5 point rating scale of Very Good (VG),
Good (G), Average (A) Poor (P) and Very Poor (VP). Respondents were
instructed on how to respond to the questionnaire.
Of the 250 questionnaire administered, 235 were returned, showing a return
rate of 94%. Frequency and percentage distributions as well as independent
sample t-test were used to analyse data collected with the questionnaire.

3. RESULTS
3.1 Demographic characteristics of respondents
Table 2 shows the socio-demographic characteristics of respondents.
Table 2: Demographic Data of the Respondents
VARIABLE MEASUREMENT FREQUENCY PERCENT (%)
GENDER MALE 123 52.3
FEMALE 112 47.7
AGE GROUP 16 20 122 51.9
21 25 102 43.4
26 30 7 3.0
31 35 2 0.9
36 40 1 0.4
41 45 1 0.4
RELIGION Christianity 202 86.0
Islam 33 14.0
MARITAL STATUS Married 8 3.4
Single 227 96.6
COLLEGES / SCHOOLS Basic and Applied Sciences 20 8.5
Computing and Engineering 28 11.9
Babcock Business School 78 33.2
College of Natural Sciences 55 23.4
College of Management Science 54 23.0
DEPARTMENTS/ Biochemistry 30 12.8
COURSES Microbiology 27 11.5
Computer Science 46 19.6
Business Administration 47 20.0
Accounting 31 13.2
Economics 54 23.0
RESPONDENT SCHOOL Babcock 126 53.6
FUNAAB 109 46.4

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 29


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Majority of the respondents were males (52.3%) while 47.7% were females.
More than 95% of the respondents were between 16-25 years. Almost all the
respondents were single (96.6%). Larger proportion (86.0%) of the respondents
practice Christianity, while 14% practice Islam religion. The distribution of
respondents by their faculty include 4.7% from College of Medicine, 3.8%
Basic and Applied Sciences, 11.9% Computer Science and Mathematics, 33.2%
Babcock Business School, 23.4% College of Natural Sciences and 23.0% from
College of Management Science.

3.2 Information literacy knowledge test


The information literacy knowledge possessed by undergraduate students in
Babcock and FUNAAB was measured based on their understanding of the need
for information, how to locate, evaluate and use information. Table 3 shows the
performance of students in each school.
Table 3: Information Literacy Knowledge Performance of Students
BABCOCK FUNAAB
INFORMATION Failed Passed Total Failed Passed Total
How does one know when he needs Frequency 24 102 126 27 82 109
information? Percent 19.0 81.0 100.0 24.8 75.2 100.0
When one is given an assignment, the Frequency 69 57 126 63 46 109
first thing he should do is to Percent 54.8 45.2 100.0 57.8 42.2 100.0
To define ones specific information Frequency 75 51 126 53 56 109
need, the first thing one should do is
to Percent 59.5 40.5 100.0 48.6 51.4 100.0
To determine whether the needed Frequency 89 37 126 61 48 109
information exists or not, the first
thing to do is to Percent 70.6 29.4 100.0 56.0 44.0 100.0
The easiest way to locate information Frequency 50 76 126 39 70 109
is Percent 39.7 60.3 100.0 35.8 64.2 100.0
To become familiar with a subject Frequency 90 36 126 68 41 109
about which one knows very little,
one should first consult Percent 71.4 28.6 100.0 62.4 37.6 100.0
For most current information about a Frequency 74 52 126 83 26 109
topic, one needs to consult Percent 58.7 41.3 100.0 76.1 23.9 100.0
If I want to find journal articles Frequency 77 49 126 66 43 109
about The popularity of video
games, I will search in Percent 61.1 38.9 100.0 60.6 39.4 100.0
Using a search engine such as Google Frequency 55 71 126 51 58 109
or Yahoo, one will not find Percent 43.7 56.3 100.0 46.8 53.2 100.0

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 30


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
Using a search engine such as Google
to search for documents on The
depletion of the ozone layer and the Frequency 72 54 126 56 53 109
impact on health, one should best
use the words Percent 57.1 42.9 100.0 51.4 48.6 100.0
To diversify a search statement using Frequency 63 63 126 47 62 109
Boolean operators, which of the
following can be used Percent 50.0 50.0 100.0 43.1 56.9 100.0
In order to find more documents on
my topic I can include synonyms in
my search statement. To connect Frequency 85 41 126 65 44 109
those synonyms in my statement, I
use Percent 67.5 32.5 100.0 59.6 40.4 100.0
When one has found a book that is Frequency 81 45 126 81 28 109
right on his topic. Which section of
the book will he consult to find other
documents on the topic Percent 64.3 35.7 100.0 74.3 25.7 100.0
To find all documents about Frequency 47 79 126 36 73 109
Professor Wole Soyinka in the library
catalogue, one would do a search Percent 37.3 62.7 100.0 33.0 67.0 100.0
Some of the criteria used to evaluate Frequency 54 72 126 48 61 109
the quality of internet site are that Percent 42.9 57.1 100.0 44.0 56.0 100.0
Some of the criteria used to evaluate Frequency 73 53 126 72 37 109
the quality of print sources are Percent 57.9 42.1 100.0 66.1 33.9 100.0
Which of these is not a criterion used Frequency 73 53 126 69 40 109
to evaluate the quality of online
sources Percent 57.9 42.1 100.0 63.3 36.7 100.0
Which of the following best describes Frequency 75 51 126 57 52 109
articles published in a scholarly
journal Percent 59.5 40.5 100.0 52.3 47.7 100.0
Plagiarism is presenting the work of
others as though it were your own.
Which of the following is an example Frequency 56 70 126 62 47 109
of plagiarism Percent 44.4 55.6 100.0 56.9 43.1 100.0
When one reads a work which one
wants to use for an assignment. He
may not cite the author of the work Frequency 101 25 126 84 25 109
when Percent 80.2 19.8 100.0 77.1 22.9 100.0

For understanding the need for information, a higher percentage of the students
in both Babcock (81.0%) and FUNAAB (75.2%) know when they need
information. Also, as high as 70.6% of Babcock students did not know the step
to take to determine whether the needed information exists or not compared to

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 31


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
only 56.0% of FUNAAB students that failed the same question. On the other
hand, 76.1% of FUNAAB students did not know where to consult for most
current information about a topic compared to 58.7% of Babcock students who
failed the same question. Majority of the students in both Babcock (80.2%) and
FUNAAB (77.1%) failed the question when one reads a work which one wants
to use for an assignment, he may not cite the author of the work'.

Table 4 shows the overall performance of students in both schools.


Table 4: Overall performance in Information literacy knowledge test
BABCOCK Frequency Percent FUNAAB Frequency Percent

Failed 44 34.9 Failed 31 28.4


Passed 82 65.1 Passed 78 71.6
Total 126 100.0 Total 109 100.0

Table 4 shows that 34.9% got below the pass mark of 40%, while a greater
number of the respondents (65.1%) got above 40% out of the 126 students in
Babcock University. Also, 28.4% got below 40% in Federal University of
Agriculture, Abeokuta, while 71.6% got above 40% out of the 109 students.

3.3 Information literacy skills


Table 5 shows the findings on the information literacy skills of students in both
universities.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 32


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
Table 5: Descriptive of Information Literacy Skills of Students
Babcock FUNAAB
INFORMATION HS MS WS NS Mean S.D HS MS WS NS Mean S.D
Formulating question
base on my specific Frequency 46 72 7 1 3.31 0.574 51 46 10 2 3.34 0.723
information need Percent 36.5 57.1 5.6 0.8 46.8 42.2 9.2 1.8
Using several sources Frequency 45 62 15 3 39 53 15 2
to increase familiarity 3.19 0.737 3.18 0.735
with my topic Percent 36.0 49.6 12.0 2.4 35.8 48.6 13.8 1.8
Using the bibliography
or reference list on the Frequency 37 63 21 4 38 34 25 12
3.06 0.770 2.90 1.009
book to find other
documents on the topic Percent 29.6 50.4 16.8 3.2 34.9 31.2 22.9 11.0
Using encyclopedia to
understand a
background Frequency 48 43 29 5 3.07 0.881 46 31 18 14 3.00 1.054
information to a
particular topic Percent 38.4 34.4 23.2 4.0 42.2 28.4 16.5 12.9
Finding all the
documents about a
particular author in the Frequency 32 60 27 5 39 38 19 13
library catalogue, by
2.96 0.800 2.94 1.008
doing access points
search either by
author, title, subject or
keywords Percent 25.8 48.4 21.8 4.0 35.8 34.9 17.4 11.9
Using Google scholar Frequency 51 57 14 3 3.25 0.748 43 33 25 8 3.02 0.962

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 33


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
as Google features to
find a research article
online Percent 40.8 45.6 11.2 2.4 39.4 30.3 22.9 7.4
Finding more
documents on my
topics online, by Frequency 45 42 29 9 29 42 25 13
combining synonyms in 2.98 0.942 2.80 0.970
my search by using the
Boolean operator
OR Percent 36.0 33.6 23.2 7.2 26.7 38.5 22.9 11.9
Narrowing my search
on a particular topic, Frequency 30 50 30 15 32 36 29 12
2.76 0.954 2.81 0.986
by using the Boolean
operator AND Percent 24.0 40.0 24.0 12.0 29.4 33.0 26.6 11.0
Removing unwanted
documents from my Frequency 34 41 27 23 27 37 30 15
search, by using the 2.69 1.066 2.70 0.995
Boolean operator
NOT Percent 27.2 32.8 21.6 18.4 24.8 33.9 27.5 13.8
Formulating right Frequency 44 61 15 5 39 37 28 5
keywords in searching 3.15 0.783 3.01 0.897
for information online Percent 35.2 48.8 12.0 4.0 35.8 33.9 25.7 4.6
Competently Frequency 27 65 27 5 30 47 22 10
evaluating information 2.92 0.771 2.89 0.916
no matter the source Percent 21.8 52.4 21.8 4.0 27.5 43.1 20.2 9.2
Evaluating print Frequency 39 58 25 3 26 47 23 13
sources based on its 3.06 0.780 2.79 0.944
criterion Percent 31.2 46.4 20.0 2.4 23.9 43.1 21.1 11.9

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 34


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
Evaluating online Frequency 38 64 21 2 35 41 21 12
sources based on its 3.10 0.728 2.91 0.977
criterion Percent 30.4 51.2 16.8 1.6 32.1 37.6 19.3 11.0
Selecting materials and
summarizing them in Frequency 50 55 16 4 52 35 12 10
3.21 0.786 3.18 0.964
my own words for
personal use Percent 40.0 44.0 12.8 3.2 47.7 32.1 11.0 9.2
Preserving and storing Frequency 43 59 16 6 46 42 14 7
information for future 3.12 0.812 3.17 0.887
use Percent 34.7 47.6 12.9 4.8 42.2 38.5 12.8 6.5
Using acquired
information as a lead to Frequency 47 54 18 6 35 38 25 11
3.14 0.836 2.89 0.975
produce an article or
thesis Percent 37.6 43.2 14.4 4.8 32.1 34.9 22.9 10.1
Communicating and
presenting information Frequency 41 58 20 6 44 35 25 5
to others in 3.07 0.825 3.08 0.904
appropriate and usable
format Percent 32.8 46.4 16.0 4.8 40.4 32.1 22.9 4.6
Competently citing and
acknowledging other Frequency 46 54 21 4 31 47 20 11
3.14 0.807 2.90 0.932
peoples work that I
used Percent 36.8 43.2 16.8 3.2 28.4 43.1 18.4 10.1
Key: - HS Highly Skilled; MS Moderately Skilled; WS Weakly Skilled; NS Not Skilled

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 35


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
Results in Table 5 show that generally Babcock students were only moderately
skilled in all the items used in measuring information literacy skills. However,
an exception was observed with Using encyclopedia to understand a
background information to a particular topic and Finding more documents on
my topics online, by combining synonyms in my search by using the Boolean
operator OR, where more students were highly skilled than moderately
skilled. In contrast, FUNAAB students were highly skilled in 9 of the 18 items
used to measure information literacy skills. The information literacy skills of
students in both schools can be considered satisfactory in view of the fact that
the lowest mean observed was 2.69 from Babcock University.
3.4 Cognitive abilities
The cognitive abilities of students in FUNAAB and Babcock University was
measured by their responses to the questions asked in this section which was
classified into strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree. The result
is presented in Table 6.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 36


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
Table 6: Descriptive of Cognitive Abilities of Students

INFORMATION Babcock university FUNAAB


SA A D SD Mean S.D SA A D SD Mean S.D
I remember things very Frequency 55 67 3 1 48 51 9 1
3.40 0.581 3.34 0.670
easily Percent 43.7 53.2 2.4 0.7 44.0 46.8 8.3 0.9
My memory can contain a lot
of things and not forget them Frequency 29 68 26 3 31 53 22 3
2.98 0.732 3.03 0.775
Percent 23.0 54.0 20.6 2.4 28.4 48.6 20.2 2.8
I find it easy to express my Frequency 38 63 20 5 39 42 22 6 0.886
3.06 0.787 3.05
ideas to people orally Percent 30.2 50.0 15.8 4.0 35.8 38.5 20.2 5.5
I find it easy to express my Frequency 43 63 16 4 46 33 15 15
3.15 0.760 3.01
ideas to people in writing Percent 34.1 50.0 12.7 3.2 42.2 30.3 13.8 13.7 1.058
I concentrate very well and
with minimal distraction Frequency 35 64 23 4 3.03 0.769 28 53 19 9 2.92 0.873
during retrieval processes Percent 27.8 50.8 18.3 3.1 25.7 48.6 17.4 8.3
I have the ability to
automatically and fluently Frequency 42 67 14 3 24 50 27 8
3.17 0.716 2.83 0.859
perform simple mental
processes Percent 33.3 53.2 11.1 2.4 22.0 45.9 24.8 7.3
I have the ability to
deliberately control mental Frequency 37 63 18 8 3.04 0.817 32 48 18 11 2.93 0.930
processes to solve problems Percent 29.4 50.0 14.3 6.3 29.4 44.0 16.5 10.1

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 37


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

In both schools, most of the students only agreed to the items under cognitive
abilities. An exception was however observed in FUNAAB where many of the
respondents (42.2%) strongly agreed to the item, I find it easy to express my
ideas to people in writing (Table 6). It was surprising to observe that over 20%
of students in each school disagreed with the item My memory can contain a
lot of things and not forget them. Similarly, over 20% of FUNAAB students
disagreed with the items I find it easy to express my ideas to people orally
(20.2%) and I have the ability to automatically and fluently perform simple
mental processes (24.8%).

3.5 Information retrieval skills


The results from the information retrieval skills of Babcock and FUNAAB
students are presented in Table 7.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 38


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
Table 7: Descriptive of Information Retrieval Skills of Students
Babcock FUNAAB

Mean S.D
Mean S.D
INFORMATION VG G A P VP VG G A P VP
Definition of your needs Frequency 53 53 13 1 1 49 36 11 11 2
for research 4.29 0.758 4.09 1.059
Percent 42.1 42.1 10.2 0.8 0.8 45.0 33.0 10.1 10.1 1.8
Locating information in Frequency 35 63 21 2 4.08 0.726 33 43 14 16 3
3.80 1.112
e-resources. Percent 27.8 50.0 16.6 1.6 30.3 39.4 12.8 14.7 2.8
Selecting Frequency 35 56 26 3 1 33 33 21 13 9
articles/journals/books 4.00 0.827 3.62 1.260
with ease. Percent 27.8 44.4 20.6 2.4 0.8 30.3 30.3 19.3 11.9 8.2
Summarizing materials 3.98 0.940
Frequency 39 52 21 7 2 43 32 25 8 1 3.99 1.005
in your own words.
Percent 30.9 41.3 16.7 5.5 1.6 39.4 29.4 22.9 7.3 0.9
Understanding Frequency 31 58 26 4 2 28 32 23 12 14
terminologies used in 3.93 0.868 3.44 1.329
databases. Percent 24.6 46.0 20.6 3.2 1.6 25.7 29.4 21.1 11.0 12.8
Use of reference sources Frequency 26 54 24 13 4 30 31 19 16 13
3.70 1.030
to increase familiarity of 3.45 1.350
topics Percent 20.6 42.9 19.0 10.3 3.2 27.5 28.4 17.4 14.7 11.9
Use of mouse and Frequency 60 37 18 3 3 59 17 21 11 1
4.22 0.962 4.12 1.103
keyboard. Percent 47.6 29.4 14.3 2.4 2.4 54.1 15.6 19.3 10.1 0.9
Copying information
into your storage device Frequency 63 36 13 7 1 4.28 0.935 42 31 15 19 2
3.84 1.172
such as flash drive CD
ROM Percent 50.0 28.6 10.3 5.6 .8 38.5 28.4 13.8 17.4 1.8
Retrieving information Frequency 64 36 17 3 1 43 36 12 14 4
from internet 4.31 0.866 3.92 1.164
Percent 50.8 28.6 13.5 2.4 .8 39.4 33.0 11.0 12.8 3.7
Retrieving information Frequency 57 38 16 7 3 4.15 1.022 41 36 15 14 3 3.90 1.130

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 39


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
from flash drive Percent 45.2 30.2 12.7 5.6 2.4 37.6 33.0 13.8 12.8 2.8
Retrieving information Frequency 55 39 20 5 2 4.16 0.957 37 35 22 12 3
3.83 1.101
from CD ROM Percent 43.7 31.0 15.9 4.0 1.6 33.9 32.1 20.2 11.0 2.8
Retrieving information Frequency 51 37 23 6 4 4.03 1.056 36 25 22 18 8
from articles/journals 3.58 1.300
Percent 40.5 29.4 18.3 4.8 3.2 33.0 22.9 20.2 16.5 7.3
Frequency 39 49 18 11 4 3.89 1.063 26 25 27 17 14
Scanning images. 3.29 1.335
Percent 31.0 38.9 14.3 8.7 3.2 23.9 22.9 24.8 15.6 12.8
Access of on-line Frequency 60 44 15 1 2 45 31 16 8 9
4.30 0.842
databases. 3.87 1.263
Percent 47.6 34.9 11.9 .8 1.6 41.3 28.4 14.7 7.3 8.3
Download files from Frequency 50 52 14 4 2 4.18 0.882 34 33 20 16 6
online databases. 3.67 1.218
Percent 39.7 41.3 11.1 3.2 1.6 31.2 30.3 18.3 14.7 5.5
Use of Boolean operators Frequency 24 41 40 11 6 3.54 1.061 22 25 29 20 13
(OR, AND, NOT). 3.21 1.292
Percent 19.0 32.5 31.7 8.7 4.8 20.2 22.9 26.6 18.3 11.9
Combining two terms to Frequency 25 52 27 14 4 3.66 1.035 25 31 17 24 12
retrieve information. 3.30 1.337
Percent 19.8 41.3 21.4 11.1 3.2 22.9 28.4 15.6 22.0 11.0
Use of truncation search Frequency 26 32 36 17 11 25 17 34 14 19
3.37 1.221
techniques ($, *, +) to 3.14 1.378
retrieve information. Percent 20.6 25.4 28.6 13.5 8.7 22.9 15.6 31.2 12.8 17.4
Use of search engines Frequency 64 36 11 7 4 4.22 1.049 56 19 11 21 2
such as Yahoo, Google,
3.97 1.251
Alta Visa and Google
scholar etc. Percent 50.8 28.6 8.7 5.6 3.2 51.4 17.4 10.1 19.3 1.8

Key: - VG Very Good; G Good; A Average; P Poor; VP Very Poor

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 40


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
Table 7 shows that generally students in both universities have very good
information retrieval skills. On most of the items, more than 60% of students of
Babcock reported being good and very good. The exceptions were on the items,
Use of Boolean operators (OR, AND, NOT) and Use of truncation search
techniques ($, *, +) to retrieve information, which had 51.5 and 46%
respondents respectively. In contrast to the result from Babcock University,
FUNAAB had less than 60% respondents reportedly good and very good on the
following items, namely, Understanding terminologies used in databases
(55.1%)., Use of reference sources to increase familiarity of topics (55.9(%),
Retrieving information from articles/journals (55.9%), Scanning
images.(46.8%), Use of Boolean operators (OR, AND, NOT) (43.1%),
Combining two terms to retrieve information (51.3%) and Use of truncation
search techniques ($, *, +) to retrieve information (38.5%).
Test of Hypotheses
This section contains the results of the independent sample T-test used to test
the 4 hypotheses. The level of significance was set to 5%. Thus, if the p-value
is less than 0.05, the null hypothesis is rejected; but if p is greater than 0.05, the
null hypothesis is not rejected. The results for Hypotheses 1-4 are presented in
Table 8.
Hypothesis One
H0: There is no significant difference in the information knowledge of students
in Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta and Babcock University.
H1: There is a significant difference in the information knowledge of students
in Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta and Babcock University.
The result from Table 8 shows that at a significant level of 0.05, p=0.851 is not
statistically significant. Hence the null hypothesis is not rejected. This implies
that significant differences do not exist between students from Babcock and
FUNAAB universities in terms of information literacy knowledge.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 41


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
Table 8: Independent Samples Test result for Hypotheses 1-4

Levene's Test for t-test for Equality of Means


Equality of Variances

F Sig. t df Sig. (2- Mean Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval


tailed) Difference Difference of the Difference

Lower Upper

Equal variances assumed 3.084 0.080 -0.188 233 0.851 -0.386 2.051 -4.426 3.655
Information literacy
knowledge
Equal variances not assumed -0.189 232.645 0.850 -0.386 2.035 -4.395 3.624

Equal variances assumed 1.839 0.176 1.119 230 0.264 0.53010 0.47381 -0.40347 1.46366
Information Literacy skill
Equal variances not assumed 1.108 213.397 0.269 0.53010 0.47841 -0.41291 1.47310

Equal variances assumed 1.052 0.306 1.522 232 0.129 0.69556 0.45709 -0.20501 1.59613
Cognitive Abilities
Equal variances not assumed 1.516 223.676 0.131 0.69556 0.45884 -0.20863 1.59975

Equal variances assumed 33.638 0.000 3.086 232 0.002 5.46613 1.77119 1.97645 8.95581
Information Retrieval
Equal variances not assumed 3.016 190.944 0.003 5.46613 1.81233 1.89137 9.04089

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 42


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
Hypothesis Two
H0: There is no significant difference in the information literacy skills of
students in Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta and Babcock
University.
H1: There is a significant difference in the information literacy skills of
students in Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta and Babcock
University.
From Table 8, at a significant level of 0.05, p=0.264 is not statistically
significant. Hence the null hypothesis is not rejected. This implies that
significant differences do not exist between students from Babcock and
FUNAAB universities in terms of information literacy skills.
Hypothesis Three
H0: There is no significant difference in the cognitive abilities of students in
Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta and Babcock University.
H1: There is a significant difference in the cognitive abilities of students in
Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta and Babcock University.
As seen from Table 8, p=0.129 is not statistically significant. Hence the null
hypothesis is not rejected. This implies that significant differences do not
exist between students from Babcock and FUNAAB universities in terms of
cognitive abilities.
Hypothesis Four
H0: There is no significant difference in the information retrieval skills of
students in Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta and Babcock
University.
H1: There is a significant difference in the information retrieval skills of
students in Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta and Babcock
University.
The result from Table 8 shows that at a significant level of 0.05, p=0.02 is
statistically significant. Looking at the Group Statistics in Table 9, we can
see that Babcock students had higher level of information retrieval skills
than FUNAAB students.

Table 9: Group Statistics


Respondent N Mean Std. Std. Error
school Deviation Mean
Information Babcock 125 75.5120 11.15696 .99791
Retrieval FUNAAB 109 70.0459 15.79462 1.51285

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 43


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
Hence, this study found that Babcock students had statistically significantly
higher information retrieval skills (75.5111.16) compared to FUNAAB
students (70.0515.79) and the null hypothesis was rejected.

4. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Babcock and FUNAAB undergraduate students possessed information
literacy knowledge to a reasonable extent. They understand when and why
they need information and are generally able to locate and evaluate such
information. However, there is no significant difference in the information
literacy knowledge of Babcock and FUNAAB students. On the surface,
information literacy skills level seemed higher among FUNAAB students
based on the number of items the students reported being highly skilled as
compared to Babcock where many of the students were only moderately
skilled on the items. However, this seeming difference was not statistically
significant. According to Newton [26], information literacy knowledge
deals with knowing: when you have a need for information; the resources
available to you; how to find information and the need to evaluate results.
In addition, Ojedokun [27] also noted that information literacy skills in all
disciplines requires an individual to be able to define a problem; initiate a
plan to find information; locate and access resources; use the information;
synthesize information; and carry out some form of evaluation. Students of
both institutions could be considered generally not below average in their
level of information literacy skills. This can also be said about the cognitive
abilities of the students and the study revealed that cognitive abilities were
not statistically different between students of both schools.
Findings however revealed that there is a significant difference in
the information retrieval skills of students in both universities, as students of
Babcock University had higher level of information retrieval skills
compared to FUNAAB students. It is not a surprise that Babcock students
had higher information retrieval skills than FUNAAB students. A similar
finding was previously reported by Quadri, Adetimirin and Idowu [28]. The
authors investigated the availability and utilization of electronic resources
by students of Babcock and Redeemers universities, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Among other findings, the authors noted that lack of ICT skills as a barrier
to the use of electronic resources was more peculiar to respondents in
Redeemers University than Babcock. The fact that students of Babcock
University, a private university had higher information retrieval skills than
FUNAAB, a public university also agrees with a similar finding by Ojo and
Akande [29]. The study examined students access, usage and awareness of
electronic information resources at the University College Hospital (UCH),
Ibadan, Nigeria, and reported low level of usage of electronic resources by
students in this public university due to lack of information retrieval skills.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 44


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
Low level of information retrieval skills among students of FUNAAB might
not be unconnected with the generally known scarce resources in most
public universities due to under-funding by governments. It is a known fact
that resources for public universities have continuously been inadequate
despite growing desire for university education by students. Many facilities
in these public universities are dilapidated. On the other hand, some private
universities have state-of-the-art facilities such as well-furnished
classrooms, standard laboratories, well-equipped libraries, technologies
used in teaching and learning which are incomparable to those in most
public universities.

5. CONCLUSION
This study has shown that although significant differences do not exist in
the information literacy skills and cognitive abilities of students in Babcock
and FUNAAB, there is a significant difference in their information retrieval
skills. Babcock students had a higher level of information retrieval than
FUNAAB students. This study and other related studies are quick to
attribute this finding and others to the poor level of funding of public
universities by government. The reality however, is that this situation might
not change in the very near future. Hence, rather than endlessly waiting for
a time when government would be able to adequately fund public
universities, library and information professionals in public universities can
in their own little ways help out. Administrative heads of public universities
should encourage library and information professionals to periodically
organize practical workshops on information retrieval with the aim of
improving students information retrieval skills so that students can obtain
the needed information to solve their information need. A limitation of this
study is that only two universities in Ogun State were used due to
availability of students population statistics and the fact that they have
related courses. This may however affect the generalization of the findings.
Hence, further studies can be geographically expanded to include
universities located in other states in Nigeria.

REFERENCES
[1] Eisenberg, M. B. (2008). Information Literacy: Essential Skills for the Information
Age, DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, 28 (2), 39-47.
[2] Ekenna, M. & Mabawonku, I. (2013). Information retrieval skills and use of library
electronic resources by university undergraduates in Nigeria. Information and
Knowledge Management, 3(9), 6-14. Retrieved from
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/IKM/article/viewFile/7510/7748
[3] Ajiboye, B. A., Oyedipe, W. J. & Alawiye, M. K. (2013). Use of information retrieval
tools by the postgraduate students of selected universities in South Western Nigeria.
Information and Knowledge Management, 3(5), 53-59.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 45


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
[4] Fordjour, R., Badu, E. E. & Adjei, E. (2010). The prospects and challenges of
information retrieval by university students: A case study of Post Graduate Students of
the University of Ghana, Legon. Paper presented at the Joint 3rd African Association
of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) and 48th Agricultural Economists Association of
South Africa (AEASA) Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, from 19-23 September,
2010.
[5] Omiunu, O. G. (2014). Conceptualizing information need: A phenomenological study.
Journal of Library and Information Sciences, 2 (2), 29-54.
[6] Royal College of Nursing. (2011). Finding, using and managing information: Nursing,
midwifery, health and social care information literacy competences. London: Royal
College of Nursing. Retrieved from
http://www.rcn.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/357019/003847.pdf
[7] Jegede, P.O. & Owolabi, J. (2005). Effects of professional status, subject discipline
and computer attitudes among Teacher educators in Nigerian Colleges of Education.
Information Technology Journal 4(2), 158-162
[8] Eisenberg, M. & Berkowitz, R. (1990). Information problem solving: The Big Six
Skills approach to library and information skills instruction. Norwood, NJ: Ablex
Publishing Corporation.
[9] American Library Association and Association for Educational Communications and
Technology (1998). Information power: Building partnerships for learning. American
Library Association, Chicago.
[10] Association of College and Research Libraries (2000). Information literacy
competency standards for higher education. American Library Association, Chicago,
2000. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/acrl/ilcomstan.html.
[11] Al-Maskari, A. & Sanderson, M. (2010). A review of factors influencing user
satisfaction in information retrieval. Journal of the American Society for Information
Science and Technology, 61(5), 859-868.
[12] Seneviratne, T.M. & Wickramasinghe, V.M. (2010). Information literacy skills of
undergraduates of University of Moratuwa. Journal of the University Librarians
Association of Sri Lanka. 14 (1), 15-30.
[13] Thirion, P. & Pochet, B. (2009). Information literacy in students entering higher
education in the French Speaking Community of Belgium: Lessons learned from an
evaluation. IFLA Journal 35(2), 152170.
[14] Kim, K.S. & Allen, B. (2002). Cognitive and task influences on Web searching
behavior. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53
(2), 109-119.
[15] Palmquist, R. A. & Kim, K. S. (2000). Cognitive style and on-line database search
experience as predictors of Web search performance. Journal of the American Society
for Information Science, 51 (6), 558-566.
[16] Bilal, D., Sarangthem, S. & Bachir, I. (2008). Towards a model of children's
information seeking behavior in using digital libraries. In: Proceedings of the second
international symposium on Information interaction in context, London, United
Kingdom. ACM, New York, pp. 145-151.
[17] Herring, J. E. (2010). School students, information retrieval and transfer. Library and
Information Research, 34 (107). Retrieved from http://www.cilipjournals.org.uk/lir
[18] Kuhlthau, C. (2004). Seeking meaning: A process approach to library and information
services. 2nd ed., Westport CT.: Libraries Unlimited.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 46


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
[19] Meyers, E.M., Nathan, L.P. & Saxton, M.L. (2006). Barriers to information seeking in
school libraries: Conflicts in perceptions and practice. Information Research, 12(2),
Retrieved from http://www.informationr.net/ir/12-2/paper295.html
[20] Schedl, M., Flexer, A. & Urbano, J. (2013). The neglected user in Music information
retrieval research. Journal of Intelligent Information Systems, 41(3), 523-539.
[21] Mazumder, Q.H. (2013). Student satisfaction in private and public universities in
Bangladesh International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 2(2), 78-
84
[22] Mazumder, Q.H. (2014). Analysis of quality in public and private universities in
Bangladesh and USA. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education,
3(2), 99-108
[23] Obadara, O.E. (2012). Comparative analysis of public and private universities
administration in Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences 32(3), 357-363
[24] Ilogho, J.E. & Nkiko, C. (2014). Information literacy search skills of students in five
selected private universities in Ogun State, Nigeria: A Survey. Library Philosophy and
Practice (e-journal). Paper 1040. Retrieved from
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/1040
[25] Nwana, O.C. (1981). Introduction to education research for student teachers. Ibadan:
Heinemann Educational Books Nwana, O.C. (1981). Introduction to education
research for student teachers. Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books
[26] Newton, A. (2005). What is information literacy? Retrieved from
http://www.ldu.leeds.ac.uk/news/events/documents/informationliteracy.pdf
[27] Ojedokun, A. A. (2007). Information literacy for tertiary education students in Africa.
Ibadan: Third World Information Services Limited.
[28] Quadri, G.O., Adetimirin, A.E. & Idowu, O.A. (2014). A study of availability and
utilization of library electronic resources by undergraduate students in private
universities in Ogun State, Nigeria. International Journal of Library and Information
Science 6(2), 28-34
[29] Ojo, R. A. & Akande, S. O. (2005). Students access, usage and awareness of electronic
information resources at the University College Hospital, University of Ibadan,
Nigeria. Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science 3(1), 16 24.

This paper may be cited as:


Adekannbi, J.O. and Oluwayinka, T.M., 2016. Cognitive Abilities,
Information Literacy Knowledge and Retrieval Skills of Undergraduates: A
Comparison of Public and Private Universities in Nigeria. International
Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp.
24-47.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 47


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Risk Assessment in Constructing


Horseshoe Vault Tunnels using
Fuzzy Technique
Erfan Shafaghat
Instructor of Mehr university, Arak, Iran

Mostafa yousefi rad


Associated professor of arak technology university, Arak, Iran

ABSTRACT
Risk assessment is one of the projects important issues and by applying fuzzy method,
subsidence possibility can be investigated. In this paper, subsidence has been examined
using fuzzy method and investigating 81 and then 6000 soil samples in order to obtain
subsidence possibility of soils those which have these features. Results of fuzzy rules in this
dissertation have been analyzed about tunnel vault height, the height of the soil, modulus as
well as density which can be used in applicable matters. According to the results obtained
from this study deformation modulus has the greatest impact on subsidence so that when it
is less than 100, soil is not usable more. The higher the slag soil is, the more subsidence is
so that from a height of 6 m, the retaining structures must be used. The higher the tunnel
vault is, the more the subsidence is and the more the soil density is increasing, subsidence is
also increasing. When deformation modulus becomes 100, fuzzy digit is reducing and it
stands between 3.8 and 4.2. When slag soil height is increasing, subsidence is more likely
to go up. When tunnel vault is from 1 to 4, fuzzy digit stands from 0 to 2.5 and when slag
soil density stands between 2200 and 2400, fuzzy digit is between 5 and 6. Risk assessment
carried out in fuzzy logic indicates that whenever slag soil height, slag soil density and
tunnel vault is increasing, subsidence rate is also going up and whenever deformation
modulus is decreasing, subsidence rate is increasing.
Keywords
Tunnel, Horseshoe, Fuzzy logic, Subsidence.

1. INTRODUCTION
Tunnel projects are always along with high percentage of risks due to
uncertainties related to them. Accurate and proper management of these
risks and predicting them is reducing their possibility or negative
consequences. In a global scrolling about tunnel projects, 30 to 50 percent
increase in time and costs has been reported due too partial and fault
management. Risk assessment has been one of the fundamental bases of risk
management and anticipating risk will offer a great aid to the experts to
cover risk better. The main aim of risk assessment is to measure risk based

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 48


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
on various indices such as effect of occurrence. Risk anticipation especially
in civil projects can prevent from financial consequences. Predicting cases
such as tunnel vault impact, soil density and soil subsidence rate are the
cases that predicting them is very important not only in theoretical view, but
also in scientific and logical view. On the other hand, there are many
algorithms which can take risk prediction into consideration. Fuzzy method
is one of them which can appropriately predict risks by forming learning
networks. Hence, in this paper we have approached prognosticating rate of
soil subsidence using various variables such as modulus vault, density, and
soil height and so on. It is expected that by performing this study, rate of
subsidence is anticipated and also rules affecting on subsidence are obtained
which can be considerably helpful with accurate comprehension of risks and
how they are occurred [1].
2. Literature review

Najjar and Zaman (1993) have proposed a numerical method based on Non-
linear finite elements for a mine in Oklahoma. They have tried different
percentage of adhesion and elasticity for linear and non-linear condition of
soil and have come to this conclusion that decrease in adhesion of soil and
also elasticity modulus will cause reduction in soil linear behavior [2].

Selby (1999) has modeled some tunnel in England using finite element
method. In his analysis, 2 techniques of linear elastic and Varangian finite
difference have been applied. Eventually, he compared these 2 methods with
theoretical results and came to this conclusion that subsidence estimation in
ground surface by aforementioned methods will cause subsidence to be
shallower and wider than the real prediction rate [3].
Want et al (2000) offered surface ground curve caused by soft ground
tunneling using Modified Gaussian model which has been carried out based
on FLAC software and finite difference method and then generalized
subsidence equations derived from one tunnel to two parallel tunnels [4].
Pachen and Brasinga (2003) in a report related to drilling two tunnels with a
diameter of 5.6 m and a length of 4.2 km by savers in Rotterdam,
Netherland in the sand ground showed that elastic solution is ensured.
Calculations of this report have been done using Plaxis software and
Centrifuges model [5].
Glossop et al (1976) have carried out some researches about short-term
subsidence s in Balfast tunnel in 2 different times. Respective tunnel has 2.7
m diameter and it is in 4.8 depth and soil feature is saturated silt. They
arrived to this conclusion that subsidence s derived from soil consolidation

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 49


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
over the time form considerable part of the total soil subsidence derived
from tunnel [6].
Etol et al (1986) have done researches in the context of soil subsidence
derived from tunnel drilling. In these papers, subsidence s derived from
tunneling have been categorized into two parts, short-term subsidence s and
long-term ones. Short-term subsidence s is those which are happening by
tunnel drilling and long-term subsidence s are occurring caused by impacts
such as consolidation in saturated environment around tunnel. In this study,
they showed that soil long-term subsidence impact is transparently clear in
subsidence depth curve and cause short-term depth subsidence curve to be
wider and shallower and might cause damages in surrounding areas and
surface structures. These researchers have found 2 factors affecting on
accelerating consolidation phenomenon in underground water drainage from
the tunnel and water drainage from slots created inside the soil around
tunnel. Both factors are causing to create very powerful drainage areas
around tunnel and to cause accelerating consolidation in the soil [7].
Krisha et al (1999) has done some researches about tunnel drilling in
consolidation clay soil. They showed that by tunnel drilling in soft adhesive
grounds, subsidence in surrounding soils by consolidation includes a
considerable percentage of total soil subsidence. They have used 3-D
consolidation in their studies. Krisha showed that permeability coefficient is
the main factor of the pore water pressure control. He also showed that the
soil lateral coefficient at rest (K) determines the excess pore pressure
distribution form around the tunnel. Plus, pore water pressure and the time
that is disappeared is dependent on soil surrounding layers and permeability
of area around the tunnel and also tunnel position [8].
Chou and Bodet (2001) have done a number of researches about soil
subsidence in several cases of tunnel drilling in saturated clay soil. This
dissertation has been applied in plane strain condition. Researchers have
achieved the following results based on analyses done in undetermined
condition:
1- The main parameter in determining subsidence rate is the gap with
allowable displacement.
2- The most displacements have been happened at a distance of about 4
to 5 times the radius around the tunnel.
3- Vertical displacement of the layer under the tunnel about twice the
tunnel diameter from the tunnel center is equal to zero. Of course, in
the condition that there is a layer of stone under the tunnel, vertical
displacement would be zero.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 50


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
4- Horizontal displacement in the area around the tunnel compared to
vertical displacement is trivial.
Huang and Zhang (2004) have considered calculating long-term subsidence
in soft ground in Shanghai metro tunnels into account and investigated
impact of excavation during coating for tunnels on ground subsidence
expansion and compared this subsidence s to numerical modeling by finite
difference method and have found out the following results:
1- Tunnel manufacturing methodology has a very crucial effect on
tunnels long-term subsidence in clay soils or grounds.
2- Tunnels long-term subsidence in Shanghai metro is too much.
3. Fuzzy Logic

In 1965, Professor Lotfi Zade has published a paper entitled Fuzzy set in
control and information journal. In this paper, what have been called <<
ambiguity >> or << multi-valued >> by Bertrand Russell, John Albion, Max
Black and others was named Fuzzy. Fuzzy set was introduced with an
example of human tallness set. This case was the first set introduced by
Lotfi Zade. Fuzzy digits are a fuzzy subset of the real numbers which
proposes a spectrum of confidence interval of opinions and beliefs. [9]

Triangular fuzzy numbers:


Triangular fuzzy numbers A or simplicity triangular number with
membership function of
A (x) over R is defined as the following:

x a1
a a a1 x aM
M
A A ( x)
1

x a2 aM x a2

aM a2

a ,a
In aforementioned relation, 1 2 is an abutment interval and M
(a ,1) is
the top point,
Triangular numbers are mostly used in applications such as (Fuzzy
controllers, management, commercial and financial affairs, social science
decision making). They have a membership function which includes 2 linear
sections Al (left) and Ar (right) and in the top, they are connected in (a M ,1)
which causes graphic display and operation of triangular numbers is very
easy. [9]

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 51


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
Calculative operation with triangular numbers:
Fuzzy number sum:

It can be proved that sum of 2 triangular number of


A1 (a1(1) , aM(1) , a2(1) )

and
A2 (a1( 2) , aM( 2) , a2( 2) ) is also a triangular number.
A1 A2 (a1(1) , aM(1) , a2(1) ) + A2 (a1( 2) , aM( 2) , a2( 2) )
(a1(1) a1( 2) , aM(1) aM( 2) , a2(1) a2( 2) )
Multiplying a triangular number into a real number:
Multiplying a triangular number, An into a real number r is also a triangular
number:
Ar rA r (a1 , aM , a2 ) (ra1 , ra M , ra 2 )
Dividing a triangular number by a real number:
1
This process is defined as multiplying A into r , provided that r 0.
Therefore, this relation shows that: [10]
A 1 a a a
(a1 , a M , a2 ) 1 , M , 2
r r r r r
Defuzzification:
Since, in most of the time, we are forced to defuzzificate to eventually
obtain answer and compared two fuzzy numbers, the following relation is
often used in defuzzification [11].
T=(L+2M+U)/4

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 52


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
4. METHODOLOGY
4.1 determining variables
In this section, research variables have been introduced. In this dissertation,
4 variables have been employed which have been displayed in table 1: [9]
Table 1: Research variables
Subsidence possibility (Summit)
High Average Low Variables
High ]53[ Average Low Size of slag soil
]53[ 7 to 4 ]53[ 12 to 1
12 to 7 4 to1 (m)
Low ]25[ Average High Density of slag soil
]25[ 2400 to 2200 ]25[ 2600 to 2000
2200 to 2000 2600 to 2400 (kg/m^3)
High Average Low Deformation
]53[ ]53[ ]53[ modulus
18 10 3 to 1000 510 4 to 1810 3 5 10 4 to 8 10 4 80000 to 1000
(kpa)
High Average Low Size of horseshoe
]53[ ]53[ ]53[ vault
13 to 10 10 to 5 5 to 2 13 to 2
(m)

4.2 calculating tunnel subsidence using theoretical method


In this paper, landfall which is directly influencing tunneling is regarded and
excess subsidence s related to underground waters due to their importance is
included in this discussion. Subsidence parameters in theoretical
calculations have been exhibited as the figure 1.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 53


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Figure 1: Subsidence parameters


Hypotheses used for estimating subsidence have been brought as follows:
- Tunnel cross section is horseshoe.
- Tunnel has been examining din all depths.
- The tunnel passes through the clay.
- NATM is tunneling method.
- Prediction is acceptable for the initiative protection.
- After drilling tunnel to 35 m depth, subsidence reaction is ignored.
- Long-term consolidation subsidence is ignored.
Equations used to estimate subsidence have been indicated in appendix 1
and in appendix 2 also equations symbol are introduced. [12]

4.3 Transforming theoretical method to the fuzzy method


A fuzzy model contributes 3 sections, fuzzification, fuzzy inference system
and defuzzification. Owing to the most of applications, fuzzy systems input
and output are the real numbers. [12]
We have to create mediators between fuzzy inference engine and
environment. These mediators are fuzzificator and defuzzificators.
Fuzzification is being done using membership functions. Membership
function specifies fuzzy value of a quantity and in fact shows membership
degree of different elements to a set. This determines an amount that is
awarded to a set with the number between zero and one. In this paper, fuzzy
logic has been employed to analyze data. Fuzzy logic was raised versus
classic logic.it is accounted as a powerful tool to solve problems related to
complicated systems in which their comprehension is hard or issues which

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 54


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
are dependent on reasoning, decision-making and human perception. [13]
Choosing an appropriate method and view for modeling a system is entirely
depending on complexity of that system and it has reverse relationship with
the extent of our knowledge or perception from that system.
Fuzzy logic toolbox consists of a set of fuzzy functions in the form of
MATLAB calculative environment. This toolbox provides facilities to infer
fuzzy systems in the MATLAB framework. Also, in regard with simulation
of fuzzy systems, there is a possibility to integrate them in Simulink
Software framework. You can use functions related to this toolbox in other
applications (for example in C programing). This toolbox exploits a Graphic
User Interface to aid user, but if you wish, you can relative functions in
MATLAB.
In this dissertation, Fuzarith Function from MATLAB toolbox is used which
means applying mathematic in fuzzy in which zmf function indicates low
amount and smf indicates high amount and trimf expresses average value.
[14]

5. Discussion
A) Results of theoretical examination of soil sample experiments
81 soil samples have been examined using theoretical method. In figure 1,
subsidence of 81 soil samples has been depicted, for example studied soil
samples in the case of 10 first theoretical methods have been calculated in
table 2.

Table 2: Soil samples of 10 first case studies


Studied Slag soil Slag soil Deformation Horseshoe Subsidence
soil size density modulus vault size (cm)
sample (m) (kpa) (m)
( )
3
1 3 2500 700 4 0/0256
2 3 2500 700 8 0/0958
3 3 2500 700 12 0/2060
4 3 2500 150 4 0/1197
5 3 2500 150 8 0/4469
6 3 2500 150 12 0/9615
7 3 2500 100 4 0/1795
8 3 2500 100 8 0/6703

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 55


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
9 3 2500 100 12 1/4423
10 3 2300 700 4 0/0236

For example, in the first sampling, as it is observed in table 3, when slag soil
size is equal to 3 meters and slag soil density is equal to 2500 kg/ M and
deformation modulus is 700 Kpa and horseshoe vault size is equal to
4meters, subsidence rate will be 0.0256 cm.
As it is seen in table 3, in the case of the forth study, when slag soil size is
equal to 3 meters and slag soil density is equal to 2500 kg/ M and
deformation modulus is 150 Kpa and horseshoe vault size is equal to
4meters, subsidence rate will be 0.1197 cm. This value compared with 3
first samples due to lowering vault size to 4 meters and changing
deformation modulus from 700 Kpa to 150 Kpa, subsidence rate compared
to two first cases is more and compared to the third sample is less which
indicates importance of deformation modulus parameter.
Changes in subsidence rate about all studies have been depicted in figure 2.

Figure 2: Changes in studies


In figure 3, subsidence in more than 6000 soil samples has been calculated
by theoretical method which is the most one is 25 cm soil subsidence. In
investigations, it was determined when deformation modulus parameter is
increasing, subsidence is lowered. As it is detailed in figure 1, when
deformation modulus is moving from low interval toward high interval, by
widening vault, subsidence rate is increasing and in fig 2 according to
subsidence occurrence, deformation modulus is moving from high interval
toward low interval. By lowering vault, subsidence value is decreasing,
respectively.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 56


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Figure 3: 6000 samples


B) Studying effect of soil size, tunnel vault, modulus and density on soil
subsidence
In figure 4, impact of slag soil size parameter on soil subsidence in the
tunnel has been investigated. It can be concluded from fig 4 that the higher
the slag soil height is, the more the subsidence is.

Figure 4: Impact of slag soil size

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 57


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
In figure 5, impact of tunnel vault on soil subsidence in the tunnel has been
investigated. It can be concluded from fig 5 that the wider the tunnel vault
is, the more the subsidence is.

Figure 5: Impact of tunnel vault


In figure 6, impact of deformation modulus on soil subsidence in the tunnel
has been investigated. It can be concluded from fig 6 that the more the
deformation modulus is, the less the subsidence is, but as it is transparent,
since then the rate of subsidence is approximately constant and it passes a
linear path.

Figure 6: Impact of deformation modulus

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 58


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
In figure 7, effect of slag soil density parameter on soil subsidence in the
tunnel has been examined. It can be concluded from fig 7 that the higher the
slag soil density is, the more the subsidence is.

Figure 7: Impact of slag soil density

C) Soil subsidence analysis using fuzzy logic


In this step, 81 soil samples were transformed to fuzzy form. As a sample, 6
charts have been proposed which due to soil subsidence, fuzzy number has
been proposed.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 59


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Figure 8: Changing to fuzzy

Table 3: Changing to the first fuzzy


Horseshoes Deformation Slag soil Slag soil size Variables
vault size modulus density
High Low High High Quantity

Yellow Green Red Blue Color

In the figure 8, as it is transparent from table 3, red color indicates slag


soil density and yellow color indicates horseshoe vault and blue color shows
slag soil size and green indicates deformation modulus and black color
represents fuzzy results.
Therefore, if slag soil size is average, slag soil density is average and
deformation modulus is low and horseshoe vault size is high, as a result,
subsidence is between 3 and 4. Owing to this issue that subsidence rate in
theoretical method is 1.4 and when it is transformed to fuzzy value, this
value is reduced to 3 or 4, shows that when this value is changed to fuzzy
value, soil subsidence is investigated with higher risk possible percentage.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 60


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Figure 9: Changing to fuzzy


Table 4: Changing to the second fuzzy
Horseshoes Deformation Slag soil Slag soil size Variables
vault size modulus density
Low High Average High Quantity

Yellow Green Red Blue Color

In the figure 9, as it is transparent from table 4, red color indicates slag


soil density and yellow color indicates horseshoe vault and blue color shows
slag soil size and green indicates deformation modulus and black color
represents fuzzy results.
Therefore, if slag soil size is high, slag soil density is average and
deformation modulus is high and horseshoe vault size is low, as a result,
subsidence is between 0 and 3. Owing to this issue that subsidence rate in
theoretical method is 0.02 and when it is transformed to fuzzy value, this
value is reduced to 0 or 3, shows that when this value is changed to fuzzy
value, soil subsidence is investigated with higher risk possible percentage.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 61


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Figure 10: Changing to fuzzy

Table 5: Changing to the third fuzzy


Horseshoes Deformation Slag soil Slag soil size Variables
vault size modulus density
Average High Low Average Quantity

Yellow Green Red Blue Color

In the figure 10, as it is clear from table 5, in above chart red color
indicates slag soil density and yellow color indicates horseshoe vault and
blue color shows slag soil size and green indicates deformation modulus and
black color represents fuzzy results.
Thus, if slag soil size is average, slag soil density is high and deformation
modulus is high and horseshoe vault size is average, as a result, subsidence
is between 0 and 6. Due to this issue that subsidence rate in theoretical
method is 0.01 and when it is transformed to fuzzy value, this value is
reduced to 0 or 6, shows that when this value is changed to fuzzy value, soil
subsidence is investigated with higher risk possible percentage.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 62


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Figure 11: Changing to fuzzy

Table 6: Changing to the forth fuzzy


Horseshoes Deformation Slag soil Slag soil size Variables
vault size modulus density
High Low Low Average Quantity

Yellow Green Red Blue Color

In the figure 11, as it is clear from table 6, in above chart red color
indicates slag soil density and yellow color indicates horseshoe vault and
blue color shows slag soil size and green indicates deformation modulus and
black color represents fuzzy results.
Thus, if slag soil size is high, slag soil density is low and deformation
modulus is low and horseshoe vault size is average, as a result, subsidence is
between 3.7 and 4.2. Due to this issue that subsidence rate in theoretical
method is 0.07 and when it is transformed to fuzzy value, this value is
reduced to 3.7 or 4.2, shows that when this value is changed to fuzzy value,
soil subsidence is investigated with higher risk possible percentage.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 63


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Figure 12: Changing to fuzzy

Table 7: Changing to the fifth fuzzy


Horseshoes Deformation Slag soil Slag soil size Variables
vault size modulus density
High Average Low Average Quantity

Yellow Green Red Blue Color

In the figure 12, as it is clear from table 7, in above chart red color
indicates slag soil density and yellow color indicates horseshoe vault and
blue color shows slag soil size and green indicates deformation modulus and
black color represents fuzzy results.
So, if slag soil size is average, slag soil density is low and deformation
modulus is average and horseshoe vault size is high, as a result, subsidence
is between 1.5 and 6. Due to this issue that subsidence rate in theoretical
method is 0.95 and when it is transformed to fuzzy value, this value is
reduced to 1.5 or 6, shows that when this value is changed to fuzzy value,
soil subsidence is investigated with higher risk possible percentage.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 64


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Figure 13: Changing to fuzzy

Table 8: Changing to the sixth fuzzy


Horseshoes Deformation Slag soil Slag soil size Variables
vault size modulus density
Average High Average Low Quantity

Yellow Green Red Blue Color

In the figure 13, as it is clear from table 8, in above chart red color
indicates slag soil density and yellow color indicates horseshoe vault and
blue color shows slag soil size and green indicates deformation modulus and
black color represents fuzzy results.
Therefore, if slag soil size is low, slag soil density is average and
deformation modulus is high and horseshoe vault size is average, as a result,
subsidence is between 0 and 6. Due to this issue that subsidence rate in
theoretical method is 0.09 and when it is transformed to fuzzy value, this
value is reduced to 0 or 0.09, shows that when this value is changed to fuzzy
value, soil subsidence is investigated with higher risk possible percentage.

6. CONCLUSIONS
In this research, we have considered risk assessment in constructing
horseshoe vault tunnels. Accordingly, variables affecting on soil subsidence
have been examined by determining appropriate criteria and tunnel risk
analysis was done over 81 samples. Thus, the following applicable results
can be observed in this dissertation:
1) Deformation modulus has the highest effect on soil subsidence,
whatever the numerical value of the deformation modulus is low;

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 65


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
subsidence value is increasing so that when it is lessen to 100 Kpa,
soil is not more useable.
2) The higher the slag soil height is, the more the subsidence is so that
from the height 6 meters, retaining wall and structures have to
applied.
3) The higher the slag soil density is, the more the subsidence is.
4) The higher the tunnel vault is, the more the subsidence is so that
from the height 8 meters, especial strategies have to be taken.
5) In fuzzy logic also, the less the deformation modulus is, subsidence
rate is increased by higher risk possibility. When deformation
modulus is 100 Kpa, fuzzy number is also decreasing and will stand
between 3.8 and 4.2.
6) In fuzzy logic, the higher the slag soil is, subsidence rate is increased
by higher risk possibility. When slag soil height is between 8 and 12
meters, its fuzzy number is also between 0 and 3.
7) In fuzzy logic, the more the slag soil density is, subsidence rate is
increased by higher risk possibility. When slag soil density is
between 2200 and 2400 kg/m3, fuzzy number is between 5 and 6.
8) In fuzzy logic, the wider the tunnel vault is, subsidence is increased
by higher risk possibility. When tunnel vault is between 1 and 4 m,
fuzzy number stands between 0 and 2.5.
9) Risk assessment carried out by fuzzy method shows that in the
subsidence rate results, slag soil height, slag soil density and tunnel
vault is increased. Subsidence rate is also increasing and the lower
the deformation modulus is, the higher the subsidence is.

REFERENCES
[1] Stump, G.S. and Allen, C.T., Vermeer Manufacturing Company, 1998. Apparatus and
method for detecting an underground structure. U.S. Patent 5,819,859.

[2] Najjar, Y. and Zaman, M., 1993. Surface subsidence prediction by nonlinear finite-
element analysis. Journal of geotechnical engineering, 119(11), pp.1790-1804.

[3] Selby, A.R., 1999. Tunnelling in soilsground movements, and damage to buildings in
Working ton, UK. Geotechnical & Geological Engineering, 17(3-4), pp.351-371.

[4] Loganathan,N. and Poulos, H.G., 1998. Analytical prediction for


tunneling-induced ground movements in clays. Journal of Geotechnical and
Geoenvironmental Engineering, 124(9), pp.846-856.
[5] Hatheway, A.W., Kanaori, Y., Cheema, T., Griffiths, J. and Promma, K., 2005. 10th
annual report on the international status of engineering geologyyear 20042005;

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 66


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
encompassing hydrogeology, environmental geology and the applied geosciences.
Engineering Geology, 81(2), pp.99-130.

[6] Reilly, C.C. and Orr, T., 2011, May. MICROTUNNELLINGRECENT EXPERIENCE
IN IRELAND. In Proceedings of 29th International NO-DIG Conference, Berlin (pp. 1-10).

[7] Thrush, P.W., 1968. A Dictionary of Mining, Mineral and Related Terms.

[8] Swoboda, G. and Abu-Krisha, A., 1999. Three-dimensional numerical modelling for
TBM tunnelling in consolidated clay. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology,
14(3), pp.327-333.

[9] Kirytopoulos, K., Konstandinidou, M., Nivolianitou, Z. and Kazaras, K., 2014.
Embedding the human factor in road tunnel risk analysis. Process Safety and
Environmental Protection, 92(4), pp.329-337.

[10] Ardeshir, A., Amiri, M., Ghasemi, Y. and Errington, M., 2014. Risk assessment of
construction projects for water conveyance tunnels using fuzzy fault tree analysis.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 12(4 A), pp.396-412.

]11[ Abdelgawad, M., Fayek, A.R. and Martinez, F., 2010. Quantitative assessment of
horizontal directional drilling project risk using fuzzy fault tree analysis. In Proc., 2010
Construction Res. Congress (pp. 1274-1283). Reston, VA: ASCE.

]12[ Markowski, A.S. and Mannan, M.S., 2008. Fuzzy risk matrix. Journal of hazardous
materials, 159(1), pp.152-157.
]13[ Garimella, S.V. and Sobhan, C.B., 2001. Recent advances in the modeling and
applications of nonconventional heat pipes. Advances in Heat Transfer, 35, pp.249-308.

]14[ Tan, Y. and Li, M., 2011. Measured performance of a 26 m deep top-down excavation
in downtown Shanghai. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 48(5), pp.704-719.

This paper may be cited as:


Shafaghat, E and Mostafa, Y. R., 2016. Risk assessment in Constructing
Horseshoe Vault Tunnels using Fuzzy Technique. International Journal of
Computer Science and Business Informatics, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 48-67.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 67


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Evaluating the Adoption of Deductive Database


Technology in Augmenting Criminal
Intelligence in Zimbabwe: Case of Zimbabwe
Republic Police
Mahlangu Gilbert, Furusa Samuel Simbarashe, Chikonye Musafare
and Mugoniwa Beauty

Computer Science and Information Systems


Midlands State University
Gweru, Zimbabwe

ABSTRACT
The sophisticated modus operandi of modern day criminals has necessitated the
development of modern policing initiatives that are centered on Criminal Intelligence. As a
law enforcement strategy, criminal intelligence has altered the policing pattern by
reinforcing the traditional approaches of investigating. Although the use of advanced
information systems has become necessary in the profiling and prediction of crime threats,
their full potential has not been realised. The purpose of this qualitative research was to
evaluate the adoption of deductive databases in augmenting criminal intelligence in
Zimbabwe. The major data collection instruments were document review and semi-
structured interviews. The study established that ZRP has been yet to adopt deductive
database technology. All the systems that are currently being used rely only on data stored
in the database. There is no inference of new facts from the databases. In order to augment
criminal intelligence, the study recommends that ZRP should adopt a deductive database
technology for empowering decision makers and achieving strategic intent. The identified
application areas of deductive databases can bring about improved service delivery system
coupled with effective decision making at all levels of planning.

Keywords
Deductive database, evaluating deductive database, adoption of deductive database,
criminal intelligence, Augmenting Criminal Intelligence

1. INTRODUCTION
The organisation of crime have transformed rapidly in the 21st century.
According to Pascual (2015), modern day criminals have arisen and grown
faster than the law enforcement agencies. Their sophisticated modus
operandi has necessitated the development of modern policing initiatives
that are centered on Criminal Intelligence (CI) (Milliken and Shaw 2012).
As a law enforcement strategy, criminal intelligence has altered the policing
pattern by reinforcing the traditional approaches of investigating the crime.
The thrust is to prevent crimes from being committed rather than solely
depend on reacting to their commission. Decision makers should be able to
have CI information at their disposal at any time for them to make informed

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 68


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
decisions to proactively deal with crimes and criminal activities (Moreto
2015).

Crimes and criminal activities information stored in law enforcement agent


database form the much-needed information data bank for CI strategy.
Although the use of advanced information systems has become necessary in
the profiling and prediction of crime threats, their full potential use to
realise strategic intent has not been realised (Arvidsson et al. 2014). The key
technology that has been slowly adopted to improve police decision-making
in combating crime is the deductive database. These databases provide
actionable criminal intelligence which is critical in crime prevention,
reduction and investigating (Moreto 2015). In addition, criminal intelligence
can play a substantial role in providing the direction for prioritising police
resources.

2. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


In the modern-day policing, law enforcement agencies need to get quality
information in order to close investigating gap through CI and support the
strategic intent of the organisation. According to Grobler et al. (2013), CI
empowers authorities within the law enforcement agency to create a
timeously response strategy to crime by having a thorough understanding of
the crime pattern. If the authorities know the forms in which crimes are
committed, they can channel resources to specific crime domains.

However, as the requirement of CI continues to expand to law enforcement


agencies (Smith et al. 2014), many countries still find it challenging to
control or prevent crime within their jurisdiction and beyond. Criminals
have created syndicates from local to reginal and international settings. A
number of criminal activities have become a major concern to policing
agencies. It has been submitted that because of the lucrative deals in crimes
such as poaching, drug and human trafficking and smuggling, criminals are
now operating in associations within and beyond their borders (Milliken and
Shaw 2012).

Law enforcement agencies have many data stores about crime and criminal
activities. Collected information about crimes and criminal activities can
allow new information or criminal intelligence to be derived that is useful in
law enforcement for crime detection and prevention. As emphasised by
Shen et al. (2014), information stored in database can provide CI if certain
rules and extrapolations are applied. However, these data stores are not
being utilised for CI at ZRP. Therefore, it can be argued that a deductive
database may play an important role in police organisation to improve the
quality of law enforcement. Intrinsically, ZRP as a law enforcement agent
can implement deductive databases to allow informed decision making and

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 69


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
help them to conduct informed deployments of both material and human
resources in fighting crime.

3. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


Regardless of the availability of database systems that keep records of
crimes and other criminal activities, the global nature of the crime has
created a difficult equation in national and global policing (Rudolph et al.
2013). Therefore, in order to attain strategic policing intelligence, there is a
need for a concrete model that can be used to map criminal relationships
and identify the associations of criminal syndicates. (Milliken and Shaw
2012). As demonstrated by modern policing initiatives, there is great need
to establish a crime analysis system that can facilitate purposeful
deployments of resources and promote a culture of intelligence-led policing
system (Mashiloane 2014).

The present database management systems in ZRP do not provide


inferences and conclusions for them to achieve their broad crime strategic
objective. It is only fixed on data collection and storage. Yet the stored data
can point to some very crucial CI information which can help the
organisation to make some informed decisions for effective policing.
Therefore, given a strong positive association between criminal syndicates
and crimes committed, there is a need to develop technologies that can map
crimes in relationship to criminal syndicates. Hence, the purpose of this
qualitative research is to evaluate the adoption of deductive database
technology in augmenting criminal intelligence in Zimbabwe.

4. CONCEPT OF DEDUCTIVE DATABSE


Deductive database is a database system that has a deductive functionality.
Through the augmentation of the inference engine, the database can perform
computations for decision rules. Moore (2015) posits that this database
system has a latent of improving predictions from the available facts. This
form of database has been widely used to combine data sets from different
formats and retrieve information for intelligence value using inference
engines (Jha 2014). This database consists of rules and facts through a
declarative language used to specify what to be achieved. The major
concepts that underlies the deductive database are DATALOG and
PROLOG. This enables logical reasoning and amalgamation of information
to become knowledge (Cohen 2016).

The concept of deductive database demands that data is stored using


specific rules so that the database is not just a simple storage facility, but a
knowledge source. This enables inferences to be performed while reducing

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 70


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
the amount of storage space on the database. In the context of the ZRP,
these rules can be specified declaratively, which, when compiled and
maintained by the DBMS can determine when and where offences and
criminal activities are likely to take place. Therefore, it can be concluded
that a deductive database is grounded on database storage and the logic to
derive information so that rules can be evaluated against facts to answer
emerging queries (Jha 2014).

4.1. Features of a deductive database system


It has been suggested that the user interface in deductive database system
should enable the specification factual data and instructions concerning the
system using a predicate logic. According to Senz-prez (2014), a
deductive database should have three major features. These are tabling
feature, fixpoint computation and dependency graph feature. Each of these
should serve a distinct purpose. The function of the tabling feature is to
provide a template for computations and all the computations using
annotations. This will enable the database to handle further queries and
updates. Tabling is the confluence of a deductive database in such that all
transactions have to be requested and stored in a table. The major properties
of tabling are logical presentation and declaration. Moreover, the tabling
feature provide an incremental process of rules since a deductive database is
a rule based function. In addition, this feature enables information to be
shared among various users of the database. Lastly, it should ensure that
information is preserved during requests.

The second feature which is the fixpoint computation is responsible for


solving queries within the database management system. It allows the
database to combine functions that facilitate computations. Because of its
presence the retrieval of duplicates from external database is also avoided.
This feature can also be seen as an algorithm for performing interruption
and continuation of queries from the tabling. The third feature is the
dependency graph. The major function of the dependency graph is for the
database to decide the order and priority of carrying out computations. The
dependency graph evaluates the order of transactions in a database. It also
ensures that annotations in the table are done in their order. It works in
conjunction with the tabling feature and the fixpoint computation.

4.2. Role of Deductive Databases in augmenting criminal intelligence


Criminal intelligence is vital in operations that are designed to detect and
prevent criminal activities. Law enforcement agencies can user pointers
from the database to deduce crime patterns. This will enable the agency to
device adequate intervention strategies. Deductive databases make use of
the expressive power of logical rules and non-atomic data structures to
exploit stored information (Wojnicki 2013). In the context of criminal

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 71


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
intelligence, deductive databases should facilitate the exploration of
avenues of information gained during collection so that it can be converted
to intelligence. In order to achieve this, appropriate information software
applications and analysis tools should be used. These may include Crime
Pattern Analysis, General Profile Analysis, Offender Group Analysis,
Specific Profile Analysis, and Investigations Analysis.

4.3. Application areas of deductive database systems in law


enforcement
Deductive database has been used in various areas within the law
enforcement domain as presented below:

4.3.1. Autonomous robots for law enforcement


Autonomous robots can be used in quite a number of situations in policing.
These include public order management, accident scene reconstruction,
targeted patrol and intelligence gathering, locating suspects and vehicle
pursuit (Mashiloane 2014). For the robot to be relevant and appropriate, it
has to sense its environment. In order for the autonomous robot to be
effective in its operations, it should implement a deductive database system
to allow it to deduce some other facts from the data it can collect from the
environment. As articulated by Greeling (2013), Unmanned Air Vehicles
(UAV) like drones may be useful in monitoring and controlling of crowd at
large public order events like soccer matches, marches, demonstrations and
strikes. Hot spots in which trouble is brewing could be quickly located, as
well as finding signs of violence or vulnerable bystanders being trampled in
a crowed. Information collected by these drones can be stored together with
some rules and can help them to draw some new facts that they use in their
operations.

4.3.2. Criminal profiling system (CPS) and Criminal intelligence (CI)


Systems that can be used in law enforcement for criminal profiling and
criminal intelligence will need deductive database systems. This allows new
facts to be inferred from data stored in criminal profiling system. Rules in
deductive database let storage of new kinds of data to be possible (Fernando
2015). For example, recursively defined data or indefinite data. In crime
profiling, law enforcement agents can use rules to store new information
implicitly pertaining to criminal activities, their crime patterns and
frequency as well as areas of concentrations. This CI information can be
very important to both investigating officers and commanders at different
levels of management for formulating crime prevention strategies, tactical
planning as well as equipment and human resource deployments.
4.3.3. Crime cases reporting system (CCRS)
Recording of crime cases is paramount not only to have crime incidents on
record but also for crime analysis purposes. Crime analysis and crime

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 72


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
prevention are identified as broad objectives for any crime prevention
strategy (Wojnicki 2014). Crime analysis acts as an aid to crime prevention
by facilitating information dissemination prior to any deployment plan.
Information that can be used for deployment purposes and crime prevention
activities cannot be generated from explicitly data capture alone but data
inferences. Therefore, its capability to make derivatives among various
relations during execution makes it an important design in crime analysis.

5. METHODOLOGY
Reflecting the adoption of information systems requires a rigorous research.
A qualitative approach was used to evaluate the adoption of deductive
database technology in augmenting criminal intelligence in Zimbabwe.
Qualitative research provides an in-depth study to the problem. The major
data collection instruments were document review and semi-structured
interviews Terrell (2012). This was made to ascertain whether ZRP has
adopted a deductive database management system or not. Document
reviewed included systems documentation and database design. The
participants chosen for interviews were system developers and
administrators. These participants were chosen purposefully because they
were assumed to be having adequate knowledge on the status and the
performance of the ZRPs database systems.

6. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION


From the semi-structured interviews that were conducted with the
participants the study established that ZRP does not have systems that are
using deductive database. The organisation is still using relational databases
which appears to be fragmented. The level adoption is precisely low. All the
system that are currently being used relies on data stored in the database
only and that there is no inference of new facts from the databases. This has
made it difficult to precisely map relations of crime incidents around the
country and beyond the borders. This has left the organisation with bulk
crime backlogs. The organisation is faced with challenges of crime
clearance due to inadequate crime analysis procedures. Due to the vast
criminal information in the data stores, the criminal analysts are not able to
cope with the crime occurrences.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 73


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
7. CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR DEDUCTIVE DATA BASE

Figure 1: A conceptual model for deductive database

The sequence of the conceptual model is that each police station submits
queries to any site. The query analyser that is located on the user site
determines whether the query can be answered by the local site or it should
be processed by the other sites. If the use of other sites is required, then the
partaking sites must communicate. But, if sub-queries are not answered at
the local site, they will be performed like autonomous queries. The closing
operation which may include JOIN and PROJECTION is executed by the
initiating site based on the rules defined in the database in conjunction with
tabling, fixpoint computation and dependency graph features for implicit
data representation. However, there is need for remote processing if the

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 74


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
police station initiating the query cannot communicate with the central
police station.

To spell out the idea of implicit data representation, lets consider the
following example. Suppose we have a deductive database that contains the
following:
James is a suspect for armed robbery of motor vehicle
Jamess modus operand is use of firearm
IF x is a suspect for armed robbery AND x uses y to robbery THEN
x is an armed robber.

In addition to the two facts, a deductive database can also contain the rule
that specifies the armed robber relationship between a pair of entities. The
database can prove the statement James is an armed robber by making the
following substitution in the rule: x = James and y = firearm. Since
some associations many have multiple correlations, many rules can be
added in the database to map these multiple associations. Furthermore, the
algorithm must allow new associations to be added in the database as the
need arises so that relevant deductions can be achieved. This deduction of
facts from existing stored data can be applied by ZRP in the implementation
of autonomous robots, criminal intelligence system and crime cases
reporting system.

8. CONCLUSION
The research in deductive databases have produced plausible theoretical
foundations that have been supported by greater prototype implementations.
However, their applications in the industry have been insignificant,
especially in law enforcement agencies. Therefore, this study established
that there are many areas in ZRP that can make use of deductive database
systems to improve the quality of law enforcement. The organisation need
not to rely on stored data only, but make use of new facts that can be
derived from the data. The identified application areas of deductive
databases can bring about improved quality law enforcement coupled with
effective decision making at all levels of planning. In order to augment
criminal intelligence, ZRP need to implement the proposed model of
deductive database.

9. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The research would want to acknowledge ZRP members who contributed to
the success of this research by providing relevant information.

REFERENCES
Arvidsson, V., Holmstrm, J. & Lyytinen, K., 2014. A multi-dimensional view of strategic
information system implementation and use. Journal of Strategic Information
Systems, 23(1), pp.4561.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 75


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG
Byrne, J. & Marx, G., 2011. Technological Innovations in Crime Prevention and Policing .
A Review of the Research on Implementation and Impact. , Journal of technology
and Innovation 4(20), pp.1740.
Cohen, W.W., 2016. TensorLog: A Differentiable Deductive Database. , (Nips). 29th
Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS 2016), Barcelona,
Spain
Fernando, S., 2015. Improving the Deductive System DES with Persistence by Using SQL
DBMS s. , Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science 173(12),
pp.100114.
Greeling, K.Y., 2013. Autonomous robots in law enforcement: future legal and ethical
issues. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University
Grobler, P.M. et al., 2013. Preparing South Africa for Cyber Crime and Cyber Defense. ,
Systemics, Cybernetics And Informatics 11(7), pp.3241.
Jha, A.K., An Introduction To Deductive. , International Journal of Advanced Computer
Technology, pp.3336.
Mashiloane, N.P., 2014. The Use Of Intelligence Led Policing In Crime University Of
South Africa , (September).
Moreto, W.D., 2015. Introducing intelligence led conservation: bridging crime and
conservation science. Crime Science. Available at:
"http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40163-015-0030-9.
Pascual, D.S., 2015. Analysis of Criminal Intelligence from a Criminological Perspective:
The Future of the Fight against Organized Crime 1. , Journal of Law and Criminal
Justice, 3(1), pp.4048.
Senz-prez, F., DES: A Deductive Database System.
Shen, G. et al., 2014. Research on the Rules of Mapping from Relational Model to OWL,
International Journal of Engineering and Technology 5 (6), pp. 4735-4740
Smith, T. et al., 2014. Definition and Types of Crime Analysis. , International Association
of Crime Analyst,2 (10), pp 1-8
Terrell, S.R., 2012. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies. The Qualitative Report,
17(1), pp.25680.
Wojnicki, I., 2014. Extending relational database , Computer Science 6 (October), pp.95
112.

This paper may be cited as:


Mahlangu, G., Furusa, S.S., Chikonye, M. and Mugoniwa, B., 2016.
Evaluating The Adoption Of Deductive Database Technology In
Augmenting Criminal Intelligence In Zimbabwe: Case Of Zimbabwe
Republic Police. International Journal of Computer Science and Business
Informatics, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 68-76.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 76


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Analysis of Petrol Pumps


Reachability in Anand District of
Gujarat
Nidhi Arora
Gujarat Technological University,
Ahmedabad

ABSTRACT
The problem of finding shortest path in a network has been studied by many researchers
over the years. Most of the research works have proposed algorithms for finding the
shortest route in a network. This work serves dual purpose; it not only aims to gain the
high-level familiarity with availability of petrol pumps in the residential areas in Anand
district, but also suggest the shortest route to reach a petrol pump from any location. The
initial target areas for this analysis are the residential areas around Anand in Gujarat.
Quantum GIS has been used to perform analysis of petrol pump reachability from a random
place in Anand to a nearest located petrol pump and to identify the shortest path between
the two locations. Results of comparison confirm the feasibility and robustness of proposed
methodology which shows its potential application in real road networks.

Keywords
shortest path, reachability analysis, GIS, transportation, road networks

1. INTRODUCTION
Modes of transportation have added speed and efficiency to our daily life.
Transportation plays a significant role in todays world by removing the
distance barrier. It would not be boasting if transportation is said to be the
lifeline of everyone. An efficient transport system helps in increasing
productivity and in enhancing competitiveness of the economy of a country.
In todays world where life has become very fast, people have become more
dependent on the modes of transportation. Cars and bikes have not only
become necessity, but also one of the items of luxury. We have become so
much dependent on our vehicles for moving from one place to another that
it happens at times that the petrol tank of our vehicles are almost dying of
hunger and we do not realize that it needs refilling. At such occasions,
everyone would be interested to know the nearest possible petrol pump to
fulfill his immediate requirement.
India has one of the largest connectivity in terms of road networks in the
world. Although the roads have been in existence since ancient times, the
usage of these roads has recently been increased. The aim of this paper is to

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 77


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

design a system which can be applied to any type of road network with the
intention of providing globally optimal path from one location to another. It
also has parallel processing ability by which the available paths are
practically compared on the basis of their distance and the one with the
shortest distance is displayed.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has recently seen
development in the areas of network and transportation analysis and has
become a preferred practice in many application areas. A fundamental
problem in network analysis surrounds around computation of shortest paths
between any two randomly chosen locations within a network. GIS has been
used in past by many researchers in network analysis. Comber et al.
analyzed green space access in an English city using a network analysis in
GIS [4], Kyushik & Seunghyun [10] analyzed pedestrian accessibility to
urban parks using the network analysis method of GIS. Dean [5] proposed
to find optimal routes for networks of harvest site access roads using GIS-
based techniques.
Pijanowski et al. [13] used a variety of social, political, and environmental
factors to forecast land use changes using Land Transformation Model
(LTM), which couples geographic information systems (GIS) with artificial
neural networks (ANNs). Liu & Zhu [11] presented an integrated GIS
approach to accessibility analysis, which provides a general framework for
integrated use of GIS, travel impedance measurement tools and accessibility
measures to support the accessibility analysis process. As far as finding
shortest path is concerned, there are several algorithms to solve the shortest
path problem by using genetic algorithms such as the Munemotos
algorithm [12], Inagakis algorithm [9], and Changs algorithm [1].
Munemoto uses variable length chromosomes and Inagaki uses fixed length
chromosomes in their algorithms. Zhang et al. [16] proposed a parameter-
free minimal resource neural network framework for solving a wide range
of single-source shortest path problems for various graph types.
Guernic & Girard [3] have carried out algorithmic reachability analysis of
continuous-time linear systems with constrained initial states and inputs.
Lee et al. [14] identified to classify villages according to their spatial
centralities, considering rural amenity resources, for integrated tourism
management. Hong & Murray [7] compared vector and raster approaches
for identifying obstacle-avoiding shortest paths/routes. Empirical
assessment is carried out for a number of planning applications, highlighting
representational issues, computational requirements and resulting path
efficiency. In a similar work by Hong et al. [8] a spatial filtering method

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 78


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

was presented to enhance Euclidean shortest path derivation in complex


environments.

Consider a situation when somebody is going on a long drive and it is


discovered that the fuel tank is near the empty mark. Most of the times such
situation occurs on unknown places and it becomes worst if he is standing
far away from the town. Most of the time one would want to find the nearest
fuel pump. With the methodology suggested in this paper, it would not be a
problem anymore. The methodology will allow finding the nearest petrol
pumps in Anand district. The system is featured with a dashboard with
various options available. One can find the nearest petrol pump by either
entering the current location and displaying the address of nearest petrol
pump or locating the nearest pump on map. A search facility will enable to
find the nearby petrol pumps. It also displays the distance and time required
to travel from current location to desired petrol pump. The paper is
organized as follows: Section 2 introduces methodology adopted to carry
out the intended experiments along with the emphasis on performing
network analysis for the roads of Anand. Section 3 discusses the
experimental results obtained based on optimal conditions utilizing the
QGIS plugin considering various scenarios. Section 4, the concluding
section seeks to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the method
discussed and indicate the scope for further research.

2. METHODOLOGY
Calculating the shortest distance between two points in a network is one of
the most common problems on a road network which are addressed recently
by many researchers [2, 5, 9, 13, 15]. The strength of the suggested
methodology lies in the fact that it does not depend on any constrained
parameters to find the shortest path. It can be practically applied to any road
within any network to find the shortest path among two randomly chosen
points.
The Road Graph plugin of QGIS has been used to as a tool to define the
shortest path based on distance by calculating cumulative cost length,
between two points in a network. The data of petrol pumps is considered as
point shape file while that of Anand roads as polyline shape file. The
experiments have been conducted on vector data which initiates by
importing the shape files in QGIS environment. Two points on any polyline
layer over the road network can be considered to calculate shortest path
between them supposing one as source and other as destination. The
optimization on the path can be performed based on length or on travel

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 79


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

time. Some of the important parameters which are required to be set are
listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Units and Values set for Experimentation
Sr.
Parameter Units and Values
No.
1. Time Hour
2. Distance Kilometer
3. Topology Tolerance 10 meter
4. Direction default
5. Speed Limit 40 km/hr. and 60 km/hr.

Topology tolerance is set to 10m with an assumption that if there is a gap


between two roads they can be treated to be continuous. The direction field
is also set as default as there is no specific direction to move from one place
to other. It can be easily verified from the output obtained that if the speed
limit is kept same for all types of roads, shortest distance is the same route
for length and time cost. On the other hand, if different speed limits are set
for different segments of roads depending on their type, then there is
difference between the shortest path for length cost as compared to shortest
path way for time cost.
Anand district map has been taken and Geo-referenced to get the clear
boundaries of the area and within the marked boundary, all talukas have
been located.

Figure 1a: Geo-referenced Map of Anand Figure 1b: Anand District with Talukas
District

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 80


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Anand Geo-referenced Map is then overlapped with point shape file of


petrol pumps and lines shape file of roads showing connectivity of these
petrol pumps along with adjoining Talukas of Anand.

Figure 2: Road Network of Anand District with Petrol Pump Locations


In real time, following scenarios may take place for a resident of Anand.
1. If someone runs out of petrol while going to office for a meeting or a
student going to attend class at his college. At this point, he needs to
reach the nearest petrol pump.
Let us call a random location considered as source at (72.9072, 22.5536)
as point A. Experiments have been conducted to take into account
different cases. This calculates the shortest path between the two points
and also shows the time to reach from source to destination which is
also least from all the possible paths. Both time and distance have been
calculated using Google maps which show almost same time and
distance when compared with the calculation results. There is noticeable
variation in the values due to the fact that Google maps do not always
show the shortest path between two points. The following cases are
studied and the roads have been highlighted to understand the shortest
path suggested.
Case 1: Time taken to travel from point A to Bakrol Petrol Pump with
Longitude and Latitude pair of (72.9248, 22.548) at speed of 60 km/hr.
is shown in figure 3a:

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 81


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Figure 3a: Time and Distance to Travel from Point A to Bakrol, V.V. Nagar Petrol
Pump
Time and distance as calculated using Google maps is shown in figure
3b.

Figure 3b: Time and Distance to Travel from Point A to Bakrol, V.V. Nagar
Petrol Pump using Google Maps
Case 2: Time taken to travel from point A to Karamsad Petrol Pump
with Longitude and Latitude pair of (72.9091, 22.5399) at speed of 60
km/hr. is shown in figure 4a:

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 82


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Figure 4a: Time and Distance to Travel from Point A to Karamsad Petrol Pump
Time and distance as calculated using Google maps is shown in figure
4b.

Figure 4b: Time and Distance to Travel from Point A to Karamsad Petrol Pump using
Google Maps
Case 3: Time taken to travel from point A to Anand Petrol Pump with
Longitude and Latitude pair of (72.9278, 22.5638) at speed of 60 km/hr.
is shown in figure 5a:

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 83


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Figure 5a: Time and Distance to Travel from Point A to Anand Petrol Pump
Time and distance as calculated using Google maps is shown in figure
5b.

Figure 5b: Time and Distance to Travel from Point A to Anand Petrol Pump using
Google Maps

These calculations are summarized in Table 2 to show the shortest path


from source to nearby petrol pumps.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 84


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Table 2: Time Taken to Travel Specified Destinations


Time Taken Time Taken
Sr.
Source Destination Distance with speed with speed
No.
40km/hr. 60km/hr.
V.V.Nagar Petrol
1. (72.9072, 22.5536) Pump 3.81648 km 5.986614 mins 3.81648 mins
(72.9248, 22.548)
Karamsad Petrol
2. (72.9072, 22.5536) Pump 2.36807 km 3.752604 mins 2.368074 mins
(72.9091, 22.5399)
Anand Petrol Pump
3. (72.9072, 22.5536) 3.61323 km 5.357046 mins 3.61323 mins
(72.9278, 22.5638)
2. Another scenario may take place when a person reaches a petrol pump
at location X, but on reaching there he discovers long waiting queues or
comes to know that the petrol pump is not functional. There are other
petrol pumps at locations Y and Z which he can choose as alternative
destinations. Obviously, he will be interested to go to a petrol pump
which is relatively nearby and takes him less time to reach by covering
least distance. Considering the same locations, following cases are
studied:
Case 1: Time taken to travel from V.V.Nagar Petrol Pump at (72.9248,
22.5476) to Karamsad Petrol Pump with Longitude and Latitude pair of
(72.9091, 22.5399) at speed of 60 km/hr. is shown in figure 6:

Figure 6: Time and Distance to Travel from V.V.Nagar Petrol Pump to Karamsad
Petrol Pump

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 85


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

Case 2: Time taken to travel from V.V.Nagar Petrol Pump at (72.9248,


22.5476) to Anand Petrol Pump with Longitude and Latitude pair of
(72.9278, 22.5638) at speed of 60 km/hr. is shown in figure 7:

Figure 7: Time and Distance to Travel from V.V.Nagar Petrol Pump to Anand Petrol
Pump

These calculations are summarized in Table 3 to show the shortest path


from one petrol pump to nearby petrol pumps:

Table 3: Time Taken to Travel from Fixed Source to Different Destinations


Sr. Time Taken Time Taken
Source Destination Distance
No. (60 km/hr.) (40 km/hr.)
V.V.Nagar Karamsad
1. 2.51038 km 0.0418397 hr. 0.064332 hr.
(72.9248, 22.5476) (72.9091, 22.5399)
V.V.Nagar Anand
2. 2.30406 km 0.038401 hr. 0.0573263 hr.
(72.9248, 22.5476) (72.929, 22.5642)

3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
In order to provide solution to the basic queries discussed in above sections,
the paper first systematically examines some of the key scenarios which
show requirement of petrol pumps. It then attempts to explore the need of
more petrol pumps in the district due to unavailability of sufficient number
existing in that area. These requirements are supported by some practical
indicators to characterize the serving capability of existing petrol pumps in
Anand district. Figure 8 depicts the road network to show the connectivity
of Anand district. QGIS Road Graph plugin is used to find the shortest
distance between two points on the road network. The relationship between
road type and speed limit are studied in an effort to better understand their

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 86


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

dependence on time calculation. Finally, some general noteworthy insights


are drawn from the research contained in the paper.

Figure 8: Road Network of Anand District

Some selection attribute queries were run over the road network to specify
the speed limits on the attribute road_type as shown in figure 9. The roads
are also classified in various categories based on the speed limit set for the
vehicles moving on the respective roads.

Figure 9: Speed Limits on road_type Attribute


Table 3 presents the summary of all possible road types along with their set
speed limits. In actuality, in reaching a particular location, a person may

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 87


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

have to take different types of roads. The significance of setting these speed
limits is realized while calculating the time required to reach nearest petrol
pump from specific location going via these roads.
Table 4: Speed Limits for Different Road Types
Road Type Speed Limit
Trunk 80km/hr
Primary 70km/hr
Secondary 60km/hr
Motorway 60km/hr
Tertiary 40km/hr
Residential 30km/hr
Service 20km/hr
motorway_link 20km/hr
A comparative analysis is performed with the results shown by Google
maps to point out the variation in shortest path calculated by proposed
method as shown in table 5.

Table 5: Distance Variation Calculated Vs. Actual


Sr. Calculated Actual Distance
Source Destination
No. Distance Distance Variation
V.V.Nagar
1 (72.9072, 22.5536) 3.81648 km 4.1 km 0.284 km
(72.9248, 22.548)
Karamsad
2 (72.9072, 22.5536) 2.36807 km 4.8 km 2.432 km
(72.9091, 22.5399)
Anand
3 (72.9072, 22.5536) 3.61323 km 3.8 km 0.187 km
(72.9278, 22.5638)

4. Conclusion
An efficient method for finding the shortest path is presented for suggesting
the optimal distance and minimum time required to move from one location
to another in a road graph network. The suggested method helps in locating
the available petrol pumps in the given radius standing at a specific location
and finding the shortest and the fastest way to get from that location to the
nearest petrol pump in Anand district chosen as a sample. The same method
can be applied to any location on the map.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 88


International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics

IJCSBI.ORG

REFERENCES
Ahn, C.W. and Ramakrishnal, R.S., A Genetic Algorithm for Shortest Path Routing
Problem and the Sizing of Populations, IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary
Computation, 2002, pp. 566-579.
Beardwood, J., Halton, J.H. and Hammersley, J.M., The shortest path through many
points, Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 55, 4,
2008, pp. 299327.
Colas Le Guernic, Antoine Girard, Reachability analysis of linear systems using support
functions, Nonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems, 4, 2, 2010, pp.250-262.
Comber A., Brunsdon C., Green E., Using a GIS-based network analysis to determine
urban greenspace accessibility for different ethnic and religious groups, Landscape
and Urban Planning, 86, 1, 2008, pp. 103-114.
Dean D.J., Finding optimal routes for networks of harvest site access roads using GIS-
based techniques, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27, 1, 1997, pp. 11-22.
Goldberg A.V., Harrelson C., Computing the shortest path: A search meets graph theory,
In Proceedings of the sixteenth annual ACM-SIAM symposium on Discrete
algorithms, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, PA,
USA, 2005, pp. 156-165.
Hong, I. and Murray, A. T., Assessing Raster GIS Approximation for Euclidean Shortest
Path Routing, Trans. in GIS, 20, 2016, pp. 570584.
Hong, I., Murray, A. T. and Wolf, L. J., Spatial Filtering for Identifying a Shortest Path
Around Obstacles, Geogr Anal, 48, 2016, pp. 176190.
Inagaki J., Haseyama M. and Kitajima H., A genetic algorithm for determining multiple
routes and its applications, Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and
Systems, 6, 1999, pp. 137-140.
Kyushik Oh, Seunghyun J., Assessing the spatial distribution of urban parks using GIS,
Landscape and Urban Planning, 82(12), 2007, pp. 25-32.
Liu, S. and Zhu, X., An Integrated GIS Approach to Accessibility Analysis. Transactions in
GIS, 8, 2004, pp. 4562.
Munemoto M., Takai Y. and Sato, Y., A migration scheme for the genetic adaptive routing
algorithm, Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits and Systems, 1999, pp. 137-140.
Pijanowski B.C., Brown D.G., Shellito B.A., Manik G.A., Using neural networks and GIS
to forecast land use changes: a Land Transformation Model, Computers,
Environment and Urban Systems, 26, 6, 2002, pp. 553-575.
Sang-Hyun Lee, Jin-Yong Choi, Seung-Hwan Yoo, Yun-Gyeong Oh, Evaluating spatial
centrality for integrated tourism management in rural areas using GIS and network
analysis, Tourism Management, 34, 2013, pp. 14-24.
Zhan B.F., Charles E. N., Shortest Path Algorithms: An Evaluation Using Real Road
Networks, Transportation Science, 32, 1, 1998, pp. 65-73.
Zhang J., Zhao X. and He X., A Minimum Resource Neural Network Framework for
Solving Multi-constraint Shortest Path Problems, Neural Networks and Learning
Systems IEEE Transactions on, 25, 2014, pp. 1566-1582.

This paper may be cited as:


Arora, N., 2016. Analysis of Petrol Pumps Reachability in Anand District of Gujarat.
International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics, Vol.
16, No. 2, pp. 77-89.

ISSN: 1694-2108 | Vol. 16, No. 2 89