Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 212

( ..

. )

10.02.19

:

,

- 2014

......2
... 4
I. ....10
1.1 .............................10
1.1.1 ....10
1.1.2 ........12
1.1.4 .....17
1.1.4 ....23
1.1.5 : ..31
1.2 ...............37
1.2.1 ..........37
1.2.2 ........40
1.2.3 - -
..43
1.2.4 -
.....................51
.....58
II. -

. . .
..........................................................60
2.1 .. -
. ....60
2.2
..65
2.3 -
........72

2
```
2.3.1 .....74
2.3.2 84
2.4 .......95
2.4.1 -96
2.4.2 - 105
2.4.3 ..113
...122
III.
..
.
...124
3.1 ...............125
3.2 - ....154
3.3 - 162
.......168
....170
..175
...194
195

3
```

, -
,
. , -
,
, , , .
,
-
, .
, -
,
,
.
(.., .. , .. , ..
.) .
-
. -
, . -

, ,
[, 1989]. , -
, .. .. -
, .. .., .. , ..
.
, -
- -
. ,
, -
, , ,
4
```
,
. -
-
, -
.


-
,
- , -
.


. ,
-
,
- .
- ,
,
-

-
.
,
- .
-
, -
, -
.
5
```
-

, ,
,
..
. .

:
1) , -

;
2) -
, -
;
3) ..
. -

,
;
4)
, ..
. ;
5)
;
6)
.

-
-
6
```
, . -
-
.

-
- -
. -

, -
.


, - -
, .
, .
1) -
-
.
2) -
- .

, -
,
, .
3) ,
, -
, -
, .
, ,
7
```
, -
.
4) , -
. . ,
, . ,
, -
. -
-

.
-
, : -
(.. , .. , .. , ..
, .. , .. , .. .)
(. , . , . , ..
, .. , .. , .. , .. -
, .. , .. , .. .),
(. . , .., .. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. , .. .),
(.. , .. , .. , .. -
, .. , .. , .. , .),
(.. , .., .. , ..
.), (.. , .. , .. , .. -
, .. .).
-
, -
-
, -
, -
8
```
.
:

.
-
-
, ..
. .

, .
195 184 -
, ..
. .
. -
212 , 175 .
, , ,
, -
, .. .
.

9
```
I.
1.1.
1.1.1.
, , -
, -.
,

, , -
, .
, , .
.. , ,
,
[, 1969]. , ,
, , -
.
, ,
. -
. ,
, -
, . -
. ,

(. [, 2011: 88] ). , V . ..
I .., -
, .
,
.

10
```
- -
, -
[, 2011, .88]. -
. -
, , ,
. , ,
.
.
. .
.. , . , -
-
,
[, 2004, .3]. .
, -
, . , , -

, .

: -
. , -
-
. , -
, , ,
[, 2004, .24].

, -
, . ,
. . ,
. . -
11
```
. . ,
, ,
, .
. -
, -
, [. (-
, 2011:21)]. .
, . , . . . ,
, , .
, .

.
. ,
, , -
.
. , . , .
.

, [-
, 2011].

1.1.2.
, , -
.
. ,
, ,
, -
.

12
```
-
. , ,
.
, .., .. ,
.. , .. , . . . ,
. -
, -
.
, -
. ,
:
, .
-
: (), -
(), (), -
() .. .. ,
[, 1978, .222].
, , -
. ,
,
, , , ..
.
[, 1978, .
223]. ,
.
.. , -
: ,
.
, -
13
```
. , , -
,
.. .
-, [,
1978, .229].
, ,
[, 2011, . 30].
. . ,
. ,
,
, .
, , , -
, .
-
-
[, 2011, . 33].
. , -
,
. , ,
-
, [, 1974].
. .
, . , ,
. -
, .
, ,
, , , -
[, 2001, .15].
, . ..
14
```
,
, .
, , -
. , , ,
.
.. : -
, ,
, [, 1970, .59].
.
-
. , , -
[, 1970, .81].
, .. , -
. (, , )
.
, , -
, .
, -
[, 1970, .98].
, ,
. , -
. ..
, ,
, -
, ,
.
..
, -
[, 1977,
15
```
.11]. -
. , .. ,
,
. ,
,
, , ,
, -
, ,
[, 1977, .11]. -
, .
,
. . . , -
,
. - -
: , -
, , [, 1977,
.249]. ,
, -
- -
. , ,
:
, , , .
, ,
, ,
-
.

16
```
1.1.3.


. , -
. ,
, ,
, ,
. , -
,
[Gans,1997, . 45 ..].
,
,
. , ,
, -
[Gans, 1997, .55]. ,
, -
.
-
,
. , -
, , , , . ,
, , .
,
.

(, , ),
(, , , , ), -
(, .).
-

17
```
, -
[, 1989];
[, 2001]; -
[, 2006], -
,
[, 2014]. -
, , -

.

. , -
: .., .. , .. , ..
, .. .
[, , 2010, .251].
, , -
, , -
. -
[, 1966, . 185].
(.. , .. -
, .. , .. ) , -
- ( )
, . .. ,

, -
. ,
, , , -
, , -

, c -
18
```
, , , -
[ 1989, . 60].
.. ,

. , [,
1990, .271] , .
: -
, , . .. -
,
, , , -
, [, 1990, .271].

, ,
(-
, , ), -
, . ,
,
, .
.. , -
, -
-, [, 2011, .18]. -
, ,

. , , -
,
.
-
() [, 2011, .13].

19
```
Signs of Paradox,
: , .
[Gans, 1997, .68]. ,
-
, [, -
, 2008, . 155]. , , :
, !.
, -
.
, .
, , ..
. , -
. -
.
, , -
, , .
.. -
[, 1975, . 53-87], ,
. -
,
() ( :
! ). , -
-
. , -
-
.
, -
, , -
, .
20
```

.
,
, -
[, 1993, . 39]. -
.
.. ,
.
, -,
- , -,
, [,
1986, .100]. ,
: -
, -
:
[, 1987, . 101]. , -
, ,
,
. , . ,
, :
, - ..
-

.
.
: , , -
, , , ,
, . ,
-
21
```
. ,

:
! .
! .
? (.. , )
-
,
. ,
( .)
. ( !)
, -
.
, ,
. -
, -
. , , -
, , -
. , -
, , ,
. , -
-
, , . -
, -
-
. , -
, , , -
, . -
, , .. ,
22
```
-
[,1982, . 119].
, .. , -
-
- . -
,
(,
). , -
,
. , ..
-, -
.

1.1.4


. , ,
(..), (..), (..).
, ,
(..), (.. ), (.. -
), (.. ). -
: , ,
.
.. -
-
(, ), .
, -
,
,
23
```
[, 1989, .7].
, ..
, -
, -
.
, -
( )
( ).
.
-
, -
, , , -
. -
, -
.
.. , -
. -

(, , ,
.), ( ,
, - , ), -
, , . -
, ,
, , -
.
-
. . (, 2001).
.. : .
,
24
```
, , -
,
[, 2001, . 44]. ,
, ,
, -
. ..
-, -
. -
, , - .

, .
-
.
.. -
.
, -
, .
, ..
, .. -
, ,
, [, 2001, . 98-99]. -
, -
, , .
,
.
, . -
-
, , -
. , , ..
25
```
,
( ),
( ),
.
..
, , -
( )
, ( ),
[, 2011, . 5].
[, 2011] , -
.
:
, -
. .. ,
, , ,
. , ,
,
. -
,
. ,
,
, -
.
.. ,
: , , ,
. -
,
:
(, ,
26
```
) - [, 2010, .2].
, ,
, , , .
, , -
, , .
, .. -
, , -
.
, , -
, ,
.
.. -
, -
, , , , ,
,
, . -
,
, , ..
, -
, ,
-
. -
-
.
.. -
, ,
, -
[, 2007, .340].
,
27
```
. ,
, , (), -
. , -
/ -
. -
-: / , -
, .., / .
-
, -
/ [, 2007, .341]. , -
- -
. , -
,
, -
.
:
. .. -
(, , , ) -
.
, -
. -
, ,
, , -
.

.
, .. , -
. :
( , )
28
```
( , ).
( -
) (
) .
,
: - , , -
, (, ),
.
-
, .. ,
.. , .. , .. , -
,
, , [, 2008, . 8]. .
,

, ..
. -
-
, -
, . -
.. -
, -
. , , :
. -
, (
- )
.
.. [, 2001] -
, -
29
```
[-
, 2001, .8]. , .. ,
-
. , -
, , -
, . -

, . -
-
, -
[, 2001, .59].
.. ,
, -
. -
-
.
, , -
, , -
,
, . , ,
, .
, -
,
, .. .
, -
. -
- , -
, -
[,
30
```
2010, .10].
..
, -
.
-, , -
. , .. -
, : -
- , , -
, , .

,
.
.

1.1.5. :
, -
. , , , -

. -
,
,
.
. , .. ,
. , -
, -
, , -
/ / -
[, 1993, . 33].
, , -
31
```
, -
. -
[, 2004, .6]. , ,
; ,
. -

. ,
, , -
[, 1997, . 58]. ,
, , , ,
. -
. , , -
, , -
, , -
[] [, 1983, .360].
:
,
, , .
, .
.. ,
[, 1970, .12].
. -
: -
; ,
[, 1997, .160]. ,
, , , , . ,
.
, ,
[, 1988, . 6].
32
```
,
, , . . -
[, 1966, .293]. -
, , ,
, . , -
[, 2010, .7]. , -
, ,

.
-
, .. -
. ,
: -
- , -
, , , :
[, 1998, .181].
-
. -
, -

. ( )
[, 1998, .182]. -
,
. .. ,
-
. -
.
, -
[,
33
```
1998, .184]. , , ,
, -
.
.. -
: -
. ,
( / ). , -
[,
1998, . 198]. ; -
. . : , -
.
- ( , ) -
( , ) .
,
, , ,
. -
[, 1998, . 199]. -
(, , )
. , , . -
, -

, , . ,
,
, . , , -
.
, , ,
. , -
[, 2006, . 12], ,
,
34
```
[, 1990, . 86].
.

,
[, 2004. . 304]. , ,
-
. : -
, ,
, ,
[, 1998,
.180]. , -
. , ,
. -
, , -
[, 1998, .181].
-
, , , -
-
(, ..). , -
-
[, 2000, . 7]. , .. ,
[, 1998, .181]. ,
-
. -
.
, , -
.
-
[, 2006, . 184].
35
```
, .
.
, .
. -
(, ) -
, -
. (, ) -
[-
, 2006, . 188]. -
[, ., 2007, . 129]. ,
-
. -

, -
[, 2006,
.26]. ,
, [, .,
2007, .135]. , , -
, ,
, . , ,
, ,
. -
-

.. .
.

36
```
1.2
1.2.1.
.. : , , -
, , ,
,
[, 1980, . 14].
,
, ,
. ..
:
, ( ), ,
.. [, 1997, .16]. .. -
,
, [-
, 1988, c. 132]. . . ,
[, 1986, c.4]. -
.. , -
[-
, 2003, 24].
, . . -
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
,
, -
[-
,1980, . 4].

37
```
, . . ,
:
, -
, , -
, ,
() (
) , , -
, , -
[, 1981, . 4].
, ,
.
,
. -

.
,
, ,
,
. ..
:
, , , , -
, [-
, 2004, . 51]. -
, .
, -
, , , , -
. ,
,
. ,
38
```
,
.
, , .
.. , -
, -
, , -
[,
1985, 19-24]. , -
,
-
. , -
. ..
, - , -
, - -
, - -
[, 2004, .130]. ..
, . [, 2009,
.202]. -
.
. ,
-
.
.
, .. ,
[, 1998], ,
. ,
, -
[, 1970, . 63]. -
,
39
```
,
[ , . 111].
,
, . -
.
, .. ,
, , -
, -, ,
, -
, ( ); -, -
( -
) [, 2004, 98].

1.2.2.
, -
, .
, , -
, . .. , -
,
. -
,
(, 1948; ,1980; , 2004; , 2009 .),
: (, 1952;
, 1981); (, 2000), (,
2001) .
-
, ,
.. .
, -
40
```
, -
. .. , -
, -


[, 1990, .117]. .. -
,
.
, -
,
.
.
1952. ..
,
[, 1952, . 393].
, (-
), . .. ,
. [ ,
.394]. .. ,
,

[, 1981, c. 69]. ..

,
[, 1973, c. 95].
.. , -
, , .
, , .
, ..
41
```
, , -
. ,
, , -
. ,
[, 1980, . 9].
.. [ .,
2004] () . -
.
,
, -
.
, . .. -
,
: ( / /,
); ( , ); ( , ); -
( , ) [, 2004, . 29-35]. -
.

,
[ ., 2004, . 29]. -
, -
, [ , .29].
,
,
, . -
. -
, , -
- , - -
[, 2001, .323]. -
42
```
, -

[ , . 328].
, -
.
, -
, -
, ,
. , ,
,
- -
, ..
- .

1.2.3. - -

.. , -
,
-
[, 1975, . 15]. -
- , -
. - -
, -
- [, 1975, .
34].
, , , -
[, 1988]. , -

, . -
43
```
, .. ,
. -
. -
; -
; -
. -
: -
, ; -
, -
, ; -
.
,
- .
, -
- [, 1975, .
18]. ,
,
.
,
.
. -

, .
: -,
, -, -, .

, -
, . -
-
44
```
, -
. -

.
.. -
, - -
. -

, -
,
, , -
- .
: -
, . -

-
: -
[, 2002, .119].
,
.
, .
, -
, . -

. -
,
. : -
, -
, , -
45
```
, .
,
[, 2002, .203]. ,

: -
. , -
( ) ; -
-
.
-
, - -
. ,
, -
, - , ,
.
, -
, , -
. -
,
, .
, , , ,
,
, -
, , -
, -
.
,
, . -
, ,
46
```
, .
-
,
.
- , -
-

[, 1975, .23]. -
, . -

: , , -
, .
,
,
. - -
, , -
[, 2002, . 88]. -
, -
, .
-
, . -
, , -
. -
,
, .
, ,
:
, -
,
47
```
-
, :
, , , , .
,
( ).
, -
, -
.
.. -
: -, -, [-
, 1975, . 23]. - -
-
. - -
, . -
, ,
.
- -
, .. , ..
.. .. , .. .
.. -

. ,
. -
. ..
/
. , -
-,
,
[,1998].
48
```

[, 2011, .177].
-
.. [, 2006], -
-
. ,
. -
, , , -
, , -
. , - -

[, 2011,.328]. -
- -, ..
: -
, -. -
.

. ,
-
.
[, 2006, .18-19],
. -
, ,
. ,
;
.

.. [, 2002].
.. (1993, 1995) . (1995), -
49
```
,
.
.
, , 3- .
-
1- .
-
. -
, - -
-, . -
,
[, 2002, . 59]. -

, - .

3- ,
1- 2- . -
. , -

.
-
,
[, 2011, . 241].
, -

.
,

.
50
```
1.2.4.
.
-
[, 2004, .6] 50-
: ,
. :
, ,
(-
) . -
, , ,
.
, ,
[, 1999,
.5]. , , -
. .. ..
,

[, 2004, .135]. . . ,
,
[, 2009, . 177]. -
.. , -
, -
, , -
[-
, 2003, .232]. .. ,
[,
2007, .106].
, , -
-
51
```
. ,
, ,
[, 2003, .240],
, ( ) [-
, 2011, 15].
:
1) ( ) , ,
, , ;
2) (, , ..)
[, 2008, .36-38].

, 85% -
[-
, 2006, .19]. ,
( 300 ), -
,
.
, ,
.
. ,
[, 2005, .57-58].
, -
. -
.
, ,
. ,
, . , -
, -
,
52
```
-
[, 2012, .77]. , -
, , , . -
: ,
. -
., -
( -
) [, 1998, .78]. , , -
[, 1998, .86]. -
, ,
, -
.
,
, -
.
- , -
, -
[, 2003, .163]. -
, -
.

,
. -
:
, -
.
.
-
. ,
53
```
() [ ., 2007, . 108]. ,
-
[,
1978, .488]. ,
,
, .
.. , -
, -
[, 2004, .13]. ,
, ,
, , -
, ,
. , .. ,
,
,
[, 2012, . 80]. -
,
-
. ,
- , -
-
, . -
,
, -
[, 1975, .12].
, ,
,
.

54
```
, -
. , , -
,
.
,
. ,
- ,
.
,
,
,
.

. -
,
.


. . (1987),
, , ,
-.
(pattern) -
, (.
[., 1997, .347]).
. ,
, , -
. - -
, ( - ,
, .).
55
```
, -
, [., 1997,. 48].
, , -
,
. -
, ,
, . .
:
1)
;
2) ;
3) [, 1997].
,
. -

, , , , -
. , , -
. .. -
, ,
[, 2004, .105], -
. ,
, ,
, .
, -
, -
.
-
, .. , ,

56
```
, -
-
. , , -
.
[, 2010, .144].
,
, ,
. -
.
, , -
,
, , -
.
, , -
,
. -
.

,
. , -
, -
, ..
. .

57
```


(, , ), -
. -
, . -
-
, . -
-
- . -
, ,
-
, ,
, .
, ,
, - ,
.. - .
, .
-
,
.
-
. -
,
-, , -
, -, . -
, -
.
- ,
, .
58
```

.
- (-
) - ( -
), .
- ,
, , . -
, -
.
,
,
. , -
, , ,
. , -
, . -
, -

.

59
```
II.

. .
.
2.1. ..
. .

-
, .. -
. . -
.
,
,
.
.. -
.
, 30- 19- .
, .. , , -
,
.
-
, , -
, , .
-
- . ,
, ,
.
,
. , -
60
```
, , -
,
[, 1987, . 24-25].
-
, ,
,
, .
, ,
(. [, 1987:20]). -
.. , ,
,
[, 2006, .123]. . . -
-
(.., .. , .. , .., .
.). -
, . . ,
,
: . -
.,

[, 1996, . 340]. , -
, . . , -
.
, .. ,
.

, . -
: ,
, . -
61
```
, , -
, : , -
, , .
: , , -
, .. [, 1996, . 382]. -
, . . -
-
. .. .
.. :
-
, -
, -
, [, 1981, . 3].
. . . ,
,
, -
. , , ,
, -
[, 1996, . 129]. , .,
, ,
.. .
. -
. -

[,
1972]. , .
,
, . ,
,
62
```
.
. -
, .
, -
. ,
, .
. , -
, -
. -
, ,
, . -
,
, . -
.
, , , -
, .
.
, , -
.
, ,

. , -
.
-
, . .
, . -
, -
. , . -
, -
63
```
,
, .
,

-
- -
. , ,
. . , ,
, , -
, [, 1977, .11].
, , -
, , -
.
, . .
. , , ,

- .

..
. -
, -
, -
.

64
```
2.2.


-. -

,
[, 2002, .22].
, , -
. -
, (
), ( -
). ,

.
,
[, 1975, . 13].
-
,
(, ,
, , .). ,
-
[, 2012, . 79].
, -

, .
. -
, , -
. -
, -
65
```
[, 1997, . 14]. -
: -
-
-
.
, , :
(), , -
.
. -
,
-
[,
2008, .12]. -
.
,
.
,
.
,
[-
, 2008, .60]. , ( )
. ,
,
. , -
, , -
.

: -
.
66
```
[ , 2007, . 108].
-
. -
,
, , , . -
,
[ , 2007, . 108]. ,

.
, -
: -
[, 2012, . 79]. -
,
.
: -
, , , -
[, 2002, . 22]. , -
-
. -
,
.
.
, , -
, .
; , -
, , , , ;
, -
,
-
67
```
. -
, , ,
. - , , -
, ,
.
( , -
). ,
, , ,
, .
( ), (),
(-, , ), -
, -
(). , ,
,

.
.
a gentleman in a wide suit of blue, with a hook instead of a hand attatched
to his right wrist; very bushy black eyebrows; and a thick stick in his left hand,
covered all over (like his nose) with knobs. He wore a loose black silk handker-
chief round his neck and such a very large shirt-collar, that it looked like a small
sail. ( ,
, , ;
, ( ).
,
, ).
.
gentleman (),
-
68
```
. ( , ) -
: suit, stick, left hand, hook, right wrist, eye-
brows; knobs, handkerchief, neck, shirt-collar (, , ,
, , , , , ). ,
, , -
: ( blue)
( wide); (thick),
: (-
loose), (black) (silk),
(large). , -
, -
, .
, , -
, . , ,
, ,
. -
,
.
, ,
, , , -
. -
,
.
, ,
, , . -
, , -
, .
,
.
69
```
: , , , -
. -
,
,
. , -
,
. -
, ,

. , -
, -
, .
. -
-
, , -
.
Mr Carker, whom the lady was about to pass close, slinking against his tree as she
crossed to gain the path, advanced so as to meet her, and pulling off his hat as she
went by, bade the old woman hold her peace. The lady acknowledged his interference
with an inclination of the head, and went her way. ( ,
- , , - ,
, , , ,
.
).
;
, ( ).
-
,
: crossed, advanced, bade hold her peace, acknowledged, went. -
70
```
, - -
,
, . , -
-
.

. , -

.
, , -
-
. -
.

, , -
. , -

.
-
, , -
. ,
, -
, : -

.

71
```
2.3 -


.
,
, , -
.
.
, ,
,
.
-
.
-
.
, -
, , -
.
,
-
, , , .
-
.
. . . -
. -
-
, .
,
72
```
,
.
-
. -
: -
, ,
, -
. 379 : 195 -
184 ,
..
. .
106 47 .
, 52
15 , -
. -
. :
86- 54 , -
32 . ,
, -
, -
, . ,
, -
, -
.

73
```
2.3.1.
-
.
, -
- ,
-
. ,
,
, -
. ,
. -
, -
. ,

. -
, -
[, 2008, .63] ,
. -
, -
-
, - (-
)
.
,
,
. -

,
[, 2002, . 80-85]. -
74
```
,
, -
. -
, , - ,
[, 2010, .354].
, -
.
, ,
: , ,
, , , ,
, ,
.
-
. , -
, -
,

. ( )
, -
. ,
(, , ), -
,
[, , , 2006].

( , ) -
. , ,
, [, 1998]. -
-
( ), -
75
```
:
, .

.
() (, , ),
, (): .
- , . -
, , .
,
.
,
, : -
. -
:
, ,
. , -

.
-
-:
, -
. , -
: , ,
, -
; , .
-
. ,

: .
76
```
-
-
, :
, .

,
: , -
.
(-) : -
,
. , , -
[, 2006, . 31]. ,
,
, . -
, , , , -
. ,
, -
,
, -
,
.
[ .] -
,
, -
. ,
, , , ,
. -
, -
, .
77
```
, , -
. -

, :
, .
( )
,
-
: .
. -
,
,
, -
, , , .
, -
, , .. ,
[, 2006, . 32]. -

.
,
, . -
, , ,
, . -
-,
.
.
, , ,
- ,
.
78
```
-
:
.
This celebrated Mrs. Pipchin was a marvelous ill-favoured, ill-conditioned old
lady, of a stooping figure, with a mottled face, like bad marble, a hook nose, and a
hard grey eye, that looked as if it might have been hammered at on an anvil without
sustaining any injury. ( -
, ,
, , ,
, -
, ).
-
.
. -

,
( ) . -
, [, ,
, 2006, . 21]:
() (),
,
, -
. .
, [, 1988].
, -
, , -
, .
(lady, figure, face,
nose, eye). ,
79
```
. -
, -
as if.
- ,
, .
:
, [,
1998, . 192]. -
, ,
.

,
.
Dombey was about eight-and-forty years of age. Son was about eight-and-forty
minutes. Dombey was rather bald, rather red, and though a handsome, well-made
man, too stern and pompous in appearance to be prepossessing. Son was very
bald, and very red, and though (of course) an undeniably fine infant, somewhat
crushed and spotty in his general effect, as yet. ( -
. . ,
, ,
, .
, () ,
).
-
. -
-
. -
, -
: Dombey was about eight-and-forty
80
```
years of age; was rather bald, rather red; Son was about eight-and-forty mi-
nutes; was very bald, and very red. -
, ,
: rather very. -
, , -
: . ,
[,
1998, . 204], , -
,
. -
, , -
, , [, 2006, . 34] . ,
-
:
, , -
, , ,
, , - , . -
-
. ,
[ 2009: 76],
. -
:
. -, , ,
,
-

.
The very wedding looked dismal as they passed in front of the altar. The
bride was too old and the bridegroom too young, and the superannuated beau
81
```
with one eye and an eye-glass stuck in its blank companion, was giving away the
lady, while the friends were shivering. In the vestry the fire was smoking, and an
over-aged and over-worked and under-paid attorneys clerk, making a search,
was running his forefinger down the parchment pages of an immense register (one
of a long series of similar volumes) gorged with burials. ( -
, . ,
; , -
, ,
. ; -
,
, " ", -
( ), -
).
(Past Continuous: was giving away, were
shivering, was smoking, was running his forefinger)
,
. -

, (The bride was too old and the bridegroom too young)
(over-aged and over-worked and under-paid
attorneys clerk). -
, (dismal) . ,
. , -
( -
, ), -
:
[, 1998, . 216]. -
, , -
, :
82
```
.
: , -
:
.
: , -
, , -
, , . -
, -
. ,
,

( ) -
,
, , .
-
.
,
, ,
- -
. ,

,
. -

, :
-
-
;

83
```
, /
;
-
, -
;
-
:
.

2.3.2

. -
, , , -
, -
,
,
. -
, -
, -

.
, , ,

. , -
,
-
. , , (-
),

84
```
[, 2008, .62]. , , ,
,
, ,
,
. -
, , , -
. , -
, (- -
), :
-
, , -
. , -
, , -
, , -
.
, , -
:
,
, ,
. ,
.

,

.
,
.
-
. -
85
```
: , , -
, , .
:
, .
:
.
, -
[, 1998, . 181], :
, -
. , , -
, , -
, , -
. -
, -
, -
.
,
. , -

.
-
.
. , -
(. [-
2009:180]), ,

, [, 2009: 179].
, -
-
86
```
, -
, .
.
; , , , ,
.
-
: , .
-

.
, -
. ,
: , -
" ". -
, -
: . -
: -
:
. ,
,

.
. -
, -
[, 2002, . 88]. -

: , , , ,
, ,
, . ,
87
```
. -
,
- . -
-
. .. ,
,
[, 1995,
.120]. ,
. -
, ,
[ , .21]. -

.
,
. (
) - .
,
, -
-
. , -
, -
.
-
,
. , -
,

.
: -
88
```
. ,
, .
.
:
.
Presently the clerk () came up with a jug of warm water, and said something
Then the clergyman, an amiable and mild-looking young curate, but obviously afraid
of the baby, appeared like the principle character in a ghost story, a tall figure all in
white; at sight of whom Paul rent the air with his cries (
( , )
-. ,
, , ,
, , ,
)
, -
-
.
.
-
: came up, said, appeared, rent.
,

( )
. -
, , , -
, , .
, -
, :
. , -
89
```
, ..
[, 1970]. -
.
,
: like the principle character in a
ghost story.
.
He gave Mr. Dombey his hand, as if he feared it might electrify him. Mr.
Dombey took it as if it were a fish, or seaweed, or such clammy substance, and
immediately returned it with exalted politeness. (
, , .
, , , -
, ).
- -
( -
).

.
-
: as if he feared it might electrify him, as if it were a fish, or seaweed, or
such clammy substance. -
, ,
:
. ,
, ,
, - . ,
: .
,
, -
90
```
, : -
, , -.
, -
-
, . -

, .
-
-
,
. -
, :

, -
, ;
-
,
.

, , , :
.
, , -

-
, . , -
,
, -
.
, -
91
```
,

. -
,
, -
, -
. -
-

- , -
, - .
-
,

.
.. .
: -
, -

.
, -
,
, -
.
, -, -
, -
. ,
,
( ) ,
92
```
: -
,
-
. .
, , -
, , -
, -
. . -
:
, ()
, .
.. , -
[, 1997: 10], :
-
,
.
, ,
,
[,
1998, .218].
, ,
,
, (,
, , , ). , -
-
.
, ,
, .
, , -
93
```
, .
( )
. -
,
, -
. -
, ,
. -
, ,

() ,
, .
( ), ,
( ) , -
. ,
-
:
-

.
-

, -
, -
, . , ,
, -
.
-
, .
94
```
2.4.

-
-
. , -
, -
: , , , . -

, ,
.

. ,
-, -; -
-,
. -
, -
- [, 1975]. ,
.
-
. . -
-. , -

,
, ,
.
, .

: . -
-
95
```
. ,
. ,
-

.
-, -, -
- .
-.

2.4.1. -

-
-
. -
, , ,
, .

,
[, 1967]. , .. -
, .. , .. , .. ., -
, -
- [, 2005, . 68]. -
,
.
, ,
, . -
,
: , -,
. -
96
```
[, 2002, . 59]. ( -
) -
, , , ,
, ,
. -
- . .
. ,
, , -
.
, . -
, : , , ,
, . ,
. ;
, , ,
; -
. , , -
. ,
, - .

. -
. ,
. , -
, -
, .
-
:
. , , -
,
. ,
97
```

.
, , - -
.
, :
, , . ,

, .
, -
[, 1998]. -
, - ,
, ,
.
, -
. ,
, , -
- ,
.

- .
, -
. - , -
, ; ,
,
; , , -
, -
.

.
98
```
()
, -
: , , .
(, , ),
, , -
[, 2002, .53].
: .
-
. ,
.
, , . -
,
: -
, -
:

. . -

-
. ,
, (
) .
, -
.
, -
, -
-. , , -

.
99
```
, , , -
. - , -
. ,
-
-. -
, ,
(), -
, -
. , , -
, , -
,
. ,
: ,
,
. -
, , , -
-
, -
, -
.
- -
.
-
.
She was generally spoken of as a great manager of childrenshe was such a
bitter old lady, that one was tempted to believe there had been some mistake in
the application of the Peruvian machinery, and that all her waters of gladness
and milk of human kindness had been pumped out dry, instead of the mines.
( " ";
100
```
, , -
, , -
).
,
, ,
.
, . -
,
. ,
,
.
()
. - -
-
. -
, [,
1975, . 75] . -
,
. -
, -, -
,
. , -
,
,
.
-
.

.
101
```
Mr. Brogley himself was a moist-eyed, pink-complexioned, crisp-haired man, of
a bulky figure and an easy temper for that class of Caius Marius who sits upon
the ruins of other peoples Carthages, can keep up his feelings well enough.
( , ,
, , -
, ).
-
,
. -
,
, .
, -
, -
. , ,
. -
, -
. , -
- -
-: .
:
.

[, 1998, . 207], :
,
.
, . -
. , ,
- , -
.
102
```
-
, ,
:
Mr. Carker, the Junior, Walters friend, was his brother. Two or three years
older than he, but widely removed in station. The younger brothers post was on
the top of the official ladder, the elder brothers at the bottom. The elder brother
never gained a stave, or raised his foot to mount one. Young men passed above his
head, and rose and rose, but he was always at the bottom. He was quite resigned
to occupy that low condition; never complained of it: and certainly never hoped to
escape from it. ( -, , .
- , .
, . -
.
, .
, , ,
, ).
, -
.
,
: on the top at the bottom. -
, , . ,
, (rose), ,
.
, ,
.

, -

,
103
```
. :
,
,
, .
, , ,
, ,
-
. , -
- . -

, , , -
. . . ,
,
[, 1990, .14]. , ,
,
-
. -
, -
,
. -
.. , -
[-
, 2003, . .45]. , , ,
, -
, ,
-
. , ,
-,
-
104
```
-
, ,
, ,
[, 2011, .207].

2.4.2 -

, ,
-. -
.
-
. , -
, -
.
. -
. -

[ ., 2006, .19].
-
, -
,
. -
( -
) .
,
. , -
.
[ ., 2006, .21], -
-
105
```
,
.
, -
.
, . -

. .
, .
-

, [ ., 2006, .
21].
, -
-
. , ,
-
. .
( ,
) : , , , , , ,
, , , ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
.
-
. -
, .
, ,
:
106
```
. ,

. , , -

. :

, , -
. ,
: -
, - -
: , , .
, , -

, . -
,
.
.. , -
, -
. ,
[, 1987, .27].
.
( -
) ;
, ,
,
, ;
- , , ,
, , -
, ,
107
```
. : -
,
: ,
, ;
, .
- , : -
, , , .
-
. , -
, -
[ ., 2006, .18].
- -

. , , -
,
, . -
. .. ,
, -
[, 1974, .72].

: ( )
(, ).
,
,
. , -
, , ,
, . -
,
. -
108
```
, .

: , ,
, , .
:
.
.
, , -
[, 1974].
-
, ,
- , , -
, , -
, .
.. , -
-
, [,
1989, .27]. -
, -
. -
-
, .
, ,
, , , -
. -
,
.

, .
109
```
( )
,
, .
:
(, )
, .
, , ,
, .
, , ,
, - -
. ,
, , , , -
.
-
,
. -

, -
, . -
. -
-
: , . , -
:
. , -
,
-
, ,
-
. ,
110
```
: -

. ,
,
.
, -
. .
The Doctor was a portly gentleman in a suit of black, with strings at his
knees, and stockings below them. He had a bold head, highly polished; a deep
voice and; and a chin so very double, that it was a wonder how he ever managed
to shave into the creases. He had likewise a pair of little eyes that were always
half shut up, and a mouth that was always expanded into a grin, as if he had, that
moment, posed a boy, and were waiting to convict him from his own
lips.( , -
, , . ,
, ,
, . -
, , ,
, ,
).
-
.
. -
, .
.
,
, -
so, that.
, -
111
```
: it was a wonder. -
,
.
,
.
-
, .
-
: , -
.
-
, .
. -
, , ,
.
, , -
-
. :
- -
-
, .
-
, .
, ,
. , , -
, , -

. , -

112
```
. ,
, -
-
.

2.4.3

, -
, -
, - -
[, 1974, .68]. -
.
(- -
): ; , -
;
. , , , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, , .
-
() .
, , -
. ,
, -
, : .
, . , -
, : ,
. -
, : . , -
113
```
,
.

, . -
, -
, , -
.
-
,
:

,
, , . -
, , -
. , ; ,
, ,
, , -
.
, , , ,
. , -
. , , -
;
.
, -
: ,
-
: . -
:
.
114
```

: , , .
, ,
. , ,
, . -
-
: .
,
, , (-
) ,
[, 1984,
. 97-110], () () .
,
: , ,
, , . -
-
.
. , -
-

.
, -.
-
, -
, , ,
, .
, -
, .
, .
115
```
, ,
,
;
. -
, ,
, , .
, -
. -
.
,
. , , -
,
. -
, . -
-
. ,
-
, -
, .
, ,
:
.
-
: , -
. , ,
,
.

. .
116
```
The Doctors was a mighty fine house, fronting the sea. Not a joyful style of
house within, but quite the contrary. Sad-coloured curtains, whose proportions
were spare and lean, hid themselves despondently behind the windows. The
tables and chairs were put away in rows, like figures in a sum; fires were so
rarely lighted in the rooms of ceremony, that they felt like wells, and a visitor
represented the bucket; the dining-room seemed the last place in the world where
any eating or drinking was likely to occur ( ,
. , .
, , -
. , -
: , -
, ; -
, )
:
, ,
, -
[, 1975, . 20].
, .
,
. . ,
.
, ,
. -
, , , -
. -
. -
. , -
,
,
117
```
, . -
,
. , -
: -
-
(, ). -
( ) -
-
: seemed the last place in the world
where any eating or drinking was likely to occur, that they felt like wells, and a
visitor represented the bucket.
:
The Captain in his own apartment was sitting with his hands in his pockets
and his legs drawn up under his chair, on a very small desolate island, lying
about midway in an ocean of soap and water. The Captains windows had been
cleaned, the stove had been cleaned, and everything, the stove excepted, was wet,
and shining with soft soap and sand; the smell of which dry-saltery impregnated
the air. In the midst of the dreary scene, the Captain, cast away upon his island,
looked round on the waste of waters with a rueful countenance, and seemed wait-
ing for some friendly bark to come that way and take him off. (
, , -
.
, , , , , -
,
. ,
, ,
- ).
, -
,
118
```
.
.
, , -
(had been cleaned). , -
, , -
(, )
, .
, ( )
,
. , -
: ,
. : -
, , -
: seemed waiting for some friendly bark to come
that way and take him off. -
, , -
, : , ,
, -
.

, , -
, -
, ;
, .
, ,
, -
,
: .
, ,
119
```

. , ,
. -
, , ,
.
, , -
, ,
.
,
: , -
, , . -
-
.
-
, , , -
. -
. , -

.

. -
-
,
,
() . -
, -
, , ,
[, 2010, .213]. , -
, -
120
```
,
.
- ,
, . -
-
( ,
. , -
, -
, , -
, ,
, , -

.

121
```

-
,
.

-
, . ,
,
, -
.
, -
. , -
,

-
.
2. -
,
, , . -
-
-
. . . .
:
. -
: , -
-
.
3. , -
: , , , , . -
122
```
, ,
, -
. , ,
-
.
.
, -
, -
, -
, , -
. , -
, , .. ,
[, 2001, .39].
,
,
, -
.
, -
-
. -


.

123
```
III.
. .
.

- -
-
,
[, 2009]. -
-,
,
. -
, -
. -
, .. , ..
, . . , .. . , -
:
(.. , 1989),
(.. , 2001), (.. , 2011), -
(.. , 2009).
.

. . . . -
,
( )
[, 1989, . 58]. -
, .
, -
.
,

124
```
, , .

, -
..
. , -
-
, . -
, -
, -
.
,
, .
.
, -
-
. . .
: , - -.

.

3.1

-
, -
-.
,
, .
.. ,
.
, -
125
```
,
.
, -
[, 1981, . 43].
, ,
, .
,
[ , . 46].
, -
. .. ,
, -
" [, 1975, .309].
.. , ,

[, 1981, . 29-30].
, ,
. ,
, , -
. , ,
:
, ,
()
,
, . (,
)
,

. , , -

126
```
,
.
, , -
, -
, -
.
,

(.. , .. ), -
(.. , .. , ..
).
.. -
- -. -
,
- -
.
: [, 1996].
, -
. -

.. , , -
- [, 1981]. -
, ,
, , , , , , ,
, , .
, , , - ,
- , , , -
, , , , , .
,
127
```
.. , -
-,
- .
, -
.. .
. ,
.

. .
. (.
.195-212).
,
, -
, - .


, .. ,
,
[ 2009, .46]. ,
,
, [-
, 1990, . 14]. ,
, ,
, , [, 1983, . 669]. -
-
, -
,
.
: (-
128
```
); (, -
, ); ( ).
, , ,
-.
, , ,
. I 17, 26, 27,
II 8, 18, 19, 20, 28. -
, .
, ,
, ,
-: , ,
: , ,
, , ,
: !
: , ,
, ,
, .
,
, , -
.
,
.
( )
. , -
, .
,
. -
, , -
: , , , .
129
```
, , -

, . .
. , -

[., 1990, . 389]. ,
,
.
.
.
Miss Blimber, too, although a slim and graceful maid did no soft vi-
olence to the gravity of the house. There was no light nonsense about Miss Blimb-
er. She kept her hair short and crisp, and wore spectacles. She was dry and sandy
with working in the graves of deceased languages. None of your live languages
for Miss Blimber. They must be dead stone dead and then Miss Blimber dug
them up like a Ghoul. ( , -
, -
. .
. , -
. .
- ,-
, ).

, .
, -
. . [Gans,
1997], -
, -
. ,
130
```
, ,
, , -
.
, ,
.
, , -
, - -
. -
,
, , ,
, , , , -
(, 1990, . 27).
..
. -
.


,
, , -
. -
, ,
, -
. -
,
[, , 2008,
. 526]. ,
. . , .. , -
, . . -
; :
131
```
- , [, 1996, . 290]. .
.
, : , -
: - - . [ ].
, , -
,
, . ,
, I 1-4, 6-13, 16-18;
20, 23-25,29; II 1, 2, 4-17, 19, 21, 23,24, 26, 27. , -
, :
, , , , .
, .
, -
: , ,
, .

.
.
, -
, -
; ,
, , -
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
, , -
, , -
132
```
, , ,
, ,
.
, -
.
, . -
.
, .
, -
.
, -
:
. , , ,
, .
, -
. -
: , ,
, , . ,
, , , ,
.
, -
:
Mr Dombey, who was one of those close-shaved, close-cut, moneyed gen-
tlemen who seem to be artificially braced and tightened as by the stimulating
action of golden shower-baths. ( ,
, , ,
,
).
-
133
```
: -
(braced and tightened).
- as by the stimulating action
of golden shower-baths (
), , ,

. -
(
) ,
, -
, . -
, .
-
-
. .
She was such a bitter old lady, that one was tempted to believe there had
been some mistake in the application of the Peruvian machinery, and that all
her waters of gladness and milk of human kindness had been pumped out dry,
instead of the mines. ( ,
, -
, ,
).

, . -
-
.
( )
, ,
, . ,
134
```
,
, .
,

. ,

: , -
. , , -
, -
.

,
-
.. , .
.
. ,
, ; ,
, -
, , -
.
-
, -
, .
,
, , -
.
(-
135
```
):
. ,
:
.
:
, , -
. , ,
[, 1989]:
.
After another cold interval, a wheezy little pew-opener afflicted with asthma,
appropriate to the churchyard, if not to the church, summoned them to the font...
Here they waited some little time while the marriage party enrolled themselves; and
meanwhile the wheezy little pew-opener - partly inconsequence of her infirmity, and
partly that the marriage party might not forget her - went about the building cough-
ing like a grampus. ( -
, ,
, -
, ,
, ,
, .
- -
,
.

, ,
, .

coughing like a grampus. -
-
136
```
.
, -
.
, -
,
-
. , , -
-
,
.
, ( )
, ,
,
. , -
-
.


-
.
, , -
, -
[, 1966, .95]. .
, , ,
[, 1996]. ,
,
.
, : -
, , , , , , , -
137
```

, .

[, 1996, . 285]. , ,
, .

, .
.
,
:
, -
.
, :
,
; , - ,
, .
-,
, -
: -
,
, . -
, .
, -
, -
, ,
.

, ,
-
138
```
, . . -
, -
-
, , (. II 3-
5).
Forty years at least had elapsed since the Peruvian mines had been the
death of Mr Pipchin; but his relict still wore black bombazeen, of such a
lustreless, deep, dead, sombre shade, that gas itself couldn't light her up after
dark, and her presence was a quencher to any number of candles (
, -
, -
, , , -
, -
, ).
- -
,
.
, ,
, -
, , ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
-
,
.
, .

139
```


. ,
, , [
1958:176]. ,
, -
,
I -17, 20. ,
, -
.
, , -
;
...


,
, . ,
, . -
,
:
. -
. -
, , -

. -
-: , -
.
. ,
, .. [,
140
```
1989]: ,
, ..
-
.
. .
But it was generally said that Mrs Pipchin was a woman of system with
children; and no doubt she was. Certainly the wild ones went home tame enough,
after sojourning for a few months beneath her hospitable roof. It was generally
said, too, that it was highly creditable of Mrs Pipchin to have devoted herself to
this way of life, and to have made such a sacrifice of her feelings, and such a
resolute stand against her troubles, when Mr Pipchin broke his heart in the
Peruvian mines. ( , -
, , , . -
, , ,
. ,
, -
-
,
).
-
. , -
. -
, , .. ,
,
, , ,
.
-
. -
; , -
141
```
, -
.
,
,
.
,
. -
, -
: .

, -

.
.
, , . - -
: ,
.
, - - ,
: , ,
,
.

, -
.
:
1. , -
, , .
142
```
2. , .
3. , , [-
, 2010:255].
-
. ,
, .

- : , , -
[, , 2010, . 255].
, , -
:
.
, ,
:
-
. , ,
, ; ,
, .
,
.
-
-
: . ,
, , -
, .

143
```

..
. -
. ..,

[, 1958, .155].
,
,

, ,
: , ;

. -
,
, -
.

.
Mrs Pipchin very seldom sweetening the equable acidity of her nature
in favour of anybody, she was held to be an old 'lady of remarkable firmness, who
was quite scientific in her knowledge of the childish character.' On this reputa-
tion, and on the broken heart of Mr Pipchin, she had contrived, taking one year
with another, to eke out a tolerable sufficient living since her husband's demise.
(
, -
, .
,

).
144
```


:
. -
-
.
I 15, II 9.


,
-.

. ,
, . ,
, -
. , ,
.
,

. , ,
, .
,
. -
, ,
, , ,
-
. : , -
, , -
. -
145
```
, , ,
. -
,
.
.
.
The Castle of this ogress and child-queller was in a steep by-street at
Brighton; where snails were constantly discovered holding on to the street doors,
and other public places they were not expected to ornament, with the tenacity of
cupping-glasses. In the winter time the air couldn't be got out of the Castle, and
in the summer time it couldn't be got in. ( -
,
, -
, .
, - .
-
, , -
.
-
, , , . ,
(Castle of
this ogress),
. ,
,
- .
, -
:
.

146
```
She was generally spoken of as 'a great manager' of children; and the
secret of her management was, to give them everything that they didn't like, and
nothing that they did which was found to sweeten their dispositions very much.
( " ";
, , ,
, : , -
).
,
.
,
.
- . -
, , , -
, . -
.


N
.
, -
.
, , : , -
; , -
- , .
, ,
, . , , -
, -
.
, , - -
147
```
, , ,
, ,
, , .
. !
, .

; - , -
. , ,
, ,
, .
; , ,
.
, ; ,
- , ,
, ,
. , , -
, ,
, , , , -
. , -
, .
-
- -
, .
-
. -
:
, ; -
, .
,
148
```
: !
, . -
, -
,
, . -
, -
.

,
. ,

- ,
.
,
.
,
, ,
- ,
..., , , . ,
, , -
, -
. , , ? -
? ? -
?
? , -
.
.. ,
.

149
```
,
. , ,
,
, , .
, , -
.. , -
() [, 2011]. -
-
, , -
, , . -
, ,

.
(Toodle returned and confronted Mr Dombey alone). He was a strong,
loose, round-shouldered, shuffling, shaggy fellow, on whom his clothes sat negligent-
ly: with a good deal of hair and whisker, deepened in its natural tint, perhaps by
smoke and coal-dust: hard knotty hands: and a square forehead, as coarse in grain
as the bark of an oak. A thorough contrast in all respects, to Mr Dombey, who was
one of those close-shaved close-cut moneyed gentlemen who are glossy and crisp like
new bank-notes, and who seem to be artificially braced and tightened as by the
stimulating action of golden showerbaths. (
). , , , ,
, -
, , , ,
, , ,
, . -
, , , -
, , -

150
```
, , ,
.

, . -

.
: -
,
. -
, :
, , . -
: , .
. , , -
, , . -
,
. -
, -
. ,
I 7, II 12, 22.


..
-
, . -
: , -
- , [-
, 1996, .75].
. ,

151
```
. , -
, .
.
,
- . ,
, , , -
,
;
, ,
, ,
, , , .
- -
, .

. -
:
, , ,
, -
.
, , -
. -
: , ,
:
, ,
.
, -
,
-
. . ,
152
```
.
, -
, , -
.
:
. , -
-
, -
. -
,
. -
, -
, -
[, 1980, . 86].

, -
, , -

.
, -
, -
.

, -
.
, ,

, .
,
153
```
. -

. , -
,
,
, . -
,
-
. , , -
,
,
.

3.2. -


-
, -
, .
, -
[, 1929, .1].
, , -
, [, 2008, .45].
,
, . , -
,
[, 2008, .30]. ,
, ,
, . -
154
```
,
. , -
,
. ..
, .
-,
.
N , -
, -
, N ,
,

, ,
, ,
-, : ,
.
, N,
. -
, .
,
N . ,
, , -
.
, , ,
: -
.
, , .
, , -
: ,
155
```
, ,
, , , :
.
-
,
.
, -
.
.

:
,
,
. , ,
, ,
. -
, I 5.

.
Mrs Wickam was a meek woman, of a fair complexion, with her eyebrows
always elevated, and her head always drooping; who was always ready to pity
herself, or to be pitied, or to pity anybody else; and who had a surprising natural
gift of viewing all subjects in an utterly forlorn and pitiable light, and bringing
dreadful precedents to bear upon them, and deriving the greatest consolation
from the exercise of that talent.
( -
,
- -

156
```
,
).
,
, -
, -
(surprising natural gift).
, -
-
. ,
, . , -
-
. -
,
.


N
, ..
[ 2011]. ,
,
. , -

[, 2010, .7]. -
, -
, ,
, , .

,
,
157
```
. , , ;
, ,
, - : , ,
, , -
: , . , -
, , - , !
, -
, , -
. ,
, ,
. ,
-
. -
, . ,
, -
, -
.


-
-
, . ,
-
,
, , :
, -
- ,
, ; ,
,
158
```
; , , -
, -
..
, -
.
,
. ,
,
, -
.
, .
, -
,
. ,
,
, .
[, 1997, .167],
-
.
, ,
, ,
:
, -
, ,
.
-

.
-
159
```
: , , ;
.
,
,
- .
, .
, : , , -
, , . ,

, , .
, -
, - .
, ,
, , -
- .
, -
. -
, ,
, , ,
. , , -
,
, .


, , ,
.
, -
[, 1916, .63].
, , -
160
```
, .
, , , ,
.

, -
,
.
. , ,
, -
,
, . ,

, ,
.
( ), ( ).
-
.
, ,
, -, ,
- ,
, ,
.
-
: . -
, , , , , -
. ,

.
, -
161
```
: -
. ,
. ,
. ,
, , -
, .
, - , -
,
. .

3.3. -

-
, -
-
.
, , , .. -
, , ,
[ .. [-
] URL: http://rus.1september.ru/article.php?ID=200102604]. .
, -
, . -
..
. -
-
,
.
,
, ,
162
```
- , -
: , , , -
. ,
. : -
., ,
, .
-
. ,
, -
. , ,
,
.
: -. , -
,
-
.
.
, ;
,
, , , .
, , -

, -
,
.
: " -
".
: -
, -
163
```
, ,
. ,
.


-
. -
[, 1973 .54].
, ,
,
-
.. ,
. . , -
II 13, 16, 18. -
(-
, , -), -
. .
;
... , , , ,
, , , -
, , , -
, .
-
.
, -
. -
-
. , -
, ,
164
```
.
, , -
, -
. -
, ,

[, 2004, . .587], -
.
He was a strong, loose, round-shouldered, shuffling, shaggy fellow, on
whom his clothes sat negligently: with a good deal of hair and whisker, deepened
in its natural tint, perhaps by smoke and coal-dust...

,
perhaps (). -
, .
,
, . -
,
,
(thought-mood),
,
[, , 2000, . 19]. -
.
, -
, .
.
; , , , ,
.
-
165
```
: , .
-
-
, -
. ,
: -
, " ".
, -
: -
. : -
.
, -
, -
.
If Miss Tox could believe the evidence of one of her senses, it was a very
could day. That was quite clear. She took an early opportunity of promoting the
circulation in the tip of her nose by secretly chafing it with her pocket-
handkerchief, lest, by its very low temperature, it should disagreeably astonish
the baby when she came to kiss it. The baby soon appeared, carried in great
glory by Richardsthere was enough in the appearance of the bereaved children
to make the day no brighter. The baby too it might have been Miss Toxs nose
began to cry. (
, .
. , -
,
,
, -
. -

166
```
. , -
).

. -
,
. , -
, . -
, ,
might,
.
. -
,
it might have been Miss
Toxs nose ,
. -

-
.

167
```

-
, ..
. , -
.
1. - -
, - - -
.
,
, , , , , , -
, . -
, , ,
. -
, -
: .
2.

. , -
, , -
. : , .
3. -
.
.
-
. -
, , -
:
.
-
168
```
:

.
,
. -
,
.
4. -
, -
. , , ,
-
, .
,
,
.
5. ,
..
. , -
, .. . -
-
.
-
,
, . , -
,
: , -
, .

169
```

-

.
, - -

. -
, -
- .
-
- -
,
-
.. .
.
. , -
,
, . -

.

,
-
. , -
, -
-
. -
-
.

170
```

. , -
, ,
, ,
.
.
- , -
. :

,
.

-
,
.. -
. , -
-
, .
-
,
. -
, -
. -
-
-
. -
. .
, -
. ,

171
```
,
. -


,
. , -
, -
-
.
, -

. -

. -
, , -
,
, ,
.

,
, -
- .
,
..
. -
. , -

, -
,

172
```
.
- ,

-
. , ,
, -
.

.
,
-
, ..
. .
, - -. -
,
, , , , ,
, , . -
,
, , . -
- , -
.
-
, -
. -
, , , -
-
, , .
-
, -
173
```
. -
-
.
, -
, ,
, -
, -
. , -

, -
.
, .. -
, . , -
-
.. . ,
, -
, ,
.
, , ,
, .

,
, -
, -
. -

. ,
-
.
174
```

, .. [] /.. .
.: , 1973. 366.
, . . [] / . . . . ,
2001. 288.
, . . . 2. []: 1.
( ) / . . . .: -
, 1995. 464.
. . 4. [] / . .: , 1983.
832.
. . [] / . .: , 2000.
119.
, . . [] / . . -
. .: , 1990. 300.
, . . . . . . [] /
. . . , 1988. 345.
, . . [] / . . // -
. , 1990. . 5-32.
, . . . . : [] /
. . // . :
.: - , 2004. .5-29.
, . . [] / . .
// , 2011. 11. . 6-9.
, . . [] / . . -
. , 1967. 397 .
, . . . ,
: . . . [] /. ..
.: . ; : ., 2004. 464.

175
```
, . . .
. []: ; / . . , . . . .:
: , 2004. - 496 c.
, . . [] / . . -
. .: , , 2008. 240.
, . . [] / . . -
. .: , 1990. 240.
, . . ( )
[] / .. // :
. .: . , 1975. . 484 495.
, . : [] / . . : ,
1996. 351.
, . . [] / . . // -
-2. . / . . . , . . . . .: -
, 2003. 496.
, . . []
/ . . . ., 1988. 121.
, . . . [] / .
. . .: , 2009. 520.
, . . , , ,
[] / . ..
.: , 1970. 272.
, ..
[]: . . : 10.02.01 / .. . -,
1998. 25.
, . . . []: .1 / . .
. : , 1952. 445.

176
```
, .. -
[]: . . : 10.02.01 / .. . -
, 1998. 178.
, . . : [] / . . . .:
, 2003. 280.
, . . -
- []: . .
. : 10.02.01 / . . . -, 2008. 24.
, . . [] / . . .
.: , 1971. 240.
, . . : . [] // . .
. .: , 1980. 360.
, . .
[] / . . // . . -
. ., 1975. . 53-80.
, . . -
[] / . . . .: , 1980. 140.
, . .
[] / . . // . -
. / . . .. . .: - , 2007. .238-258.
, . . []: / . . .
: , 2010. 327 .
, . . . . 5, . [] / . . .
.: , ., 1999. 352 .
, . . [] / . . . - .: -
, 1997. - 144.
, . . [] / . . . .:
, 1958. 462 .

177
```
, . . [] / . . . .:
, 1981. 316 .
, . . [] / .
. . .: , 1981. 138.
, . ., . . [] / . . , .
. . .: . , 2004. 276.
, ... . (, . XII) [] / .
. . . , 1938. 494.
, .. [] / , .. -:
, 2012. 448.
, . . . . [] /
. . . .: , 1986. 335.
, . . -
: ( -
" ") []: . . : 10.02.19 / . . -
. , 2008. 163.
, . . -
[ ] URL: http://www.textology.ru/razdel.aspx?id=38]
: 15. 01. 14.
, . . (,
, ) [
] URL: http://rus.1september.ru/article.php?ID=200102604 -
: 10. 09. 13 .
, .. : -
- []: ... . . : 10.02.19 /
.. . -, 2009. 193.
, .. [] / .. -
. -: , 2010. 248.

178
```
, . [] / . // / . .
. . , . . , . . , . . 2-
., . . .: ACT: , 2008. .29-37.
, . ( ) [] / . ,
. , . // , -: , 2007,
9. . 102 108.
, .. [] / .. .
.: , 1997. 320.
, . [] / . . .:
, 2000. 495.
, . [] / . : , 2011.
1024.
, . [] / . . : , 1974. 223.
, . . [] / . . , . -
// . .: , 2004. 496.
, . . (
XIXXX .) [] / . . . .: -
, 1999. 284.
, . . XIX [] / . . -
, . . ., . . ., . . . .: -
, 1972. 624.
, . . [] /
. . . : , 1972. 303.
, . . [] / . .
// , 2002. 4. 30-36.
, . . : [ ] .
/ . . . 2- ., .: ; ; 2011 URL:
http://www.litres.ru/pages/biblio_book/?art=3849575

179
```
, . . [] /. .
. , 1977. 293.
, .. :
( .. ) []: .
. . : 10.02.01 / .. . - : . . -, 2006. - 25.
, . . []: . / . . -
, . . . -: - , 1998. 110.
, . . [] / . . . .:
, 1982. 463 .
, . . . . :
[] / . . . .: , 2005. 543 .
, . . [] / . . -
// . : . 1980. . 39.
1. . 14.
, . . , [] / . -
. 1. .: , 2008. 464.
, . . [] / . .
, . . , . . . , 2004. 544 .
, . .
[] / . . //
: - . . 80- .. -
. .: - , 2001. . 323-328.
, .. . : -
030301.65 []
/.. , .. . : - -, 2007.
196.
[ ] // . URL:
http://www.bibliotekar.ru/624-2/139.htm ( : 04.06.2013)

180
```
, . . [] / . . . .: .
. , 1997. 352 .
, . . [] / . . . .: , 1988.
319.
, . . -
- []: ... . . : 10.02.19 / . . -
. -, 2013. 26.
, . . . . []:
. . : 10.02.19 / . . . , 2001 156.
, . . . . . . [] / . .
.: , 1998. 960.
, .. : [] / .. //
. : , 4
(25), 2013. . 9-15.
, . . ( -
) [] / . . // .
. 2011, 2. . 87-90.
, . . : .
[] / .. // , 2009. 3 (71) . 173-184.
, . . [] /. . , . .
, . . . , 1982. 223.
, . . . 3-, -
[] / .. . : . 223.
, .. : [] / .. //
. . / . . .. . .:
- , 2007. c. 201-206.
, . .
[] / . . . , 2003. 193.

181
```
, . . [] / . .
/. . . . . . . . . .
. . 2-, . : , 2005. 128 .
, . . -
[]: . -
. : 10.02.01 / . . . -, 2002. 155.
, . . -
[]: . . ... . . :
10.02.04 / . . . .., 2010. 25.
, .. : -
[] / .. . ,
2004. 206.
, . . [] / .
. . ., 2001. 270.
, . .
[] / .. . , 1975. 159.
, . . [] / . . -
. , 1981. 312.
, . . :
[] / . . // , 4, 1994.
. 34-47.
, . . -
[] / . . // /
, .65, 2, 2006. . 3-13.
, . [] / . .
: , 1995. 100.
, ., , . , [] / . -
, . // . .: , 1990. . 387-415.

182
```
, . . [] / . . . .: , 1967.
118.
, . . , , [] / . . . .:
, 1969. 214.
, . . [] / . . . :
, 1999. 287.
: -
[] / . . . . . -: -
, 2011. 380.
. :
[] / . . . . . .: - , 2004.
720.
. [] / . . .
. . .: - , 2007.-728.
, . . . . , [] /
. . . ., , 1969. 715 .
, . . . . [] / . . . .: -
, 1982. 480.
, . . . . . . [] / .
. . .: , 2000. 846.
, . . [] / . . . ., 1980. 94.
, . . . . -
[] / . . . : , 2005. 846.
, . . [] / . . . ., 1998. 416.
, . . . . . . .
[] / . . . .: , 2003.
384.
, . . [] / . . //
/ . , 2007. 1, . 104-118.
183
```
, . . [] /
. . // . .: , 2003. 4, .31-38.
, . . . 2- ., . [] / . . . .: .
., 1988. 413.
, . . :
[] / . . . ., 1993. 125.
, . . [] /
. . ., . . , . . , . . . ,
2004. 284.
, . . : [] / . .
// . , 2000. 2, .66 74.
, . . (
) []: . . .
: 10.02.19. / . . , 2006. 21.
, . . - (, ,
) [] / . . . -, 1974. 261.
, . . - . []: .
. . . / .. . , 1975. 46.
, . . -
- ( ) [] / . . .
-: - . 1999. 96.
, . . -
[] / . . //
: / .
. . . . -: ,
2011. 380.
, . . [] / . . . .:
, 2007. 304 .

184
```
. . 13. (
) [] / . . . . .: , 1982. 431c.
, .. : -
[] / .. . .: - -
, 2007. 400.
, . . . []
/ . . . .: , 1973. 106.
, . . -
[]: ... - . : 10.02.01 / . . . .,
2005. 323.
, . .
[]: .
. . / . . . -, 1998. 200.
, . .
[]: . . : 10.02.19 / . . . , 2005 170.
: [] / . . .. .
: - . -, 2003. 140.
, . . : [] / . . -
// . . .: , 1991. .
164 169.
, . . . . []
/ . . // . . . 54, 3, 1995.
. 39 48.
, ..
[]: ... . . : 10.02.04 / . . . ,
2001. 156 .
, .. : -
[]: . . . . : 10.02.02 / .. -
. , 2001.-192.
185
```
, . .
. . [] / . . // . -
. 34 (172). 2009.
. 7377.
, . . : -
[] / . . // .
2011. . 11. . . , . 3. . 25-30.
, .. [] / .. . -
: - , 2000. 106.
, . . :
[]: / . . . --: - "-
", 2002. 418.
, . . -
[] / . . //
. : - , 1980. . 52-60.
, . . [] / .. . :
.. , 1916. 100.
, . . [ ] / . .
// Literature and languages. URL:
http://frgf.utmn.ru/last/No19/journal.htm ( : 28.05.2013)
, . . [] / . . //
. 2000. 5, .18-23.
, . . [] / . . . .: - -
, 1978. 351.
, . . : [] / . .
/ . .. ; . . .. . .: , 1990.
182.

186
```
, . . : -
[] / . . //
., . . . . . . .: , 1990. 344 .
, . . [] / . .
. : ,1989. 128.
, . . [] / . . -
, . . ., . . . . , 2006. 73.
, . . . (
) [] / . . . .: - ,
.,2006. 256.
, . . [] / . .
// : . . . , 1990.
.79-87.
[] / . . .. , . . -
, . . , . . 2- ., . . .: ACT: -
, 2008. 672 .
, . . [] / . .
// . , 59, 3, 2000. . 3-13.
, . . ()
[]: . . . : 10.02.01 / . . . -,
2006. 24.
, . . [] / . . . -
: , . . -, 1985. 71 .
, . . -
[] / . . // . "
- ". . 6. : , 2001. . 221-233.
, . . //
. , 2002, 12. . 67-71.

187
```
, . [] / . //
. ., 1997, .231 260.
, . .
[]: . . ... . : 10.02.05 / . . . ,
2008 18.
, . . [] / . . . , 2001. 504.
, . . I
.. []: / . . . : , 2004. 134.
, . . [] / . . . ,
1987. 202.
, . . : ( )
[]: . / . . . . : . ., 1973. 213 .
, . . . -
, [] / . . . .: , , 1997. 256 .
, . . [] / . .
. . , 1985. 168 .
, . . : , , [] / . . -
// . ., 1982. .
61-75.
. . . -
[] / . . , . .. .: :
, 2008. 624.
: [] / .
. . , . . ( ); . .,
. . . . . . .: ,1990. 536 .
, . . [] / . ..
.: , 1987. 168.
, ..
[] / .. . -: , 2009. 235.
188
```
, .. -
[] / .. // -
. 2011. .2. 3-32. . 76-79.
, ..
[]: . . -. . : 10.02.19 / .. . ,
2011. 47.
, . . . , -
[] / .. . .:
, 1996. 288 .
: . [] / .. . . . ; .
. . . . . . .: , 1990. 512.
, . . : :
[] / . . , . . .: , 2006
32.
, . . -
[] / .. // / . .-
. . - . , . , 1984. .
33-56.
. .
( )
[] / .. // . : -
. .: - , 2004. . 585-
596.
, . . :
[] / . . // . : -
, . , 2010. .9. . 2: . . 26-30.
, . . [] / . . . ., 1986. 127.
, . . , -
[] / . . . ., 2007. 282.
189
```
, . [] / . // -
. .: -
, 1984. . 97 110.
, .. : -
[] / .. . .: , 2006. 240.
, . . : . . . . -
[] / . . . .: "", 2003.
320 .
, . . . 1920-30-
[]: ... . : 10.01.01 / . . , 2011.
199.
, . . -
"": []: ... -. . :
10.02.01 / . . . ., 2002. 332.
, . .
[] / .. // :
. IV
. ., 2010. .143-144.
, . . [
]: . / . . // , , -
. . . . 2 (43), 2012
URL.: http://www. droff.zabspu.ru ( 09.01.2012).
, . . -
[] / . . . -: - .
, 2005. 140.
, . . . . [] / . . .
., . 1, ., 1980. 711.
, . . -
[] / . . . , 1975. 429.
190
```
, . . [] / . . . .:
, 1984. 344 .
, . . CAN, MAY, MUST: [] /
. . , . . . -: , 2000. 238.
, . . [] / .. -
// : -
: . .-. ., . 50-
. -: - , 2010. 328.
. :
[] / . // , 1, 1996. 69.
, . [] / . // -
/ . ..
, . . , . . . ., 1997. .340-369.
, .. -
[] / .. // -2 : -
:
/ . .. . : - . -, 2000. .
236-244.
, . . ( -
) [] / .. // .
. I. / .. . .: ,
2014. . 236-242.
, .. : . [] / .. ;
. .. . .: : , 2011. 240 .
, .. [] / .. //
. / . . .. . .:
- , 2007. .340-372.
, .. [] / .. .
: , 2006. 304.
191
```
, . . . . 2 . . 2 [] / .. . . : ,
1989. 636.
, .. [] / .. -
// . .
2008, 2. .10-15.
, .. : -
? [] / .. // . .
2011. 3. .80-85.
, . . -
[] / .. // . , 1974.
. 24 39.
, .. [] / ..
. .: , 2002. 496.
, . - [] / . //
, , . , 1990. . 26-33.
. [] / . .: -
, 1975. 320.
, . : [] / .
// . 19, 1996. . 129 147.
: . [] / . . .. .
., 2000. 320.
Alexander, R. J. Aspects of Verbal Humour in English [Text] / R. J. Alexander.
Tbingen: Gunter Narr Verlag, 1997. 217 p.
Chomsky, Noam. Language and Mind [Text] / Noam Chomsky. Cambridge Univer-
sity Press, 2006. 211 p.
Cruse, D.A. Meaning in language: An introduction to semantics and pragmatics [Text]
/ D.A. Cruse. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. 424p.
Denham, Kristin; Lobeck, Anne. Linguistics for Everyone. An Introduction [Text] /
Kristin Denham, Anne Lobeck. Cengage Learning, 2012. 547 p.
192
```
Dickens, Charles. Dombey and Son. Volume I [Text] / Charles Dickens. Moscow:
Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1955. 559 p.
Gallistel, C.R. Memory and the Computational Brain: Why Cognitive Science will
Transform Neuroscience [Text] / C. R. Gallistel. Wiley-Blackwell, 2009 336 p.
Gans, . Signs of Paradox [Text] / E.Gans. Oxford University Press. Stanford, Cali-
fornia, 1997. P. 13 74.
Kukharenko, V. A. A Book of Practice in Stylistics [Text] / V.A. Kucharenko. .
1986. 78 p.
Rosh, E. Cognitive representation of semantic categories [Text] / E. Rosh // Journal of
Experimental Psychology, 1975. P. 192 233.
Seuren, Pieter A.M. Language in Cognition: Language From Within. Volume I [Text]
/ Pieter A. M. Seuren. Oxford University Press, 2009. 403 p.
Paducheva, E. The linguistics of narrative: The case of Russian [Text] / E. Paducheva.
Saarbrcken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 2011. 336 p.
Stockwell, Peter. Cognitive Poetics. An Introduction [Text] / Peter Stockwell. Lon-
don and New York: Routledge, 2002. 204 p.
Wierzbicka, A. Semantics: primes and universals [Text] / A. Wierzbicka. Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1996. 487p.

193
```


30 . []: . 8. / . . . .
.. .: " ", 1978. 528 .
[] / . . , . . .
.:-, 2003. 632.
. [] / . . . .: ,
2008. 704.
. [] / . . .
; - . .: . ., 1990. 682 .
[] / .. .
/.: , 2010. 562.
? -. 3- ., . . [] / .
. . .: , 1987. 352.
, ,
: [] / . . , . . , . . . 3-
. .: : , 2005. 848.
[] / . . . .: - -
, 1966. 607.
/ . -
... . 4- ., [] / . . ,
.. . .: , 2010. 874.
Cambridge Advanced Learners English Dictionary [Text]. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2003. 1550 p.
The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language [Text] / Crystal David. Cambridge Uni-
versity Press, 1997. 488 p.
Cognitive Science Dictionary [Text] / M. Dawson. The University of Alberta's,
1997 153 p.

194
```
I
,
, ..

1. , ,
, ,
,
, , , -
, , ,
, ,
.
: , ; -
- , -
;
; , -
. , , , , -
,
, ,
, .
()

2.
, , .
, ; -
, , -
: , -
, , ;
, .
195
```
, , , , ,
, - - , -
. -
, ,
, . ()

3. , ,
, , ,
. ()

4. - -
. : -
, , - - ,
, , , -
, .
, -
, ,
,
, , .
()

5. , , . -
, , -
: , -
, ,
, , , :
. , -
, ; -
. -
196
```
, , -
, . ,
, , -
, . ..( -
)

6. , , -
, , -
:
, -
, ,
.
, -
, . -
, ,
, , -
, , , , .
, ,
. , , , -
, , ,
, , , ,
, , . ,
, , ,
, ,
, , .
.()

7. ; , ,
, , , ;
197
```
, - ,
, , ,
. ,
. -
, , , -

, .
, -
. (, )

8. ,
.
, ,
,
. , ,
. ()

9. , , , -
, -
;
, . , ,
, ,
, , , : ! :
! ( )

10. .
, , ,
, , : -
, , . , -
198
```
,
. ,
, , -
; -
: -! ()

11. , -
. , -
.
, , -
. -
, .
(, )

12. , !
, , -
. -
: , , ,
, ; , -
, , ,
. ()

13.
. -
: , , -
, ; -
, ; , ,
, , , , -
, , , , -
199
```
, , -
: -
, , , , ,
, ,
, ,
. ()

14. , , -
, , , , -
, ,
, -
, . -
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, -
.
; ,
,

.()

15. , -
, , :
, ,
,
, ,
, , , -
- ; -
200
```
, ,
. ( , )

16. , -
, , -
, , , -
,
, , , .
()

17. , ,
,
,
, , -
, ,
, -
, , , .(, -
, )

18. ,
. -
, -
, . , ,
, ,
, , , , -
. ()

19. - , ,
; , ,
201
```
; -
, , (-
)

20. , , -
:
,
, ,
. , -
. ()
21. , .
, : , , -
, , . ,
. ;
, , ,
; -
. ,
, .
, , -
. (, )

22. . ;
, , , ,
.
-
: , . ( , -
)
23. ,
- , -
202
```
, ; -
, ,
; ,
, ,
. (, -
)
24. ,
) : , , , , , -
, , , , -
, , -
, ,
, , -
, -
. ()
25. ; ,
,
,
, ; -
- , , ,
, ,
, , -
.
: ,
: -
, , ; -
,
. - ,
: , , ,
. .()
203
```
26. ( )
, -
, - , ,
, ,
, . ( )

27. , .
, , ,
, .
, , ,
,
- .
, , ,
, , .
( )

28. ; , -
;
. , , , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, , .
, ; -
, -
, . (-
, )

204
```
29. , -
, .
, -
. ,
, , -
; -
-
. , -
, , -
, . ()

205
```
II
, ,
.

1. The Major, more blue-faced and staring more over-ripe as it were, than ever
and giving vent, every now and then, to one of the horses coughs, not so much of
necessity as in a spontaneous explosion of importance, walked arm-in-arm with
Mr. Dombey up the sunny side of the way, with his cheeks swelling over his tight
stock, his legs majestically wide apart, and his great head wagging from side to
side, as if he were remonstrating within himself for being such a captivating ob-
ject. ()

2. During the whole of these proceedings, Mr. Dombey remained as impassive and
gentlemanly as ever, and perhaps assisted in making it so cold, that the young cu-
rate smoked at the mouth as he read. ()

3. The Honourable Mrs. Skewton and her daughter, Mrs. Granger, resided, while at
Leamington, in lodgings that were fashionable enough, but rather limited in point
of space and conveniences; so that the Honourable Mrs. Skewton, being in bed,
had her feet in the window and her head in the fireplace; the Honourable Mrs.
Skewtons maid was quartered in a closet within the drawing-room, so extremely
small, that, to avoid developing the whole of its accommodations, she was ob-
liged to writhe in and out of the door like a beautiful serpent. ()

4. Walking by the side of the chair, and carrying her gossamer parasol with a proud
and weary air, as if so great an effort must be soon abandoned and the parasol
dropped, sauntered a much younger lady, very handsome, very haughty, very will-
ful, who tossed her head and drooped her eyelids, as though there were anything

206
```
in the world worth looking into, save a mirror, it certainly was not the earth or
sky. ( )

5. The Major heaved his shoulders, and his cheeks, and laughed more like an over-
fed Mephistopheles than ever, as he said the words. (
)

6. Mr. Perch the messenger knocked softly at the door, and coming in on tip-toe,
bending his body at every step as if it were the delight of his life to bow, laid some
papers on the table. ()

7. With hair and whiskers deficient in colour at all times, but feebler than common in
the rich sunshine, and more like the coat of a sandy tortoise shell-cat; with long
nails, nicely pared and sharpened; with a natural antipathy to any speck of dirt,
which made him pause sometimes and watch the falling motes of dust, and rub
them off his smooth white hand or glossy linen: Mr. Carker the Manager, sly of
manner, sharp of tooth, soft of foot, watchful of eye, oily of tongue, cruel of
heart, nice of habit, sat with a dainty steadfastness and patience at his work, as if
he were waiting at a mouses hole.()

8. The Major, like some other noble animals, exhibited himself to great advantage at
feeding time. On this occasion, he shone resplendent at one end of the table, sup-
ported by the milder luster of Mr. Dombey at the other; while Carker on one side
lent his ray to other light, or suffered it to merge into both, as occasion arose.
(, )

9. Sir Barnet Skettles expressed his personal consequence chiefly through an anti-
que gold snuff-box, and a ponderous silk pocket-handkerchief, which he had an
imposing manner of drawing out of his pocket like a banner, and using with both
hands at once. (, ).

207
```
10. It might be only the false mouth, so smooth and wide; and yet there seemed to lurc
beneath the humility and subserviency of this short speech a something like a
snarl; and for a moment, one might have thought that that the white teeth were
prone to bite the hand they fawned upon. But the Major thought nothing about it;
and Mr. Dombey lay meditating with his eyes half shut, during the whole of the
play, which lasted until bedtime. (, )

11. At length, when the lark came headlong down, with accumulating stream of song,
and dropped among the green wheat near him, rippling in the breath of the morn-
ing like a river, he sprang up from his reverie, and looked round with a sudden
smile, as courteous and as soft as if he had had numerous observers to propi-
tiate; nor did he relapse, after being thus awakened; but clearing his face, like one
who bethought himself that it might otherwise wrinkle and tell tales, went smiling
on, as if for practice.( )

12. He read almost at a glance and made combinations of one letter with another and
one business with another as he went on, adding new matter to the heaps much
as a man would know the cards at sight, and work out their combinations in his
mind after they were turned. Something too deep for a partner, and much too
deep for an adversary, Mr. Carker the Manager sat in the rays of the sun that
came down slanting on him through the skylight, playing his game alone.( -
, )

13. As to Mr. Feeder, B. A., Doctor Blimbers assistant, he was a kind of human
barrel-organ, with a little list of tunes at which he was continually working, over
and over again, without any variation. He might have been fitted up with change
of barrels, perhaps, in early life, if his destiny had been favorable; but it had not
been; and he had only one, with which, in a monotonous round, it was his occupa-

208
```
tion to bewilder the young ideas of Doctor Blimbers young gentlemen. (-
, )

14. One saturday afternoon, at dusk, great consternation was occasioned in the Castle
by the unlooked-for announcement of Mr. Dombey as a visitor to Mrs. Pipchin.
The population of the parlour was immediately swept up-stairs as on the wings of
the whirlwind ()

15. Here the Major under cover of the dark room, shut up one eye, rolled his head
like a Harlequin, and, in his great self-satisfaction, perhaps went nearer to the
confines of apoplexy than he had ever gone before.()

16. At length, the Major having disposed of all the missiles that that were convenient
to his hand, and having called the Native so many new names as must have given
him great occasion to marvel at the resources of the English language, submitted
to have his cravat put on; and being dressed, and finding himself in a brisk of spi-
rits after this exercise, went down-stairs to enliven Dombey and his right-hand
man. (, )

17. Mrs Wickam was a waiter's wife - which would seem equivalent to being any
other man's widow - whose application for an engagement in Mr Dombey's ser-
vice had been favourably considered, on account of the apparent impossibility of
her having any followers, or anyone to follow; and who, from within a day or two
of Paul's sharp weaning, had been engaged as his nurse. Mrs Wickam was a meek
woman, of a fair complexion, with her eyebrows always elevated, and her head al-
ways drooping; who was always ready to pity herself, or to be pitied, or to pity
anybody else; and who had a surprising natural gift of viewing all subjects in an
utterly forlorn and pitiable light, and bringing dreadful precedents to bear upon
them, and deriving the greatest consolation from the exercise of that
talent.(, )
209
```
18. That they did, if one might judge from the noise they made, and the way in which
they dashed at Polly and dragged her to a low chair in the chimney corner, where
her own honest apple face became immediately the centre of a bunch of smaller
pippins, all laying their rosy cheeks close to it, and all evidently the growth of the
same tree. As to Polly, she was full as noisy and vehement as the children; and it
was not until she was quite out of breath, and her hair was hanging all about her
flushed face, and her new christening attire was very much dishevelled, that any
pause took place in the confusion. ( , -
)
19. She was generally spoken of as a great manager of childrenshe was such
a bitter old lady, that one was tempted to believe there had been some mis-
take in the application of the Peruvian machinery, and that all her waters of
gladness and milk of human kindness had been pumped out dry, instead of
the mines. (, )
20. Mr. Brogley himself was a moist-eyed, pink-complexioned, crisp-haired man,
of a bulky figure and an easy temper for that class of Caius Marius who sits
upon the ruins of other peoples Carthages, can keep up his feelings well
enough.( )

21. This celebrated Mrs. Pipchin was a marvelous ill-favoured, ill-conditioned old
lady, of a stooping figure, with a mottled face, like bad marble, a hook nose, and a
hard grey eye, that looked as if it might have been hammered at on an anvil
without sustaining any injury.()

22. The very wedding looked dismal as they passed in front of the altar. The bride
was too old and the bridegroom too young, and the superannuated beau with
one eye and an eye-glass stuck in its blank companion, was giving away the
lady, while the friends were shivering.()
210
```
23. He gave Mr. Dombey his hand, as if he feared it might electrify him. Mr.
Dombey took it as if it were a fish, or seaweed, or such clammy substance,
and immediately returned it with exalted politeness.()

24. Presently the clerk () came up with a jug of warm water, and said something
Then the clergyman, an amiable and mild-looking young curate, but obviously
afraid of the baby, appeared like the principle character in a ghost story, a tall
figure all in white; at sight of whom Paul rent the air with his cries()

25. Mr. Carker, the Junior, Walters friend, was his brother. Two or three years
older than he, but widely removed in station. The younger brothers post was
on the top of the official ladder, the elder brothers at the bottom. The elder
brother never gained a stave, or raised his foot to mount one. Young men
passed above his head, and rose and rose, but he was always at the bottom.
He was quite resigned to occupy that low condition; never complained of it:
and certainly never hoped to escape from it.()

26. The Doctor was a portly gentleman in a suit of black, with strings at his knees,
and stockings below them. He had a bold head, highly polished; a deep voice
and; and a chin so very double, that it was a wonder how he ever managed to
shave into the creases. He had likewise a pair of little eyes that were always
half shut up, and a mouth that was always expanded into a grin, as if he had,
that moment, posed a boy, and were waiting to convict him from his own lips.
()
27. The Doctors was a mighty fine house, fronting the sea. Not a joyful style of
house within, but quite the contrary. Sad-coloured curtains, whose proportions
were spare and lean, hid themselves despondently behind the windows. The
tables and chairs were put away in rows, like figures in a sum; fires were so
rarely lighted in the rooms of ceremony, that they felt like wells, and a visitor
211
```
represented the bucket; the dining-room seemed the last place in the world
where any eating or drinking was likely to occur(,)

28. The Captain in his own apartment was sitting with his hands in his pockets and
his legs drawn up under his chair, on a very small desolate island, lying about
midway in an ocean of soap and water. The Captains windows had been
cleaned, the stove had been cleaned, and everything, the stove excepted, was
wet, and shining with soft soap and sand; the smell of which dry-saltery im-
pregnated the air. In the midst of the dreary scene, the Captain, cast away
upon his island, looked round on the waste of waters with a rueful counten-
ance, and seemed waiting for some friendly bark to come that way and take
him off. ()

212
```