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DoctorKnow® Application Paper


Title: Vibration Analysis of Gears
Source/Author: Todd Reeves
Product: General
Technology: Vibration
Classification: Not Classified

Vibration Analysis of Gears

Todd Reeves
CSI
Knoxville, TN

Abstract

Gears are used primarily to transfer power and to change speeds between a driver and a driven unit.
designed and manufactured very carefully based on some specific gear theory. Understanding the vib
gearboxes requires at least a basic understanding of some basic gear theory. Once the gear theory is
gearbox defects can be more easily identified through vibration analysis. In order for vibration analysis
be successful, the best sensor, sensor location and measurement point set-up is required for meaning
collection.

Gear Design

Gears are commonly used in industry for their ability to provide the speed and power transmission req
needed in industrial applications. Gears can provide these speed changes and torque transmission w

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Gear designs have specific characteristics that can affect its measured vibration. Too often gears are
as too complex to diagnose their defects properly, but with the understanding of a few gear design ba
terminology, troubleshooting gearboxes can be accomplished more easily.

Gear Types

Different types of gears are available for different speed and power considerations. Basically, each of
different gear types will show the same basic vibration patterns when gear defects appear.

Spur Gears

Spur gears are most commonly thought of when discussing gears. The teeth are cut parallel to the sh
gears are good at power transmission and speed changes, but are noisier than other gear types.
Helical Gears

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Helical gears have their teeth cut at an angle to the shaft. These gears are much quieter than spur ge
to the angular nature of the gear meshing axial thrust and therefore axial vibration is higher on these g
spur gears. To avoid the higher axial thrust, a double helical gears are used. These gears, often calle
herringbone gears, are divided in the middle with each side having an equal magnitude angle but in a
direction. If a gap exists between the two halves of the gear then it is a double-helical gear. If no gap e
each tooth is continuous then the gear is called a herringbone gear.
Bevel Gear

Right angle gearboxes transmit power to an output shaft that is perpendicular to the drive shaft. These
use a bevel gear design to transmit the power better. The bevel gear may have a straight bevel or a s
Worm Gear

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A worm gear is also used to transmit the rotational motion between perpendicular shafts. The worm h
more teeth wrapped around it's shaft. It drives a worm wheel which has the appearance of a helical ge

Basic Gear Theory


Tooth Shape

Now, all of the previously mentioned gear types use the same basic tooth design, often called a tooth
best tooth profile is one that will allow for the radial velocity of the gears to be constant. For modern g
tooth profile that works best is called the involute. The involute design minimizes the effect of fabricati
the radial velocity of the gears keeping the vibration and noise levels down.
Conjugacy

The goal of a gearbox is to provide power and or speed changes with a minimum of excessive noise a
To accomplish this goal the power from the drive gear must be transmitted though a line that is perpe
the common tangent, and intersects the center to center line. The common tangent is a line that is tan
of the meshing gears. This point of intersection is called the pitch point. The pitch point of each gear t
on the center to center line between the gears. The circle that connects the pitch points is called the p

This is the principle of conjugacy. The use of the involute tooth profile allows for this condition to be m
easily.
Prime Number Theory

The number of teeth on each gear can be factored down to a series of prime numbers. Prime number

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5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, etc. For example, the number 10 can be broken down two it's prime factors 1 x 2
number 26 can be factored into 1 x 2 x 13. Prime numbers are important when trying to understand so
gear defects and their frequency components. When the largest prime factor that is common to both g
the largest common factor (LCF), is 1, one tooth on a drive gear will mesh with every tooth on the driv
before it re-meshes with the first tooth on the driven gear. If the LCF is greater than 1, some teeth will
often and this leads to an reduced gear life. Also machining defects and wear patterns will develop tha
up as defect frequencies based on the largest common prime factors between the meshing gears.

Vibration Analysis

Vibration analysis of gears can provide a wealth of information about the mechanical health of the gea
section will discuss the source of the frequencies that may be present in a gear box.

The source of most all of the defect frequencies is transmission error between two meshing gears. Tra
error is caused by machining errors, tooth deflections, looseness, eccentricity or anything that causes
be transferred through any point other than the pitch point.

Gear Mesh Frequency Calculation

Gear mesh frequency (GMF) is the most commonly discussed gear frequency. However, GMF by itse
defect frequency. GMF will always be present in the spectrum regardless of gear condition. It's amplit
vary, however, depending on the gear condition.
Single Reduction

GMF is simply defined as the number of teeth on a gear multiplied by its turning speed.

GMF = (#Teeth) x (Turning Speed)

If the turning speed in the above equation is in units of RPM (or CPM) then the GMF will be in units of
turning speed is in orders then the GMF will be in orders. This relationship can be used to our advanta
trying to determine the output speed of a driven gear when we know the input speed and the number
each gear. This is possible because any two meshing gears must have the same gear mesh frequenc
the above equation can be rewritten slightly.

(#T)in x (TS)in - GMF = (#T)out x (TS)out

When faced with the need to calculate an output speed for a single reduction gear drive, simply calcu
mesh frequency for the known gear and divide by the number of teeth on the output gear. This will res
determination of the output speed. (This is also the same as multiplying the input speed by the gear re
ratio.)
For example, if the input speed is 1750 and the input gear has 25 teeth and the output gear has 17 te
values can be put into our relationship and we can find the turning speed of the output gear.

(#T)in x (TS)in = GMF

(25) x (1750) = 43,750 CPM

next,
GMF / (#T)out = (TS)out
43,750/(17) = 2573.5 CPM

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Multiple Reduction

A multiple reduction gearbox is not any more difficult to evaluate if two facts are remembered.

1. Gear mesh frequency is the product of the number of teeth on the gear and its turning speed.

2. Any two meshing gears must have the same gear mesh frequency.

The following example demonstrates these two principles.

The input drive gear's turning speed is 59 Hz and it has 256 teeth. It meshes with an intermediate gea
157 teeth and an unknown turning speed, (TS)int. The intermediate gear meshes with the output gear
teeth and an unknown turning speed, (TS)out.

First determine the gear mesh frequency for the input gear.
(#T)in x (TS)in = GMF
(256) x (59) = 15,104 Hz
Since, the gear mash frequency is same for two meshing gears, the intermediate GMF is also 15,104
turning speed for the intermediate gear, (TS)int is calculated below.
GMF/(#T)int = (TS)int
15104/(157) = 96.2 Hz

Again for the output gear, the gear mesh frequency is the same between two meshing gears and the
speed is determined below.
GMF/(#T)out = (TS)out
15104/(94) = 160.7 Hz.

So even complicated gear drives can be figured out if they are just examined one meshing pair a time

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Worm Gears

Worm gears are often confusing because there is sometimes a question as to how many teeth are on
worm drive. In the case of a worm gear, it is not the number of teeth that is of concern (often a worm d
has one tooth) but the number of flights on the worm gear. The flights refer to the number of teeth tha
the driven gear during one revolution of the worm drive. This can be readily identified if the output gea
number of teeth on the output gear and the input shaft speed are known. In this example an output dr
24 teeth turning at 10 Hz is driven by a worm gear turning at 29.5 Hz. The number of flights (#F) on th
can be determined as follows.
(#T)out x (TS)out = GMF
(24) x (10) = 240 Hz

next,
GMF / (TS)in = (#F)in
240/29.5 = 8.13

This worm gear has 8.13 flights meshing with 24 teeth on the output gear.
Planetary Gears

Probably the most confusing gear mesh frequency to calculate is for a planetary gear set. There are m
different types of planetary gear designs. One of these is shown here. In this planetary gear, there are
components that need to be identified. The input shaft is attached to the planet carrier which dives the
gears. The planet gears mesh with the ring gear and the sun gear which drives the output shaft. For th
the GMF is equal to the number of teeth on the planet gear (#T)planet, multiplied by the speed of the
GMF is also equal to the number teeth on the sun gear (#T)sun multiplied by the output shaft speed.

Now, the speed of the planet (TS)planet is determined by multiplying input shaft speed (TS)
on the ring gear (#T)ring and dividing by the number of teeth on the planet gear (#T)planet.

(TS)planet = (TS)in x (#Tring / #Tplanet)


Then,
GMF = (#T)planet X (TS)planet
Once the gear mesh frequency for the planet gear system is found any of the turning speeds can be d
by dividing the GMF by the number of teeth on that gear.
Fractional Gear Mesh

Now, gear mesh frequency will always be present in the vibration signal of a gearbox. Depending on t
patterns and the Largest Common Factor (LCF), remember the prime number theory, fractional gear m
harmonics may appear. If the LCF is 1, the only Gear mesh will appear. If the LCF is 2, the 1/2 gear m

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appear in the spectrum as the gears become worn. Likewise if the LCF is 3, the 1/3 and 2/3 gear mes
will appear in the spectrum. Eccentricity will also cause fractional harmonics of GMF. If the largest com
is one, but every other tooth is raised, then again 1/2 GMF will be present. If a gear has five spokes th
possible to have five high spots around the gear and 1/5, 2/5, 3/5, 4/5 GMF will appear in addition to t
Multiples of Gear Mesh

Gear misalignment will typically show up as harmonics of the gear mesh frequency. Typically the seco
harmonics are most significant when trending this defect. If the second gear mesh harmonic is higher
than the GMF itself then it is very possible too much backlash exists in the gear set and the gear teeth
impacting twice during the meshing process. The normal impact during the initial contact and an addit
during the end of the mesh.
Effect of Load on GMF

The effect of load on the gear set has two contrasting effects on the GMF amplitude depending upon
that is present. The general effect of increased load is to increase the amplitude of the gear mesh freq
opposite effect can be expected if the gear has too much backlash present. Too much backlash occur
gears become worn and the clearances between the meshing gears increase.

Other Gear Defect Frequencies


Sidebands

In gear analysis, sidebands can prove to be very valuable when diagnosing gear defects. Sidebands w
as frequencies on either side of the GMF. The side band frequency spacing will be equal to the turnin
either the input shaft speed or the output shaft speed. The spacing of the sidebands will be equal to th
speed of the gear that possess the defect. Side bands will appear most commonly because of wear, l
and eccentricity.

The presence of sidebands is important, however the amplitude of the sidebands relative to the GMF
more significant than the amplitude of the GMF. If the amplitude of the sidebands approach the amplit
GMF the defect could be severe.
Gear Resonance

One frequency that is not easily calculated is the gear resonant frequencies. Resonant frequencies oc
in all structures, but do not appear in the spectral data unless some other frequency excites the reson
gearboxes, excessive looseness, and eccentricity problems that cause the teeth to mesh together wit
force will cause high levels of impacting in the machine that will cause the gear resonant frequencies
excited.
Hunting Tooth Frequency

If during the manufacturing process a tooth has a machining defect present then it will have a defect f
associated with it. This Hunting Tooth Frequency (HTF) is subsynchronous as the tooth repetition freq
less than turning speed. The HTF is simply equal to the product of the GMF and the Largest Common
(LCM) between the meshing gears divided by the product of the number of teeth on each gear.
HTF = (GMF x LCF)/(#Tin x #Tout)

This frequency, if it is present will be very low in frequency and may even be present as a side band f
only detectable using envelope demodulation. Sometimes HTF is referred to as the tooth repetition fre
Broken Tooth

The effect of a broken tooth is difficult to detect when only using the spectral data.

If one tooth is broken then a pulse will be generated once per revolution of the gear with the broken to
simply a 1xTS frequency. The way to detect a broken tooth is to examine the time waveform and look
impact occurring at a time spacing that is equal to 1xTS. The time waveform will not be sinusoidal but
impact and ring down once per revolution.
Audible Noise

Unfortunately many gearboxes are thought of as problems because they are audibly loud. However, n

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are not always a good indication of gear condition. Very often the GMF or any of the other gear defec
simply excite the natural resonances of the gearbox cover. This causes the radiated airborne noise le
increase significantly. Sometimes lubricating oil gets trapped between the meshing teeth and is forced
extremely high velocities which can cause the audible noise levels to be high.

Measurement Considerations
Sensor Selection

Now the spectral data will not do any good if the frequencies of interest are not measured. So several
be identified before the measurement points are developed.

Which frequencies are important in the analysis of gears? Well, low frequencies such as the hunting t
frequency all the way to 2x or 3xGMF. Often it is recommended to set the Fmax at (2xGMF) + 5xTS in
see the gear misalignment defect in addition to any sidebands around the 2xGMF. However, if the ma
frequency selected, Fmax, is higher than the usable frequency range of the transducer, then a high fre
accelerometer will need to be used in addition to the sensor that is normally used. This would mean tw
measurements taken at the same position. Otherwise, a lower Fmax could be selected at the cost of u
data.

Be sure and use a sensor that will accurately measure all of the frequencies of interest.
Sensor Attachment

Once the proper sensor has been chosen, make sure the proper attachment method is used to secure
to the measurement point. Be aware of the frequency response and the mounting resonances that wil
due to the different mounting methods. A high frequency accelerometer attached with a small, but stro
may be acceptable. Some cases of very high frequencies, above 10,000 Hz may require stud mountin
good vibration data.

For spur gears the radial directions provide the most important information because of the direction th
are being transmitted though the gears. Helical gears experience a significant amount of axial thrustin
therefore the axial direction contains the best information for the analysis of these gears.

The gearbox covers are not good locations for data collection because of resonances in the gear cove
bearing locations or the heads of bolts are the most acceptable measurement locations.
Measurement Point Turning Speed

As the measurement points are being defined for data collection, it is important to realize that the turn
will be changing as the speeds are reduced or increased though a gearbox. If the Fmax is set to 2xGM
could be acceptable for each measurement point along the gear train. However, pay attention to the li
resolution that have been selected and adjust them to keep the bandwidth at an acceptable range.

Summary

This section has covered a wide range of topics including the theory of gears, vibration analysis of ge
measurement point definitions for data collection.

An understanding of the topics covered in this section will lead to a more confident ability to perform v
analysis of even the most complex gear trains.

Case Histories
Product Winder
Gear Case #1

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1. 1250 HP DC motor driving gearbox

2. Input pinion has 24 teeth and meshes with a 72 tooth gear

3. Each output shaft has a 24 tooth pinion.

Gear Case #/1

The above spectrum was taken on the gearbox at the outboard horizontal position of the input shaft. G

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Frequency (GMF) is marked by the cursor. Notice the harmonic cursors are showing the presence of
GMF. The amplitudes of these multiples are low, however, there presence does indicate potential pro
Gear Case #1

A set mark has been placed on the input shaft's GMF. The sideband cursor does show sidebands spa
1XTS. The spacing of these sidebands determine which shaft has the defective gear. Notice there are
between the 1XTS sidebands.
Gear Case #1

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This spectrum shows the same set mark at GMF, but now the sideband cursor is marking peaks at .33
appears there are many multiples of this sideband. What does this sideband spacing indicate? Recall
history information stated the reduction ratio in the gearbox is 3:1.
Gear Case #1

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The spectrum above is from the inboard horizontal position on the output shaft. A set mark has been p
GMF (72XTS). The sideband cursor displays a sideband spacing of 1XTS. This confirms the earlier a
the defect was on the output shaft. Many broken teeth were found when the gearbox was sent in for r

Rotary Screw Compressor


Gear Case #2

1. 500 HP, 1800 RPM Motor

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2. Compressor is driven by intermittent gearing

3. The motor gear has 66 teeth and the compressor gear has 61 teeth
Gear Case #2

The above spectrum shows data collected from the compressor inboard horizontal. A cursor is set on
speed shaft's GMF (61XTS). Notice the peaks above and below GMF.
Gear Case #2

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The compressor inboard vertical measurement point data is seen above. The cursor has been set on
(61XTS). The vertical data also shows the presence of peaks around GMF. The next page shows this
with these peaks marked.
Gear Case #2

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A mark has been set on GMF and the cursor marks the highest peak. The spacing on this peak is equ
This spacing has determined the defect to be on the compressor gear. Also, notice the amplitude of th
compared to the GMF amplitude.
Surge Cake Mixer
Gear Case #3

1. 75 HP, 1800 RPM motor

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2. Double-Reduction gearbox direct driven from the motor

3. Input pinion has 15 teeth and meshes with a 91 tooth gear


Gear Case #3

The multiple spectrum plot is displayed above from the gearbox outboard vertical point for the input sh
cursor marks GMF (15XTS) of the input shaft. The data from April shows the peak between 20
changed. The next page shows data from February.
Gear Case #3

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A harmonic cursor is set at GMF (15XTS) and shows five multiples of GMF. Notice the 2X GMF peak
than the primary GMF peak. As with other types of equipment, 2X GMF is an indication of misalignme
Gear Case #3

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The 2X GMF peak has changed from the data collected in February. It appears the 2X GMF peak has
sidebands. The next page shows an expanded view of this group of peaks.
Gear Case #3

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A mark has been set at 2X GMF with the sideband cursor showing a spacing of 1XTS. This spacing in
problem with the input shaft pinion. This unit was sent in for repairs and the input pinion and gear wer
misaligned. The misalignment had caused an uneven wear pattern across the face of the gear teeth.

References

1. Cyril M. Harris, Editor, Handbook of Acoustical Measurements and Noise Control, Third Edition, Mc
New York, NY, 1991.

2. Arthur R. Crawford, The Simplified Handbook of Vibration Analysis, Volume 2, Computational Syste
Knoxville, TN, 1992.

3. Vibration Consultants Inc., The Vibration Analysis Handbook, VCI, Tampa, FL, 1992.

4. John G. Winterton,"Component Identification of Gear Generated Spectra," Vibration Institute Proce

5. CSI Training Video, "Gear Defect Analysis," CSI Training, Knoxville, TN, 1994.

6. CSI Training Manual, "Vibration Analysis II," CSI Training, Knoxville, TN, 1994.

7. Case Histories provided by Lance Bisinger, CSI Training Instructor, 1994.

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