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by Professor K. G. DENBIQH*

Rleum6-On passe en revue les travaux anterieurs de plusieurs auteurs sur les profiles de

temp&ature les plus favorables pour des reactions exothermiques reversibles et des reactions de

degrsdation.

Quelques nouveaux calculs servent B illustrer les grandes augmentations de rendement qui

peuvent Btre realis& si lon emploie la succession la plus favorable des temperatures dans des

c&s ou il faut Bviter des reactions secondaires.

reversible exothermische Reaktionen und Abwertungsreaktionen wird gegeben.

Einige neuen Berechmmgen illustrieren die grosse Zunahme der Ausbeuten, die sich in Fallen

von konkurrierenden Nebenreaktionen durch optimale Temperaturstufung erzielen Rsst.

Summary-The earlier work of various authors on the optimum temperature profiles for

reversible exothermic reactions and degradation reactions is briefly reviewed.

Some new calculations are put forward which illustrate the large increasesin yield which may be

obtained by use of an optimum sequence of temperatures in cases where there are competing side

reactions.

per unit of time and volume,

ONE OF the advantages of continuous operation, as

compared to batch, is that it is much easier to (2) improvement in the yield of the reaction, i.e.

maintain a controlled change in the variables which increase in the fraction of the reagent which is

determine the reaction rate, as reaction proceeds. converted to the desired products, due to the

Of these variables temperature is one of the most suppression of unwanted side reactions.

important and in ammonia synthesis, for example, The f%st of these has already been the subject of

valuable improvements have been achieved by several papers in the literature and will therefore

maintaining a certain optimum temperature profile be reviewed only very briefly.

along the length of the reactor. And although it is

temperature which is the theme of the present OUTPUT PROBLEMS

paper, it is worth remarking that it is not the only

The best-known example of the use of optimum

variable which may be usefully controlled. For

temperature profiles is to be found in the reversible

example, in certain nitration reactions, carried out

exothermic reactions; e.g. ammonia synthesis, sul-

in continuous stirred tank reactors in series, im-

phur dioxide oxidation and the water gas reaction

provements have been attained by making a change

between steam and carbon monoxide. For such

in the acid concentration from one tank to the next,

reactions the effect of an increase of temperature is

by means of subsidiary feeds of weaker or stronger

to reduce the value of the equilibrium constant (and

acids. In this instance, of course, the change in the

thus the maximum conversion) but also to increase

variable is stepwise rather than continuous.

the speed of the forward reaction. Thus the thermo-

The advantages which may be obtained by the

dynamic and the kinetic factors are, in a certain

use of an optimum sequence of temperatures-

sense, in opposition. Near the inlet to the tubular

which may be either stepwise or continuous-fall

reactor, where the reacting gas is still far from

into two distinct categories:

equilibrium, it is advantageous to have a high

(1) improvement in the output of the reactor- temperature in order to favour the rate of the for-

* University of Edinburgh and Heriot-Watt College. ward reaction, and near the outlet to the converter

125

Profewor K. G. DENBIGH

it is advantageous to have a rather lower temper- but that the temperature should subsequently be

ature in order to favour the equilibrium. At each diminished, as B accumulates, in order to utilize

cross section of the reactor there is thus a certain the fact that a reduction of temperature slows down

optimum temperature which maximizes the output the reaction B + C more than the reaction A + B.

of the vessel. Therefore there should again be an optimum

The matter may also be expressed as follows in sequence of temperatures, diminishing continuously

terms which are entirely kinetic: for a reversible from the inlet of the reactor. In fact the reversible

exothermic reaction the effect of an increase of reactions previously discussed are a special case of

temperature is to increase the speed of the reverse the degradation reactions with C identical with

reaction more than the forward reaction. The tem- A-i.e. B --f C becomes the reverse reaction.

perature should therefore be reduced progressively However the theory of the optimum temperature

as the amount of reaction product increases. profile for the degradation reactions is much more

For this type of reaction it is comparatively easy diflicult. It has been discussed recently by BILOUS

to set up the theory of the optimum temperature and AMUNDSON [5] and these authors have obtained

profile and to calculate the numerical value of the numerical solutions to the problem of the optimum

optimum temperature as a function of distance temperature profile by use of an electronic com-

along the reactor. The problem was first discussed puter. It seems however that there is scope for

by TEMKINand PYZE~EV[l], and subsequently by further work on this problem, for BILOUS and

DENBICH [2], ANNAESLE [3] and CALDER~ANK[4]. AMUNDSONpoint out very candidly that their own

The design of a reactor to conform to the optimum treatment leads to a peculiar paradox: namely

profile is, of course, a di&ult problem in heat trans- that there appears also to be an optimum profile of

fer but it is understood that a good approximation diminishing temperatures for the case where the

has been made in certain ammonia synthesis plants reaction A --f B has a greater temperature co-

and has resulted in a considerable increase in out- eficient than the reaction B -+ C. This is not what

put.* would be expected intuitively.

A problem of a somewhat similar character occurs

in degradation reactions, i.e. the class of reac- YIELD PROBLEMS

tions in which the required product can react fur- Under this heading we are concerned with the

ther to give waste products. Consider the sequence question whether an optimum sequence of temper-

of two irreversible reactions, atures can increase the yield of a reaction, i.e. the

A+B+C, fraction of the reagent converted to the desired

in which B is the required product and C represents product, quite irrespective of whether this sequence

a substance or substances formed by degradation. of temperatures might possibly reduce the output of

Let it be supposed that the temperature coefficient the plant.

of the reaction A --f B is positive, but is smaller In a great many organic reactions there are

than that of the reaction B + C. Intuitively it transient intermediates, There are also side reac-

seems clear that the temperature should initially tions which give rise to unwanted by-product,s,

be high, in order to accelerate the first reaction and such as carbon dioxide, tarry substances, etc. Such

thus to obtain a large output from a given volume, processes can thus be expressed symbolically:

(I) (31

+ With regard to the details of the theory, Prof. A+B-+X-+Y

AXUNDSON has pointed out to the author that eq. (39)

in reference [2] should strictly have been differentiated at

constant partial pressures, rather than at constant concen-

trations. This arises from the fact that the total pressure

!

J

(2) I

4

(4)

This correction alters somewhat the form of the subsequent

equations. but does not have much effeot on the numerical where Y is the desired product, X is an intermediate

solution. (which may be either a free radical or a metastable

126

Optimumtemperatureaequenoeein reactors

molecule) and P and Q are the products of side immensely more difficult than either of the ex-

reactions. Thus, on account of the latter, the yield amples discussed under the previous heading. In-

of Y can never be lOOo/o and may be very much stead of discussing the tubular reactor, we shall

lower. On account of the cost of the raw materials, therefore suppose that the reaction process is car-

A and B, an improvement in the yield may often ried out in two continuous stirred tank reactors in

be a much more important economic factor than series. It will be shown that the problem can be

an increase in the output of a given volume of solved for such a system and that the yield can in

plant. fact be increased very considerably by holding one

It is evident that the yield is higher the greater tank at a different temperature from the other.

is the speed of reaction 1 relative to reaction 2 and of A system of this type is, of course, an entirely

reaction 3 relative to reaction 4. Ideally one should practical means of performing the reaction on the

therefore look for selective catalysts, but these are large scale-although it would be preferable to use

not easily found. As a result of practical experience more than two stirred tank reactors in series, in

in explosives production (which cannot be discussed order to reduce the total volume. However, it is

in detail), the author is convinced that a valuable probably fairly safe to generalize from the example

alternative is the use of a controlled sequence of of two tanks to the case of three or more, and the

temperatures. tubular reactor itself may be regarded as an infinite

Let it be supposed that reaction 1 has a lower sequence of stirred tank reactors, each of infinit-

temperature coefficient than reaction 2. Then as esimal volume.

far as the competition of reactions 1 and 2 are con- For simplicity, each of the four reactions will be

cerned, a low temperature will tend to increase the assumed to be first order: thus the speed of reac-

yield. Let it be supposed however that reaction 3 tions 1 and 2 will be taken as proportional to the

has a higher temperature coefficient than reaction concentration of reagent A and the speed of reac-

4. A high temperature will therefore favour the tions 3 and 4 as proportional to the concentration

conversion of X into Y rather than into Q. Thus, of X. This might occur if there is a large excess of

considering both factors together, the temperature reagent B and a large excess of the substance with

should be fairly low during the initial stages of which X reacts, e.g. the solvent, or a second mole-

reaction, whilst X is accumulating, but should be cule of B.

much higher during the later stages of reaction Let a, x and y be the stationary concentrations

when the main reactions are the conversion of X of A, X and Y in the Crst tank and let a, x and y

into Y or Q. However, since all four reactions are be the corresponding concentrations in the second

actually taking place simultaneously, although to tank. Let G be the volume rate of flow (assumed

varying extents, the temperature should be in- approximately constant, as for a liquid phase reac-

creased progressively. In brief, if the reaction were tion) and let V and V be the volumes of the react-

carried out in a tubular reactor, there would be an ing fluid in the first and second tanks respectively.

optimum temperature profile for highest yield. The mass balance equations for substances A, X

In the converse situation where the reaction 1 and Yin the first tank are

has a higher temperature coefficient than reaction 2

M, = Gu+ Vu(K,+K,) (1)

and reaction 3 has a lower temperature coeficient

than reaction 4, the optimum profile should be one Gx = V(k,a-k,x-k,x) (2)

of falling temperatures along the path of reaction.* Gy = VK,x, (3)

The full mathematical analysis of this problem

for the case of a tubular reactor, which allows a where M, is the molar feed rate of A. Similarly for

continuous variation of temperature, is certainly the second tank

coeffioientsrequire, of course. either uniformly high or

uniformly low temperatures,and arenot of interestin the

G3e = Gx+ V(k,lu-Gx-k,x) (5)

presentdiaCllef5ion. w = Gy+ TGX. (6)

127

Professor K. G. DENBICHX

constants of the reaction A-j-B --f X in the first

and second tanks respectively, as determined by r4 = k;/k3

the prevailing values of the temperatures. Similarly

The yield is thus independent of the time of

with regard to k,, k, etc.

passage, V/G, in the second tank (due to the

Since the rate at which the useful product Y

assumption of virtually complete reaction) but does

leaves the system is Gy moles per unit time, the

depend on t = V/G, the time of passage in the first

yield of the reaction is

tank. Now what is being aimed at is to increase the

yield by holding the tanks at different temper-

@ = GyIM, (7)

atures. In the absence of a complete mathematical

analysis, it seems likely that the best holding time

It will now be supposed that the time of passage

under the temperature conditions of the first tank

in the second tank is large enough for reaction to

will be approximately equal to the time needed for

be virtually complete. With this assumption the

the concentration of the intermediate substance X

terms Ga and Gx in eqs. (4) and (5) respec-

to pass through its maximum. This statement has

tively can be neglected by comparison with the

not been proved, but it seems a reasonable assump-

other terms. By elimination between the above

tion and, in any case, there is complete freedom in

equations we thus obtain the following equation for

regard to the choice of t.*

the yield: From eqs. (1) and (2) :

~ ~k,{~k,Y,(l+~,)+l}(l+~,)+l+~~,~,(l+~,)

Wfa

= (l+rz)(l+~,){l+~k~(1+~,)){l+~k,~,(l+~,)) x= (9)

(8)

where t = V/G, the time of passage in the first and thus x has a maximum value at a time t ,,, given

tank, and r2 etc. denote the following ratios of bY

1

velocity constants : t, = (10)

rz = k,Ik,

~3 = W, We shall therefore choose this value oft as the time

of passage in the first tank. Substituting in eq.

r4 = k,Ik,

(8) and simplifying, we thus finally obtain the

yield as :

In the special case where the temperatures are The velocity constants are exponentially depen-

equal in the two tanks, r2 = r2 and r4 = r,; under dent on the temperature and their ratios r2, r2,

these conditions equation (11) reduces to etc. may therefore be written as the following func-

tions of T and T, the temperatures in the first and

1

CL = (12) *Since this paper was drafted, one of my Edinburgh

(1 +r,)(l+r,) colleagues, Mr. R. ARIS,h&3demonstrated that the optimum

time in the first tank is somewhat less than the time t,

and this has a maximum value at a particular used above, but the effect of this ia to increase the maxi-

temperature, which is therefore the best temper- mum yield only very slightly. The yield ia evidently not

ature for isothermal operation. very sensitive to the choice oft.

128

second tanks respectively, together with the con- seen at once that yields may be obtained which are

stants ca, b,, etc.: at least twice as large as the best value (25%) for

isothermal operation.

the reaction may thus be calculated from eq. (11)

r

for any chosen temperatures T and T.

FIQ. 1.

NUMERICAL EXAMPLE

With the values of the constants as chosen above

By way of an example we shall choose there is an optimum value for T, but not for T, i.e.

c2 = 104, c, = 10-2, c, = 10 the maximum yield increases progressively with

increase of T. However by far the greater part of

b, = -3OOO, b, = 0, b, = +3000

the gain in yield may be obtained for a compara-

rhysically these values are quite reasonable; thus tively small increase in T. Thus it will be seen from

a value for b, of 3000 means that the activation the figure that a yield of 53% may be obtained by

energy of reaction 3 is about 6000 calories per mole 6xing the temperature of the f&t tank at 280 K

greater than the activation energy of reaction 4. (7 C) and the temperature of the second tank at

Consider 6rst of all the isothermal case, i.e. when 414 K (141 C). This would be entirely practicable

the tanks are maintained at the same temperature. if the reaction were carried out in a suitable solvent.

By substituting (13) in (12) and differentiating, and Although the theory has not been extended to the

using the above numerical values for the constants, case of three tanks, it may be expected that a fur-

it is found that the bc 3t temperature for isothermal ther increase of yield might be obtained, by using

operation is temperatures of, say, 300 K, 320 K and 410 K

T = 326K respectively.

and the corresponding maximum value of the iso- It may be noted that the value of the ratio ra

thermal yield, 4&, is (chosen as 1O-2 in the example above) determines

the speed of the reaction X--f Y as compared to the

0~ = 0.25 (i.e. 25%)

speed of the reaction A -+ X. Thus when this ratio

Under conditions of unequal temperatures in the is small, the formation of the intermediate X is

two tanks, the yield may be calculated numerically much more rapid than its conversion into the final

by solving eq. (11). This has been done by product Y (for equal concentrations). This implies

holding T constant at a particular value and calcu- a virtual segregation of the two reactions, i.e. for a

lating @ at various values of T; this was followed suitable choice of the time of passage, the process

by a similar solution for a second value of T, and X --t Y hardly occurs at all in the first tank, but

so on. completes itself in the second. It is clearly under

The results are shown in the figure and it will be these conditions that a difference of temperatures

129

Professor IL a. DICNBIQH

between the two tanks will have the largest effect. complex organic reactions the kinetica will not be

Conversely for large values of the ratio r,, the ex- known in s&Cent detail to make possible a

tent to which the reactions can be segregated is quantitative application of the theory. In fact the

much reduced and the temperature difference will nature of the transient intermediates themselves

thus have a smaller effect. may be quite unknown. However, it is evident that

This has been confirmed by solving eq. (11) the reaction scheme

for the same values of c,, cd, b,, b, and b, as above,

but putting c3 (= rS) equal to 1 in place of 1O-2.

The best yield was found to be only very slightly

higher than for isothermal operation, but it is of

interest that there was now an optimum temper- is a very general one, and in any process of manu-

ature (ca. 350 K) for the second tank, as well a~ facture where there is scope for the improvement of

an optimum for the first. This is aa might be the yield it will therefore be worth while to carry

expected. out a hit-ad-miss experimental trial of various

sequences of rising or falling temperatures. A

DISCUSSION method of this kind was adopted by the author and

his colleagues in the production of a certain explo-

From the above example it will be seen that very

sive by a nitration reaction, and was found to be

substantial increases in yield may be obtained by

remarkably successful.

using a controlled sequence of temperatures. This

In place of a steadily rising or falling sequence of

applies the more forcibly the greater is the speed of

optimum temperatures, it may occur that this

the reaction A + X relative to the speed of the

optimum profile itself passes through one or

reaction X + Y since this is conducive to their

more maxima or minima. This might occur if there

segregation.

is more than one intermediate in the overall reac-

Intuitively it seems likely that the advantages

tion :

of non-isothermal operation will also increase with

A+B+X+Y+Z

larger differences in the activation energies of the

main reactions as compared to the side reactions, Finally it may be worth emphasizing that a

i.e. larger magnitudes of b, and b,. These quantities tubular reactor, which allows of a continuous

were chosen as -3000 and +3000 in the above variation of temperature along its length, may be

example (i.e. differences of activation energies of expected to give appreciably better results than a

6000 calories per mole), but considerably larger sequence of continuous stirred tank reactors, since

values might occur in certain reactions. in the latter the temperature sequence is necessarily

Of course in a great many actual instances of discontinuous.

NOTATION

a, x. 9 concentrations of substances A, X and Y in k,, k,, etc. velocity constants of reaction8 1, 2, etc. iu

first tank second tank

a, x, y concentrations of substances A, X and Y in fI, r,, etc. ratios of velocity constauta

second tank T, T temperatures in OK of first and second tauke

b,, b,, etc. constant related to difference of activation respectively

energies of reaction8 t( = V/u) time of paeaage in first tank

Cl, c, etc. ratio of non-exponential factors of reactions (;I volume rate of flow

& molar feed rate of substance A v, V volumes of fluid in first and second tanke

k,. k,, etc. velocity constants of reactions 1, 2, etc. in respectively

first tank cp reaction yield

130

Optimum temperature sequencee in renctors

REFEBENOES

[2] Dmmmir; Trotw. Foradoy Sot. 1944 43 362.

[3] ANNAB~; Chetn. Eng. Sci. 1962 1 146.

[4] CALnumJAuK; C%em. Eng. Proq. 1963 49 686.

[b] BILOTJ~and hflJNDSON; Chmn. Eng. SC& 19665 81,116.

DISCUSSION

Dipl. Ing. Fr. Honu: System l&bar sein soll, su den Diiferentialgleichungen fiir

Herr Prof. DENBIGH hat an einem Beispiel gezeigt, dass die Mengenstriime noch eine weitere Beziehung, die

die Ausbeute an dem gewimschten Endprodukt stark vom Optimalbedinguug, treten. Sie l&s& sioh bei n unabh&ngige

Temperaturverleuf l&rigs des Reaktionsweges abbtigen Reaktionen durch das Verschwinden einer n+l-reihigen

ksnn. Die optimale Temperaturverteilung I&& sich Determinanta ausdriicken (Abb. 2). Bei drei Reaktionen

ebenso wie fur die Ksskade such ftir das Reaktionsrohr

ohne Riickvermischung berechnen. Die Schwierigkeit F(qti, qu, q+-+Extremwe~.

dieser Rechnung hi%@ im wesentlichen nur von der

Ansahl der stoechiometrisch umabh&ngigen Reaktionen

ab (Abb. 1). aF aF aF

0

G* a4, ap,

afl

-----WV fll 62 613

-E

= 0

41 af2

121 522 423

-iiF

42 af3

xv = h(c71>

Q2,43* T) 631 632 633

aT

43

TV = fsh 42943, T)

Am Reaktorende :

Bei drei solchen Reaktionen z.B. ist der Zustand des

Reaktionegemiaches an jeder Stelle durch die Mengen- =Ofiiri# k

at&me von drei ausgew&hlten Komponenten (ql, qP, qr) br(

und durch die Temper&u feetgelegt, wenn die Mengen- =lfiri=k

strome am Eingang oder am Ausgang beksnnt sind und

LhB. 2

vom Druckebfall abgesehen wird. Aus Stoffbilansen

ergeben sich fur die Mengenstriime drei DiiIerential-

gleichungen. In ihnen bedeutet V entweder dss Volumen ist es eine vierreihige Determinante. Die Optimalbedin-

oder die Katalysatormenge von Anfang des Reaktors bis gung gilt hier fiir den allgemeinen Fall, daes nicht nur em

zu der betrachtetan Stelle. Die Funktionen auf der rechten Mengenstrom sondern eine beliebige gegebene Funktion B

Seite der Gleichungen sind die Bildungsgeschwindigkeiten der Mengenstri5me am Ausgang des Reaktors einen

der ausgewi%hltenKomponenten. Sie lassen sich leicht Extremwert annimt. Des ist eine Aufgabe. die bei mehr

angeben, wenn die Kinetik der ablaufenden Reaktionen sls einem Endprodukt und bei Rtickfiibrproblemen

bekannt ist. vorkommen kann. Die Ableitungen der Funktion F nach

Aus diesen Gleichungen ksnn man den Verlauf der Men- den MengenstrGmen am Ausgang und Null bilden die erste

genstrome und der Konsentrationen olme weiteres Zeile der Determinante. In der let&en Spalte stehen die

errechnen, wenn die Temperatur als Funktion von V Ableitungen der Bildungsgeschwindigkeiten nach der

gegeben ist. Ftir den optimalen Reaktor ist diese Temper- Temper&u. Ausserdem kommen in der Optimalbedingung

sturfunktion unbekannt und es muss daher, wenn das noch n* Hilfsfunktionen vor. die einem System von lin-

131

Professor K. G. DENBI~H

esren Differentialgleichungen mit bestimmten Rand- an jeder Stelle des Reektors erfiillt sein muss noch eine

bedingungen fiir da8 Reaktorende geniigen. weitere Optimalbedingung fiir das Reaktorende.

Hat man nur eine stoechiometrisch unabh8ngige Reak- Die erwahnten Optimalbedingtmgen sind mu notwen-

tion wie z.B. ein Gleichgewicht dige aber keine hinreichenden Bedingungen. Falls em

optimaler Reaktor ftir das formal sngembriebene Problem

A+B = c+D, iiberhaupt existiert. darm kann er in der engegebenen

Weise berechnet werden. Aber nicht jeder Losung der

dann vereinfacht sich die Determinante zu Differentialgleichungenund der Optimalbedingungen muss

em optimalter Reaktor entsprechen. Fiir eine spezielle

Aufgabe ist d&her noch eine Diskussion der L&sung

IE- 01 erforderlich.

aqe _ = 0.

Prof. K. G. DENBIQH:

5; It is dit%cult for me to comment on Dr. HORNSinterest-

ing contribution. In the short time available to him on the

platform. he had to restrict himself to presenting his

Scbliesst man den pmktisch bedeutungslosen Fall mathematics in a very schematio form. I am very much

looking forward to seeing his work when it is published.

8F

-= 0 Dr. C. VAN HEERDEN:

a!& In principle it is possible to oaloulate every system in

which the temperature level is mainly determined by the

aU8, d8nn Wird aflaT = 0. reaction heat, in which, accordingly. relatively little heat

Diese Gleichung ist seit langem bekannt, und besagt, is supplied from outside, and in which the prooess can only

dam im optimalen Reaktor an jeder Stelle die Umset- be realized after ignition.

sungsgeschwindigkeit extremal sein muss. If the st&tionary state of & reversible reaction is an

Bei mehr als einer un8bh8ngigen Reaktion kann man equilibrium condition, the tendency of the reaotion velo-

fur die Ermitthmg des optimalen Temperaturverlaufs das city to increase considerably at rising tamper8ture is

System der Differentialgleichungenfiir Mengenstriime und compensated by the counteracting effect of the reverse

Hilfsfunktionen und der Optirnalbedingungen direkt reaotion.

numerisch oder graph&h integrieren. Man beginnt mit For non-reversible reection, in which this counteracting

der Integration am Ende des Reaktors, die Optimal- effect does not exist, the conversion of one of the com-

bedingung dient dann xur Berechmmg der Temperatur ponents will become virtually complete at inoreaaing

und die restlichen Gleichungen dienen zur Ermittlung der temperature. The consequence of this circumstance for

Mengenstriime und der Hilsfunktionen an jeder Stelle. the temperature (sequence of temperature) in the reactor

Man kann Hilfsfunktionen such vor der Integration will always, to some degree, be in conflict with the desire

eliminieren und erh8lt damr Dil?erentialgleichungenfiir to realize a sequenoe of temperatures at which the reaction

die Temperatur und die Mengenstriime allein, so wie sie rate is maximum throughout.

Bilous und Amundson ftir verschiedene Beispiele abgeleitet

haben.

Statt die Gleichungen au integrieren kann man such Prof. K. G. DENBIQH:

einen angenommenen oder experimental1 ermittelten The consideration which Dr. VAN HEERDENhas brought

Temperaturverbuf mit der Optimalbedingung testen. forward represents an important limitation whenever the

Die Determinante verschwindet dann nattirlich nicht und reaction is carried out under adiabatic conditions. I would

aus dem Verlauf ihres Wertes langs des Reaktors kann remark, however, that there is no necessity for reactions to

man schliessen wie die Temperaturverteilung in dem be carried out adiabatically and whenever there are advan-

engenommenen Reaktor zu ver8ndern ist, damit er sich tages to be gained by adopting a controlled sequence of

dem optimalen Reaktor annghert. temperatures, such as I have described, it is always possi-

Wird ausser der Temperatur auoh das Reaktorvolumen ble to put heat into the system, or to remove it, in such a

bei gegebenen Durchsatz variiert, d.h. ist em Reaktor mit way as to attain the optimum sequence. In certain in-

optimalen Temperaturverlauf und Volumen gesucht, dann stances there may be practical difficulties in achieving the

tritt su der Optimalbedingung fiir die Temperatur, die optimum sequence, but I think none of principle.

132

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