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Stolen Art from Jews- Helena

https://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2002/summer/nazi-looted-art-1.html
o Prologue: Selected Articles. National Archives and Records
Administration, National Archives and Records Administration,
www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2002/summer/nazi-looted-art-
1.html. Accessed 21 Sept. 2017.

o Although the Nazis kept inventory on the artwork they looted, many works still
have yet to be found.
o Looting began by 1939 at the start of the war.
o The Nazis and the new Vichy government wanted to remove any work that was
made during or represented the Weimar Republic.
o Degenerate art included the modern art movements of impressionism,
expressionism, and cubism in German and French art.
o Acceptable art included Italian Renaissance art , Baroque, German Medieval and
Renaissance art , 18th century French art, and 19th century German Realist art
(specifically depicting folk culture).
o Hitler wanted art that praised German culture and the Aryan race.
o Art was used as currency, especially as a means for paying to flee the country.
o Alfred Rosenberg was directed by Hitler to confiscate
Art and the Second World War- Monica Bohm-Duchen. 5th floor: N9160 B64 2013.
The rape of Europa : the fate of Europe's treasures in the Third Reich and the
Second World War- Lynn H Nicholas. 5th floor: N8795.3.E85 N53 1994
o Nicholas, Lynn H. The rape of Europa: the fate of Europes treasures in the Third
Reich and the Second World War. New York, NY, Vintage Books, 1995.

Lost Lives, Lost art. - Melissa Muller and Monika Tatzkow


o Muller, Melissa, and Monika Tatzkow. Lost lives lost art: Jewish collectors,
nazi art theft and the quest for justice. London, Frontline Books, 2010.

o Jewish art collectors, in attempts to preserve their works, often escaped with
pieces or sent them overseas. Others sold pieces to gain money for financial
stability when they fled.
o Museum directors aided the Nazis in looting art in order to obtain certain artworks
and collections themselves.
o The Nazis deprived Jews of their artwork and property as a way to strip the Jews
of their identities and culture. This process of Aryanization was of legal means
by the Nazis in order to make stealing from the Jews justifiable
o Jewish property and possessions were used to pay off military debts and finance
further efforts of the Nazi regimen.
o The Ordinance on the Registration of Jewish Property allowed Nazis to easily
obtain Jewish assets such as financial assets, personal assets, and any other assets
that were registered under the law.
o Many were forced to sell their artwork at much lower prices than what it was
worth.
o The Fuhrervorbehalt Act of 1938 allowed Hitler and his art dealers to have the
opportunity to have the first choice of the looted artworks
o
The Lost Museum
o The Rothschilds were one of the big aristocratic Jewish families known for their
banking business and donations as well as their immense art collection of over
5,000 pieces.
Vermeers Astronomer
Bouchers Portrait of the Marquise de Pampadour
Frans Halss Portrait of Isabella Coymans
Raphaels Man with a Red Hat

o With the start of the war, the Rothschilds sent away parts of their collection to
their private chateaus, sent works be protected by family friends, gave parts of
their collection to the French national museums as contributions in order to
keep their collections safe.
Some were kept at the Louvre
o The Vichy government was responsible for seizing the Rothschilds possessions
in the German Occupied Zone.
o The Nazis went to the Rothschilds chateaus where they raided their assets and
additionally the Nazis broke into safe deposit boxes at the Bank of Paris to loot
collections and belongings.

https://www.ushmm.org/collections/bibliography/looted-art

http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/40244488.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3Ab8cb21d464996a55ac
13e7d8ce394062
Stolen Art from Jews- Helena

(write-up for website):

The looting of art by the Nazis began in 1939 at the start of World War II. Hitler wanted
art that would celebrate and glorify German culture and praise the Aryan race. Thus, art that did
not meet these standards was subject to removal. The Nazis and the new Vichy government
wanted to remove any work that was made during or represented the Weimar Republic.
Unwanted or degenerate art included the modern art movements of impressionism,
expressionism, and cubism in German and French art. Acceptable art included Italian
Renaissance art, Baroque, German Medieval and Renaissance art, 18th century French art, and
19th century German Realist art- specifically that which depicted folk culture. Another form of
degenerate art was Jewish art. The Nazis deprived Jews of their artwork and property as a way
to strip them of their identities and culture. This process of Aryanization was of legal means by
the Nazis in order to make stealing from the Jews justifiable. The Ordinance on the
Registration of Jewish Property allowed Nazis to easily obtain Jewish assets such as financial
assets, personal assets, and any other assets that were registered under the law. Even museum
directors aided the Nazis in looting art in order to obtain certain artworks and collections
themselves. The Fuhrervorbehalt Act of 1938 allowed Hitler and his art dealers to have the
opportunity to have the first choice of the looted artworks. Jewish property and possessions were
used to pay off military debts and finance further efforts of the Nazi regimen. Jewish art
collectors, in attempts to preserve their works, often escaped with pieces or sent them overseas.
Others sold pieces to gain money for financial stability when they fled. Many were even forced
to sell their artwork at much lower prices than what it was worth.

The Rothschilds were one of the big aristocratic Jewish families known for their banking
business and donations as well as their immense art collection of over 5,000 pieces. Notable
pieces from the Rotschilds collections included Johannes Vermeers Astronomer, Francois
Bouchers Portrait of the Marquise de Pampadour, Frans Halss Portrait of Isabella Coymans.
Other noteworthy artists in the collections included Velazquez, Van Dyke, Peter Paul Rubens,
Titian, Jean- Antione Watteau, Francisco de Goya, Raphael, Ingres, Jan Van Eyck, and Jean-
Honore Fragonard. Additionally the collections consisted also of books and manuscripts. The
Vichy government was responsible for seizing the Rothschilds possessions in the German
Occupied Zone. With the start of the war, the Rothschilds sent away parts of their collection to
their private chateaus, sent works be protected by family friends, gave parts of their collection to
the French national museums as contributions in order to keep their collections safe. Some
were also kept at the Louvre. However, the Nazis went to the Rothschilds chateaus where they
raided their assets and additionally the Nazis broke into safe deposit boxes at the Bank of Paris
where they looted these collections and belongings.
Johannes Vermeer Francois Boucher Frans Hals

Astronomer Portrait of the Marquise de Pampadour Portrait of Isabella Coymans

Picture Sources:
Astronomer: https://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/v/vermeer/03d/28astro.html
Portrait of the Marquise de Pampadour:
http://musee.louvre.fr/oal/marquise_pompadour/marquise_pompadour_acc_en.html
Portrait of Isabella Coymans: