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# *52194* Reg. No.

## B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2017

Fourth Semester
Biotechnology
BT 2253 CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS AND BIOTHERMODYNAMICS
(Regulations 2008)

## PART A (102=20 Marks)

1. What are Residual properties ?
2. Define equation of state.
3. What are Primary, energy and derived properties ?
4. Define chemical potential.
5. Mention the criteria for phases to exist in equilibrium at Constant U and V.
6. How will differentiate solid-solid equilibrium from liquid-liquid equilibrium ?
7. What are azeotropes ?
8. State Duhems theorem.
9. How lost work is measured in terms of entropy ?
10. Give an example of two power cycles.

## PART B (516=80 Marks)

11. a) Estimate the molar volume, enthalpy and entropy for n-butane as a saturated
vapor and a saturated liquid at 370 K. The enthalpy and entropy are set equal
to zero for the ideal-gas state at 101.33 kPa and 273.15 K. The vapor pressure
of n-butane at 370 K is 1435 kpa.
(OR)
b) From the fundamental thermodynamic property relations derive Maxwells
equations.
52194 *52194*

## 12. a) Ethanol-water mixture forms an azeotrope boiling at 351.4 K under a pressure

of 101.3 kPa and its composition is 89.4% (mol) ethanol. The vapour pressures
of ethanol and water at 351.4 K are 100 kPa and 44 kPa respectively. Using
Van Laar method and assuming that the ratio of vapour pressures remains
constant calculate the composition of the vapour in equilibrium with a liquid
containing 80% ethanol.
(OR)
b) Explain the phase equilibria in single component systems.

13. a) Show that for equilibrium between phases of a pure substance, the fugacities
in both phases should be equal. Explain the effect of pressure VLE with
necessary diagrams.
(OR)
b) Construct equilibrium curve (x vs y) for ethyl alcohol water system at a total
pressure of 760 mm Hg. The data needed for Van Laar method are
i) Ethanol-Water system form an azetrope at 78.15C and corresponding
ethanol composition is 89.43 mole %.
ii) Vapour pressure of water at 78.15C = 329 mm Hg and
iii) Vapour pressure of Ethanol at 78.15C = 755 mm Hg.

## 14. a) Prove that Ka = Kf = Kp with example. (16)

(OR)
b) What is the influence of temperature on equilibrium constant and derive Vant
Hoffs equation. (16)

15. a) In a 1 MW steam power plant, superheated steam at 2800 kPa and 598 K
enters the turbine and it is expanded to the condenser pressure of 5 kPa.
Assuming an isentropic turbine efficiency of 85% and an isentropic pump
efficiency of 80%, determine the following :
i) The ideal Rankine cycle efficiency for the stated conditions. (6)
ii) The thermal efficiency of the plant. (5)
iii) The rate of steam production. (5)
3 3
Specific volume of saturated liquid at 5kPa is 1.005 10 m /kg.
State of water Enthalpy Entropy
(kJ/kg) (kJ/kg K)
Saturated liquid at 5 kPa 138 0.4764
Saturated vapour at 5 kPa 2562 8.3951
Superheated steam at 2800 kPa and 598 K 3063 6.6875
(OR)
b) Explain the Lindes liquefaction process with a neat sketch.