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53(076.2)
22.372
86

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86 / . . 
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, 2008. 768 .: .
ISBN 9785488014954 ( )
ISBN 9785946664523 ( )
2500 ,
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53(076.2)
22.372

ISBN 9785488014954 ( )
ISBN 9785946664523 ( )

. ., 2008
.
, 2008

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6. ,  -
 
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7. 
8 .

1.

1.1. 

1.1.1.  8 -
v = 50 /. ,   
, . 
8? l =
=150 . .
1.1.2.  8 -
 v1 = 0,6 /  . 
, 8 ,  8-
8 ?  l1 = 30 .
 8  v = 5 /.
1.1.3.  (l = 408 )
t = 7,5 .  v = 68 /. 
?
1.1.4. 
S = 0,03 2 t = 8 20 ,  v =
= 0,5 /?
 1.1.5.  8 
, .   , -
 t = 2,5 ? 
n = 120 l = 12,5 , -
L = 600 .
 1.1.6. 
8.
8  v1 = 40 /, -
 v2 = 60 /. 8
8  v1 = 40 /,
 v2 = 60 /.  -
8 ?

5
1.1.7.  8 8 8.
t1 = 2  v1 = 60 /, -
s = 160   v2 = 80 /.
 .
1.1.8. 
v = 4 /. 
v1 = 3 /.  8
.
 1.1.9. s = 30  
v1 = 10 /, 8 
 v2 = 20 /. 8-
,  v = 8 /.
1.1.10. 8 A B
 v1 = 800 /, -
v2 = 900 /,  v3 =
= 700 /.  .
1.1.11. 8 
v1 = 60 /,  v = 100 /.
 .
1.1.12. 
v1 = 8 /, n = 2
--- 8 . -
3

v2 = 11 /.  .
 1.1.13. 8   -
t = 40 .  ,
, 8 8 .
= 20%, t = 12 ,
= 15 .  8 -
 8 ?

1.2.

1.2.1. :
 v1 = 600 / . -
, , v = 1560 /.
 8 -
, .
1.2.2. 8
8 :  l1 = 120 
v1 = 90 /, l2 = 640  v2 = 15 /.
8 88?

6
1.2.3. 8 8
.  8 v1 = 200 /, 8 v2 =
= 540 /. , 8 , -
,  . 
8 8 ,
n = 3000 ?
1.2.4. 8, , -
  v1 = 108 /.  -
8 l = 120 8 8
t = 10 .  .
1.2.5.   -
t1 = 30   v1 = 54 /
.  8 ,
t2 = 15 88.
1.2.6.  AB -
 t1 = 3 , t2 = 12 .  -
 ?
1.2.7.  8 -
 t1 = 2 .  8
t2 = 8 .  8
?
1.2.8.   8  t1 =
= 2 , 8 t2 = 1 .  -
 , 8  ?
 1.2.9.  .
n1 = 50 . , 8 -
, n2 = 75 .  -
 ?
 1.2.10. , 8 l = 32 ,
 .   v = 10 / -
 -
t = 10 .  .
1.2.11. , , ,
. t = 10  -
.   8 -
?   .  -
,
 v = 2 /c?
1.2.12. , 8  , -
. t = 10 , -
l = 1  8 , 8
.  .
1.2.13. , 8  v1 =
= 2,5 /, l1 = 2 . , -

7
8 ,  
.  
. ,   -
. ,   v2 =
= 72 /.
1.2.14.   -
  . , 8-
. t1 = 40 8  A, -
8 l = 1  ,
 . , 
t2 = 24 8  A.  -
.   ; -
  .
1.2.15. , , , -
. t1 = 20   -
8 t2 = 1 . 8 t3 = 40
8 l = 5  . -
  , .
1.2.16. -
, 8 = 60 8  8. 
v1 = 4 /, v2 = 3 /. -
 8 .
1.2.17.  .   -
v1 = 1,5 /,   v2 = 0,6 /,
 h = 300 .
1.  8  8 -
, , ?
2.  ?
3.  , 8
 ?
 1.2.18.  ,
n = 2  ,   -
8 8 = 120  -
.  
 ,  h = 50 ?
1.2.19. 
B  A B, -
8  (. 1.2.1), 8
AB,  l = 1 . AB
v1 8 = 60 
, v1 = 1 /c. 
 
A v2 = 3 /.  
. 1.2.1  A ?

8
1.2.20. 8 8 8 
.  ,
 , 8 , -
 . 
 ?  0,3  .
1.2.21.   v1  8 
, t = 2
l = 300 , -
8 = 30   v = 36 /?
1.2.22.   v = 5,18 /. 
 : ) 8-
; ) 8; ) 8,  -
 ?
1.2.23.  8 -
,  8 = 60  . -
 v = 20 / -
.   : ) 8;
) .
 1.2.24.   
,  8,
h = 2  a = 0,3 ?
;   v = 8 /.
 1.2.25. 8  v = 80 /. -
, 8 , ,
  v1 = 60 /. 
8 .
1.2.26. 8  v l 30 / 8-
8 , 
,  8 = 60  8. -
  8.
1.2.27.  v1 = 54 /. -
, 8-.  , -
, v2 = 20 /.  v?
1.2.28. ,  1.2.2, -
 v = 1 /.  8
?   -
, 8 8 8 = 30.

. 1.2.2

9
1.2.29. ,  1.2.3, 8
.  v1 = 1 /; v2 = 2 /.
8 8 ?  8 -
, 8 8 = 60.
1.2.30. AB l = 0,5 
(. 1.2.4). A -
 v = 0,4 /c.
 B ? 8  ,
8  A d = 0,3 .

v1 v2 l

d A v

. 1.2.3 . 1.2.4

1.3.

1.3.1.   : x =
= 10 t1).
1.  .
2. 8  .
3. 8 .
x, 1.3.2. 8 -
III I, II III (. 1.3.1) -
I
5  8 .
10  1.3.3. 
0 X , -
20 30 t, c t1 = 1 
5 x1 = 6 ,  t2 = 5 -
x2 = 4 .
10
II 1.   
15 X.
2. 
. 1.3.1 ?
1) ,  , 
  , -
   ().

10
3.  .
4.    .
5. .
6.  .
7. 8 : vx(t), x(t).
8. , 
t = 2 .
1.3.4. , 8 X,
,    1.3.2. :
) t1 = 30 ;
)   vx 
t2 = 40 .
1.3.5.   
,   1.3.3. 8-
  8 .
x,
80 x,
60 2
40 1
20 0
1 2 3 4 5 t, c
0 1
10 20 30 40 t, c
20 2
40
. 1.3.2 . 1.3.3
 1.3.6.   
,  1.3.4. 
  = 5 -
. 8   .
1.3.7.  X , -
   ,   -
 1.3.5. t1 = 1   x1 = 20 .
1.  .
v,
x, /c
20
3
10
0 0
2 4 6 t, c 1 2 3 4 t, c
10
3
20
. 1.3.4 . 1.3.5

11
2. 8  .
3. 8 .
4.  t1 = 3 .
5.   vx
 v .
1.3.8.
.  8  v1 = 10 /.
8 8  v2 = 20 /. -
 (t0 = 0) l = 200 . -
  , -
, 8

OX . -
.
 1.3.9.   K : x K = 19 3t, -
  M: xM = 3 + 5t. ?
,   -
?  8-
.
1.3.10.  A  B -
v1 = 15 /. t = 20  B  A -
 v2 = 65 /. t = 2 -
. :
)  A B;
)  A,  .

1.4.

1.4.1.   v = 10 /, -
t = 4 . -
, 8 .
1.4.2.   t = 7 , -
  a = 17 /2. ,
,   v0 =
= 0,3 /.
1.4.3.  v0 = 270 / 8 -
s = 1 .  8 ,
8   v = 0.
1.4.4.   8 , -
s = 20  v1 = 18 /
v2 = 36 /?

12
 1.4.5. 
8   (t1 = 2 ) -
n = 5 .  
t2 = 6 ?
1.4.6. ,  v = 400 /, -
 8 s = 40 . :
)  8 s1 = 20 ;
) 8,   n = 2 ;
)   , 8 = 40% -
8 . .
1.4.7. , t = 10 s =
= 250 , 8  n = 5 . :
)  , 8 ;
) 8 .
1.4.8.   a =
= 1 /2.  v = 36 /.
 t = 10 ? 
8 ?
1.4.9. ,  -
v0 = 36 /,  , 
v = 108 /.   -
, 8 ?
1.4.10.  
a = 2 /2.  , , -
 ?
 1.4.11.  , t = 1
 ,  ?
 1.4.12. 8 , s1 = 2
t1 = 4 ,  s2 = 4 t2 = 5 .
 .
 1.4.13. l1 = 20  -
t1 = 20 . l2 = 20  -
t2 = 5 . , t0 = 0 
 v0 = 0, , -
.
 1.4.14.  -
 8 8  , 8, -
, 8 t1 = 5 . 
8?
 1.4.15.  1200 .
, 8 , 1200 , 8
8 , 
8 t1 = 10 . 8 -
 t2 = 8 . 8, -

13
 , ,
 8 .
 1.4.16. 
t1 = 4 8  v = 4 /.
 t2 = 8 , t3 = 3
.
1.  8
.
2. 8 ,  .
1.4.17.  v0 = 36 /, 
v = 108 /.  , -
, 8 , -
.
 1.4.18.   -
8 ,  -
t = 60 ? , 
 s = 4,73 1016 , -
8 8 8 . 
( ) .
 1.4.19.  : x = 15t + 0,4t2. -
: )   ; ) -
 t = 5 ; ) -
, t = 5 .
 1.4.20.   : x = 5 +
+ 4 2t2. , , 
t1 = 3 .
1.4.21.   x = 2 4t + t2
  s = 11 . 
8    
, 8 t1 = 1 ?
1.4.22.  X 8
8,  1.4.1. : ) -
; ) ; )  
t1 = 1 t2 = 4 .  .
1.4.23. t = 0  A
8. 8
 (. 1.4.2) ,
 .
1.4.24. 
 1.4.3. 8 , -
,  . t = 0 -
v0 = 4 /,  x0 = 0. 
 t = 6 -
.

14
x, v, a,
/ /2
5
4 15 4
2
3 4
0
2 0 10 t, c 8 12 t,
2
1
4
0 1 2 3 4 t,
. 1.4.1 . 1.4.2 . 1.4.3
1.4.25. ,  l = 60 , -
8 . -
 v = 4 /, , 8
,  a = 2 /2.  -
?
1.4.26. ,  l = 128 , -
8 8 8:
  a1 = 2 /2,
 v0 = 30 /  a2 = 1 /2.
 ?
1.4.27.
8    A C
 B.
8 AB, 8 ACB
(. 1.4.4).  8   AC -
,   B -
8 8 - A B
.   B
 ? 8 - . 1.4.4
8 (ACB) .
1.4.28.  -
: x1 = 3t + 0,4t2 x2 = 80 20t.
. , 8 -
8 x2 = 0?
1.4.29.  , 
: x1 = 10 + 0,5t2 x2 = 10t.
 .
1.4.30. 
8 8  A B,  8. -
 l = 300 . 
8  v1 = 30 /,
 8   v2 = 10 /.

15
  a = 2 /2.
,  .
1.4.31. , 8 ,
 v0 = 3,5 /. -
, 8 
, 8 .

1.5. , # 1)

1.5.1. 8  .  -
, 
h = 10 , t = 1,8 ?
1.5.2.   , -
h = 60 t = 2 ?
1.5.3. ,  , -
8  v = 14 /. 

?
1.5.4. h = 196 . -
 .
1.5.5. ,  ,
 t1 = 4 , 
t2 = 2 . .
1.5.6. ,  ,
t = 2 n = 4 ,
   .
.
1.5.7.  h = 20 -
v0 = 10 /.   8
.
1.5.8.   -
h = 39,2 , t = 2 -
, 8 ?
 1.5.9.    -
, 8 h = 1,5 , t = 0,2 . 
H 8   ?
1.5.10.   v = 9,8 /.
 . 
 , 8 8
9 ?
 1.5.11.  
v0 = 19,6 /.  ,
h = 14,7 ?
1)  .

16
 1.5.12.  . h = 10
t = 2 . -
 8  .
 1.5.13.   v0 =
= 19,6 /.  
n = 2 ?
1.5.14. ,  , -
 (t1 = 1 ) . : )
; ) ,  -
.
1.5.15.   , 
,  , t = 1,5 -
8 n = 2 ?
1.5.16. , , 
, h = 0,98 .

, 8.
 1.5.17.   .
 . , 8
,  , .
  8 
 8?
 1.5.18. , 8 h = 300 , -
8.  8 8 , :
) ; )   v = 5 /; ) -
 v = 5 /?
1.5.19.  8
h = 990 .  .  -
 ?   v = 330 /.
1.5.20. . t = 6 
 . . -
 v = 330 /.
1.5.21. ,  -
l = 19,6 8 8,
. t = 2
.
1.5.22. , , -
t1 = 2 . 
t2 = 4 8 ?
 1.5.23.   = 0,2  -
.  8 8
 ?  -
 ?
1.5.24. 
, 8 t = 6 .  -

17
,  8 ,
 h = 294 ?
1.5.25. h = 392 . -
8  
v = 78,4 /. 8  ?
1.5.26. H = 10 -
.  -
,  h = 1 .  
?
 1.5.27. 8 , 8 -
v = 4 /,  8 
u = 20 / . 8-
, 8 8 8  -
.   8 ?
1.5.28. 
a = 2 /2. t = 5 8
 . 
?  8  -
?
1.5.29. ,  
v = 4,9 /,  -
v0 .
1.   
?
2.    ?
3.  -
?
1.5.30. ,  
v = 4,9 /, , 8 h = 98
, 
 v0 = 9,8 / .   -
?
1.5.31. 8 
   . -
, , 8 , -
8 h = 3 .  -
 , 8-
 (n = 5) ?

1.6.

1.6.1. - -5  -
N = 64 8 t = 95 .
 8  8
.

18
1.6.2. 8 n =
= 1500 /.  l = 90 
 v = 180 /?
1.6.3. ,
l = 0,6 8 8, n = 1500 /. ,
(. 1.6.1), ; -

8 = 6,28.  .
1.6.4.  M K  (. 1.6.2)
8  M = 0,4 /, K = 0,1 /.
8  = /2.
  ?

K


v M

. 1.6.1 . 1.6.2

1.6.5.  .
 , T = 5 ,

n = 0,6 /.  t = 20 ?
1.6.6.  
 ?  T = 12 , -
 T = 1 .
1.6.7. n = 4 8
8  8 -
k = 8 .    -
 ?
1.6.8.  , -
   -4
-5, T = 88,85 -
h = 230  ( 8).
 .
1.6.9.  R1 = 12
n1 = 320 /.
8 , 8 R2 = 24 ,  -
 ,  .
1.6.10.  , -
8 . 

19
  v1 = 40 /. ,
l = 10  ,  v2 = 30 /. .
 1.6.11. 8 ,
 , 8 , v1 = 4 / k =
= 2  , d = 10 
.
1.6.12.  -
v v  -
R v = 5 /:  -
r r = 50 , 8 
R = 1 (.1.6.3). 8 -
 t = 31,4 -
.
 1.6.13.  R = 0,4
. 1.6.3
  
v = 4 / (. 1.6.4).  
 A, B, C, D ( D ). 8 = 60.
 1.6.14. R = 0,3 , , 
8 8. 8  -
 (. 1.6.5),  8  v1 = 3 /,
v2 = 9 /.
 1.6.15. , ,  8 -
(. 1.6.6).   -
  v1 = 8 /,  v = 6 /.
   
?
v2
C v1
R D
v
B v

A v1
. 1.6.4 . 1.6.5 . 1.6.6
1.6.16. R = 10 -
,  v1 = 5 / v2 = 3 /
(. 1.6.7).  8 -
8 8  .
 1.6.17. R = 30  
, 
d = 36 (. 1.6.8).   -
v = 2 /.  
.

20
v1

O
R d v
v2

. 1.6.7 . 1.6.8 . 1.6.9

 1.6.18.  8-
 
(. 1.6.9).  R = 1 , r =
= 0,6 .
1.    -
 O,  8 -
 v = 4 /?
2. 8  ?
1.6.19. , -
 1.6.10, :  -
,   8.
8  R/r = 2.
,   8 r
.
1.6.20. , R
 1.6.11, : 
,   8. -
 R = 3 ,
r = 2 .  
 v0 = 0,5 /. -
 8  ?
 1.6.21. . 1.6.10
 -
  -
: , = 45 .
1.6.22.   -
R = 0,5 . -
, 8 : ) 1 ; r R
) 1 1 1
--- ; ) --- ; 8) --- .
2 4 6
1.6.23. 8-
,  R = 40 .
 s = 4 +
+ 12t 0,5t2. :  , 8
8, -
t = 2 . . 1.6.11

21
1.6.24.   -
R = 1 .  s = 2t.
: ) 8  ; ) -
 ; ) , 
t = 10 .
1.6.25.  R = 10 -
 ,  : 1 = 2 + 2t
2 = 3 4t.
1. 
t1 = 2 .
2.
.
 1.6.26. R = 5  -
t = 10 N = 50 .
8 ,   , 8 -
,    -
 .
 1.6.27. : = 40 + 50t 25t2. -
,   ,
,  , 8
.  R = 0,5 .
 1.6.28.  (v0 = 0)  -
R = 40   a = 10 /2.

 k = 4 8? 
8   -
?    ?
1.6.29.  R = 0,2
a ,
8 (. 1.6.12).  -
a = 1 /2. : ) 8 
A ; ) 8   t1 =
= 10 ; ) 8
  A.  8
. 1.6.12  t2 = 4 ?
1.6.30.  8
B , 8  8-
v (. 1.6.13),
 v = 4 + 2t. 
C D R = 0,5 .
1.    A, B, C, D,
 
A
,  8, -
. 1.6.13 t1 = 0,5 .

22
2. 8   -
t2 = 1 .
1.7. , # # 1)
1.7.1. 8 - Y,
v = 1080 /. -
n = 1200 - v0
.  8 8 - h
?
 1.7.2. , 8 8-
 v = 10 /, -
.  ? 0 X,
1.7.3. 8 -
. 1.7.1
v0 = 25 / h = 25 (. 1.7.1).
1.  -
.
2.  .
3. .
1.7.4. , 8 8 h = 500
 v = 180 /, 8.  -
 8 8 = 30 8?
1.7.5.  h = 20 8
 v = 30 /. .
1.7.6. 8  v = 19,8 /.
   ?  8 8-
?
 1.7.7. 8 
v = 100 / h = 500 . 8 -
,   u = 10 /. -
  8  8?
1.7.8. 8 
v = 20 /  8, 8 v
8 = 45 (. . 1.7.2).  s
 ? s
1.7.9. 8 
, 8 8 = 30
(. . 1.7.2).  8 8 -
 8 ?
. 1.7.2
1.7.10.  8 -
 v1 = 10 / v2 = 20 / -
(. 1.7.3). v1 v2
 t = 0,1 .
 . . 1.7.3
1)    -
 .

23
 1.7.11. ,  8
 v = 3,5 /, -
 ,  l = 20
(. 1.7.4).   
? h = 90 ,  R = 2 .  -
   ; -
 8.
1.7.12. 8  v0 = 20 /
 . 8, 
8, t = 2
.
1.7.13. 8  v0 = 20 /.
8 8  t = 0,2
.
1.7.14.  -
R = 0,2 (. 1.7.5).  
 , 8?

v
R

h l

. 1.7.4 . 1.7.5

1.8. , # '#  #'

 1.8.1. 8  v = 50 /
8 = 35  8. -
.
 1.8.2.  8  8 ,
 8 ?
1.8.3. 8 l = 11
 ,  h = 2,5 .  -
v  8  8 ?
1.8.4. 8 = 30 = 60
 8 .  
,  ?

24
1.8.5.  
8 2  8. 8 ,
8  3
8.
1.8.6.   ,
8 8  s = 3 ?
1.8.7. 8 , 8 8 8.  -
8 8, 8 8-
  8 t = 2 ?
1.8.8. 8, 8 ,
 v0 = 15 /.  s, 
8 8, 8 8 -
8  .
1.8.9. 8 = 30  8-
. 8 l1 = 6 ,
8  l2 = 10 .
 .
1.8.10. 8, 8 ,
8 = 30 = 45  8  -
 v0 = 19,6 /.  8-
8 ?
1.8.11.   8 -
 (. 1.8.1), 8 
, 8. -
, 8  -
, t1 = 0,3 ,
. 1.8.1
t2 = 0,4 . .
1.8.12.  v0 = 19,6 / 8
= 45  8. t = 1 -
.  8  8
, 8  ?
1.8.13. , 8 
v0 = 19,6 / 8 = 30  8, 8 -
 vy   x.
1.8.14. -
v0 = 19,6 / 8 = 60  8. -
 ,
  an = 8 /2.
1.8.15.  v0 = 20 / 8 = 60
 8.   : ) -
; ) t = 0,5 -
; )  8 .

25
1.8.16. R = 0,2
R (. 1.8.2.).  -
v  
,
?
 1.8.17. 8 8 -
. 1.8.2  = 30  -
v = 6 /   8-
.   ?
 1.8.18.   . , -
  v0 = 40 /  8  8-
, h = 30 -
t1 = 1 t2 = 3 .
.
A 1.8.19.  , 8-
 v = 120 /, 
R v 8.  
8
8,  A , -
 1.8.3?  R =
. 1.8.3
= 60 , 8 = 30.
8 .
 1.8.20.  s = 5 -
H = 2,5 .   
 , ? 
h = 1,5 .
1.8.21. -
v
,  8 (. 1.8.4).
 8  8
, 8  -
?  8
. 1.8.4 8 8 = 30.
1.8.22.   h = 50 -
, 8 = 45 8.
 8 8  -
. 8.
1.8.23.  h 
, 8 8 (. 1.8.5). -
,  
 .
8.
 1.8.24. H = 4 . h = 2
8 , 
8 = 30  8 (. 1.8.6). -
8 .

26
1.8.25. , 0 = 7 
h0 = 5  , 8
= 30  8. 8, , -
   L = 2 , -
8 ,    1.8.7 (s1 = 4 ; s2 = 7 ).

s1
H0
s2 H h0
L
h
s1
s2

. 1.8.5 . 1.8.6 . 1.8.7


1.8.26.   8 = 60  8-
 v0 = 100 /
h = 600 .  8 -
, ? : ) -
; )  
v = 20 /.
1.8.27. 
 v0 = 300 / : 8 = 45  8-
, 8 = 30 ( ). -
, 
 8 8.
1.8.28. 8
h = 9,8  v = 9,8 /.  8  8
   v0 = 19,6 /,
? 
.   ?
 1.8.29.  s = 4,8 8 -
8.   
 v = 6 /.  8 
,  , 
.    8?
 1.8.30. h = 1,2 ,
8  v1 = 1 /. , 8  -
, 8 8 ,
 ,  -
.  h  ? -
 8 . -
8.

27
Y 1.8.31.  x0 = y0 = 0 -
t0 = 0 -
v0 v0  v0 = 15 /  -
8 = 30 = 60  8 -
O X (. 1.8.8). 
8 8
. 1.8.8
t = 3 .

1.9. 
 X,Y

1.9.1.   -
x1 = 2 y1 = 5   x2 = 2 y2 = 1 .
 X Y. -
r 8 r.
1.9.2.  A(2, 2, 0)
 B(1, 1, 0)  v1 = 2 /,  B 
C(5, 5, 0)  v2 = 4 /. 
v  vs.
1.9.3. 
 v1 = 10 / v2 = 30 /
8 1 = 30 2 = 150  OX . -
 vs  .
1.9.4. -
  v1 = 10 / v2 = 30 /
8 1 = 30 2 = 150  OX . -
 vs  .
1.9.5.  v1 = 54 /
.  a = 60
b = 400 .  -
  v2 = 5 /,
 ?
 1.9.6.  1 2 OX
Y OY (. 1.9.1). -
t0 = 0  1
x0 = 10 
y0 2
v2  v1 = 2 /.  2 -
y0 = 5 v2 = 4 /. -
v1 1 ? , -
O x0 X .
1.9.7. -
. 1.9.1  -

28
v1 = 0,4 / v2 = 0,7 / , 8 -
= 60.   -
8?
1.9.8.  - 1
,   v1
8 = 60 8  8 (. 1.9.2). l1
t0 = 0  1
v2
l1 = 10 ,  2 - l2 2
l2 = 5  -
.   . 1.9.2
v1 = 2 /,  v2 = 4 /.
. 
?
 1.9.9. , 8   v0,
, ,
 . 
h :
2
v2 = v0 2a0h, 8 a0 = 1 /2.   -

 v1 = 1
--- v0 . 
2
, 8 8 
 .
1.9.10. , , t = 5
 n = 2 .  , -
 v0 = 10 /, 8 -
8 = 60.
1.9.11.   :
r = (3 4t)i. 
 t1 = 2 t2 = 5 .
1.9.12. -  -
: r = 4ti (10t2 4)j. -
.
1.9.13.   :
r = 3ti + (3 + 2t2)j. : ) - 8 -
t0 = 0, t1 = 1 , t2 = 2 ; ) -
 (r r) 
.
1.9.14.   :
r = 20ti + (1 t2)j. .
1.9.15. t0 = 0 
 , 
: v = 3i + 18(1 t)j. 

29
t = 10 . -
.
1.9.16.  -
a = 2i + 4j.  
t = 1 c, t0 = 0 : x0 =
= 2 , y0 = 3 ,  v0 = 4i 5j.
1.9.17.   :
x = 2 + 3t t2, y = 1 + 3t.
  8  
t = 1 .
1.9.18.  ,  -
 v = (2 t)i + 2j. 8-
    -
t = 2 .
1.9.19.  XO OX -
 vx = 5 /, OY , -
 :
y = 5 + 10x + 5x2.
 X
, 8, t = 0  x0 = 0, y0 = 5 .
1.9.20.   :
r = (0,5sin 2t) i + (0,5cos 2t)j.
1.  .
2.  (t0 = 0)?
3.  ?
4.   
.
1.9.21.   1 2 : x1 = 2t, y1 = 5t
x2 = t + 1, y2 = t2 + 4 . ?
 ,  ?
1.9.22.   : r = 2ti + 8tj.
  y = 5x2. -
? , 
  ?
1.9.23. , -
r1 = (2cos 2t)i + (2sin 2t)j, r2 = 4ti (4t2 1)j.
1.   .
2.
t = 0,5 .
1.9.24. 8  v0 = 10 / -
. 8-

30
8 , 8  -
.   -
 a = 4 /2.  
, 
r = 25 .  8  8  -
? .
1.9.25.   ,  8
8 = 30  8 ().
8 ,  8 -
 v = 10 /.
t = 3  v = 25 /. 
  ?
.

2.

2.1. 

2.1.1.  8 
 a1 = 2 /2.  8
m = 2 8,  
a2 = 1 /c2. .
2.1.2.   a = 2 /2, 8
m = 2 8 
(. 2.1.1). , 8.
2.1.3.  2.1.2 8 
m = 5 8 .  X (Fx)
t1 = 10 . 8
.

vx,
/
10

m a
0
25 50 75 100 t,

10

. 2.1.1 . 2.1.2

31
2.1.4.  m = 0,5 8 -
,  : x = 5 3t + 2t2.
, .
 2.1.5.   8-
t = 1 -
F = 98 .   ? 
? m = 5 104 8.
 2.1.6. -
.  F0 = 24 .
t1 = 3 -
, : s = 96t 2t3.
F  2.1.7. m -
v -
0 F 8 
X
8 (. 2.1.3). s -

 .
2.1.8. , 
s  v0 = 10 /,
Y . -
. 2.1.3  t = 2 
2 , 
 2 . -
 t = 5 , -
, m = 0,2 8.

2.2.

2.2.1. 
F = 50 . , -
T = 60 ?
2.2.2.  m = 2 8 8-
F = 50 8 -
.  , 
 = 0,5.
2.2.3.  8 -
,  v = 12 /,
 = 0,6?
2.2.4.  8  -
t = 1 . ,
, ,
 = 2%
8 .

32
 2.2.5. h = 3,5 8
l = 50 . h
 , -
 , 8-
,  ,
 (. 2.2.1). - s
8 -
. = 0,07. - . 2.2.1
.
2.2.6. , 8 , -
F (. 2.2.2).
= 0,4. m = 5 8. -
 , : ) 10 ; ) 80 . 8
 F.

F
F
m m

. 2.2.2 . 2.2.3

2.2.7.   8 , -
8 , t = 10 
v = 20 /c.  , -
,  k = 2 106 /?
m = 1 . .
2.2.8. m = 2 8 , -
  F = 0,98t
(. . 2.2.2). , 8
. 8 -
,  = 0,4.
2.2.9.  , 8
= 30  8, , 8
(. 2.2.3)?  m = 1 8,
 = 0,3.
2.2.10.  m = 3 8
F = 6 , 8 = 30  8 (. . 2.2.3).
 , 
= 0,2.
2.2.11.  F = 12 8 = 45
 8, 8 (. 2.2.3). -
  8 ,
8 = 30  8? m = 10 8.

33
2.2.12. m = 2 8 t0 = 0
F = 2t, 8 = 30  8-
(. . 2.2.3). ,
 = 0,4. 
t ?
8 .
2.2.13.  h = 55 -
m = 5 8,  8
 v = 10 /. -
, ?
2.2.14.   v =
= 44,8 /c. , 8 -
, 
= 1/7 8 .
2.2.15.  m = 4,9 8  -
(. 2.2.4). 
, 
F = 2,5 .
2.2.16. m = 1 8 
 k = 98 /. -
l0 = 0,3 . , 8-
, 
. 2.2.4 a = 4,9 /2, : ) ; ) .
2.2.17. - -
  a = 19,6 /2. -
 m = 75 8.
2.2.18. m = 240 8 .
8 , : ) -
a = 0,2 /2; )   a = 0,2 /2; )
.
2.2.19.   8 -
 a = 0,6 /2  -
,  -
 F = 29,4 . m 8?
2.2.20. 8 -
 (. 2.2.5).
8 m = 10 8, -
 ,
 F1 = 60 . -
 F2 , 8 -
?
F1 2.2.21.  m = 1 8
  F = 4,9
. 2.2.5 (. 2.2.6). 

34
 8  8 -
.  -
 = 0,5. F F
m
2.2.22. 8 A (. 2.2.7)
m = 0,5 8 8  
F1 = 5 .  8
F2 = 20 , 8 = 30 , . 2.2.6
   8
8? 
8 = 0,6.
2.2.23.    - F
  A
(. 2.2.8)? -
  = 0,2.
2.2.24. m1 = 80 8
 . 2.2.7
 v1 = 5 /.  -
  -
, 8 m2 = 100 8?
-
 .
2.2.25. , -
m = 0,2 8, F1 = 0,2 F2 =
a
= 0,3 . 8 = 60 (. 2.2.9).
 . 
 - . 2.2.8
?
 2.2.26. 8 8 -
8 m F1
= 30 ,
8 F = 2,5mg

8 = 30  8. -
h,   8. m
F2
.  8 - . 2.2.9
.
2.2.27.  -
 v1 = 1,0 /,  
v2 = 3 /. 8 , -
 ,
  8 = 30  8-
.

35
2.3.  

2.3.1.     l = 1
h = 0,5 .  .
2.3.2.   8 -
l = 50 , 8 = 60 ,
.   
?
2.3.3.   , -
8 8 = 45. s = 36,4 ,
 v = 20 /.  -
.
2.3.4.  8, 8 .
   -
, 8 .  -
 , 8  8-
 ?
 = 0,8.
2.3.5.  .  -
, 8  = 30  8
.   , 8 
 = 45?
2.3.6.   
8 h = 10 8  = 30
t = 10 8 8?
 2.3.7. , 8    8
, .  8 
   a = g/2.  -
 , 8  
= --- ? -
2
 = 0,5.
 2.3.8.   -
, 8 8.  -
,  n = 2
.
2.3.9.   8 = 45
8 m = 50 8.  , -
, , : )
8 ? )  ? ) 
 a = 0,5 /2? = 0,2.
2.3.10.     m =
= 10 8 8 8  = 30  8,
8 F = 50 ?
 8 = 0,2.

36
2.3.11.  8 -
  (. 2.3.1),
 -
: ) ; ) .  m = 1 8, F
 = 0,2.  -
8 8 = 45.
 2.3.12.  . 2.3.1
8 8  = 12 ,
F = 50 . 8 , 8 -
F = 10 .   8 8
, ?
2.3.13.  m = 0,5 8 -
 .  , -
 , , -
8 ? 
 = 0,4. 8    8 = 30.
2.3.14.   , -
8 = 30  , -
 m = 0,5 8 (. 2.3.2)?
  = 0,4. 8 -
8 = 20.
2.3.15.   8, 8  -
 8 = 30.  8 ,
 8, 
8? .
2.3.16. 8  ,
 a = 2 /2,  m = 0,2 8 (. 2.3.3).
 -
.   a1  -
? 8  8 = 30.
2.3.17. 8  , -
a = 4,9 /2,   (. 2.3.4). -
 .  
,   ? 8
   8 = 30.

a a
. 2.3.2 . 2.3.3 . 2.3.4

37
 2.3.18. 8 , 8 = 30 8-
,  A  ,  8   -
 m = 0,1 8 (. 2.3.5).  1 -
 T,  -
8 : 1) a = 4 /2; 2) a = 10 /2.
2.3.19.   8 -
 ,  . 2.3.6. -
8  ,  ,
? -
 < ctg .
 2.3.20.    8  -
.  -
 .  a , -
. 2.3.7.  8 -
  ?
A

a a a
. 2.3.5 . 2.3.6 . 2.3.7
2.3.21.    m = 50 8.
 8   (. 2.3.8),
  a = 2 /2. -
.
2.3.22.    . 
8   (. 2.3.9), -
   ? 8
 8 = 30.

. 2.3.8 . 2.3.9

38
2.4.  '

2.4.1.  m = 0,1 8,   ,


,  8 8-
(. 2.4.1).  n =
= 120 /. , 
. l = 0,2 , 
k = 40 /.
2.4.2.  8   
(. 2.4.2), 8 8 ?  -
R = 0,2 .
= 0,8.
O

m
l
R

. 2.4.1 . 2.4.2
2.4.3.   8 -
R = 40 ,  -
?  8 = 0,4.
2.4.4. ,  8 -
, m = 0,2 8.  -
 .  -
n1 = 180 /, .
 n2 = 300 /, 1,5 .
 k .
 2.4.5.  m = 5 8,
l = 1 ,  8  ,
 ( -
),  8 = 60.
: )  ; ) -
. .
2.4.6.  m = 0,1 8 
,   k = 40 /.
  ,
 (. 2.4.3). -
. - m
l0 = 30 , 8  -
 = 10 /. . 2.4.3
39
2.4.7. 8 8-
 = 2 /. -
l  m = 0,15 8, -

l = 0,3 (. 2.4.4).
8 = 30. : ) -
; ) .
 8  1 
. 2.4.4 ? .
2.4.8.  8 -
R = 0,2 
R l = 0,3  (. 2.4.5).  8
 ,
8
l = 30?
 2.4.9. 8-
 8  -
R = 80 
 v = 64 /. : ) -
; ) 8
. 2.4.5  .
2.4.10. 8 -
R = 200  v = 36 /.
l = 1,2 (. 2.4.6).  -
 ,
?
2.4.11. m = 1 
 v = 36 /. 
8 (. 2.4.7).   -
,  ?
R = 40 .

R
l
h

. 2.4.6 . 2.4.7

40
B O O

l l
A

m m

. 2.4.8 . 2.4.9 . 2.4.10

2.4.12. m = 2 8, -
   2.4.8. , -
8, R = 100 .  -
8  A B, 8  v = 72 /, =
= 30?
2.4.13.  l = 0,5  8
m = 0,1 8. 
  O (. 2.4.9).  8
 -
, : ) n = 0,2 /; ) n =
= 2 /?
 2.4.14. , 
8   
d = 20 ,  . -
= 0,8.
 2.4.15.  m = 200 8
l = 0,4 8  = 10 / (. 2.4.10).
(t0 = 0) 
. t.
 2.4.16.   8-
 = 30 l = 0,5
 . 
8  l
= 3 / (. 2.4.11). -
,  - O
 .
2.4.17.   -
 -
R = 15 . -
8,  8- . 2.4.11

41
 (. 2.4.12). -
, 
R
 , -
= 0,5,
O
8,  8 ,
 ,
= 15.
. 2.4.12
2.4.18. 8 8 -
, 8 -
= 8 / (. 2.4.13).  R = 0,2 , 8
m = 100 8. 8 ,  - 8
.
 2.4.19. , , -
 v = 2 / (. 2.4.14).  -
8 .  8 -
?  d = 1 . .
= 1 8/3.

O
l

A
d O

. 2.4.13 . 2.4.14 . 2.4.15

 2.4.20. AO 8
 = 4 / OO
(. 2.4.15). 8
A
OO = 60.   -
l  O -
m
g ,  -
? 
= 0,8.
B v  2.4.21. 8 8 -
2l = 1 , -
. 2.4.16 8   m = 40 8
(. 2.4.16).   B
v = 2 /.  F  -
, 8 = 45?
2.4.22.  8 2 = 120 8 -
  8  = 10 / (. 2.4.17).
. .

42
2.4.23.  m = 0,2 8, -
l = 0,5 , 8  
,  8 = 30 (. 2.4.18).
  a = 1 /2. -
8  .

l
m

. 2.4.17 . 2.4.18

2.5.

2.5.1. ,  m1 = 2 8 m2 = 3 8,
8 (. 2.5.1). 
, F = 5  :
) m1; ) m2.
2.5.2. l = 0,5 F = 4 ,
   2.5.2. 8, -
, x = 0,2
8 8 .
2.5.3.  m1 = 0,4 8 m2 = 0,6 8,
, F = 4,92 (. 2.5.3).
   = 0,4.
  , -
 k = 10 /.

l
x F
m1 m2 F m1 m2

. 2.5.1 . 2.5.2 . 2.5.3

43
2.5.4. m1 = 0,2 8 m2 = 0,8 8 ,
T = 2 . m2 -
8 F = 0,5t, 8 t . -
 t ?
2.5.5. . 8
 m1 = 1 8, 8 m2 = 3 8.
  = 0,2 (. 2.5.4). 
, 
 F1,  F2. -
: ) F1 = 1 ; F2 = 2 ; ) F1 = 2 ; F2 = 16 .
F1 F2  2.5.6.  m1 m2,
m1 m2 , -
.
. 2.5.4 F1 F2, 8 8-
(. 2.5.5). -
 ,

 . 
.
 2.5.7. 8 8
. 2.5.5
 M = 2 8,
  m = 1 8 (. 2.5.6).  F
 , 8
 a = 5 /2?  = 0,5.
2.5.8.   8 
  m1 = 1 8 m2 = 2 8,
8 8 (. 2.5.7)?
 1 = 0,1 2 = 0,2 . 8
   8 = 30.  ,
1 > 2 (. . 1 = 0,2, 2 = 0,1)?
 2.5.9. m1 m2, -
 k,  
8 (. 2.5.8).
 1 2 , 1 < tg , 2 > tg .
x , -
.
m2 m1
2 k
m m1
F m2
M 1

. 2.5.6 . 2.5.7 . 2.5.8

44
2.5.10. 8  -
.  8 , -
m
8 (. 2.5.9).
8  F = 10 .
 , , T =
= 3 .  8-
.
m
2.5.11. 8 m1 = 7 8 
8 m2 = 5 8.  m = 4 8. . 2.5.9
 A, B, C, -
 F = 196 (. 2.5.10).
2.5.12.   ,   -
8 m 2m. 
(. 2.5.11), ,
m = 0,2 8.
 2.5.13.   l = 12 m = 6 8
 8,  m1 = 2 8 m2 = 12 8. -
   -
(. 2.5.12). T 
, 8  l = 8 . -
8 .
 2.5.14. 8, ,  -
, h = 2 8 8
(. 2.5.13). , 8,
t = 2 ,  .
8 m1 = 0,3 8. m2 8 8,
.
 2.5.15.   .  -
8 m1, 8   
m2 (. 2.5.14). , 
, 8 m1 .
 ?

m1 m2
A l1
B m m1 m1
C
h
m2 m1
2m m2
m2

. 2.5.10 . 2.5.11 . 2.5.12 . 2.5.13 . 2.5.14

45
2.5.16. 8 m 2m , -
8 . , 
 a0 .  8 -
.
2.5.17.  ,
 2.5.15, m1/m2 = 4 = 45.  , -
, .
2.5.18.  8, m = 100 8 -
, 8 8
(. 2.5.16).  8  , 
,   .  8 -
   ,  -
a = 3 /2?  .

m1 m m m m m m

m2
M

. 2.5.15 . 2.5.16

2.5.19. 8,  m1 = 1 8 m2 = 2 8, -
,   (. 2.5.17).
8 m2 = 0,4.  -
.  -
?
 2.5.20.  m = 2 8,   -
,  ,   -
(. 2.5.18).  8
m1 = 850 8 m2 = 200 8, 8 -

m
m2

m1 m2 m1

. 2.5.17 . 2.5.18

46
 t = 3 8 m1 
h = 0,81 . : )  -
 ; ) T1 T2  .
2.5.21.  m = 1 8 
,  8 ,
8  8 = 60 = 30
(. 2.5.19). T = 7 .
 .
 2.5.22.  m1 = 2 8,  
,  ,  
(. 2.5.20). 8  8
m2 = 1 8, 8  8 
a = 0,6 /2.  8 , : ) -
 a1 = 2,2 /2; )  .
2.5.23. m1 m2, , -
, ,  
 2.5.21.  a0. -
.  -
, , 2 .

m1
m m1
m
a a
m2 a0
m2

. 2.5.19 . 2.5.20 . 2.5.21

 2.5.24. 8  M = 6 8, -
 m = 2 8,  -
 k = 100 / (. 2.5.22).
  = 0,2.   -
8,  8
F = 10 ,   ?
2.5.25. 8 8, -
. 2.5.23. 8 M m
.  8.

m m
m M F
F M
M

. 2.5.22 . 2.5.23

47
2.5.26. 8  . 
 a = 2 /2 (. 2.5.24).   -
 8 ? -
  = 0,1.
 2.5.27.  m1 = 1 8, 8-
,  m2 = 2 8. -
 1 = 0,5, 
 2 = 0,25 (. 2.5.25).   -
,   : ) F = 10 ;
) F = 19,6 ; ) F = 29,6 .

m1 m2
a F

. 2.5.24 . 2.5.25
 2.5.28. 8  -
l = 10 M = 2 8,    -
m = 1 8 (. 2.5.26).   8
F = 20 .  -
M  ?
m F
 8 -
= 0,2. -
. 2.5.26   .
2.5.29.  M = 2 8, 
 m = 1 8. -
  1 = 0,4,  2 = 0,1.
  a1 a2 8  ,
  8 : ) F = 3 ;
) F = 10 ?
2.5.30.   8
m ,  -
m (. 2.5.27).
 
,  .
.
. 2.5.27 , .
2.5.31. 8   8   8-
= 30  m1 = 10 8. 
   m2 = 60 8,
 ?
2.5.32.  , 8 = 30
8,  4m,  m

48
(. 2.5.28).  
    = -------3 .
5
 ,  ,
? -
.
2.5.33.  m , -
, , ,  -
, 8 = 30 8 (. 2.5.29). -
3
  1 = ------- , 
24
  2 = 12 1.  m.
  ?  -
 ,   .

m m
4m

. 2.5.28 . 2.5.29

 2.5.34.   m = 1 8 8
8 ,    2.5.30. -
 8  = 0,4.
  F   -
,
8  ? 8 F m
 = 30. m
 2.5.35. 8 m, 2m
2m
. 2.5.30
,  -
,  -
 3m (. 2.5.31).
2m
8 -
 . 
 - m 3m 2m
 ,
8 
? . 2.5.31

49
2.5.36. 8 8  -
M = 2 8,   m = 1 8. -
 ,  , 8 2m
(. 2.5.32).   8 , -
,  
 = 0,5?

M M
m m

m 2m
3m
2m mx

. 2.5.32 . 2.5.33 . 2.5.34

 2.5.37.  M  8-
.   m. -
  (. 2.5.33).  -
8   . 
8 mx,   ?
2.5.38. 8 m = 120 8 2m
,  8 , -
 3m 8 = 30
(. 2.5.34).  8 ,
 , 
.  8.
2.5.39.   , -
 8 (. 2.5.35). -
m1 = 60 8 , 8
m2 = 70 8 . ,
8 , -
8 .  8-
, 
h = 4,9 ?   .
 .
2.5.40. 8
 , -
8  R = 1 , 
  (. . 2.5.35).  8-
m1  a1 = 0,6 /2 a2 =
m2 = 0,8 /c2.  8 8-
88, 8    -
. 2.5.35  ? 8-

50
m1 = 80 8 m2 = 75 8.  . -
 .
2.5.41. ,  2.5.36, m1 = 200 8
m2 = 0,6 8;  , . -
 8 8.
2.5.42. -
.  8 m1 = 1 8 m2 = 3 8,
8  8 m3 = 2 8 (. 2.5.37).
 8.
 2.5.43.  ,
  8 m1 = 3 8, 8 . -
 8
m2 = 2 8 m3 = 1 8 (. 2.5.38).
8 . 
.

m1
m1 m2
m2
m3 m3
m1
m2

. 2.5.36 . 2.5.37 . 2.5.38

m1 m2

2.5.44. , -
 2.5.39,
 8 m.
 m
8  .
m1 m2 . . 2.5.39

51
 2.5.45. ,  
2.5.40, m -
F   F = 12mg, -
m 8 = 60  . -
1
 = ----------
- . -
2 3
 4m.
.  .
m

4m
. 2.5.40

3. .

3.1. ' . ' .




3.1.1. m1 = 10 8,
 8 v1 = 1000 /,
l m2 = 1 ,   v2 = 36 /.
3.1.2.   m = 0,1 8, -
m l = 30 , 8-
 , -
 8 = 30 (. 3.1.1).
. 3.1.1
.
3.1.3.  m = 1 8 -
R = 1 8  = 1 /.
 : ) t1 = T ---- ;
2
) t2 = T; ) t3 = T
---- , 8 T .
4
3.1.4. 88  -
8 m = 1 8  8 -
8 = 120. -
, 8  v = 2 /.
3.1.5. m = 0,1 8 h = 1,25
8 . ,
: ) 8; ) 8.
3.1.6. m = 1 8 8. -
, 8 -
 h = 1,8 . .
3.1.7. m = 1 8  v0 = 10 /
8  8. ,
= 10 8 /.

52
3.1.8. m = 0,15 8 8 8-
= 60  . ,
,  v = 10 /, -
t = 0,1 .
3.1.9. m = 0,1 8,  v1 =
= 10 /, 
 v2 = 20 /. -
 , t =
= 0,01 .
3.1.10.   m = 0,2 8 -
 v = 5 / 8 h =
= 0,4 . ,
, = 0,01 .
3.1.11. m = 4,9 h =
= 0,4 . ,
t = 0,01 .
3.1.12. m = 60 8 H = 2
 h = 1 .
, F = 3 H.
 3.1.13. , F
,  m
8 8 F = 2 m 1

= 10 H (. 3.1.2). -
 . 3.1.2
8 
t = 5 8,  .
 m1 = 50 8, 8 m2 = 25 8.
 8 .
3.1.14.  ()  -
 m = 500 8 .  -
 v = 20 /. -
.
3.1.15.  m . -
  , 
8 u?  .
3.1.16. 8 -8 8 -
, 8  v. 8
8 1 2 .  
8 8 u.
3.1.17. ,  -
d = 2  v = 0,5 /, v
 (. 3.1.3).
.
3.1.18. 8 =
= 60   . -
, 
v = 12 /. . 3.1.3

53
3.1.19.   v  
.   . 
   ? 
.
3.1.20.  F , 8  -
,   v? -
M, L.
 3.1.21. 8 m = 2 8
m1 = 0,2 8 t = 1  v = 20 /. 
8 8 ?
8 ,
8 = 45  8.
 3.1.22.  , -
 , 8 .  -
, , k = 1/3,
8 8 ?

3.2.  '

3.2.1. m1 = 2 8 m2 = 3 8  8-
 8  v1 = 6 / v2 = 4 /
. 8 -
8 8: ) = 90; ) = 60; ) = 120. -
8 ?
3.2.2.   
m  (. 3.2.1). -
O O 8
 . R. -
   -
. 3.2.1 .
3.2.3.  -
.   -
8   v = 1 /.
 .  m = 1 8.
3.2.4.  8  -
m = 10 8, 
= 100  v2 = 0,1 /?
8.
3.2.5.  m1 = 60 8  v1 = 6 /.
8 ,   v2 = 2,9 /,  .
1.    ?
2.  ,  -
?  m2 = 80 8.

54
3.2.6. , m1 = 0,25 8,
 8 h = 125 .
 8 , , 8 -
8. m2 = 50 8.
3.2.7.  M = 103 8 -
, 8  v0 = 170 /,
m = 400 8.   8 -
,  v = 185 /?
3.2.8. 8 8 
.  8
 u = 2 /.   8 ,
8 88 n = 4 ?
 3.2.9. , ,
. 8 .
  8 ,
 m1/m2 = n = 2?
3.2.10. , 8  v = 5 /,
. , 8 -
= 20% 8,
 v1 = 10 /. -
 8 .
3.2.11.  m = 70 8  =
= 140 8,   v = 1 / 8-
.    -
,  ?
3.2.12. 8 -
v = 5 / M = 200 8. -
  m = 50 8 -
.   ? -
    . 
 8 8 ?
3.2.13.   v =
= 800 / 8 = 30  8.  -
, m = 10 8,  M = 5 .
3.2.14.   M = 10 8  
v1 = 1 / 8 . 
m = 3 8  v2 = 8 /, 8-
= 60  8. . 
   ?
3.2.15.  M = 103 8.
m = 50 8,  v0 = 300 /, -
 . 8-
= 30  8.  -

55
, ,
 = 0,2.
3.2.16. ,  v,
.  8  v1 -
 . -
 8 .
 3.2.17.  m = 50 8  M =
= 10 8.   u 8 , -
  v = 0,5 / -
?
3.2.18.
 v1 = 36 /. m =
= 10 8  v2 = 1000 / . -
 , -
: ) ; ) -
; ) 8 = 30  . -
M = 10 .
3.2.19.   m1 = 50 8, -
 8 8 , 8-

 v1 = 100 / .
 m2 = 25 8.   
? ?  -
  , -
, -
 v = 100 /.
3.2.20.  m1 m2
,  ,   .
,  . -
,  8 , -
.
3.2.21.  m = 60 8 
 M = 120 8.   8
,   v1 = 3 /.
 , l = 2 ?
3.2.22.  l = 3 M = 120 8
.   -
m1 = 90 8 m2 = 60 8.  ,
? 
? .
3.2.23.  m   M
l, 8 .  8

56
8  8 .  
,  8  ?
3.2.24.   l = 3 ,
h = 1  m = 0,5 8.  
8 .   -
 , ?  -
 M = 100 8. .
3.2.25.  
.  
 . l2 
8  l ,
.
3.2.26.   l,
  8 m -
.  8 8 ,
 v0 ? 
8 ?  .
 3.2.27. , , 8
8 8 = 30  8  v = 5 / -
   .
.  m = 60 8,  M = 180 8.
3.2.28.  . -
 v0  8
 .   v1.
 8  (u1 u2) -
v2 8 .
3.2.29.    8 
8  -
  h = 400 . t = 2 -
, 8
.  -
, l1 = 1  -
?
3.2.30.  M = 70 8  8, -
  L = 800 , 8   8 = 30. -
  .  -
m = 0,1 8   v = 100 /. -
   . 
 v0 = 0. 8 = 0,1.
3.2.31.  1, 2, 3 M = 200 8 
  v = 2 / 8 8.
  8 m =
= 20 8   u = 8 / . -
   8.

57
3.2.32. ,   -
8 , 8  . 
8   8 , 8 8 -
 8? =
= 0,001 8 ,  = 10
 .
3.2.33.   8  v1 = 2 /
v2 = 3 / 8 1 = 10 2 = 20   .
8    , 
 8  ,
8    8
.  n = 3
8,   8.
 3.2.34. 8  v = 100 /
3 .  -
8  v1 = 150 /. 
8  .
3.2.35. , 8, -
3 ,  . -
l1 = 3  l2 =
= 4  , , -
, 8.
8  ?
 3.2.36. 8   ,  
8  = 1 8. 
,  h = 0,5 -
8 (. 3.2.2). -
 ,
8,  . -
, 
m 8 l = 2h. -
8 -
h .  m = 0,2 8.
 3.2.37.  ,
M M   3.2.3,
8 8 .
. 3.2.2 m1 = 1 8, m2 = 2 8, M = 3 8 -
. m2
m1
h = 50 -
A
. m2,
88 -
M m2 AB,  M.
B h 
M  , 8 -
. 3.2.3 m2  ?

58
3.3.

3.3.1. m = 200 8  8 -
. s = 5 , -
= 0,1.
3.3.2. 8
,  8 = 30. -
 F = 20 H.
s = 5 .
3.3.3. m = 1 8   -
 l = 1 ,  8 8 = 30.
  = 0,2.
 , -
8 . , .
3.3.4. m = 0,2 8  -
 .  h = 3 .
: ) ; ) ;
) .
3.3.5.  8 -
, ?
3.3.6.  -
s = 0,5 
F1 = 4 H F2 = 3 H.  -
.
3.3.7. m = 1500 8 -
a = 1 /2. ,  8-
t = 2 .
3.3.8. m = 10 8 8 -
: ,  
a = 1 /2.  T 8 -
?  s = 10 .
 3.3.9. m = 1 h = 9
t = 3 .
: ) ; ) -
,  .
 3.3.10. m = 45 8,
8 , -
F = 300 8 = 30  8 F
(. 3.3.1).
1.  , m
8 s =
= 100 . - . 3.3.1
 = 0,1.
2. , ?
3.3.11.  R = 1 .  -
  F = 100 H.  -

59
, N = 2,5 .
,  = 0,2.
3.3.12. -
 8 F = 10 H
h h = 10 . 8   
F 8 = 30 (. 3.3.2).
.
3.3.13.  -
. 3.3.2 , t = 6 -
 8 m = 10 8?
h = 5 ,   v = 2 /, 8 -
  8 = 30.
3.3.14.  ,
,    , -
   8 8  8, -
8 ?  .
3.3.15. 8 8 -
(. 3.3.3) ,
x1 = 10 2 = 30 .
F, H Fx, H
3 3
2 2
1 1

0 10 20 30 x, 102 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x,
1
2

. 3.3.3 . 3.3.4

3.3.16. X.
8 ,   X -
x ,    3.3.4. -
, 8 
 : ) x1 = 1 ; ) x2 = 4 ; ) x3 = 5 ; 8) x4 = 6 .
3.3.17. , 
F
, x = 10 ,
x0 = 1
F = 100 H.
3.3.18. 8  -
m  m = 2 8.  -
  k = 100 H/.
. 
. 3.3.5  F

60
(. 3.3.5).   , 8 
? 8 = 30  8.
3.3.19. 8 F
 m = 2 8.  - m
  k = 50 /.
 -
. 3.3.6
= 0,2. -
. ,   8-
F (. 3.3.6), 
s = 40 .  ?
3.3.20. ,  ,
8 , 8  F = 20 H.
x = 10 .  ?
3.3.21.  , x =
= 1 l = 0,5 S = 2 2? -
8 E = 1011 .
3.3.22. ,   k1 = 100 / k2 =
= 200 / , -
.  ,
x = 1 ?
3.3.23.  ,  
k1 = 10 / k2 = 20 / ,
. ,  , -
x = 2 .
3.3.24. ,  -
, 8 h = 200  8
m = 500 8.  = 1 8/.
3.3.25.  T ,
 , ,   -
 3.3.7, , ?  l = 15 , -
 l0 = 5 .  .
3.3.26.  l 
8 8 l0 = --l- (. 3.3.8).  -
2

l0 l

l0

. 3.3.7 . 3.3.8

61
, 8, 8
8  , ?
3.3.27.  , -
, ,
   3.3.9.  T -
,   , -
8 ? 
,  . -
.
3.3.28. 8 (. 3.3.10).
 ,
8 , 8  ,
8 ?
8 8
 8. .
3.3.29.  , 
 m l 
8?   -
1, 2.  8 ,  -
  3.3.11.

l l
m

. 3.3.9 . 3.3.10 . 3.3.11

3.3.30.  8  -
8 N = 300 .  T
,  ,
n = 100 ? 8 -
 8.
 3.3.31. -
v = 20 / 8 , -
  (. 3.3.12). -
R .
m = 600 8, 
 = 0,02.
3.3.32. , -
F = 4i 
. 3.3.12 (2, 2, 3)  B (2, 4, 6).

62
3.3.33.  -
- r = 2i + 3j  - r2 = i + 2j.
, , F = 5i + j.
.

3.4.

3.4.1. (n = 4) N = 75 
.  v = 120 /. -
.
3.4.2.  8
.  -
8 8,
8 
, ? , , -
.
3.4.3. m = 800 8 8 , 8-
, l = 20 t = 2 .
8  8 -
. .
3.4.4. m = 3 l =
= 600  v = 360 /.
8 , -
8 -
k = 0,2. 
8 , 8
?
3.4.5. , , t = 5
 v = 64,8 /. M = 600 , -
= 0,04. 
 .
3.4.6. m 8 .
8 -
 v, -
, a. 8
8 . -
.
3.4.7. m = 400 8. -
8 h = 4   . -
F = 1 H. N =
= 3,2 .   ?
3.4.8.   k = 0,05.   -
 8, -
v = 15 /.  8, -

63
8 ?
m = 104 8.
3.4.9.  , 8-
8 8  m = 40 8? -
8 = 0,1.  -
  v = 3 / , -
8 = 30  8.
3.4.10. m = 7 8 
v = 20 / 8  8 = 30. -
: ) ; ) t = 1
; )   .
3.4.11. m = 2 8 8 -
  8  = 30 F =
= 20 H,  8 = 30. -
 = 0,2. 8 -
N1 8 N2
t = 10 .
3.4.12.  S -
h.  v. -
.
 3.4.13. m = 2 8  
  v = 0,5 / ,
.  8 
  8 ?
? 
= 1/ 3 .
3.4.14. 8 N = 10  -
, t = 30 V = 58,75 3
h = 25 .  8
.
3.4.15. m = 2000 8 -
h = 10 = 5 .  , 8
 8 = 0,8?
3.4.16.   v =
= 72 / N = 3, 14 . 8 ,
= 80%.
3.4.17. m = 100 8 h = 1
  8  = 30. -
8  = 0,1. 8 -
a = 0,1 /2, 8  .
, 8, -
8 .
3.4.18.  m = 10 8
 v = 100i + 20tj. -
.

64
3.5.  #.
 #
3.5.1. 10 -
8,  2  88 -
.  8 .
3.5.2. p = 10 8 . /, 8  8
E = 20 .  .
3.5.3. ,  v1 = 5 /, -
  v2 = 25 /.
8 , 8
p = 2 8 /.
3.5.4.   8 
m = 10 8, , t0 = 0,1 -
? .
3.5.5. m = 0,1 8  . -
8 E = 9,6 .
. .
3.5.6. m = 0,2 8  l = 0,5
8  ,  F =
= 4,9 .  8 8.
3.5.7.   -
 1 2 m = 10 8  (. 3.5.1). 2
  -
v = 2 / 8 - v
.  8 
  , 8
, ,
8 = 60 . 1
3.5.8. ,
8 8 , -
F = 2 H, . 3.5.1
8.  8  -
, 8 s = 2 .
3.5.9.  m = 1 8 R = 0,5 -
= 2 / ,  8
 8 . 
8 .
3.5.10. , , 8 -
v = 20 /. ,  -
8  v1 = 2--- v  v1 v.
3
, m = 90 8.
3.5.11. m = 1500  v =
= 57,6 / , l =
= 200 . . 
, ?

65
3.5.12.    -
v1 = 5 /. 8 8 ,   v2 =
= 4,5 /. .
 m = 50 8.
3.5.13. m = 0,5 8, 8  8
 v1 = 20 /,  v2 = 16 /.
.
3.5.14.   -
, 8  8 ,
 ? = 0,05. -
.
3.5.15.    v0 = 500 /
 8 H = 15 .  
 ,  8
h = 5 2? ,
.
3.5.16.  8  -
R = 0,5 .  8  -
E = 0,08 . , -
. -
 ?
3.5.17. m = 0,2 8 
8 , 8 8 -
R = 1 , 8 
(. 3.5.2, ).  A 8-
 vA = 8 / -
8
F = 30 H.   B.
3.5.18.  m = 0,1 8 
R = 1 .   -
 a = 0,2 t2.  8
 t = 10 .
 3.5.19.  l = 2  (. 3.5.3).
 8 
, ? -
 = 0,6.
A l
v

R F

B
. 3.5.2 . 3.5.3

66
3.5.20. - l = 2,5 , 8 -
, , 8
 . 
= 0,6.  ,
, . -
.
3.5.21. ,  8 ,
8 h = 10 . 
8 , 
? , -
.
3.5.22.  h = 3
 v1 = 0,8v.   
? , -
 .
3.5.23. ,  v, 
, 8 8.  
, 
 v1 = 0,83v? -
.
3.5.24. X
F = 0,2x. t = 0 -
 8  v0 = 0. -
 8 , 8  -
x1 = 10 .
 3.5.25.  m1 = 200 8 m2 = 300 8
  8 88 l = 1 .
8  , -
 .  x  m1
, , -
8  = 10 /, ?
?

3.6. #

3.6.1.  m = 2 8, 8 a = 10 ,
b = 20 , c = 30 ,  8 -
. 8  -
 ? 
 ? ?
3.6.2. m = 0,2 8 h1 = 2 -
h2 = 5 . 
8 ?

67
3.6.3. m = 20 8 l = 20
.  8 , 8 -
?
3.6.4. 8 , 8 8 
8, E = 98 . -
 .
3.6.5. m = 50 8 l = 60 8-
.
, , ,  
 h = l.
3.6.6. , 
,  a = 1
= 2 103 8/3.
3.6.7. , 
, -
h = 1 , 
a = 80 b = 20 . -
= 3 103 8/3.
3.6.8.  k = 250 H/ -
l0 = 60 . 1/3 -
. 8 .
3.6.9. l0 =
= 30 ,  k = 200 H/.  ,
, 8 , 8 E = 9 ?
3.6.10. 8 -
  k1 = 100 H/ k2 = 200 H/
: ) -
; )  -
.
3.6.11.
x = 3 .  k1 = 10 H/,
k2 = 20 H/. 8
.

3.7.   #

3.7.1.  h = 2,5  
 m = 50 8.  ? -
.
3.7.2.  
v0 = 30 /.  8  8
? .

68
3.7.3. , l =
= 1 ,  8 = 60 (. 3.7.1) - l
.    ?
3.7.4. m = 0,5 8 8 m
= 60  8  v = 20 /. -
8 , - . 3.7.1
 8  . 
? .
3.7.5.  l = 2 m = 1 8
8, . 
. - 8 -
   8.  -
, 8  8?
3.7.6.  8
8 H = 2 (. 3.7.2), 8 -
.  h 88  -
s ?
 3.7.7.  8 , 8 ,
, 8 l0 = 5 .  8 
 8 , 8 . -
    , -
?    ,  ?
3.7.8. 8 8 ,  O
(. 3.7.3), 8 ,  8
  m1 = 0,8 8 m2 = 0,1 8.
 l1 = 20 l2 = 40
. , 8-
, .   -
 , 8 -
? .
3.7.9.  8 l = 0,5
  . 
8  (. 3.7.4). 
8  8 .

l1 l2
H m1 m2 l
h O

. 3.7.2 . 3.7.3 . 3.7.4

69
3.7.10. ,  l = 0,5 , -
 . -
   , -
   ?
3.7.11.  R = 0,3  8-
.  
(. 3.7.5).  h ?
3.7.12.   m = 20 8 -
8  R = 0,6 ,
  (. 3.7.6). 8 
  . -
F   h, 
. 8 F(t). 8
,   .

h R

. 3.7.5 . 3.7.6
3.7.13. m = 0,2 8 
 ,
R = 0,4 (. 3.7.7).
1. h , 
.
2. , 
 A,  8 = 60 ,
 .
3.7.14. m = 1 8  -
 ,  R = 0,6
(. 3.7.8). -

h A
R h 2R

. 3.7.7 . 3.7.8

70
h = 2R. 1.  ? 2. -
 , 8 -
 ? .
3.7.15.  R = 0,6  8-
. ,
 ,  v = 1,5 / (. 3.7.9)
 . 
?
 3.7.16.   AB 8 8  -
R = 0,5 .   (. 3.7.10). -
  , ,
,  B -
? , = 30.
3.7.17.  m = 10 8,
8 8 , .

. .
3.7.18.  l = 70 . -
 , 8 ,
, 8   8 =
= 5,3 /. ,  , -
.
 8  ,
   -
?
3.7.19. l = 1 .
88 . a = 0,4
 8 (. 3.7.11).  -
8 ?
3.7.20.  m = 0,1 8 l =
= 0,8 .   8 = 90 ,
 v = 1 /,  .
1. , 8 -
8 8 = 30.
2.    -
?

v B A
l
a
h
v

. 3.7.9 . 3.7.10 . 3.7.11

71
3.7.21.   , -
l = 1 , 
8 = 60   
8 (. 3.7.12)?
 3.7.22.  8
l = 30 ,  O h = 50
.   88
. 
, 8 8   = 60.
H,  8 
88 .
 3.7.23. , 8 ,
 8 ,  
8 m = 100 8  (. 3.7.13). 8
 88 . -
, , 8 8
= 45.  -
 = 0,8.
3.7.24. 8 . -
8 l1 = 20 .
l2 = 15 .  
8. l0 = 10 .
 3.7.25. , , x = 3
(. 3.7.14).  , -
 k = 400 / n = 3 ?
3.7.26.  8  k = 10 H/
l0 = 30 , 
 8 m = 100 8.  -
  8 = 60 , -
, . 
8.
3.7.27. 8 8 8 -
m = 1 8.  , -
  (. 3.7.15).  

l k
a m

v M v
m

. 3.7.12 . 3.7.13 . 3.7.14 . 3.7.15

72
8 8,
?
l = 30 . 
k = 50 H/.
 3.7.28.  m = 0,5 8, -
 k = 40 H/ (. 3.7.16).
.  
 a = 2 /2.  
?   ?
 3.7.29. 8  .
h = 40
 m = 0,1 8 (. 3.7.17). -
.  k = 19,6 H/,
l = 20 .

m
h
k
h k k
l

m
a
. 3.7.16 . 3.7.17 . 3.7.18
3.7.30. 8  k = 50 H/ -
l0 = 30 
.  m = 250 8.
,  
 . 
, 
h = 40 ?
3.7.31.  m = 0,1 8  -
  k = 15 H/ ,  -
 3.7.18. -
 l = 40 . 
h = 30 .  
8 ?
 3.7.32.   m = 200 8,
8 8 -
,    - k m
l = 30 -
k = 100 H/ (. 3.7.19).
8  8 -
 8  = 10 /. - . 3.7.19

73
, 
8. , 8. -
.
 3.7.33.  m = 20 8 -
8 -
8 (. 3.7.20).
v0  v0 8 = 30
8. ,  -
 -
,  -
. 3.7.20
n = 4
?
m
 3.7.34.  -
 R = 10 -
v0  m = 20 8.  8-
h  v0 = 5 /, -
 (. 3.7.21).
 
, 8
h = 50 ? 
? .
. 3.7.21  3.7.35. , 8 
8,  v = 2 /.
 
v r = 2 ,  8 -
,   (. 3.7.22).
8   -
, 8 8 -
h = 0,5 . 
. 3.7.22
8 ,  .

3.8.  #
3.8.1. m = 400 8
h1 = 6  h2 = 2,4 . 
 ? -
.
3.8.2. m = 5 8  -
 v0 = 2 /. , -
,   (t = 10 ) -
v = 50 /.
3.8.3.  m = 500 8 8 8
8 s = 0,01 .
8,   v = 10 /. 
8 .

74
3.8.4. 8 h = 4 l = 6
, 8 s = 34
8.  , 8 -
 .
3.8.5. ,  -
, m = 2 8 
  1  2,  8-
l = 1 ,  h = 0,5 .
 = 0,6.
3.8.6.   , -
8 h = 10 8 
 8 = 15,   -
8 = 0,05?
3.8.7.   
8 8  = 30?  -
 v = 8 /,  = 0,1.
3.8.8.  
8  = 30 A = 6 .
  = 0,1.   -
?
3.8.9.   
8 h = 5 8 -
v = 8 /. ,  -
, m = 2 8 8,
 , 8.
3.8.10.   8  = 10
. 8   -
, A1 = 10 .
  
A2 = 45 .
   , -
 . 
  .
3.8.11.  
8  = 45 -
,   
(. 3.8.1). -
 8 1 = 6
,  8 -

2 = 3.  . 3.8.1
.
3.8.12.  
  8 = 30. -
 -

75
x  = kx, 8 k = 0,1 1.  -
, 88
  ?
 3.8.13. , -
8  R = 4 , -
R 8  (.
3.8.2). 8 8, 8-
h ,
 = 0,1. , -
l 8, l =
= 30 .  h 
. 3.8.2   8 (-
  )?
3.8.14.   -

, . -
,  -
 .
 3.8.15.  , -
 3.8.3. H = 1 ,
h = 0,5 .
. R = 0,4 .
3.8.16.  m = 0,1 8 l = 0,8
,   . 
, 8 = 0,25
.  , 8 -
 .
3.8.17. m = 2 8, -
 k = 500 H/,  
,  8 (. 3.8.4).
, 8, l = 8 , -
,  l = 1,6 -
 .  ,
8   8 = 30.
 3.8.18. 8  m1 =
= 2 8 m2 = 5 8 ,

m
H k
R h

. 3.8.3 . 3.8.4

76
 k = 10 H/.  
, ? -
  1= 0,5 2 = 0,3 .
 3.8.19.  F -
 , x = 4 (. 3.8.5)? 
k = 200 H/.
3.8.20. 8  -
m1 = 1 8 m2 = 2 8, -
(. 3.8.6).  8
 , ? -
  = 0,2.
3.8.21.   8
,    3.8.7.
 F = 20 H. 
.  -
  . -
l0 = 10 , 
 k = 500 H/. .

k F k F
m1 m2

. 3.8.5 . 3.8.6 . 3.8.7

3.8.22. m = 2,5 8, 8 -


,  k = 60 H/
 (. 3.8.8).  v0 = 3 /,
 .  -
, s = 0,5 
2 .
 3.8.23.  m = 1 8, -
v0
8 , k
8 
k = 9,8 H/  . - m
. -
l = 15  . 3.8.8
  v0,
 (. 3.8.9).
  k
, 8 , 8 m
 ?
 = 0,1. . 3.8.9

77
 3.8.24. m = 100 8 -
, 8 , -
k = 10 /,   (. 3.8.10).
h = 15 ,
, . -
 ?  
8 , -
?
 3.8.25.  , -
 8 M = 5 8, m1 = 2 8 m2 = 0,5 8 -
.  8 ,  8 .
8 ,    3.8.11.
  = 0,5. -
 8  v0 = 5 /,
.  8  ,
8   ?   -
 ?

v0

m1
M
m

k h
m2

. 3.8.10 . 3.8.11

3.9. ''# '

3.9.1. m1 = 1 8 m2 = 3 8 -
8 8  v1 = 10 / v2 = 5 /
.  8
88 8 .
 3.9.2. ,   8-
 8 ,  -
8 8 , -
  v1 = 1 /
v2 = 3 /.  8 ,
m = 8 8?

78
3.9.3.  h = 1 
m = 100 8 8 M = 2 , 8-
 v = 3 /.  , -
.
3.9.4. m1 = 2 8 m2 = 3 8 -
v1 = 5 / v2 = 4 /  -
.  8 -
88  .
 3.9.5.  -
  v1 = 10 / v2 = 20 /
. -
.  
 , .
 3.9.6.  m1 = 0,07 8 m2 = 0,06 8 -
 -
 v1 = 6 / v2 = 4 / .
 , 8 -
.
3.9.7.  m = 32 8 m
 v = 7 / 8 = 60  8-
 m1 = 6m, - v
 v1 = v/4 8 8- v1
m1
(. 3.9.1). -
 .
 8 . 3.9.1
?
3.9.8. 8 
m  8 
2m.  8  v = 2 /.  -
 ?
  = 1/18.
3.9.9. m = 10 8
 v = 100 / k
v
M = 1,99 8 M
(. 3.9.2).  m
, ? -
 k = 200 H/. . 3.9.2
3.9.10.  M = 3 8
8 -
.
 h
h = 19,6 (. 3.9.3).
m = 10 8. , -
. . 3.9.3

79
3.9.11. m1 = 1 8 h = 39,2 .
h
--- 8 m2 = 20 8, 8-
2
 v0 = 100 /, .
8  8 .
3.9.12. m = 5 8, 8 -
v0 = 500 /, , 8 -
, . M = 0,5 8 (. 3.9.4). -
  -
?

m v M
k
H h
v0 M
m
. 3.9.4 . 3.9.5 . 3.9.6

 3.9.13.  H = 30
 m = 50 8   (. 3.9.5).
 M = 200 8,   k =
= 100 H/.  -
.
3.9.14.  M = 100 8  -
h = 1,225 (. 3.9.6).
m = 5 8, 8  v = 100 /, ,
8, 8 s = 10
.  ?
,  -
.
3.9.15. m = 0,6 8, 
 M = 1 8,  v = 3 /,
 (. 3.9.7). 
, 8 8  .
 ,  , .
,  , 8.

l
v
m v
M m

. 3.9.7 . 3.9.8

80
3.9.16. m = 10 8  -
 M = 5 8.  , -

(. 3.9.8).  F = 100 H.
 l = 0,2 .
3.9.17.   -
 v0 = 10 /.  
8,  ?  M = 1 8,
m = 200 8.  -
.
3.9.18.  
8  m = 70 8, 
, 8    -
?  M = 30 8, l = 1 . -
 8 = 0,5.  -
   ? -
 
8 .
 3.9.19. m = 1 8 M = 4 8 8
. 8 8 .
8 , -
8 (. 3.9.9). ,
8.  -
, , 8 ?
3.9.20. m1 = 0,3 8
m2 = 0,4 8 m M
8 8
(. 3.9.10).  
m1, . 3.9.9
x = 5 ? -
 k = 20 H/.
3.9.21.  - m1 m2
8 8  k
(. 3.9.11) -
 8. , 8 - . 3.9.10
 = 45, 8 8 .
3.9.22. h =
= 7,5 .  
,
? -
,  - v
= 40%  8.
3.9.23.  -
h = 2 8
 = 6,25% - . 3.9.11

81
 8. ,  -
 8 8 .
3.9.24.  h = 10 . 
   ,
 8 8
t = 1,3 ?
3.9.25. m = 10 8,  v0 = 150 /,
  v =
= 0,6v0.  
?   8-
.  M = 50 8.
3.9.26. m1 = 9 8,
m2   v0 = 200 /,
( )
v0  m2 = 0,27 8 (. 3.9.12).
 8 h = 0,2 .
m1
  -
. 3.9.12 ?
3.9.27. m = 10 8, 8-
 v = 400 /, -
l = 0,2
l (. 3.9.13). M = 2 8. -
 n = 2
v
.  8  ? 
m  8 -
M
?
. 3.9.13 3.9.28. m = 20 8, 8-
 v = 100 /, -
8  -
m  8
(. 3.9.14).  , -
8 8,
v
8 
m m m Q = 10 .
. 3.9.14 3.9.29. -
 .
8 . -
,   8 = 30.
 8  ,  ,
8 ? ,  -
 8 -
.

82
3.10. '# '

3.10.1. m1 = 0,5 8 m2 = 1, 5 8
8 8  v1 = 10 /
v2 = 4 /.  8 -
88 .
 3.10.2. ,  v1 = 3 /, 8-
,  v2 = 1 /. 
8 ?
 3.10.3. m1 = 5 8
m2 = 2,5 8, 8  8
E2 = 5 . 8,
 8 8 .
3.10.4. m1
m2. ,  8 -
8 . :
) m1 = m2; ) m1 = 3m2; ) m1 = 1
--- m2.
3
3.10.5. m1, ,
m2. 
m
-------1- ,  n = 1,5 ?
m2
3.10.6. ( m0) -
8. 8. 
 8 ?
 3.10.7. 8 8
, , n = 8 ,  ,
m, 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
--- m, --- m, --- m, ------ m, ------ m, ------ m ---------- m. -
2 4 8 16 32 64 128
 v = 1 / = 2m, -
. -
8 , , -
.
 3.10.8. 8
v1 m2
,  8-
, - m1 v2
 m1 = 50 8 m2 = 30 8
(. 3.10.1, ). 
 v1 = 10 / v2 = 15 /.
   2006
? 
8 . . 3.10.1

83
 3.10.9.  1 8  8 -
   2. -
8 .  8 ?
3.10.10. 8   ,
 ,  8-
8 = 35  -
8 .  8 8 -
 ?
3.10.11. m1 = 100 8,  v =
= 5 /,   m2 = 300 8. -
 m2 ,
8 8 = 30  -
8 . 8.
3.10.12. m  v
88   -
 v/2 8 = 90 
. 8 .
3.10.13.  
v1 v2 , 8
(. 3.10.2). 88  -
u1 u2. 8 .
3.10.14. 8 8
 A B   C  -
.  A, B, C 8 -
8 (. 3.10.3). A B,
.  8  -
?
3.10.15. m = 5 8, 8 -
v = 400 /, 8 = 10 8,
(. 3.10.4).  
?
3.10.16. , 8  v = 400 /,
, 8
l = 4 , 88 -
 8. 8,   , -
m = 20 8, M = 5 8.
C

v1
v2
v
A B m M

. 3.10.2 . 3.10.3 . 3.10.4

84
3.10.17. ,  m1 = 100 8
m2 = 300 8,  -
l = 0,5 .  l
 8 =
= 60 (. 3.10.5).  m1
 8- m2
8 ? . 3.10.5
3.10.18. 8 , -
L = 50 ,  8
 (. 3.10.6).  -
 , -
l = 5 .  8-
 L
8  ? l
3.10.19.  m = 10 8
h = 2 8 8- . 3.10.6
8
 (. 3.10.7). 8 , 
 .  M = 90 8.
3.10.20. m2 8 8
  . -
8 m1   -
 m2 (. 3.10.8).
, 8
 . m2 , ,
 m1,  8 -
. 8, , -
m
 -------1- .
m2
3.10.21. M 8 8
  . -
8 m  . -
8 . 
M
------ 8 ?
m
m 8.
m

h
m2 m1
M

. 3.10.7 . 3.10.8

85
3.10.22. 8 8 -
    v = 1 / -
8 , . -
(. 3.10.9). ,
 M : 1 = 0,2 , 2 = 0,5
3 = 0,8 . M = 2 8 m = 1 8;
l = 60 . 8.
 3.10.23. 8 8 -
l = 3    M. -
8  m   
(. 3.10.10). 88  m 8-
 , 8 , 8  M.
 l1 
, M
------ = n = 5?
m
3.10.24. 8 8  -
  u = 1 / -
  v = 3 /,  8 .
(t0 = 0)  ,
l = 1 . 
 B?   8 -
,  .
3.10.25. 8 -
 u = 2 / (. 3.10.11). , 8
l = 0,3 , . 
 88
?

v
m M
v
M m l
l
l
u
. 3.10.9 . 3.10.10 . 3.10.11
3.10.26.  8
.   v = 10 /,
8 8
: 8  8 .
8 8  m1 = 100 8 m3 = 400 8
.  m2 8 , -
  -
 vmax? .

86
3.10.27.  m = 5 8 -
 - m
  M = 20 8 8- v
= 30 (. 3.10.12). M
8 8
. 
  , - . 3.10.12
  l = 1 , -
  .
3.10.28. 8 8 -
,  - l
(. 3.10.13).
m
 m = 200 8. -
 8 = 60  - M
, . 
 , 8 -
8 = 30 . - . 3.10.13
 M = 2 8, l =
= 50 .
 3.10.29. 8 8
 M v
m (. 3.10.14). m
8 - M
 v.  
hmax ( -
. 3.10.14
)
? .
3.10.30. 8 8 r
  - m2
 m1 = 200 8 8 -
m1
 r = 50 .
8  8 -
  m2 = . 3.10.15
= 100 8 (. 3.10.15). -
  8
. . m
 3.10.31. 8  h
M = 1 8   - A B
R = 20  - R
(. 3.10.16).  -
h   A M
  m =
= 200 8, -
 B ? . . 3.10.16

87
m m v0 m  3.10.32.  , -
k
,
8 -
. 3.10.17 v0 = 7 /, -
,   
(. 3.10.17). 8 .

. -
l0 = 10 ,   k = 1000 H/.
8 m = 50 8.

4.

4.1.  # #

4.1.1.  F 8 8 8 
m = 1 8 ,
8 8 r = 1 ?
4.1.2.  -
  , 
8 , n = 2 ?
4.1.3. 88
.   8 ?
4.1.4.  8
 -
, , R =
= 385 000 , 8
T = 27,3 .  -
 , -
8.
4.1.5. ,  4.1.1,
  8 = 1.
,  m =
= 0,2 8, 88 -
 .
. 4.1.1 4.1.6.  m = 10 8
 ,   -
 4.1.2. , A
8. a = 10 .
4.1.7. m, 2m 3m -
R = 10 ,    4.1.3. -
, m 8.
m = 10 8.

88
m
m
a R
A 2m 3m
m O
a 2a
m

. 4.1.2 . 4.1.3

4.1.8.  8 
 ?
4.1.9. ,  m1 = 10 8 m2 = 90 8, -
R = 10 8 8.  -
8  m3 ,
: ) ; )
?
4.1.10.  R = 20  -
. ,   8
 m = 2 8, 
d = 10 8 .  r =
= 1 .
 4.1.11. R  -
,  
8 . M. , 
8 
 m, d . R
8 ,
(. 4.1.4).
4.1.12.   m1 = 10 8
(. 4.1.5) ,  ? -
R1 = 20 ; R2 = 10 ; l =
= 80 .

R1 m1
m
R2
R l
d

. 4.1.4 . 4.1.5

89
r  4.1.13. -
R = 50 -
C  r = 5 ,
l
B  -
R A m l = 40
L (. 4.1.6).  -
8 
 m = 10 8,
. 4.1.6 L = 80
, AC,
, 8 = 60 AB, -
?
 4.1.14. , 8 , -
 . , -
, , -
8 .

4.2.  #

4.2.1. ,
 8 8 . -
m = 6,4 1023 8, 8 R = 3,38 106 .
4.2.2. 8 -
,  8 ,
.
 4.2.3. n = 3,7 ,
k = 81 .  -
8 g .
4.2.4. 110 -
, 
 1 : 4.  8 -
.
4.2.5.  8 , -
?
4.2.6.   -
8 2 , ?
4.2.7. -
8  , 8 12 1961 8.
- . . 8, 327 .
 , 
, , 8 -
?  ?
4.2.8. h = 22 . ,
  . -
  8 ?

90
4.2.9. 
 8 s = 2,45 ?
 4.2.10. 8, -
 m, -
r . R.
.
4.2.11.  8
8 h = 1000 .
4.2.12.  8  8
n = 2  8 -
?
 4.2.13.  8
: 1,496 1011 ;
8,  , 32; -
8 T = 3,1557 107 .
4.2.14. , -
,   8
  8 -
?
4.2.15.   ,
. = 3000 8/3.
8 .
4.2.16. ,  
24 ,  .
4.2.17. ,  -
 10% ,
.  T = 24 .
4.2.18.  h
 ? -
R .
8 T.
4.2.19.  8
88 .
4.2.20. , -
 = 60 -
8 . R = 6400 .
4.2.21.  m = 2  -
 8 8  v = 30 /
.  8
88?
 4.2.22. m1 m2 l
8 8.  8
g , r1 r2
.

91
4.3.  

4.3.1. ,  8-
 8, , ,
8 (. 4.3.1).

. 4.3.1
4.3.2.   -
, R = 1780 ,  -
8 n = 6  -
8 .
4.3.3.  
R = 2500 ,  = 4,5 103 8/3.
4.3.4.   8
h = 3200  . 
  .
4.3.5.   
, 
. 0,815 .
4.3.6.   -
, 8  n = 2 -
?
4.3.7. 8  -
.  -
 . 8 .
4.3.8.  8 8
 v = 5,59 /.  8
. R = 6370 .
4.3.9.  m = 30 8 8
,  8 E = 0,54 109 . 
 
? R = 6370 .
4.3.10.   8 -
8  .  8 8
 n = 4  8 8. -
.

92
4.3.11.  , 8
8 , ,  
 2 .  -
, ?
4.3.12. M = 100 8 -
, 8 R = 1 ,
  m = 1 8.   8-
  -
, ,  ? -
8 = 5 8/3.
4.3.13.  8 
, 8 
 ?

4.4. ',

4.4.1.  -
.
 4.4.2.  T 
 , h? -
R  8 g0 -
.
4.4.3. r =
= 1,08 108 . 8 8-
, ,
R = 1,49 108 .
4.4.4. 8 , -
 8 9,8 /2
3,84 105 ? 6370 .
4.4.5. , 8 
,  . -
8  h = 970 .
4.4.6. 8  8
8  (), 8
8 T = 4 .
 4.4.7. 8  8 =
= 1,75 102 /. .
4.4.8.  8 8 8-
R = 94 000  T = 7 39 .
 ?
4.4.9. ,
.
4.4.10. T 8  -
(),  d 1017 8/3.

93
4.4.11. T 8 -
 , 8 8 , -
, 8
T = 27 7 .
 4.4.12.   8 -
8  8 ,
8  8 . -
 , -
.  , -
,  ,
8 8. 8 ?  -
, 8 ? :  70 8,
8 27,3 . 81
, 60 -
. 6370 .
4.4.13. m1 m2 r
8 8.
8 8 .
 4.4.14.  8 8,
,
?
 4.4.15. 8 88
8 8 8 (-
8) T, 8.
. -
x , .
4.4.16. R =
= 8 1010 8 8 ,
, n = 1 -
T = 12,6 8 8.  ?

4.5. #
##

4.5.1.  m = 1000 8 8 -
8 h = 1000  . 
8 ,  8?
4.5.2.  8 , 8 -
 8  = 109 . 8 8.
4.5.3.    ,
, -
.  h 8 
? m1 m2 -
. R.

94
4.5.4. 8 ,
.   (-
).
 4.5.5. , ,
  v0 = 6 /. , -
,  .
4.5.6.  , -
 m = 1 8 h =
= 3200 ?
4.5.7. 8, , -
 h = 3200 ,  8, 8
8 .
 4.5.8.  8 -
8 8 m = 2000 8, 8
r1 = 2000  r2 = 1000 ?
 4.5.9.   m = 100 8, -
8  , -
8 . F = 5 104 .
  8 .
 4.5.10.  v0
v0 = 2360 / , -
R = 1,74 106 (. 4.5.1). -
l
-
lmin, 
. -
8 g = R
= 1,6 /2. . 4.5.1
 4.5.11.   -
8 8 R = 6370  8 -
h1 = 200  .  -
8 8   8  -
v = 10 /, 
h1 
h2 = 234 .   v2
   8
?
 4.5.12.   , -
8 . 
.
4.5.13.  8  -
.  
, 8 ? -
 : )
; )  8 .

95
 4.5.14.  
, (
).   ,
 ? -
r = 1,5 108 .
 4.5.15.  , . . -
,   ,
, 8 
.

4.6. 

1 4.6.1.  8
v0 2  , -
 
. 4.6.1.   1, 2, 3
F,
3 , 8 .
 8
 ?
 4.6.2. R1 -
 8 -
. 4.6.1 8  -
R2 8  R = 800 .
8 8  8
T1 = 96,2 . R2 8
 T2 8 8 .
R = 384 400 . -
8 T = 27,3 .
 4.6.3. h
8 8 , 8 4  1957 8., -
:  
H = 900 ;  -
8 T1 = 96 ; R =
= 384 400 ; 8 T2 = 27,3 -
.
4.6.4. 8 8
  ,
8. = 3 20 -
  8 8. -
 .  -
8 . R =
= 6400 .

96
 4.6.5.  
8 r1. -
 A  8, -

(. 4.6.2). , 
. r1
 4.6.6.  A
, 8
?
. 4.6.2

5.

5.1. 

5.1.1. 20 H   -
8 8 = 120 8  8. -
.
 5.1.2. m = 10 8  -
l = 20 .   8-
. ,
h = 0,5 .
5.1.3. m = 20 8 
, 8  = 120 (. 5.1.1). -
.
5.1.4. ,  5.1.2,
8 m = 100 8.
. 8 = 60.
5.1.5.  (. . 5.1.2) 8 m =
= 40 8. l1 = 0,6 , l2 =
= 1 . , .

X C B
l
h
T1 T2

mg A m

. 5.1.1 . 5.1.2

97
5.1.6.
(. 5.1.3). 8 , .
5.1.7. ,  5.1.4,
8 m = 2 8. 8, 
 , = 60, = 30. .
 5.1.8.   m l
,  r
(. 5.1.5).  
d . T -
N.

B
C d l
A B
C m
r

. 5.1.3 . 5.1.4 . 5.1.5

5.1.9. R = 0,6
(. 5.1.6). , 
 , h = 0,5 . 
.
 5.1.10. 8 , 
F.  8 ? 
  ( )
(. 5.1.7)?
A

F
h
R C

. 5.1.6 . 5.1.7
5.1.11.  m -
r 8 , -
 (. 5.1.8). ,  
8,   , b.
T .

98
A B m
b
M
. 5.1.8 . 5.1.9 . 5.2.1
5.1.12.  8 , -
 5.1.9,  n = 2 8 -
?
5.1.13.  ,
, 8 ,
8 m. , -
  k. 
,  8?
5.1.14. , 
L, 8 m.
0,1L.   -
8 2m,  -
 ?
5.1.15.   
8, L1. 8  8 -
 , -
L2. L0 -
, 8, -
8. .

5.2. 

5.2.1.  M = 70 8 -
8  8
m = 20 8 (. 5.2.1). 
?  ? - A
 .
5.2.2. , 
5.2.2, .  m1
8 m2, m1 = 3 8 m3 = 4 8? ,
m2 m3
8 m3,  
8. . 5.2.2

99
5.2.3. 8 m1, m2, m3 -
(. 5.2.3). m1, m2 8 ,  -
  8, . m3 -
8 N, 8 m1 -
. .

m2
m1
2m
m3 m

. 5.2.3 . 5.2.4

5.2.4. 8 (. 5.2.4). -
8, 8  , ,
 , 8 8
8    8 .
.
5.2.5.  8 
m = 40 8, ,  5.2.5?
5.2.6.  8 , 
(. 5.2.6)? , 
.
5.2.7. 100 
1, 2, 3, 4 (. 5.2.7). : )  

10 10

. 5.2.5 . 5.2.6

100
   , 8 -
(  ); ) 
 ,   
0,25 ; )  8,  3 -
1 ; 8)  , -
 , 8 0,25 1
( ); ) .
 5.2.8.   ,
,  ,
 m = 70 8, M = 50 8 (. 5.2.8)?
5.2.9.   , -
 5.2.9, , , 8 3m?
  k.

3 2

x
2 A 3
1 m
4 m
1 3m

) )

. 5.2.7 . 5.2.8 . 5.2.9

5.3. , 
 

5.3.1.  8
, 8 m R (.
5.3.1). l.
.
 5.3.2.  r = 15 m = 50 8
8 R =
= 25 l = 15 ,  . 5.3.1
101
 (. 5.3.2). 8 -
. -
 .
5.3.3.  , -
8 8 = 30 1 = 60, -
,  .
m = 10 8.
. 5.3.2  , .
5.3.4. , 8 l = 90 , -
m = 9 8.  -
 F  F,   h =
= 20 ?
5.3.5.  R m  8-
,   .  F
  h,
?

5.4.

5.4.1. 8 F1 = 300 ,
F2 = 20 . 8 l2 = 5 .
8 .
5.4.2.  ,
 m = 500 8, 8 8  -
?
5.4.3.   O 
,  5.4.1. F = 100 -
h = 0,2 . .
5.4.4.  , 2 -
, 4 ?

. 5.4.1

102
5.4.5.   m = 100 8
-
.   8
,    5.4.2. 
  , - . 5.4.2
?
5.4.6.
(l2 > l1) P1, 8 P2
(. 5.4.3). P.
5.4.7.  l = 6  -
.  l1 8  -
8 M = 750 8 (. 5.4.4).  
 ?  m = 120 8.

. 5.4.3 . 5.4.4 . 5.4.5

5.4.8.  m = 140 8 
(. 5.4.5).  l1 = 3
8  l2 = 1 8.
8 .
5.4.9.  8  8-
l = 2 m1 = 10 8
(. 5.4.6). d = 0,5 8  
8 m2 = 100 8. , 
8 8 .

m1

. 5.4.6

5.4.10.  8 l = 50
P = 10 8 P1 = 10 P2 = 20 .  -
 , ?

103
5.4.11.  m = 60 8 l = 30
,    5.4.7.  -
  8.  8 8 -
? 8 a = 5 .
5.4.12.  L = 6
l = 1 8 . 
.  8-
 F,  -
 (. 5.4.8).
8  ,
  .
5.4.13.  ,
 (. 5.4.9). -
8  0,25 .    -
F. F = 2,94  
 . m .

. 5.4.7 . 5.4.8 . 5.4.9


5.4.14. 
l = 10 (. 5.4.10). -
k1 = 2 / k2 = 3 /. 
8, 8?
5.4.15.  l
  k1 k2 . -
8  . -
 x 8   8 m,
 8 (. . 5.4.10)?
8,  .

k1 k2

l
AD K C B
A x B
m

. 5.4.10 . 5.4.11
104
5.4.16.  l = 2 m = 40 8
(. 5.4.11).
 ;  8
2 , . 8, 
  K,  8
, AD = BC = 30 DK = 20 .
5.4.17. OA m1 = 2 8, -
 5.4.12, .
8 m, 88 8 = 10 8, OA = 4 OB.
5.4.18. l = 1
 F1 = 30 F2 = 10 (. 5.4.13). -
,  .

F1
O B A F2 d
F1
M F2
m
. 5.4.12 . 5.4.13 . 5.4.14
5.4.19. l = 60 -
F1 = 10 F2 = 25 , -
8  . 
, F1 F2, 
d = 0,3 8 8 (. 5.4.14).

5.5.
5.5.1. -
,  5.5.1.
 5.5.2. , 
m, 2m, 3m, 4m, 5m,
. -
 a. .
5.5.3. R1 = 15 R2 = 20
m1 = 10 8 m2 = 50 8 -
8 8 l = 1 m . 5.5.1
= 5 8. .
5.5.4.  R = 12 (
)   .
.
5.5.5. , 8 ; ) -
8 8; ) 8 8.

105
5.5.6.
R 8  R, 8 -
r (. 5.5.2),
O r
 -
R/2 R/2.
5.5.7.  -
. 5.5.2 8 8 16 . -
 8 2 . -
8 ,
 , -
8,   8.
5.5.8.   b -
8 ,    5.5.3. -
  .
5.5.9. , 8
 , 0,5a (. 5.5.4).

. 5.5.3 . 5.5.4

5.6.

 5.6.1.   -
m = 0,1 8 (. 5.6.1). -
 , 8 -
= 45.
5.6.2. m = 80 8 -

 
 . 8-
. 5.6.1
,   8
 (. 5.6.2).  -
. 8   8 = 45.
5.6.3.   (8) -
8 8 O. 8  -

106
8  (. 5.6.3). 8 -
 8   .   
L O, 8 -
L1, 8 M.  O -
.

. 5.6.4
. 5.6.2 . 5.6.3
5.6.4.  m
 8  . 8   -
. T , 8
  = 90 (. 5.6.4). 
 8  , -
8 ?
5.6.5.  , 8 8
8 .   
, (. 5.6.5)?
5.6.6.  8 
8 (. 5.6.6).
. ,  8   -
.  A B
 8 .

. 5.6.5 . 5.6.6 . 5.6.7


5.6.7. AB l  A 8-
,  8  -
a = l/2 (. 5.6.7). -
, 
, 8   8 = 60.

107
5.6.8. 4  8
8 60  8.
0,33.  -
, ? .
 5.6.9. l m  .
8 , 
, 
 1, 2?
 , -
.
5.6.10. 2l 8-
 r
(. 5.6.8). 
.  8 , 
?
5.6.11.  1 1 2,5
,  8 (.. -
 1 ).  ,
8  8 ,
1,5 .    -
, ?
5.6.12.   8 ,  -
,  ,
 C. , 
 . 
, a c,   5.6.9.
 8 8 .

. 5.6.8 . 5.6.9
5.6.13.  R = 3,2 
a = 2 (. 5.6.10).  
 ,  8
, 8 ?
5.6.14.  , -
8 (. 5.6.11) m -
8 ? a, b, .
 , ?

108
5.6.15. , 8,
  -
8 8  ,
  ,
8.  m = 140 8.
5.6.16.   5.6.12 -
 l M. 
   A?    B
C , 8?

. 5.6.10 . 5.6.11 . 5.6.12


5.6.17.    F,
 , . F 8-
(. 5.6.13).  m = 4 8, r = 2 ,
R = 4 , 8    8 = 60. F.
5.6.18. 8 , 8 -
, 8 (. 5.6.14).  8
?
5.6.19. 8 -
, -
  8  = 30,
8 8 = 60 . 8-
 R = 10 (. 5.6.15).

. 5.6.13 . 5.6.14 . 5.6.15

109
5.6.20.  , 8
h = 20 R = 2,3 .  
8    8 ?
5.6.21.  l = 1 ,  -
.  2 . 
  ,
? .
 5.6.22. R
R/2 8 8 -
. R/2. -
,  
(. 5.6.16). 8  -
. 5.6.16 ,  -
.  = 0,2.
 5.6.23. m = 1000 8 -
 a = 2 /2.
L = 2 , H
1 ,  
k = 104 H/. . ,
.

5.7.

5.7.1.  8
8 , 8 -
8 
(. 5.7.1).   -
 8 8  -
. 5.7.1  8 8
? 8  l.
 5.7.2.  -
 .   . 
 ? -
.
5.7.3.    -
, r (. 5.7.2). -
R  ,  
8.  8 m,
?  M.
5.7.4. AB m = 10 8   -
A  -
(. 5.7.3).   . -

110
 C  8 m1 = 2,5 8.
 C A ,
AC = AB. ,  8 
.
5.7.5. h = 40  8 -
 l = 30 m = 0,5 8.
  8 = 30  8
R = 10 (. 5.7.4).
, -
.

. 5.7.2 . 5.7.3 . 5.7.4


5.7.6.   m1 m2 -
,  5.7.5.  8 -
8 ,  A B. 
 8 8.  -
  -
 ? 8 = 30.
5.7.7.  ,  -
,  8 8
. 8
= 90. R (. 5.7.6). l.
 5.7.8. - , 
(. 5.7.7). M1, 8 M2.

. 5.7.5 . 5.7.6 . 5.7.7

111
  8 ,
,   --
. T . 8.
 5.7.9. 8  -
 a = 20 m = 25 8.
l = 0,5
M = 20 8 (. 5.7.8).
 ,  
,   -
.  -
. 5.7.8 .  8
 ?
 5.7.10.   
.  d, 8 2d.
0,1 .

?  .
 5.7.11. , , -
(. 5.7.9). AD, BC, DE CH .
 O M .
F, m.
 5.7.12. 8 
M = 10 8   8 h = 15 ,
 R = 50 , ,
m = 2 8 (. 5.7.10). 8 
8 ,  -
F,   8 ,
  . -
 .

. 5.7.9 . 5.7.10

 5.7.13. 8  
M = 500 8 R = 15 (. 5.7.11).  -
  l = 40 , 
 8 -

112
 m = 300 8.  ,
 8  8
.   8
,   -
? , ,  
.
 5.7.14. 8  -
 (. 5.7.12). 
 ,   . 
 8 8 -
 v 
.   
,   ? 
h = 20 , a = 10 .

. 5.7.11 . 5.7.12

6.

6.1. .  . 

6.1.1.  , 8 ,
, 8 ?
 l1 = 40 , 8 h1 = 0,5 . l2 = 2 ,
h2 = 10 .
6.1.2.  .
 h = 5 .
6.1.3. m = 20 8 ,
  S = 10 2. .

113
6.1.4.  -
 ,
8 (. 6.1.1,
), 8 (. 6.1.1, ).
,
  ?
) ) 6.1.5.
p = 3 . 105 . 
. 6.1.1
, 
? S = 4 2.
K
6.1.6.  -
F = 10 ,  -
M  (. 6.1.2). -
S = 20 2.
  -
 .
. 6.1.2 6.1.7. ,
 6.1.3,
F1, -
F2 = 16F1.
?  -
8 8?
6.1.8.
S1 = 10 2
S2 = 200 2 (. 6.1.4).
. 6.1.3 A 8
m = 1 8.  8 -
m B, 8 -
?
? .
6.1.9. 8-
8 F1 =
= 800 h1 = 40 .

. 6.1.4 h2 = 2 .  -
88 ?
6.1.10.  8, -
88 ,
F1 = 10 , 88 -
F2 = 9 . 8 n = 10, -
S1 = 10 2 S2 = 0,1 2 . -
 8 .
6.1.11. 88
S1 : S2 = 200 8 m = 10 .

114
8 N = 500 , = 90%.
 t = 30 ,
 h = 30 ?

6.2. 1)

6.2.1.  -
-
(. 6.2.1). -
 ? 8
, 8
? -
8?
6.2.2. 8 -
8 h1 = 30 ,  -
8 8 h2 = 143 ,
. 6.2.1
8  h3 = 180 , -
  h4 = 250 ,  h5 = 10 919 . -
 =1030 8/3. 8-
. .
6.2.3.  8 , -
 ,  8 
?  h1 = 11  22 .
 = 1030 8/3.
6.2.4. 8 h = 3 .
6.2.5.  8 -
8 n = 2 ?
6.2.6. 
, , -
8 h = 15 ?
6.2.7. h = 40 . 
8?
6.2.8. 
h = 1 . 1. 8 : ) 88
 8; )  8.
2.  8, : ) ,
 n = 2 ; )
 ?
6.2.9.  8 -
8 = 25%?
1) ,  , -
p0 = 105 = 760 . .

115
6.2.10. 8 = 33% -
p0 = 105 .  -
8 p0? -
h = = 1 74 . .
6.2.11.  h =1,2 , 8 -
8 = 30  8. -
 8 8 ,
8 8 8 ?
6.2.12.  -
.  H = 29,2 . -
 .
6.2.13. ,
8 S = 50 2.
h = 3 .  F -
8,
?
6.2.14. p = 8 105 .
 S =
= 5 105 2 8  F = 30 ? =
= 103 8/3.
6.2.15.   -
  8 -
 ,   .
8 h1 = 5 ,
. , 
.  h2 = 1 .  
S = 0,2 2.
6.2.16. , 8 M = 3 8,
8  R = 4 , 
  r = 1 .
 .
 ,  m = 700 8
?
6.2.17.  -
  (. 6.2.2). 
 h =
= 5 .  -
 .  8 -
, ?
6.2.18. , 8-
8 , .
 , -
. 6.2.2 l = 1 , h = 0,4 .

116
6.2.19.  -
  8 
-
,  n = 3 -
?  .
6.2.20.  
S = 104 2 
 = 103 8/3
,    6.2.3. 8
  8 = 30. . 6.2.3
.
6.2.21.  
b = 2 
8 = 60 (. 6.2.4). -
 ,
h = 3 . -
p0 = 105 . . 6.2.4
6.2.22. 
8 -
b = 2a (. 6.2.5).
a. -

8 h = 3a.  -
a = 2 .
,
. . 6.2.5
 6.2.23.   -
U- 8
S = 100 2, -
= 103 8/3 ,  -
 6.2.6. 
 8 = 30.
, 
.
6.2.24. , -
0, , -
. 6.2.6
  8 -
, , 8
> 0.
8 
 (. 6.2.7). -
8  ,

8  .
 a. . 6.2.7

117
6.2.25. ,
, -
 (. 6.2.8). 
m1 = 0,6 8,  .
, 
m2 = 0,6 8?  ,
 -
. 6.2.8 ?
6.2.26.  r, 
, R h,
8 8 H. 
 d.   
(. 6.2.9).  ,
 ? 0, .
6.2.27.  r,  -
,  8 8  a
b, 8 8 H. 8  -
 a,  -
 (. 6.2.10).  
.  ,  -
? 0, .

. 6.2.9 . 6.2.10

6.3. '

6.3.1.  -
(. 6.3.1), .
 h1 = 20 . 
?
6.3.2.  U- 
. 
 , -
. 6.3.1 8 h = 2 ?

118
6.3.3.  -
 8 . 
,
8 m = 3 8? 8 S =
= 200 2.
6.3.4.
 (. 6.3.2). -
h1 = 85 .  -
, -
 ?
6.3.5. ,
,
8 ,  h = 40 .
-
. = 0,9 8/3. . 6.3.2
6.3.6. .
8   -
h1 = 34 , 
h = 2 . 
 (. 6.3.3),
 ?
.
6.3.7. ,
 (. . 6.3.3). 
, h1 = 20
, , . 6.3.3
h = 0,5 ?
6.3.8. ,
 h1 = 0,8 , 8
 h2 = 0,2 (. 6.3.4).
 .

. 6.3.4

119
6.3.9. ,   -
m1 = 100 8 m2 = 300 8, .
m1 8, 
(. 6.3.5).   ,
8 m2?
S1 = 10 2 S2 = 20 2 .
6.3.10.  -
. 8  
h0 = 60 ,  -
8 h = 7 . -
, -
= 8 102 8/3.
6.3.11. 8 8 -
,  n = 10 -
(. 6.3.6). ,
.  L 8 -
, 8
H = 0,9 ?

. 6.3.5 . 6.3.6

6.3.12. U- . -
8   3 8. -
 h0 = 30
8  . 
 ,  ?
 6.3.13. . -
8 4 88. 
h0 = 70 . 
8?
 6.3.14.  . -
h. -
1 = 0,9 8/3. 
,  ?

120
6.4.

6.4.1. , 
8 , 8 S = 1,2 2,
 p = 760 . . 
?
6.4.2. 8  p0 =
= 105 , 8 p = 0,8 105 . 8.
6.4.3.
,   6.4.1?
  h -
, p = 105 ?  -
, 
8 ? F, 
, -
  . - . 6.4.1
 S = 20 2.
6.4.4.  -
,  -
(. 6.4.2). ;
 
.  
, 8
 ? =
= 103 8/3, p0 = 105 .
6.4.5.  -
. 6.4.2
, -
 ,   12- -
h = 40 ? = 103 8/3.
6.4.6. p = 4 105 . -
  ,
 ?
6.4.7.    8 = 30
 8.  
p = 105 ?
6.4.8.   S = 1 2
 .  ,
,  , 
8 = 45  ?  D = 6 . -
.
6.4.9.   -
p = 760 . . 
   a = 1,2 /2
 .

121
6.4.10. S1 =
= 10 2 S2 = 20 2 . -
  p = 2,94 .
 ?
 6.4.11.  
,  ,
F = 20 (. 6.4.3). -
S1 = 20 2 S2 = 10 2. -
. .
 6.4.12. 8
S1 8  (. 6.4.4).
 m, S2. -
. 
. 8 h , -
- ?

. 6.4.3 . 6.4.4

6.5. 

6.5.1. , , 8-
, F = 0,5 . 8 .
6.5.2. 
V1 = 0,72 3, 8 8 ,
V2 = 0,9 3.  ,
, , ?
?
6.5.3.   ,
8 ?  m = 5,4 8.
 1 = 2,7 103 8/3.
6.5.4. 88  .
  V = 10 3.

122
6.5.5.  m = 70 8. 8  P =
= 372 . .
6.5.6.  k = 100 / 8 -
m = 100 8. 8  8 ,
l = 4 . -
, 8 8.
6.5.7.  8,
 ,  ,  -
h = 5 (. 6.5.1).

F = 2 .
(. 6.5.1).
6.5.8. m = 100 8 P1 =
= 588 , P2 = 666 . -
.
6.5.9.
, 3
8. -
? 1 = 1,29 8/3. . 6.5.1
6.5.10. 8 8 P1 =
= 50 , 8  P2 = 40 .
.
6.5.11. 8 P = 20 . 8  -
m = 90 8. 8 P1 =
= 10 . .
6.5.12.  ,
, P1 = 0,31 . 8 P2 =
= 0,29 H. . -
, .
6.5.13. m = 14,7 8 , -
mx = 13,4 8, 8 .
? .
6.5.14. , V =
= 2,1 105 3, P1 = 2,6 . -
,  8 , 88 -
, P2 = 2,2 .
6.5.15. V = 0,2 3 -
. 8 . 1 = 1,29 8/3,
2 = 0,09 8/3.
6.5.16.  , , -
,  . 
 m = 26 8, 8 ? -
= 1,29 8/3.

123
6.5.17. 8 V = 1500 3, -
.  8 M = 250 8.
m = 65 8 ? -
1 = 0,09 8/3, 2 = 1,29 8/3.
6.5.18. m = 200 8 V = 800 3. 
8 . , ?
, 8 ?
6.5.19.   -
8  a = 1 8 ,
8 8 ?
h = 11 .
6.5.20. h = 10 S =
10 2 8 , 8
8 h1 = 20 (. 6.5.2). : )
; ) -
; ) , . . .
 6.5.21. 8   -
 S (. 6.5.3).  -
 , ,
? S0, 0.

. 6.5.2 . 6.5.3
6.5.22.  h -
S (. 6.5.4). 
, 
8   S0. -
 .
 6.5.23. ,
 , 8 -
 = 103 8/3 (. 6.5.5). -
R = 10 , H = 30 . 
8 h = 10 . , -
 .
0 = 105 .

124
p0

. 6.5.4 . 6.5.5

6.5.24.  m = 60 8 8 .
 , 8 -
  k = 6 8 . -
 , -
 n = 3 .
6.5.25.  -
 -
, S = 5 103 2
(. 6.5.6).
1 = 800 8/3, 
, h = 1,5 ,
-
.  8
, V = 103 3?
6.5.26. 
 l = 60 . 6.5.6
8 S = 100 2. 8
 n = 1/4 , 
.  ,  -
.
6.5.27.   -
 R = 1 m = 10 8.  -
 8 ,
,   ?
 = 1,5 8/3,  -
.
 6.5.28. 8 
 (. 6.5.7). 8 ,
 h = 4 . -
?
 S = 12 2.
6.5.29.  ,
, , - . 6.5.7

125
. 6.5.8 . 6.5.9 . 6.5.10
 (. 6.5.8). 8  , -
h = 2 .  -
?  S = 100 2, = 103 8/3.
6.5.30.    -
.  8  (. 6.5.9).
8, 8   -
8 . , -
8 , = 750 8/3. .
 6.5.31.  , 
 , , 8 3/4 8
8 . -
, 8 8 ,   .
6.5.32. l = 0,5 ,
= 800 8/3,  8
 1 = 900 8/3 2 = 1000 8/3
(. 6.5.10). 8,   -
, = 60.  1.
6.5.33.  ,
 8 2/3 (. 6.5.11).
 m = 2 8.  .
6.5.34. ,
(. 6.5.12),    l,
 a = 0,2  .  -
 ? 1 = 0,7 8/3, l = 1 .

. 6.5.11 . 6.5.12

126
6.6.

6.6.1. , 8 ,
m = 400 . .
6.6.2. 8  
h = 40 . S = 250 2. -
8, 8 .
6.6.3. .
V = 150 3.  1 = 1030 8/3. -
.
6.6.4.  ,
,  m = 10 8 (. 6.6.1).
8 8 S = 10 2.
 ,  -
?
6.6.5.  h0 = 3 .
1. , -
8 a = 8 ?
2. 
, h1 = 3 ? = 0,6 8/3.
6.6.6.  V1 = 2 .
  V2 = 1,5 m = 0,6 8.
 ? 
.
6.6.7.  H = 10 S =
= 20 2 , 8 8 h = 4 (. 6.6.2).
8,  -
, .

. 6.6.1 . 6.6.2

6.6.8.  m = 70 8 -
 , 8 
 V = 1,5 3,
 M = 450 8?

127
6.6.9. l = 4 d = 30
.  , 
, 8? =
= 700 8/3.
6.6.10. , -
8 n = 2/3 8 . 8  -
, 8 8 m = 1 8.
.
6.6.11.  , -
 m = 350 8 8 n =
= 0,95 ? S = 30 2.
1 = 103 8/3, 2 = 900 8/3.
6.6.12. 8 V = 21,2 103 3 -
8   P =
= 712 , = 0,1 8 . -
 1 = 1,2 103 8/3, 
2 = 1,1 103 8/3. , -
8 8 8.
6.6.13.  . 
 8 ?
6.6.14.  1 , 8
, 8  2 8 .
.
6.6.15. , 8 -
. ;
m = 500 8.
6.6.16. . , -
, , 8
. . 1 =
= 0,9 103 8/3.
6.6.17.  8
8 .   -
, , 
?
 6.6.18.   ,
8 8 . 
8 8 . 
 8 ,
, V1/V2 = n = 2
?
6.6.19. , 8-
8 h = 2,1 .  8 -

128
8 ,  m = 50 8
? -
.
6.6.20.  a = 40
, 8 = 0,92 8
.   .
 8 , 8 .
  = 800 8/3.
 6.6.21. -
, 8 . 
, -
?
 6.6.22.   ,
  . , -
 8 ,
h = 11 .  -
?  = 2 103 8/3.
 6.6.23.  
m = 50 8  -
8 -
 1 =
= 800 8/3 2 = 103 8/3 (. 6.6.3).
8 8 
, 
h = 1 S =
= 3 103 2,  -
 1. . 6.6.3
6.6.24.  , a = 10 ,
,
h1 = 2,5 .  h2 = 2,5 -
. m ,
1 = 0,8 8/3? 8 8 
?
6.6.25. . -
  8 ,  , -
8 8 . -
8 ,  . , 
 8 . 2 = 9 102 8/3, -
 3 = 7,25 103 8/3.
6.6.26.  .
,  .  a = 10 . -
.

129
R 6.6.27. 8 -
S0  1 = 800 8/3
2 = 10 8/3 
3

= 900 8/3. 8-
r H 8 -
, 8 h = 15 . -
2 , 8 .
h
 6.6.28.  
8 2 = 60 -
R = 15 
. 6.6.4  = 103 8/3 , 
  6.6.4. 
  , , 8
m = 1 8?
6.6.29.  a = 30 -
8 h = 1/4 8 .
, -
8  h = 2 .
  8 .
6.6.30. , -
 V = 20 3 ,
, 8 .  n = 4
8.
6.6.31. 8 -
 = 0 + Ah, 8 0 = 1 8/3, = 0,02 8/4. -
, .  V1 = 0,1 3
V2 = 0,2 3, m1 = 0,13 8 m2 = 0,34 8. 8-
8  h1 = 2 .
. .
6.6.32.  8 , 8, 8
,    ,
 , 8  8 . 8-
8  -
, 8 
 88 , -
 8 n. -
, 8 ?
88 .

6.7.  # #

6.7.1.  V = 2 3 -
.  
 h = 2 ?

130
6.7.2.  r = 2 
8 h = 3 .  ,
 H = 2 ?
6.7.3. 8 h = 2  -
 , 2 = 7800 8/3. ,
  .
.
6.7.4.  , 8
= 200 8/3, 8 8 h = 30 ?
.
6.7.5. m r 8 -
8 h .  , -
, 8 ? -
.
6.7.6.   8 h = 1
. 8 8 ,
h2 = 0,2 .
.  m = 200 8;
 = 200 8/3. -
.
6.7.7.  8-
, 8  -
(. 6.7.1).  , 8
? 1 = 0,8, 8 .
6.7.8. 
 , 8 x
  . -
 8 8 
, 8 ? -
m = 10 8, 8
S = 2 104 2.
6.7.9. h -
R  0
(. 6.7.2).  - . 6.7.1
 -
8 ?
.
6.7.10. 
1 = 600 8/3 . 
a = 10 . , h
 , : ) -
; ) 8 .
 6.7.11.  2R
a = 20 , 8 . 6.7.2

131
= 600 8/3, (. 6.7.3).  -
 ,
?
6.7.12.  8 d d = 2 2 2
 ,    6.7.4.
 .  -
,  90 8
, ?  m = 100 8,
l = 20 .
 6.7.13. 8 h = 10
R = 1 H = 0,8 .  
  -
? = 800 8/3.
 .
 6.7.14.  R = 40 ,
 = 103 8/3,  -
 ,   (. 6.7.5).  -
,  -
l = 10 ?   r =
= 3 . 8 h = 30 .
.

d
R

a l/2
F

l/2 h l

. 6.7.3 . 6.7.4 . 6.7.5

6.7.15. ,   -
,  , 8  8-
.  8 .
 = 0,9 8/3. 8 8  -
, 8  8 -
, 
A = 25 . ? 
 .

132
6.8. 

6.8.1. p  
(d1 = 9 , d2 = 6 )  8 ,
   v1 = 6 / (. 6.8.1).
6.8.2.  8
 v1 = 4 /. 
 , p =
= 20 . .
 6.8.3. 
vmax = 2,5 /.
Q = 5600 3 .  
  T -
?
6.8.4. 8 8 -
.   -
S1 = 10 2 S2 = 20 2. -
 p2 p1 = h = 200 8
(. 6.8.2). , t = 1
.

v1 d2 d1 S2 S1

. 6.8.1 . 6.8.2

6.8.5. 8 d = 1
F = 0,2 H.   -
 , 8 , 8-
? ,  -
, 8 .
.  = 1,2 103 8/3.
6.8.6. ,  v = 9 /,
 8 8  , -
  8 -
. 8  , , -
.  
? .
6.8.7.  8 -
 n = 3 8
?  9 /. -
.

133
S2 6.8.8.  8  8 -
 -
8, -
8 S1 = 1 2,
S1  S2 = 2 2 (. 6.8.3)? 
S1 v0 = 10 /.
. 6.8.3 .
6.8.9. 8 
. h, P. -
    -
8  S.  -
 -
, ? .
6.8.10.  .
Q = 60 /. S 8 -
h = 2  ,
8 S0 = 1,5 2.
6.8.11. S1. -
h, -
. 8 , -
 3h 8 . ,
8,
.
6.8.12. 8
. , ,  
, . -
k. 
 8 , 8 S 8
8 S1. ,  
h -
. .
 6.8.13. 8    -
 (. 6.8.4).   -
 ? h, H .
6.8.14.  
8 S = 0,2 2 .
H = 50 .  Q =
= 140 3 .  , 
, .
6.8.15.  , 8
S, 8 . 8
 S1 n S,
h1 = 0,25 .

134
 h = 1 . 8 , -
 , 8 -
(. 6.8.5); S1 = 1 2.

H h1
x
h S1
h

. 6.8.4 . 6.8.5

6.8.16.   , -
8  8 8 = 7?
6.8.17. ,  h = 20 ,
 (. 6.8.6).  -
 8 , -
?  8
d = 40 .
6.8.18.  8 -
,  8 h (. 6.8.7).
H, R, 8 m.  F
,   -
? .
6.8.19. ,  L, -
(. 6.8.8) 8-
 a (a < g). ,
 . -
 M.

H F a
h
h
M
L

. 6.8.6 . 6.8.7 . 6.8.8


135
6.8.20.   -
(. 6.8.9), h =
= 10 ? 8 d = 5 , -
b = 15 .
6.8.21.  8  =
= 4,9 / 8  (. 6.8.10). 8-
  h r
. R = 20 .
6.8.22.   8
 8  . : )
8 ; )
 .
6.8.23.   ,
,  r = 2 m = 20 8, -
 l = 40 .
8  8  = 5 /.
8 -
8 .
 6.8.24. , 8   -
  8 ,
8  8  (. 6.8.11). 
  .   -
. p0, -
. : ) 8 ; ) -
8  .

R
a h

h
H
b

R
5R

. 6.8.9 . 6.8.10 . 6.8.11

136
7.

7.1.

7.1.1.   1 = 0,05 , -
2 = 2 , -
8 3 = 250 . -
.
7.1.2.   T = 2,5 , -
n = 500 .   -
  t = 1 ?
7.1.3.  = 300 , -
n = 600  . 
  -
,  ?  v1 =
= 6 /,  v2 = 10 /.
7.1.4. h = 0,2
  
8  = 30. 
 8 8, -
  
. 7.1.1
(. 7.1.1).  .
7.1.5.   : x =
= A sin (t + ), 8 A = 2 , = 2,5 1, = 0,4 . -
,  ( -
t0 = 0).
7.1.6.  8 -
 = 0, A =
= 0,4  0 = 0,25.
 = 2 ?
7.1.7.  8 -
 = --- , = 2
2
A = 3 .  .
7.1.8.  8 -
  = , A =
= 6  0 = 3. -
 ? -
t1 = 1 ?
7.1.9.   : x =
= 0,4 cos -2t + --- . 8 
1
2
 .

137
7.1.10.   :
x = 0,4 sin -2t --- .   -
1
2
  t1 = 2 .
7.1.11.    x = A sin (t + ),
8 A = 4 . , :
1) x(0) = 2 v(0) < 0; 3) x(0) = 2 2 v(0) < 0;
2) x(0) = 2 3 v(0) > 0; 4) x(0) = 2 3 v(0) > 0.
7.1.12.   A = 4 -
T = 2 . , ,
t = 0 x(0) = 0 v(0) < 0. (t + )
: ) 8 x = 1 v = 0;
) 8  v = 6 / x < 0.
7.1.13.   vmax , 8-
   , 10 /, -
 amax = 100 /2. 
, T A. -
, .
7.1.14.    x = A sin t.
 x1   -
5 . 8  , x2
8 . A .
7.1.15.   x = A cos (t + ).
 x  5 , -
v = 20 /  a = 80 /2. A,
 , T  (t + ) -
.
 7.1.16.   T = 2 ,
 A = 5 .   ,
8 x = 3 .
7.1.17.   
,
?  .
7.1.18.  X  x =
= 0,1 sin (2t).  : )
; ) 1/8 ; ) 1/8
.
7.1.19.  
 T = 6 . d  -
20 .  
, , -
, ,  .
x,  v  a 
t = 1 .

138
7.1.20.   -
: x1 = A1 sin t x2 = A2 cos t, 8 A1 = 1 ; A2 = 2 ; =
= 1 1. A 8 , 8
. 8 .
7.1.21.  8 -
 , -
 :
1) x = A cos t y = A cos t;
2) x = A cos t y = A1 cos t;
3) x = A cos t y = A cos (t + 1);
4) x = A2 cos t y = A cos (t + 2);
5) x = A1 cos t y = A1 sin t;
6) x = A cos t y = A1 sin t;
7) x = A2 sin t y = A1 sin t.
8  ,
 -
. , A = 2 , A1 = 3 , A3 = 1 ; 1 = --- , 2 = .
2

7.2.  ## #

7.2.1.  m = 0,1 8 -
 x = A cos t, 8 A = 5 , = 20 1.
 Fmax 
8 Emax.
7.2.2. F t = 1 -
8 E , 
 x = A cos t, 8 A = 20 , = 2
------- 1.
3
 m = 10 8.
7.2.3.  8
x = A cos t, 8 A = 8 , = --- 1. , 8
6
F 8 5 , -
8  100 . -
t t.
7.2.4. m = 1 8,  8-
 8 , 8 -
8 , 8
 p = 2
--- sin (2t).  8 = 0,25

139
. 
 8 ?
 7.2.5.  8 -

 x = A sin 2t + --- .  -
6
 8 ?
7.2.6.  m = 1 8 8-
   x = 0,1 sin t. 
 8 . -
 8 = 0,1
.
7.2.7.  8   x =
= 5 sin 2t. , 8
8 F = 5 103 , 8 -
U = 6 105 . .
7.2.8. 8  -
 = 2 , -
-
8.   -
8  n = 3
--- ?
4
7.2.9. 8  
x = 4 sin t 1
--- .  
6
 8 8
8 ?
7.2.10. m = 100 8 8 -
. x1 = 40 x2 = 0,4 2 -
 v1 = 3 3 / v2 = 3 2 / -
. 8 .

7.3. ' 

7.3.1. m = 0,1 8, , -


N = 20  t = 12,6 .  -
.
7.3.2.  8 m1 = 400 8, -
8  1 = 1 .  
8 m2 = 100 8, 8  ?
7.3.3.   8,  -
, 8 m2 = 100 8, 

140
n = 1,41 .  8 -
 ?
7.3.4.   8, -
8 8, n = 1
--- 8
4
8?
7.3.5. 8 -
8.  8 8 T1 = 4 , -
8 T2 = 3 . ,  -
8?
7.3.6. 
8, x1 = 2 x2 = 4 -
. , 8  -
8.
7.3.7.   8 1 = 2 .
 8, -
2 = 1 . 
?
 7.3.8.    8,
8  , -
8  ?
7.3.9.  m = 200 8
8 8 . 
k = 3,2 /.   
A = 3 
t0 = 0.  . 8 -
 t = 2 .
7.3.10.  8, 8 -
 k = 0,5 /,  A = 6
  v = 3 /?
7.3.11.  , -
 4 T,  ,  -
 .  
, -
 ?
7.3.12. m,  k,
 v, -
 . , ,
, 8.
7.3.13. ,  m
,  k. 
. , -
, -
, 8.

141
7.3.14.  k    -
 m,  , -
 (. 7.3.1). L. -
 ,  .
7.3.15. m ,  ,
 8 8,  8 8-
,   (. 7.3.2). -
8, 8  A.
 .
 7.3.16.  8 . 
8 m (. 7.3.3).
 .  k.

. 7.3.1 . 7.3.2 . 7.3.3

7.3.17. m = 100 8  -
k = 50 / A = 4 . : ) -
 8 ; ) 8 
  x = 2 ; )  8
; 8)  8 .
7.3.18.  8 -
m
8,  -------1- = 2, -
m2
 .
8 ,  -
.
7.3.19. 8,
x
---------1- = 2. -
x 2
8  8, -
A
,  ------2 = 2.
A1

142
7.3.20. 8 m = 200 8 
 k = 20 /, 8    
(. 7.3.4).
x0 = 10  v0 = 1 /.
 8 8 . .
7.3.21. , , 8-
  A = 1 (. 7.3.5).  -
l   -
,   ? -
 8.
7.3.22.  h = 0,8
8 m = 50 8  . -
  .  . -
 k = 100 /.

. 7.3.4 . 7.3.5 . 7.3.6


7.3.23.  k = 200 / 
m = 200 8. 8  h 
,  (. 7.3.6). 88 
  A = 2 . h.
.
7.3.24. 8 8 -
 M, 
  k. -
m,  v,
 (. 7.3.7). -
  . 7.3.7
.

7.4.  

7.4.1.  0,99 50 
1 40 .  8 8
. 2 d 9,86.

143
l
7.4.2.  ----1 = 9--- .  -
l2 4
20 .   -
?
7.4.3.  -
40 , 8
10 ; 90 . -
8.
7.4.4.   
T1 = 5 , 8 T2 = 3 .   -
8 , 8 -
?
7.4.5.   l -
  
(. 7.4.1).   -
l1 = --l-  8. -
2
T  .
. 7.4.1
7.4.6.   l =
= 0,49   -
 . 8 8 -
,   k = 10 /.
7.4.7. 88 -
  . ,
 ,
 H = 200 . -
.
7.4.8.  -
 , 8  -
n = 2 ?
7.4.9.  8 
l = 1 ,  -
, n = 3 .
7.4.10. , l = 1 , -
8 , 8 -
8  A = 10 . -
 8.
7.4.11.   l = 1
8  A = 10 . -
 , 8 8
8.
7.4.12.   l = 1,5 
8 0 = 5 t0 = 0
.  8 -
 n = 3 ?

144
 7.4.13.   -
l = 50  O , -
8  (. 7.4.2).
  8 2 .
  8,
 8 .
7.4.14.    
 .  l = 0,81 .
 , - . 7.4.2
: ) ; ) ?  a = 2,2 /2.
7.4.15.   l = 0,5 
 . 8 , : )
; ) 8 -
a = 2,5 /2; ) 8  8
= 15  a = 2,5 /2; 8)
8 = 15  8.
 7.4.16.  m = 1 8 . -
 8  T1 = 1 .  -
 8,  T2 = 0,5 . -
,  8.
7.4.17.  m = 2 8 -
l = 1 .  8 ,
8 8 8 -
  . , -
 T = 1,6 .
7.4.18.  m M,

l , -
 8 (. 7.4.3)
. -
  -
, 8. . 7.4.3
 8.
7.4.19.  , l1 = 20 ,
8 l2 = 40 ,  
8 . -
 8.  -
.
7.4.20.   l = 0,5 
8  t0 = 0. 
 8  8 8 -
 t = 7 ?

145
7.5.

7.5.1.  k  
 m,   ,
8   (. 7.5.1). -
.  .
7.5.2.  , 8 -
 k = 500 /, 8 8 . -
 8  ,
8 E = 0,1 .
7.5.3. , -
 k1 = 20 / k2 = 10 / ,  
 7.5.2,   , -
  l = 10 . .
7.5.4. 8 8 8 m,
 8   (. 7.5.3).
 k, 8 2 .
8  , -
. .
7.5.5.  m = 0,5 8  -
  k = 500 /
   M = 2 8,
8 (. 7.5.4).  ,  -
x0 = 2
.   -
, 8.
7.5.6. 8 8  -
 M = 1 8,  , 
  k = 30 / (. 7.5.5). 
m = 0,5 8.  -
.  ,
 8  , . . -
. 
 = 0,4.

. 7.5.1 . 7.5.2 . 7.5.3

146
. 7.5.4 . 7.5.5
7.5.7.     
 k   
 8  2k (. 7.5.6).
,  -
  T. ?
 7.5.8. m 3m , 
,  
  k (. 7.5.7). -
.
, 8 m -
  v0.  -
8.

. 7.5.6 . 7.5.7 . 7.5.8

 7.5.9. m1   , -
 . m2
  k
(. 7.5.8). .
m1 A
.   -
  8.
7.5.10. 8 88 , 8 -
AB,  k1 = 10 /

147
k2 = 20 /,  m = 100 8 ,  
 7.5.9.   . -
8 ,  .
 7.5.11. m = 1 8 M = 4 8
,    7.5.10. -
m 8  A = 1,6
 = 25 /. 8 -
,
 . 
 M ?

. 7.5.9 . 7.5.10 . 7.5.11


 7.5.12.   88 -
8  m
  k1 k2
 8  O 8
(. 7.5.11). 8,   
8 . -
 ,  k1 -
l1. :
1) ;
2)  .
 7.5.13. 8 
R = 10  m =10 8 (. 7.5.12),
 8 . -
 , -
, smax = 5 . 8 E -
?

148
7.5.14.  8 -
m1 = 50 8 -
8 m2 = 200 8,
(. 7.5.13).
8  -
.
7.5.15. , . 7.5.12
.
= 5,5
103 8/3, -
.
7.5.16.
a 8 8 -
. 
 M () 8 . 7.5.13
.  -
, 8 a, , -
,  , 8 -
. .
 7.5.17.  M = 100 8, -
8 8
,  8
,   -
l = 25 8 m = 50 8 (.
7.5.14). 8  -
8  .
 -
8, 8. . 7.5.14
7.5.18. 
8 m = 0,1 8. l = 2 . -
8 = 10 . .
.
7.5.19. -
,
   7.5.15. -
 l = 20 , -
-
 = 0,18. ,
8- . 7.5.15
 , .
 7.5.20. m = 0,2 8 .
8 8 8  , -
 T = 3,4 .  -
, ,  .
   d = 1 .

149
7.5.21. , 8
,  ,
.
  T = 2 . l .
.
7.5.22.  m =
= 121 8, V- . -
 S = 0,3 2.
 7.5.23. ,  -
a = 50 . 8 8 ( -
) , 8 -
8  A = 5 . -
8  . =
= 103 8/3. .

7.6. ' 

 7.6.1. 8 8 ,
8, l = 30 8
8. 8   ,
 ,   8 x0 = 2
8 m0 = 1 8.   v 
,  8 , , -
?  M = 10 8.
7.6.2.  . 8
 , 8 x = 10 .
8    v = 3,6 /,
 , . 
8 ?
7.6.3. 
8, 8 -
l = 10 . ,   -
8  ,
m = 100 8,  8
8  k = 5 103 /.
 7.6.4. m = 3 , 4- -
  k = 106 / , -
8,
8.  ,
 . 
, -
.
7.6.5.  m = 50 8 -
k = 10 /  

150
. ,  ,
  -
. , 
 8. 
, 8   -
  8  .
7.6.6. 8  . -
 .   8 8-
 T = 4 . 8  -
A = 0,4 ,  -
.  .
 7.6.7.  8 -
  = 2 . -
, , -
,  
A = 10 ? .
7.6.8. m = 150 8, l =
= 0,2 ,   , -
8  8
 = 0,05 sin 20t.
 8 t.

7.7. 

7.7.1.  , t = 20 
N = 40 , 8-
= 1,4 .   ?
7.7.2. , 8 , , -
8 = 3,2 . 8,
, t = 22 8 n = 12 8
.  .
7.7.3. 8 , 8
,  , , -
, 8 t1 = 5 .
8 = 0,5 t2 = 2 N = 7  8.
   ?
7.7.4. 88
 v = 15 /.   T = 1,2 ,
A = 2 . : ) ; ) -
; ) ,    ,
x = 45  t = 4 .
7.7.5.   y(x, t) =
= 0,5 cos (200t 2x) . : ) 
; )  ; )  -
  .

151
7.7.6.  
.  A = 0,1 .
,  x = 3
--- , -
4
t = 0,9T , 8 , T
.
7.7.7. 8
 v = 3 / = 2 .  -
 , 8 8 l =
= 75 ?
7.7.8. ,
  l = 4 , t = T/6
. 8 .
7.7.9. 8 l = 1,5 ,  -
8  , = 3 .
8 n = 4 .  -
8.
7.7.10. -
,
l =16 .
7.7.11.   
, 8
?  8 m, -
 S. .

7.8. '

7.8.1.  30
8,  . -
10 .   .
7.8.2. 90 9000 .
 .
7.8.3.  40 .
 ?  8 ,
 4
?   1450 /.
7.8.4.  
1, 2. 
  -
, 1 = 22?
7.8.5.   -
v1 = 1480 /,  v2 = 340 /.
  
?

152
7.8.6.  
v = 150 /. ,
 ,   -
, x = 0,75 .
7.8.7.  A  B  8 -
= 50 ,  v = 340 /.
A B 
. , 8 = 20 K ,
. , 
A B, n = 2. -
 A B,
T = 1 K   v = 0,5 /.
7.8.8. ,  ,
8 8 l = 40 .
 .   v = 340 /.
7.8.9. 
,
l = 20 8 8.
8 .   v = 330 /.
7.8.10.  u = 40 /.
0 8  300 . -
, 8 ,
: 1) ; 2) .
7.8.11. 8 , 8 8 8-
0 = 300 ,  u = 40 /.
 :
1)  ; 2) 8.
7.8.12. -
. , , 
. 8 ,   1 =
= 1100 ; 8 ,  2 = 900 . -
 u  0 , 8 .
7.8.13.   0 = 8  -
. =
= 4,2 .   -
.   u
 8  , -
  ?
7.8.14. 
u1 = 30 / u2 = 20 /.  8
1 = 600 .  2 , -
8 , : 1)
; 2) . ( ,
) 8 ?

153
7.8.15.    0 = 50 
8   -
.  u , 1
(   8, -
8 ) 250 .   
v = 1,5 /.
7.8.16. 8 8.
 .  1
 8 ,  -
v?   u.

154
2

8. - .

8.1.  .

8.1.1. V = 2,4 105 3  -


,  S = 0,6 2.
 ,
.
8.1.2. , -
, -
.
8.1.3.    m =
= 0,01 8?
8.1.4.   
d = 0,1 ?
8.1.5. 8 N, 8 -
8 M,
: ) 8 ; )
; ) m; 8) V.
8.1.6.  
(Hg) n1 = 3 1016 3, 8 8 (Cl2)
n2 = 8,5 1018 3. 8 -
 .
8.1.7. , 8 S = 20 2,
h = 1 .  -
?
 8.1.8. 10   100 8 .
  1 ?
8.1.9.  
d = 5 , 8
  n = 1018 3,
 v = 0,39 /?
8.1.10. 8 H = 100 S =
= 10 2 (NaCl) m = 0,01 8.  -

155
  V = 2 3, ,
, , ?
8.1.11.    -
,  -
 .
.
8.1.12. ,  -
d = 3 1010 , ,  ,
, m = 1 8 8 8,
8  8.
.
8.1.13. V = 1  m = 1 8.
,  . -
 d = 108 .

8.2. # # ' #.
 '

8.2.1.   8
8  8 E = 8,31 1021 ?
8.2.2.  8, -
 8 8 n = 1,2 ?
8 T0 = 400 .
8.2.3.  8 8
8,  8 -
T = 500 E = 800 .
8.2.4.  . 
   ,
t1 = 17 t2 = 47 ?
8.2.5. 8, 8 ,
= 21%.  
 8 ?
8.2.6.    -
m = 4 1021 8, . -
T = 300 .
8.2.7. ,   -
 m = 1,74 1012 8, ,
   -
.
8.2.8. ()  T =
= 6000 . -
,  ? -
.

156
8.2.9.    -
  v1 = 460 /. 
  v2 
?
8.2.10.  88 8, 
v = 600 /, 8 . 
, .
8.2.11. 8  
.    v = 200 /,  n =
= 4 1017 3,  m = 3,32 1027 8.  -
  . -
, S = 1 2 t = 1 ,
,  .
8.2.12. 8  
. , , -
  v = 103 /,  n = 5 1017 3,
 m = 3,32 1027 8.  -
   .
8.2.13. , 
,  8 = 45.
8.2.14. -
   t = 127 .
8.2.15. , 
   -
 v = 20 /.  
.

8.3. '
'-

8.3.1. V = 1 m = 2 8.
,  -
8  v = 400 /.
8.3.2.  1 =
= 0,09 8/3. , 8 -
2 = 0,72 8/3.
8.3.3. 8,   8
n = 2 1025 3,   8  v =
= 600 /.  m = 4 1026 8.
8.3.4. 8 8  -
n = 25 .  
 8 ?

157
8.3.5.  8.
= 19%. 
  8 ?
8.3.6.  8 -
8  8 8,
p = 2 105   8 n = 5 1025 3.
8.3.7.  8 -
8 8, = 2 8 8
V = 10 p = 106 ?
8.3.8.  , -
 V = 5 ,  8 -
8   E  = 6 ?
8.3.9.  8, 8
n = 4 , k = 2 ?
8.3.10. = 3,3 8/3 -
t = 17 . 8,  m0 =
= 6,6 1027 8.  8?
8.3.11. N = 2 1022  -
8 8, 8  V = 13,8
p = 100 .
 8.3.12.   8 8,
T = 300 8 = 1,2 8/3,
   v = 500 /.
8.3.13. m = 0,5 8 V = 2
 , t = 27 p =
= 105 .   ,
  8 ?

8.4. 

8.4.1. -
t1 = 27 p1 = 180 .  -
8 , 8 V2 = 3 . 
, 8 V1 = 1,5 ?
8 8  pV, pT, VT.
8.4.2. 8 
V1 = 6 , 8 n = 3 .
 , 8?
8.4.3. 8  , 8
n = 1,4 , p = 2 . -
8.
8.4.4. 
( 7134 ) p1 = 288 . .

158
 0 , , -
0 = 1,29 8/3.
8.4.5.  , 8 , -
.
( ) V1 = 2
p1 = 105 , V2 = 1 p2 = 3 105 . -
. .
8.4.6.  , 8-
, -
8 8  8 (. 8.4.1).
, 8
. -
m = 2 8, S = 2 2,
p0 = 100 ,  . 8.4.1
8 = 0,3.
8.4.7. -
.  
(. 8.4.2).  8
, -
2 ? M = 6 8. -
8 S = 20 2.
. p0.
8.4.8.  2l -
.
,  ,
 - . 8.4.2
p. 
, , -
p?
8.4.9.   , -
,  
.
8  l = 10 , -
-
p0.  ,
8. 
? -
. .
8.4.10. 8  
S (. 8.4.3). -

 k , p0 8
, l 8 
. -

159
 .   ,
8 ? 8 -
. .
8.4.11. 8  -
, 8,  ,
.
p0. S1 S2. -
V0 (. 8.4.4).
 ,  A -
p? . -
.

. 8.4.3 . 8.4.4
8.4.12. m = 20 8
S = 20 2 (. 8.4.5). 8  -
8  a = 5 /2,
= 20%. -
, p.
 .
8.4.13.  8 = 30  8
(. 8.4.6) 8 m = 1 8
8 S = 10 2, 8 8 
 . . -
. -
, , 8 ,
, .  . -
p0 = 100 . .
8.4.14. , 
,  m = 4 8, 8-
8   (. 8.4.7).
8
, p = 1,25 .
V
S = 200 2. ------1
V2
,   -
, 8 = 60 8. -
  = 0,25,
.

160
V2

. 8.4.5 . 8.4.6 . 8.4.7

8.4.15.  V = 1,2
p0 = 100 ,  -
 m =
= 100 8. 2l = 0,4 . -
8 -
 , 8
(. 8.4.8). 8  -
, 
r = 0,1 . -
, - . 8.4.8
.
 8.4.16. -
m = 50 8, 8
 8 
S = 100 2
l = 20  (. 8.4.9).

p0 = 100 . -
. . . 8.4.9

8.5.

8.5.1. V1 = 100 3 t1 = 0 .
8 8 t2 = 100 . 8-
 8  pV, pT, VT.  -
8? 8 p = 1 .
8.5.2. t1 = 0 8 V1 = 30 .
 8 V2 = 10 -
?  8.
8.5.3. ,  ,
t1 = 1000 t2 = 150 .  -
,  -
?

161
8.5.4.   t1 = 17
8 t2 = 1277 . 
, ?
8.5.5.
.
l = 10 (. 8.5.1). 
8
t = 30 , 8 -
? t = 27 .
.
8.5.6.
, 8 8
. 8.5.1 T = 10 = 3% -
8?
 8.5.7. V1 = 0,008 3 T1 =
= 300 . 8, 8 8
T2 = 900 8 2 = 0,6 8/3.
8.5.8. 8 -
.
8.5.9.
V = 0,1  -
8  (. 8.5.2). -
 , ,
. 8.5.2 8 .
t1 = 0  -
l1 = 10 . -
8 , t2 = 40  -
l2 = 50 . -
l T.

8.6.
8.6.1. t1 = 27 8  -
p1 = 100 . V = 1 . 
t2 = 100 ? 8 8 -
 pV, pT, VT.
8.6.2. 8  -
8 t1 = 20
p1 = 0,6 , 8
p2 = 1 . 8 8 -
 ?
8.6.3.  8
p1 = 6 .  8 8
, 8 p2 = 8 ?

162
8.6.4. 8 t1 = 17
t2 = 18 . .
8.6.5. 8 8 8 T = 3 -
8 = 0,01 -
8 . 8.
8.6.6.  
T = 280 p = 100 .  -
8 , , ,
 8  F =
= 10 H?  S = 4 2.
8.6.7. , , 8
, 8 1,5 . -
 8 8 , 8 -
2 .  (-
) 8  8 ?

8.7. # 

8.7.1. 8 8 88
8 8.  8 V1 = 0,2 ,
8 t1 = 1527 . V2 = 1,4
p2 = 2,5 , 8 t2 = 627 .
8.
8.7.2. 8 1 = 10%, -
2 = 20%, 8 V = 1 .
8.
8.7.3. 8 1 = 20%,
2 = 10%, 8 T = 24 .
 8.
8.7.4.   V0 = 50
p0 = 40,5 T0 = 300
V = 1000 3,
T = 280 p = 98 ? -
,  -
, 8 , 88
. .?
8.7.5.  8  -
.   ,
 . 1.  -
,
? 2. 
?

163
8.7.6.  , 8 -
t = 0 ,  8 
d = 5 ,   . 
V = 200 3. 
, 8 t = 2 C, -
8  ?
8.7.7.    l = 1 ,
8, 
. 8 t1 = 100 , -
8 8 t2 = 0 .  8 
 , 8
 ?
 8.7.8. 8 8
l = 1 .  ,
(. 8.7.1),   -
t = 27 C.  -
, 8 T = 60 , -
8 T = 60 ? .
.
8.7.9.  8 88
8 . 8 -
S = 100 2,  =
= 0,6. , -
l = 30 8 . -
8 T0 = 250
p0 = 105 .  
k = 100 /, 8    -
 (. 8.7.2).  8
, 8?
m = 10 8,  .
8.7.10. ,  -
 8.7.3, , 8
.  
T, -
.
,  ,
8 T,  .

. 8.7.1 . 8.7.2 . 8.7.3

164
8.8.

8.8.1.   88 -
V = 12 .  -
p = 2 ?  t = 20 .
8.8.2.  V = 100 
t = 0 p = 40 -
( 8 )  .
8 .  -
?
8.8.3. t = 27
.  , -
 ?  ,
 , 8 .
8.8.4. t = 27 p = 2,08 105
8 = 1,42 8/3. ,  8 8
14 1
7 N 1 H . -
 8 .
8.8.5. 8 V = 25 m = 65 8. 8
t = 27 , p = 0,1 .  8 -
(S)  (O). 
.  8?
8.8.6.  8 88
V0 = 22,4 . 
 ,
t = 500 ,
p = 100p0, 8 p0 -
?
8.8.7.  m = 10 8 . 
, 8  V = 10 ,
p = 20 , T = 300 ?
8.8.8. V = 10 -
p = 106 t = 20 C.  m
, 8 8
m = 50 8 ?
8.8.9.
t1 = 23 . -
. ,
p = 2 . 8 t2 =
= 27 8 = 10% 8. 
?
8.8.10.  V = 60 3 8 -
t1 = 15 t2 = 22 . -

165
, m , 8 
.
8.8.11.  V = 10 8 -
t = 27 C.  8 -
p = 4,2 .   8, -
? .
8.8.12. 8 t0 = 15 .
 8, = 40% 8 -
, t = 8 ?
8.8.13.    v =
= 5 /. t = 227 C. , -
8 t = 30 ,
 S = 1 2, p = 3 .
8.8.14. S = 10 2 8 8
p = 3,92 t = 27 C. -
 8 , t = 5
8 m = 15 8.
8.8.15.    -
, 8 S, h
m, -
8 M. 8 T,
p0. 8 , 8 .
 8.8.16.  m = 1 8
. S = 10 2, M = 1 8. 8
T = 10 .  ?
. = 28 103 8/.
.
8.8.17. m 8 8 -
p2
 -----
- = a, 8 a = const. -
T
8 8 . 8 .
8.8.18. 8  = 1  -
1 2  p = V 2 + ,
8  . -
 8  ?
8.8.19.  , 
, . -
 8
m0 = 112 8 (. 8.8.1). 8
T = 20 . 8  l = 0,2 .
 , 8 ?
m = 6 8, 8 -
S = 102 2. -
. 8.8.1 p0 = 10 . .

166
8.8.20.  8 l = 80
. 
,   -
, 8  ( )  
? 1 = 2 103 8/,
 2 = 32 103 8/.
 8.8.21.  
8, .
8 n = 3 , .

8 . -
8 V2/V1,
k = 2 ? -
.

8.9. 

8.9.1.  8.9.1,  1 2 -
 8.  -
, ?

p p p
2p0 2
1 2 1 2
p0 p0 p0 1

) 0 T0 2T0 T ) 0 V0 2V0 V ) 0 T0 T

V V
2V0 2
1 2
V0 1 V0

) 0 T0 T ) 0 T0 2T0 T

. 8.9.1

167
8.9.2. pT- VT-8 , -
8 (. 8.9.2). 
8 4 1?
8.9.3. pV- VT-8 , -
8 (. 8.9.3). 8 -
4.  , 2 4, 
?

p p
1 2 2 4
2p0 3p0

p0
3 4 1
p0
3
0 V0 3V0 5V0 V
0 T0 T

. 8.9.2 . 8.9.3

8.9.4. 8 ,
 8.9.4.   pV, pT.
8.9.5.  8.9.5 8 , 8
8,  pV. 8 
 pT VT.

p
V 2
4p0

3V0 2
2p0
1 3 1
V0
p0
4 3
0 T0 T2 = T3 T
0 V0 V

. 8.9.4 . 8.9.5

8.9.6.  8.9.6 8 , 8
8,  VT. 8 8
  pV. 8
8   .

168
8.9.7.  8.9.7 8 , 8
8,  pT. 8 8
  pV. 8
8   .
8.9.8. 8 8 , 8 -
 p = V, 8 = 2 107 /3. -
pV-, pT- VT-8 ,
8 T1 = 200 T2 = 500 .
8.9.9. 8 8 , 8 -

- , 8 = 107 .
 p = ---
T
8 8 pV-, pT- VT-8,
8 V1 = 10 V2 = 40 .
8.9.10. 8 8 , 8
 V = T2, 8 = 2 107 3/2.
pV-, pT- VT-8, 8
p1 = 100  p2 = 400 .

V p p
3p0 2 3
2 3 2
3V0 3p0
1 2p0
2V0 4
p0 1 6
1 3
V0 p0
4 5

0 T0 T 0 T0 2T0 5T0 T 0 V0 V

. 8.9.6 . 8.9.7 . 8.9.8

8.9.11. 8
, 8 8  - V
 8.9.8. 8 8 -
2
 pT. - 3V0
- 1/T
.
1 3
8.9.12. 8 V0
, 8 8  -
 8.9.9. 8 - 0 T0 T
T3. 8 8 -
 pV. . 8.9.9

169
p 8.9.13. m = 20 8 
1 (
2
p2 V1 = 32 p1 = 4,1 105 ) -
2 (V2 = 9 p2 = 15,5 105 ). 
p1 1 8 8
,
(. 8.9.10)?
0 V2 V1 V 8.9.14. 8 -
 123, -
. 8.9.10  8.9.11. 8 1 3
T1 = 300 T3 = 400 . -
8 2?
 8.9.15. 8 , 8 8
pV-8 (. 8.9.12).  41 23
. V3, V1 = 2 , V2 =
= V4 = 3 .

p
p
2
p2
2 3
1
p1
3
1 4

0 V 0 V1 V2 V3 V

. 8.9.11 . 8.9.12

8.10. 

8.10.1.  V = 12 -
m1 = 6,4 8 8 m2 = 5,6 8. -
8, p = 105 .
8.10.2.  V = 100 T =
= 300 m1 = 4 8 8 m2 = 4 8.
, 8  8 = 0,5
.
 8.10.3. , m1 = 14 8
m2 = 32 8  t = 7 C -
p = 10 .

170
8.10.4. 8 8
n = 1,6 1025 3. .
8.10.5. 8, (1 =
= 80%)  (2 = 20%),
, .
8.10.6. , m = 1 8 ,
N = 1026  .
k = 2 . ,  -
8.
 8.10.7. V1 = 3 V2 = 8
  .   -
8 p1 = 750 . . p2 = 300 . . -
8 
, 8 .
8.10.8.  8.
 . 8
m1 = 1 8 p1 = 105 , m2 = 2 8 -
p2 = 4 105 .  ,
 ? .
8.10.9.  V0 = 60 3
8 5 : 1 p0 = 5
. . 8. 8 -
V = 2 . 8 p1 = 50 . .,
p2 = 20 . .    ?
8.10.10.  , -
8, 8 8-
. -
8,
 8, ,
.
l = 1 , 8
1
--- l 8 8 . 8.10.1
4
(. 8.10.1). 8 . -
,  ,
b = 0,3 . -
8 . 8 .
8.10.11. V = 1 3 m = 0,28 8 -
. 8 t = 1500 ,  = 30%
 . .
8.10.12.  V = 0,5 m = 1 8
I2. T = 300 p = 200 . .
.

171
8.10.13.  V = 22,4 103 3 -
 m = 5 103 8 8.
8  8 8 88
8 CO2, T = 100 . -
 .
 8.10.14.  V
8. m1
m2, 8 . 8
 .  -
 ? 8
T. 1, 2.
 8.10.15.   -
 2h = 60
S = 102 2
 m =
= 0,3 8,
(. 8.10.2).
8 p = 100 , -
.  -
8,
. 8.10.2 
 -
. x . 
8 ? .
.

8.11.

8.11.1.  -
. 
k = 40 . 
,  N = 120
? .
8.11.2. 
, 8  8.  8,
  V = 16  p = 5 ,

V0 = 0,6 8  t0 = 1,5 ?
 p0 = 1 .
 8.11.3.  
V0 = 10 3 -
8 8 V = 10 3.
T = 323 .

172
 , -
p = 10p0, 8 p0 -
? p0 .
8.11.4. 8 8 8
 k = 3 ,
8  , p = 21 .
8 .
.
8.11.5. p0 = 105 . V =
= 400 3, V0 = 100 3.  -
?
8.11.6. , 8 p1 = 97 , -
 . -
p2 = 29 . -
8 .
8.11.7. V = 1,5 . -
 , 8 V0 = 100 3,
k = 120 ?

8.12.  #

8.12.1.  V = 20 .
T1 = 293  p1 = 11,8 a. -
 
8 ,  -
8 H = 30 T2 = 288 ?
 8.12.2.  8 
, ?
8.12.3.  8 H.
 r 8 h,
V0 . . -
p0.
8.12.4.  8 8 -
8 8 ,  
8 D = 10 m = 10 8, 8,
? p0 = 735 . ., -
 T0 = 27 .
8.12.5. 8 8  8 -
. . , -
 88 8-
. m.

173
8.12.6. 8 H = 100 t0 = 8
, . -
 ( ) m = 40 8. m -
, p0 = 99,7 .  -
, 8 .
 8.12.7. R = 1
8 .  8 m =
= 1 8.  88 ,
?   
, 8 m = 0,1 8 ? 8-
8 T = 1  h = 10 .
.
8.12.8. 8 -
  
. 8  l = 20 , p0 =
= 750 . .  , -
 l = 2 .  .
8.12.9. 8   
l = 90  , 
h = 30 ;  8 
.    ,
. 8
  ?
8.12.10.  8  8 -
.   l0 = 10
8 .   
,  l0 = 1 . 
8   ,  -
  ?
8.12.11.    l = 1 -
8 .   -
.   ? -
p0 = 750 . .
8.12.12.   
,  l = 60 .
  8 h = 30 . -
. p0 =
= 760 . .
8.12.13.   m, H -
S .
T1 8 8  h1. -
8 , 8 -

174
8  h2? ,
.
8.12.14.   , 8
 , 8 -
.  8 , 8 8
 8 h, 8 . -
8 h, 8 , -
. = 103 8/3,
p0 = 105 .   . -
.
8.12.15.   H = 10
, 8 ,
8
(. 8.12.1).  8 h, -
8 8
, 8 , -
-
? p0 =
= 105 .  
. -
. . 8.12.1
8.12.16. 8 -
  T1 = 253
p1 = 770 . .,  p2 =
= 765 . .  
?  l = 1 .
.
8.12.17.    l = 50
8 ,  
= 13,6 10 3 8/3. 
, -
l/2?  -
8 p0 = 105 .
8.12.18.  l = 1 , -
  8 -
T1 = 300 , 8
.  
(. 8.12.2).  -
 ,  -
 .  -
8 , 8
? . 8.12.2
.

175
 8.12.19.  
 2h -
 , T0 =
= 280 (. 8.12.3).  -
8 ,
? h . .
. 8.12.3
 8.12.20.  
S = 0,02 2 h = 2
= 800 8/3 -
.  ,
(. 8.12.4). -
. 
? .
.
8.12.21. U- (. 8.12.5).
  h =
= 10 ,  -
. 8 
l0 = 20 . 8   
, 8
h1 = 26 . .
8.12.22.  H 
 8 -
 l (. 8.12.6).  -
 8.  -
.  , 8  -
 . p0,
 .
8.12.23.  -
T p.
H .

. 8.12.4 . 8.12.5 . 8.12.6

176
8 8 , -
8 (. 8.12.7). 8 -
2 .  -
8 ?
, , -
.
8.12.24.  
8  p = 700 . . 
l1 = 50 l2 = 100
 l0 = 200 (. 8.12.8). 
 a = 14,7 /2, .
  ?
.

. 8.12.7 . 8.12.8

8.12.25.  l S 8 
   . 
,  , 8 
.  F.   a
,  ?
p0. -
 .

9.

9.1. #


9.1.1. , 8 ,
m = 1 8 , 8 t = 1 C. 
8 8 ?

177
9.1.2.  m = 0,5 8 -
t1 = 0 C t2 = 40 C 8 8
W = 42 .   -
 .
9.1.3.  , 8-
, 8 V = 1 3, t1 = 20 C
t2 = 80 C.  = 2,5 103 8/3, -
 c = 840 /(8 ).
9.1.4.  m1 = 300 8
V = 1 .   , 8
 t1 = 15 C t2 = 100 C?
9.1.5.  m = 400 8 -
t2 = 30 C  Q = 2 .
.
9.1.6.  m = 200 8 8 -
t1 = 20 C t2 = 120 C. 8 -
8  .
9.1.7.   , -
8 t = 1 C? -
 c = 2,5 /(8 ).
9.1.8.  8
m1 = 10 8, 8, -
 m2 = 1 8 -
t1 = 100 C t2 = 0 C?
9.1.9. , 8  v = 54 /, 
.  8 -
8 ?  -
c = 2200 /(8 ).
9.1.10. ,  v = 100 /,
.  8
, = 52% 8 -
8?
9.1.11.  h1 = 10
8 8 h2 = 1 .
  ,
= 60%  , 8 , -
?
9.1.12.  M = 0,5 8 8
 v = 5 /. 8
8 m = 15 8  . ,
8 8 .
9.1.13. , 8 
v = 100 /, ,  8 8-

178
, 8, -
.  ?
8 = 26% 8  -
.  n = 10 .
9.1.14.   .
 v1 = 300 /
h = 500  , 8
 v2 = 284 /.  8 -
88 , -
? .
9.1.15.   N = 800
 V = 1,5 ,
t = 20 C, t = 20 . .
9.1.16. , 8 , -
8 8.  8 , -
N = 60  m = 40 8 = 4 8
t = 20 C?  c = 2,1 /(8 ). -
, 8
8 , .
9.1.17.  8 m -
: c = T, 8 = const. -
 , -
8 T1 T2?
9.1.18. 8  -
 c(t) = c0(1 + t), 8 = const t
 .
 c t1 t2?

9.2.

9.2.1.  8
0 C, 8
t = 1 C?
9.2.2. m = 10 8. 8,  -
8 t =
= 60 C, .
9.2.3. 8 V = 750 3. -
t1 = 12 C, 
t2 = 5 C. 
8 ?
9.2.4.  t = 20 C -
m = 0,8 8  N = 1 .

179
  , 
. 8 = 40 .
.
9.2.5. 8 8  . -
,   8, .
1 = 10 8 t1 = 20 C
t2 = 70 C 2 = 83 . -
.
9.2.6.  m = 55 8,
 v = 8,5 /,  . -
t = 0 C.  ,
= 50%  , , -
8 ?
9.2.7.  8  0 C
8  0 C?
9.2.8.  ,
?
 t = 0 C. . ,
8 .
9.2.9.   , -
8, ? t = 100 C.
= 60% 8 .
9.2.10.  -
8 8 .  -
,  v0 = 350 /,
8 = 50% 8 -
? t0 =
= 100 C. .
9.2.11.   -
8  8 -
, ? ,
8  -
T0 = 100 , 8 = 25% -
8.
9.2.12.   8 8
 . -
  ,
 t1 = 12 C t2 = 80 C .
 9.2.13.  
, ? -
, 8 8 -
= 60% 8 8 .
m = 10 8.  M = 1 8.
t = 100 C.

180
9.3.

9.3.1. m = 1 8  -
. 
8 ?
9.3.2.   , 100 8 -
, 10 C, 8 100 C ?
9.3.3.  
m = 2 8, t1 = 10 C,
8 t2 = 100 C?
 9.3.4.   N = 1  -
V = 2 t = 18 C  . -
 ? 8 = 50%.
 c = 4,2 /(8 ), -
r = 2,26 /8, =
= 103 8/3.
9.3.5.  t = 10 C -
 8 8. = 30 -
 .  N = 1 .
 = 40%.  .
9.3.6. 8 
t0 = 0 C  t = 100 C  -
8 1 = 15 . 8
2 = 80 . -
.
9.3.7. , 
t0 = 10 C, . 1 = 10 -
.  ?
9.3.8.    -
 m = 10 , 8  -
= 20% , -
 20 C,  80 C,
2,3 103 /8?
9.3.9.   -
T1 = 78 V = 2 .  .
, ,
m = 40 8 2 = 22 30 .
,  , -
.
8 T = 293 . 8
78 = 800 8/3.
9.3.10.  8  -
100 C, 8  ?

181
9.3.11. 
, ? -
 t0 = 20 C. .
9.3.12.   -
, 8, -
? , 8 -
T = 100 . , 8 -
= 20% 8  8.

9.4. #

9.4.1.  m = 3,2 8. -
  N = 10 ?
9.4.2.  8 8 V = 100
8 8 8 m = 0,5 8, -
, 8, 8 ?
9.4.3.  8 ,
 8 m1 = 3 8
t1 = 20 C t2 = 80 C 8 m2 = 50 8 .
9.4.4. 
= 30%, 8  m = 2 , -
t = 20 C?
9.4.5.  
= 40%, m = 4 8 , 8 -
10 C, 8  q =
= 42 000 /8?
9.4.6. = 9 8  -
v = 900 / . , -
8 m = 4 8.
9.4.7. 305-  m = 155 8
. = 446 8.   -
, = 28%?
9.4.8.  v = 72 /
N = 1500 . 8 = 30%.
  .
8 q = 50 /8.
9.4.9.    -
(  V = 40 ) 
v = 60 /, 8 = 50%,
N = 40 ?
9.4.10.  
v = 900 / l = 1800 . -
m = 4 . 8 N = 5900 ,

182
8 = 23%. 8 -
, 8 .
9.4.11.   8 8 ,
m = 4 8 , 8 t1 = 20 C,
t2 = 100 C? 8 = 60%.
9.4.12. 8 m = 1 8 8 -
 Q = 142 .  -
8 8 V = 1 , -
8 8 = 50%?
9.4.13.  8, -
8 F = 20 104 .   -
s = 500 ?
8 = 25%.
9.4.14.  s = 1 
m = 103 8 8
h = 3  l = 100
8 8? 8 = 30%.  -
.

9.5. #
9.5.1. 8 m1 = 2 8, -
8 t1 = 10 C, V = 5 . -
, t2 = 100 C.
9.5.2. V1 = 150 3 t1 = 40 C
V2 = 250 3 t2 = 20 C. .
9.5.3.   m = 300 8
t1 = 25 C V = 200 3 , 8 t2 = 95 C.
  -
8 ?  .
9.5.4. V1 = 24 t1 = 12 C
V2 = 40 t2 = 80 C. -
, 
Q = 420 .
9.5.5. m1 = 5 8 T1 = 353 -
m2 = 2 8 .
8 n = 5%. -
.
9.5.6.  ,
t1 = 55 C t2 = 0 C,
= 21 C?
9.5.7.  V = 1
t1 = 27 C.  

183
m = 0,25 8, 8 t2 = 127 C.
t = 34 C.
 .   .
9.5.8. 8
, 8   m1 = 200 8 -
t1 = 210 C  
m2 = 180 8, m3 = 800 8
t2 = 11 C?
9.5.9.   m1 = 220 8 8-
t1 = 330 C
  m2 = 90 8, m3 = 150 8
t2 = 11,5 C. ,
 m4 = 17 8, t3 = 33,8 C. -
  8 ? -
t4 = 20 C.
9.5.10.  M = 500 8 -
m1 = 250 8 t1 = 19 C. -
 m2 = 180 8, -
,
= 27 C. m m
, 8 t2 = 127 C.
9.5.11. m1 = 0,150 8 8 -
t1 = 540 C m2 = 400 8 -
t2 = 10 C,   -
M = 200 8. ,
, t3 = 30,5 C.  .
9.5.12.   -
m1 = 1 8, m2 = 10 8 m3 = 5 8 . -
  -
t1 = 6 C, t2 = 40 C t3 = 60 C, c1 = 2 /(8 ),
c2 = 4 /(8 ) c3 = 2 /(8 ). -
? .
9.5.13.  :
m1 = 0,1 8 t1 = 45 C, 8 m2 =
= 0,5 8 t2 = 24 C.  
, 8
  t = 17 C.
 .
 9.5.14.   V = 1,5 
V0 = 1 : t1 = 0 C,
t2 = 100 C. -

184
, 8 -
, -
8 . .  -
,
t = 1 C?  -
.
9.5.15. m = 480 8, t1 = 22 C,
 t2 = 8 C.  ,
= 12 C?
9.5.16.  m1 = 0,5 8 t1 =
10 C m2 = 3 8 t2 = 10 C.
-
8 ?
9.5.17. , m1 = 0,2 8 -
t1 = 8 C,  m2 = 0,3 8 -
t2 = 20 C.  -
8 ?
9.5.18.  m1 = 500 8
m2 = 54 8 t1 = 0 C. 
m3 = 10 8 t2 = 100 C.
 8 -
.   .
 9.5.19. , V1 = 0,5
t1 = 6 C, m1 = 0,9 8 , -
8 t = 25 C. 8 -
8 8 
, V2 = 2 t2 = 18 C, -
8 m2 = 0,45 8 t = 0 C.
,  . -
.
 9.5.20. m1 = 200 8
m2 = 1 8 t1 = 10 C. -
 m3 = 200 8 t2 = 110 C.  -
?  -
100 C 110 C c3 = 1670 /(8 ).
 9.5.21. , 8  , -
m = 20 8 t = 0 C. - 8
. 
 ?
9.5.22.
T = 263 . 
,  M = 1 8 
 ? 
c = 4,18 103 /(8 ).

185
9.5.23. m = 50 8 0 C 
 8 p = 600 .
 ,
p = 138 T = 1 ?
-
. -
  ,  .

9.6.

9.6.1. t1 = 0 C
l1 = 80 .  t2 = 40 C?
9.6.2. t1 = 10 C 8 -
 l = 1300 .  8
t2 = 40 C, -
8 ?
9.6.3.  d = 1 -
t0 = 0 C.  , -
= 1
t1 = 25 C t2 = +25 C, 8
n = 480 /?
9.6.4. t1 = 5 C 
l1 = 100,29 ,  l2 = 100,12 .  -
8 , ?
9.6.5. 8 8  -
8 8
.  -
t0 = 0 C,
l = 10 ?
9.6.6. 8 t1 = 20 C
d = 10 .   8 -
x = 10 .  
 8 t2 = 120 C.

?
9.6.7. , 8 -
S = 10 2,   
.  F
 , 8 t = 15 C?
8 E = 206 .
9.6.8. 8  a -
b  8 . -
 T.

186
9.6.9. r = 5 8 -
t1 = 20 C t2 = 220 C.  -
8 ? 8 -
= 1,7 105 1.
9.6.10.  , -
8 d = 20 , h = 8 ,  -
t1 = 15 C. 8 ,
 t2 = 55 C?
9.6.11.  -
t0 = 0 C, t1 = 25 C -
 V = 100 3?
9.6.12. t1 -
8 1 2 
, t2   .
  8
?
9.6.13.  t2 = 150 C,
8 t1 = 0 C 1 = 7 8/3.
9.6.14.  m = 875 8. ,  -
 V = 100 3. t0 =
= 20 C = 8,9 103 8/3.
9.6.15. , -
T = T,
8  8 .
8 ,
8 t1 = 30 C t2 = 30 C?
9.6.16.   P0 = 75,352 ,
t1 = 4 C 8 P1 = 49,261 , -
t2 = 20 C 8 P2 = 49,291 . 8 -
 = 2,5 105 1. -
8
t1 = 4 C t2 = 20 C.

9.7. ' # # #

9.7.1. 8 8 m = 1 8
T = 300 .
9.7.2.   -
8 S = 40 2 h = 0,5 -
m = 1 8, 8 8.
8 8 8?

187
9.7.3. 8  -
p1 = 105 V1 = 2 ,
8 8. 8 8
 .
9.7.4. 8 8 , 8 -
8 U = 600 .  -
8, 8 T = 400 ?
9.7.5. , t = 27 C, 8
t = 30 .  8 8?
9.7.6.  = 3 8 -
t = 27 C.  -
, 8 8 U = 3 ?
9.7.7. 8  = 5 ,
8 n = 5 , 8 -
U = 60 . 8.
9.7.8. 8 8-
.  8 8, 8
n = 4 , k = 3 ?
9.7.9. 8 8 8 -
T1 = 290 ,  8
n = 2 . 8 8 , 8
k = 3 . -
8 8.
9.7.10. 8  = 1  , 8
n = 2 . 
pV 2 = const. 8 8. -
8 T1 = 200 .
9.7.11. V = 2 p1 = 2 105 .
, 8 n = 2 . -
 T = V 2, 8 -
. 8 8.
 9.7.12. 8  = 2
, 8 n = 2 ,
8 8 U = 3,74 . -
2
 p = V , 8 . -
8.
9.7.13. -
8 8 8
1 2 (. 9.7.1)? -
8 -
1 2, 8
; p0 = 105 , V0 = 2 .
9.7.14. 8
8, m1 = 20 8 8
m2 = 40 8 8 t = 30 C.
. 9.7.1

188
9.7.15. 8 m1 = 10 8 
m2 = 84 8. 8
8 T = 40 .
9.7.16. 8 
v = 50 / .  8, -
? .  .
9.7.17. m = 3 8  8  -
V0 = 10 , 
8 T0 = 300 p0 = 105 (. 9.7.2).
 v = 10 /. 8
8  . . -
 .
 9.7.18.  8 -
 m 8
M . m.
8 8 8.  -
 v, . -
 T 8  -
?  ,  -
 . 8 m n m.

. 9.7.2 . 9.7.3

9.7.19. 8 -
m  -
8 8 (. 9.7.3). 8 T0 
v 3v.  
8? , 8 -
 .
9.7.20. 8
-
,  m1 = 2 8 m2 = 1 8.
V0 = 18 -
p0 = 104 8
(. 9.7.4). . -
 . 8 -
8 . . 9.7.4

189
9.7.21. 8 -
 ,
8 S 2l,
 ,
.
8 T0 -
. 9.7.5 p0, 8 . -

 k 2l (. 9.7.5).
8 , 8 -
8,  .
 9.7.22. V1 8 -
T1 p1, V2  8
T2 p2. . 
 ? 
.

9.8. # #

9.8.1. , 8 8
8 T = 1 ?
9.8.2. 8. 8-
t0 = 0 C, p = 150 , V = 0,4 3.  -
8 8, A = 10 ?
9.8.3. , 8 8
8 t1 = 17 C t2 = 104 C. -
8 V = 10 , p = 100 .
9.8.4.  , -
8 S = 100 3, , 8 m = 20 8,
. 8
h = 50 . , . -
p0 = 105 .
9.8.5. m = 160 8
n = 5 8. , -
8.  t = 27 C.
9.8.6. m = 1,5 8 -
p = 200 , A = 100 .
 8, T = 300 .
9.8.7. ,  8
8. 8,  -
.

190
9.8.8. , 8
8 ,   -
n = 11 , -
t = 27 C.
9.8.9. m = 2,8 8
T = 400 -
, n = 4 -
. .
, 8,
8  -
.
 9.8.10. 8,
T = 300 , -
. 9.8.1
, A =
3
= 12,5 10 . 
8?
9.8.11. , -
8 , 8-
 8   9.8.1,
p0 = 2 105 , V0 = 2 .
9.8.12. , -
8 -
, 8 8  - . 9.8.2
 9.8.2, p0 = 105 , V0 = 1 .
9.8.13. -
1 3 (. 9.8.3). -
, 8 -
: ) 1 2; 2
) 2 3; ) -
1 3, p0 =
= 100 , V0 = 10 .
9.8.14. = 0,4
8 . 9.8.3
V1 = 40 V2 = 80 , 8
 T = V2, 8 = 1,25 105 /6.
9.8.15. , 8
8 p1 = 105 p2 = 3 105 , -
8  T = p2, 8 = 106 3 /( ).
9.8.16. p1 = 10  p2 =
= 20   p = bV, 8 = const, b = 6 /3.
,  8  .

191
9.8.17. 8  = 0,2
1 4 (. 9.8.4; T1 = 300 , T2 = 600 ).
, 8 : ) 1
2; ) 2 3;
) 3 4; 8)
, 8.
9.8.18. 8  =
= 0,4 1 -
4 (. 9.8.5; T1 = 250 , T2 = 450 ).
, 8
 .
9.8.19. 8 8, -
. 9.8.4 V1 = 1
p1 = 10 , p2 =
= 5 V2 = 2  p =
V, 8 .
8
n = 2 . 8

V4 = 4 . 8 -
,
8, ,  8 -
. 9.8.5 .
 8 .
9.8.20. ,  -
8,
(. 9.8.6).
, 8 
  . ,
  ,
 8 n = 2
: p0 = 105 , V0 =
. 9.8.6 = 0,5 3.
9.8.21. 8,
 , , -
. -
 1 3 T1 T3
(. 9.8.7). , -
8 , ,
 2 4 .
9.8.22. , -
8 -
 12341 43
. 9.8.7 564,   9.8.8.

192
. 9.8.8 . 9.8.9
8 2 4  3
6 . 1 5
n = 8 .
 9.8.23. 8  12
31 (. 9.8.9).  31 
p = T , 8 . 8
1 2 T1 = 400 T2 = 500 .
, 8 .
9.8.24. ,  = 2 -
8 8  12341 (. 9.8.10), 8 T0 = 100 .

. 9.8.10 . 9.8.11
9.8.25. 8  = 1
 1231,
 9.8.11.  31 8 
V = T , 8 . 8
1 2 T1 = 400 T2 = 500 .
, 8 .
 9.8.26. ,
8 8 , -

(. 9.8.12).  1 3 -
, . -
 2 3 .
T1 T2  1 2. . 9.8.12

193
9.8.27.  = 8 8 O2, -
8 t = 0 C p = 1 ,
8 : ) ; )
?
9.8.28. 8 
p1 = 105 p2 = 2 105 . 8 T = 300 .
,  8.
9.8.29.  A = 0 8 8
8 Ap
,  8
?

9.9. 

9.9.1. 8 8 8 8 -
U = 900 , 8 A = 300 .
  8?
9.9.2. 8 A = 100 ,
8 8 U = 250 .  -
8 ?
9.9.3.  Q = 3 10 5 . 
8 8,
8 A = 105 ?
9.9.4. , = 20% 8 8  -
8 8, 
U = 4 . 8 .
 9.9.5. 8  Q
8 A.  8 8 U1,
8 n = 4 ?
9.9.6.  = 4 8 -
T = 300 . 
, 8  Q = 900 ?
9.9.7. V = 10 -
p1 = 10 t1 = 17 C. 8 -
Q = 98 . 8
8.
9.9.8. = 10 8 8
8 t = 30 C. 
Q = 30,2 .  
  8?
9.9.9.  8 . -
8 T = 30 . -
8 8,  -
, 8.

194
9.9.10. 8 8  = 2
T = 20 ,
8 .  -
, ?
9.9.11. 8 8 T1 =
= 288 T2 = 340  Q1 = 5 ,
Q2 = 3,56 .  8
288 p = 19,6 ?
9.9.12.   8
8. 8 m = 74 8.
   8, 8 -
h = 0,6 ? p0 = 105 , -
S = 10 2. .
9.9.13. 8 8 m = 1 8 T = 1 -
8 Qp = 909 , 8-
QV = 649 .  8?
9.9.14. . -
,   9.9.1.
  8
, 8 8 t = 1 C? .

. 9.9.1 . 9.9.2 . 9.9.3


9.9.15. 8 123, -
 Q1 = 4,6  (. 9.9.2).  -
8, 143?
9.9.16.
8,  , -
8
, 8 8  -
 9.9.3, p0 = 105 U0 = 600 .
9.9.17. 8 -
, 8 8 
 9.9.4.  ,
8, p0 = 105 , V0 = 4 . . 9.9.4

195
9.9.18. 8
A = 400 .   8 8?
9.9.19. 8 m = 0,1 8 8
A = 300 . 
8?
9.9.20. 8 
12341 (. 9.9.5).  -
, Q1 Q2 8 . -
Q, 8 , , -
8 . p0 = 105 , V0 = 2 .
 9.9.21. 8  , 8-
 8   9.9.6. 8 = 2 .
8 1 2 T1 = 300 T2 = 400
. , 8 ,
 3 4 8  Q = 2 .

. 9.9.5 . 9.9.6

9.9.22. 8  = 1,5
 1234,  -
 9.9.7. 8 3 4 T3 = 600
T4 = 300 .  12 8 -
Q = 2740 . , 8
.
9.9.23. 8 8 8 -
8 1 T1 = 100
2. 8 , -
, , , -
1 (. 9.9.8). , 8-
12, 231 8 -
Q = 72 ,  2 3
.

196
. 9.9.7 . 9.9.8

9.9.24. 8  = 5 -
 12341,
 9.9.9. 8 1 4 T1 = 300
T4 = 450 . , 8
,  23 8 Q = 8000 .
9.9.25. 8  
 ,
 k = 103 / (. 9.9.10).
.
8 8 8,
.
x0 = 3 8 . -
8 8 
. , 8
Q = 3,2 .
 9.9.26.  8 -
8, V0 = 102 3.
8 (. 9.9.11). -
Q1 = 10  . 8, , -
 ,  n = 3 -
8.  
8 , 8 -
n ? p0 = 105 .

. 9.9.9 . 9.9.10 . 9.9.11

197
9.10.  #

9.10.1.  8 -
8 8 .
9.10.2.  8
.
9.10.3. m = 1 8 8
A = 800 .
8 8.  -
cV = 745 /(8 ).
9.10.4. 8 8 -
8 8 Q = 100 . -
A, 8,  Cp 8  8
.
9.10.5. m = 280 8 8 -
, 8 Q = 600 . -
, 8  -
cV = 745 /(8 ). = 28 103 8/.
9.10.6. 
8 8 8, , Cp CV = R,
8 Cp CV  8 -
.
9.10.7. 8   -
T1 = 29  Q1 =
= 24,93 . 8  -
T2 = 5  Q2 =
C
= 5,73 .  ------p- .
CV
9.10.8. 8 8, -
8, 8, -
x1= 20%, x2 = 30% x3 = 50% -
.  8.
: 8 1 = 4 103 8/, 2 = 2 102 8/, -
8 3 = 4 102 8/.
9.10.9. 
S = 10 2. ,  , -
m = 20 8 .
8 V0 = 11,2 , 8 t0 = 0 C. 
 Q 8, 8 8
T = 10 , , 
8, 
,  CV = 20,9 /? 8
.

198
9.10.10.   -
8, V = 0,5 , 8 -
p = 1,5 ?  8
cp = 550 /(8 ). 8-
M = 0,06 8/.
 9.10.11. 8 -
= 5
123 (. 9.10.1).  
8 ?
 8 -
Cp = 29 /( ),
T0 = 200 .
 9.10.12.  -

8 8  p = ------
2
, . 9.10.1
V
8 = 2R (R 8
).
8 V1 = 5 2 .
 8 -
,  8-
C = CV R, 8 CV -
 8 -
?
9.10.13. 8 -
. 9.10.2
8 8 8
8 (. 9.10.2).  -
12, 23 34 -

?
.
9.10.14. 8 -
8 8 -
, 
 9.10.3. 8
 -
,  -
 . . 9.10.3
9.10.15.  8 8 -
p = V, 8 = 0,1 R (R 8 ).
8 V1 = 50 3 .
 8 ?
9.10.16.  8 8 -
p = V 2, 8 = R
---- (R 8 ).
9

199
8 V1 = 30 2 . 
8 , 
8 C = CV + 1
--- R, 8 CV  8
3
?
9.10.17.  8 8 ,
 p = T2, 8 = R
----
2
(R 8 ).
8 V1 = 3 2 . 
8 ,  8
C = CV + 2R, 8 CV  8 -
?
9.10.18.  8 8 -

- , 8 = 4R (R 8 ).
p = ---
T
8 V1 = 0,5 4 . 
8 , 8
 C = CV + 3R, 8 CV -
 8 ?
 9.10.19. 8, 8 M =
= 0,065 8/, 8 , 8
 T = V 2 (  ).
 , 8 8, -
, 8 8 8 -

 QV = 500 .  8
cV = 0,4 /(8 ).

9.11. #

9.11.1. 8  -
8, 8, A = 300 .
.
9.11.2.  . -
  Q1 = 0,1 , -
 Q2 = 80 . 
.
9.11.3. 8 8 N = 20 .
  8 t = 30 ,
8 = 18%?

200
9.11.4. = 22%.  
 8 8 ,
8 N = 22,5 ?
9.11.5. 8 
A = 160 .  ,  -
, 8 = 18%.
 9.11.6. 8  1231, 
 9.11.1. ,
, 8.
 9.11.7.  , -
. -
= 2, = 3.
. 8.
9.11.8. , , 
 3 (. 9.11.2).
8.

. 9.11.1 . 9.11.2
9.11.9. , , 8  9.11.2,
40%.
9.11.10.  12341
15671, pV-8 (. 9.11.3).
8.
9.11.11. ,  -
  9.11.4. -
8.

. 9.11.3 . 9.11.4

201
 9.11.12. 8 8 8 -
 1231,  9.11.5. -
12 8  Q12 = 30 , 8
n = 4 . 8 
, 2 3 .
 9.11.13.  1241 (. 9.11.6) 1 = 37,5%. -
23 41 
2342, 4
2. 8.

. 9.11.5 . 9.11.6

 9.11.14. , 
1231 (. 9.11.7) 1. ,
 1341.
.
9.11.15.  9.11.8  8 8 -
.
8. .

. 9.11.7 . 9.11.8

9.11.16.  9.11.9 pV-8


8  1231 1421, -
8.  12 ,
 13 42 .  14 32
, .
8  ? .

202
9.11.17.  12341 (. 9.11.10) = 1/9.
8 4, 8 -
2 p = 4 . , 8 1 3
,  41 23 ,
 12 34 , -
. . 8 = 1 .

. 9.11.9 . 9.11.10
9.11.18.  12341, 8
 9.11.11. 8.
9.11.19.  9.11.12 -
 pV-8. .
8.

. 9.11.11 . 9.11.12
9.11.20. pU-8 (U 8 8)
 1231 2432,
8 (. 9.11.13). -
8 1 4 n = 9 .
 1231,  2432 2.
9.11.21. 8 8 8
 , 8 , -
8 8 .  = 25%.
 , 8 -
 , 8  A = 1000 .
9.11.22. , 8
 = 1 , , .
 

203
T = 400 . ,  8
V max
2 , . . = ------------- = 2. 8  .
V min
 9.11.23. , 
(. 9.11.14), 12, 23 -
8 31, = 20%, 
8  T = 200 . ,
 8.

. 9.11.13 . 9.11.14

9.12. 

9.12.1. ,
8  t1 = 200 C t2 = 17 C
.  8-
,  n = 2 ?
9.12.2. ,
 ,  n = 3
8.
9.12.3. 8 8 -
t1 = 610 C 1 = 27%.  -
8, 2 = 35%?
9.12.4.  ,
 8 A1 =
= 10 ,  8 A2 = 3 .
9.12.5.  8 -
8 8 8, 8  -
,  8 = 80%, -
, , Q = 2 .
9.12.6. 
A = 73,5 . 8 t1 = 100 C, -
 t2 = 0 C.  
,  .

204
 9.12.7. , 
,  A = 2,94 
   Q2 = 13,4 . -
.
9.12.8. 
8 Q1 = 1  . 8 T1 =
= 600 ,  T2 = 300 .  -
?  
 ?
9.12.9. ,   ,
N = 4  -
T1 = 400 T2 = 300 . 8, -
8,  8, -
 = 1 .
9.12.10. -
 n = 1/4 , 8. -
8, -
 T2 = 100 .
9.12.11. N = 14,7 
= 1 m = 8,1 8 8 8. 
t1 = 200 C,  t2 = 58 C.
8 .
9.12.12. , -
 , 8 -
t2 = 10 C  Q2 = 28 
t1 = 17 C.  ,  -
Q1,  , -
.
9.12.13. , -
 ,  A = 37 .
t2 = 10 C
t1 = 17 C. : ,
 Q2, 8 ,
 Q1, 8
,   .
9.12.14.   m = 2 8, -
T1 = 293 ,
T2 = 271 .  8  V = 30 3
= 4 ?  -
cV = 700 /(8 ). -
 .
 9.12.15. , -
 .   -

205
Q, 8 ,
 Q, 8 -
,  , -
? 8
t1 = 100 C t2 = 0 C. -
t1 = 16 C. -
8 t2 = 10 C.
 9.12.16.  12345671 (.
9.12.1) 12, 34, 567,
t1 = 227 C, t2 = 127 C, t3 = 27 C, 23,
45, 71.  12345671, -
,  123671, 2
,  34563.
9.12.17.  12345671
(. 9.12.2) 123, 45, 67 -
34, 56, 71.  123456
71,  12671 1 = 40%, 
234562 2 = 60% ,
 67, 3 , -
 45.

. 9.12.1 . 9.12.2

9.13.

9.13.1. V = 4 3 m = 100 8 8
.  ?
9.13.2. 8 8 -
10 5 4 , : ) t = 4 C;
) t = 3 C; ) t = 18 C.
9.13.3. -
t = 50 C, 8 p = 8 .

206
9.13.4.  V = 1 3 -
= 102 8/3.  -
 8 ?
M = 18 103 8/.
9.13.5. T =
= 300 = 12,9 8/3.
?
9.13.6. -
= 80%, 8 8 8
p = 12,3 .
9.13.7. 8 
: t1 = 0 C 1 =
= 95% t2 = 35 C 2 = 40%?
 9.13.8. 8 
8 = 80%.
8 8 
p0 = 105 t = 20 C. 8

8 n = ------ = 0,6.

9.13.9. t = 30 C p = 104 -
8 8 / = 1,09. -
.
8 k = / = 0,6.
 9.13.10.  t1 = 20 C
1 = 40%. 8 -
t2 = 30 C, 2 = 60%.
 8 ,
8 p0 = 105 ?
9.13.11. 8 ,
n = 3 .
1 = 20%, -
2 = 80%. 
, , , 8?
9.13.12. V0 = 1 3 t = 20 C
0 = 30%.
m = 5 8
8 . .
8 8 t = 20 C
p = 2,3 103 .
9.13.13. V = 1 3 t = 20 C
= 30%. -

207
-
m = 20 8 ? . -
8 8 t = 20 C p = 2,2 103 .
= 18 103 8/.
 9.13.14. , -
8  V = 700 t = 24 C, -
8
m = 6,2 8?
 9.13.15. 
V = 25 p1 = 105 t1 = 23 C. -
  m = 9 8 8 -
t2 = 127 C. 8 .
8 8 t = 127 C
p = 250 . = 18 103 8/.
9.13.16.  
S = 100 2 m = 1 8. 
, -
? t = 27 C.
.
 9.13.17. ,
8, :
t1 = 20 C, t2 = 50 C.
, , -
8 ? ?

9.14. 

9.14.1. t1 = 18 C,  t2 = 8 C.
 ?
9.14.2. 8  V = 10 -
t1 = 20 C.  -
8 8 ,
 8 t2 = 10 C?
9.14.3. V = 1 3 -
T = 303 p = 107 .
, 
T0 = 273 . 8
273 p = 24,4 .
M = 74 103 8/.
9.14.4.   
 , , ?
 t1= 5 C,  t2 = 25 C.

208
 9.14.5.  V = 0,4 -
T1 = 423 p = 8,5 . 
 m  
T2 = 295 ?
9.14.6. V = 1
t1 = 20 C. 
m = 0,12 8,  8.
8 , .
8 t2 = 60 C, 8
 . -
.
9.14.7.  V = 10 
p0 = 1 t0 =
= 0 C.  m1 = 3 8, m2 = 15 8
. 8 t = 100 C.
8  ?
9.14.8.  V = 3 -
1 = 60% t1 = 17 C.
, m = 1 8 ,
t2 = 100 C?
9.14.9. 8 V0 = 0,4 3, -
1 = 20%
t1 = 30 C, V1 = 1,5 3,
t2 = 10 C.  -
8  ?
9.14.10.
V1 = 1,5 -
t1 = 20 C. 
, V2 = 0,1 , -
t2 = 100 C? p0 = 105 .
9.14.11.  -
T = 350 . -
 8 A = 2 . -
8 . -
M = 0,018 8/.
9.14.12.  t = 80 C
. 
A = 4 .  
? 80 C
r = 2,2 106 /8. .
9.14.13. V = 3 3 t = 30 C -
0 = 40%.
  t1 = 0 C. -

209
8 ,
30 C,
 Q =
= 68,4 103 . r = 2,26 /8.
9.14.14.  8 -
S = 5 103 2 m = 300 8
t = 20 C.  Q = 101,7 . -
 ? p0 = 105 .
M = 0,018 8/. .
9.14.15.  8  
 , -
8  l = 2 . t1 = 20 C
 .
 ,
t2 = 75 C? 8 8 8
20 C .
9.14.16.  8   -
 , -
8  l = 2,5 . t1 = 100 C -
  x
. t2 = 10 C -
  x.
x. = 103 8/3,
p0 = 105 . 8 8 10 C .
 9.14.17. = 80% 8 t =
= 50 C, 8 , 8 8-
, .  ,
?
. p0 = 105 .
 9.14.18. 8 -
   r = 3 . -
t1 = 40 C, = 60%
8 p0 = 105 . 
8 t2 = 10 C. -
? 8 p0 = 105 .
-
.
 9.14.19. ,  8 -
, 8 8 -
8 (. 9.14.1), V =
= 30 3 t = 17 C.
 -
x = 10 . 8 m1 -
. 9.14.1 8 m2 .

210
9.15.

9.15.1.  l = 4 .
  , 
. , ,
. 8 -
1 = 72 / 2 = 33 / .
9.15.2.   -
 l (. 9.15.1). -
8 -
 1 2. 
 -
?
9.15.3. 8   . 9.15.1
 ,  
9.15.2, .
,
 ?  -
F  -
? -
8 8 -
1 2 .
. 9.15.2
9.15.4.  -
8 ,
l -
 k, 
, 
R 8,  
 (. 9.15.3).
9.15.5. 
R = 6 
8 . . 9.15.3
 , -
 ? -
8 8  = 74 / .
9.15.6.  8 -
, ,  d = 0,4 ,
m = 0,01 8?
9.15.7. ,  . -
8  S1= 0,1 2 S2 = 1 2 -
. . 8 -
= 7,27 102 /.
9.15.8.  ,
R = 4 ? 8
8 = 40 /.

211
 9.15.9.  d1 = 1
  .  -
? 8
= 0,47 /.
9.15.10. 8 -
R. 8 8
, p0.
8 .
9.15.11. 8 R,
8  h. .
p0,  8 -
8 .
9.15.12. r1 r2
r3. , -
8  .
9.15.13.  l = 3 m = 20 8
8,  8 .  -
8 ?
8 .
9.15.14.  
r,  ,  -
8  8 .
9.15.15. -
  d1 = 1 d2 = 2 -
.
9.15.16.   8 , -
, h1 = 2,6 . -
  h2 = 1 .
 8 , -
8 1 = 7,3 102 / .
9.15.17.  r = 0,5 -
.      .
8 = 0,07 /, -
p0 = 760 . .  l
 ,
h = 1 ?
9.15.18.   ,
 l 8 -
8. .
9.15.19.   
h1 = 33 .   ,
8 , h = 13 .  l = 513 .
 = 13 103 8/3. -
. 8 .

212
3

10.

10.1.  .  .
 .  '

10.1.1.  
R = 1 , 8
 ?
10.1.2. m = 5 8 -
q = 0,8 .  
?
10.1.3.    -
,   1 : 3,
. 8 
q = 2 108 . 8  -
.
10.1.4.   -
.
8  n = 40%. -
.
10.1.5.  d = 40 -
= 3 106 /2. .
10.1.6. 8  -
, r = 1010 8 8.
10.1.7. 1) R 8 8.
 , : ) -
2 ; ) 2 ; ) -
2 ?
10.1.8. q1 q2 R 8
8. R = 50 ,
. R.
10.1.9.  ,
,
= 20%?
1)   -
, , , -
 ().

213
10.1.10.  
B q1 = 0,8  q2 = 0,2   -
A C 88 8 8
= 30 8 AB = 6 (. 10.1.1).
 , 
q1 q2,  -
q2 B?
A C 10.1.11. 
q = 6   . 
q1 q2
. 10.1.1 8, -
n = 4 ?
10.1.12.   -
, 8 -
  88 -
.  ?  |e| = 1,6 1019 ,
= 1 8/3.
10.1.13.   r =
= 8,22 103 .
, 8  -
88 .
10.1.14.  8 
 d = 1 , -
R = 1 8 8, 8 8 
 ?
10.1.15. 
,  m = 1 8,
R = 1 ? 
Z = 13.
 10.1.16.  
r = 1 8 8 8 F = 1 .
 Q = 4 104 . 8 .
10.1.17.   
q1 = 2 106 q2 = 2,5 106 
R = 30 . : ) -
8  ; ) -
 ; ) -
.
10.1.18.   
, 8 n = 5 88. 
 .
 , -
: ) ; ) ?
10.1.19. ,  
, , -

214
, ,
.
10.1.20.   m = 2 8  -
,    10.1.2. 8
 q1 = 2 107 , 8 q2 = 5 106 . -
T  , : ) ; ) -
.  R = 30 .
10.1.21.  ,
 k, 8 8-
.   -
|q| x.
.
10.1.22.   k
L,  ,  
m q1.  -
 ,
2L?
10.1.23.  l = 40 , -
,  m = 0,9 8
.   -
, 8 = 60. : ) 8 -
; ) 8 .
10.1.24.  m = 2 8 .
 q2 = 278 
8 = 45, R = 6 (. 10.1.3).
q1 .
 10.1.25.  , -
,  (. 10.1.4).
l = 0,2 ,  m = 15 8.  -
 , 8  -
8 = 60. q 8 .
10.1.26.  , 8 = 90,
 m = 1 8 q = 80 (. 10.1.5).
 R   
, 2 ?

R q
l R
q1
R q1 q2
q2

. 10.1.2 . 10.1.3 . 10.1.4 . 10.1.5

215
10.1.27. 8   8 -
  8 = 30  .
, ,
.  -
, 8   2 ?
10.1.28.  m1 = 20 8 q1 = 10 , -
 m2 = 30 8 q2 = 20 . 
l = 20 8 8 .
? 
  m1, ?
10.1.29. -
R = 1  v = 100 / 8 -
-
. 
l q = 100 . -
.
10.1.30.  m -
q q,  ,
8  ,
l  8 .
+q
+q l 
. 10.1.6 (. 10.1.6).
.

10.2.

D A C B 10.2.1. +q q
 8 8
+q q
(. 10.2.1). --q-
. 10.2.1 2
 C,  D.
k k ( ), ,
DA = AC = CB.
 10.2.2.  , -
l0 8
, 
. 10.2.2 -
 k  (. 10.2.2.)
  l0. 
  ,
  l.
8 .
10.2.3. r = 3 8 8
q1 = 3 109 q2 = 12 109 . 8 -

216
 q0,
 . q0 l
q1 q0 .
10.2.4.  q = 25  -
l = 24 8 8. ,
R1 = 15 8 , -
q0 = 2 . , q0, -
: ) ; ) .
10.2.5. q1 = 20 , +q3
q2 = 50 q3 = 40 -
a b
8 (. 10.2.3) a =
= 4 , b = 5 c = 7 . , -
q3. +q1 c +q2
10.2.6. , -
. 10.2.3
q0 = 2  q1 = 0,8 
q2 = 1,8 , -
  10.2.4? a = +q1
= 0,3 , b = 0,6 .
10.2.7. 8  R, a +q0 q2
, 8 
  m q
b
.  -
 , . 10.2.4
 -
8 8? , 8  -
 : )  8 -
; ) 8 .
10.2.8. R = 20
 m = 0,1 8 .  -
, 8-
8 8 a = 5 3 ?
10.2.9.   m = +q
= 10 8   F
l = 10 8 8- l
+q q
.  q = 107
,  , - . 10.2.5
. 
F,  , -
(. 10.2.5).
8 , , -
, . -
 .

217
10.2.10.  , -
R 8 8, 8 r
 (. 10.2.6). 8  8
.
10.2.11.  q m  -
 8 R 8 8
Q ,    10.2.7. 8
 .
 10.2.12.  q = 106  -
8 8.  Q
, ?
10.2.13.    m = 50 8
  
l = 50 .   ,
8 -
l?
10.2.14.   a -
  k
.
,    10.2.8. 8 
 , , 8 ,
2 . 8 .

+e
q
1
2
R k
v R Q
e a k k
v k
1
2
R r q

+e

. 10.2.6 . 10.2.7 . 10.2.8

10.2.15. q1 = q2 = q3 = 2q
q4 = q. , q5 = q, -
 8 . -
a; q4 8 = 120.
10.2.16.    R = 2
q = 108 . 
q0 = 106 . 8, 
 - 8 .

218
10.2.17. 8  q, -
,  , F.
 q0, 
. .
10.2.18. N  
  R.
, , -
 x 8 ,
. 8  q.
, R . r, 8 r 8 x
. : ) x . R;
) x = R.
10.2.19. q = 5 108 - +q0
  R = 7 . R
 x = 5 8 -
q0 = 108 (. 10.2.9). -
 8 . . 10.2.9

10.3. #
#

10.3.1.  E =
= 1 /, 1) 8  ,
 m = 2 8, -
q = 10 . ?
10.3.2. , -
 ,  ,
8 8.
8 = 45 .  8 
 = 10%?
10.3.3. , q, q
, -
   k k
(. 10.3.1).  8 - E
8 ,  E 8 -
 , x.
8 . . 10.3.1
10.3.4.   V = 1 3, -
56
8 26 Fe , = 1% 8
1)  
.   -
. ,   
 E .

219
? 8 -
R = 1 .
10.3.5. E1 8
, R1 = 0,6 8 , -
, 8 R2 = 0,2 , -
E2 = 900 /.
10.3.6. R = 20 8 -
8 8 E = 900 /. -
 E =
= 500 /: ) ; ) ?
10.3.7.  8  -
8 R = 30 8
E = 200 /.  ?
10.3.8. 8 -
8 8 q = 1 R. -
, 8 : ) ; ) .
10.3.9.  8  -
8 R = 30 8
= 36%.   -
 ,
 ,  ?
10.3.10. , , 1 = 20%, -
 2 = 20%.  -
 8 ?
10.3.11.  A ,
8 ,
A C B EA = 36 /,  C EC = 16 /
+q (. 10.3.2).
 B, AC = CB.
. 10.3.2 10.3.12. , -
8 ,  A C
A EA = 400 /, EC = 600 / -
C (. 10.3.3). -
 B.
10.3.13. q = 106
B  XOY , -
+q - r0 = 2i + 4j.  -
8  -
. 10.3.3
 r = 1i + 2j.
10.3.14. q = 130 -
  C  XOY.  A -
(2; 3) EA = 32,5 /,  B (3; 2) EB =
= 45 /.   C.

220
10.4. '

10.4.1.   -
8 8  8 (. 10.4.1).
8  A E0.
,
?
10.4.2.  8 -
8 8.  -
, 8 8
( O, . 10.4.2) E0. -
, : )
, ; )
, ? , -
  .
10.4.3. 8 ,
q1 = 4 q2 = 9 .
l = 20 .   ,
, 8
?
10.4.4.  q = 18  -
8 8 a = 2 .
8
8, : ) ; ) .
10.4.5. q =
= 109 . l = 12 . -
8 , -
  , 8 ,
r = 8 8.
10.4.6.  -
l 8 8.
8   A , -
, , E1 (. 10.4.3).
,  A -

E0 1
2
l

A O A
1
2
l

. 10.4.1 . 10.4.2 . 10.4.3

221
8 E2.  A -
, .
 10.4.7.  q
2a 8 8. 
Emax 8
,  , , -
.
 10.4.8.  a = 40 -
 q = 5 109 .
E .
10.4.9.  q = 109  -
88 8  a = 40
b = 30 . 8 
8 8 , -
8 8.
10.4.10. 8
q, q q. -
, a.
10.4.11.  q -
R 88. -
8  -
h .
10.4.12.  a = 10 -
: q = 109  q1 = 109
. 8  -
8 .
10.4.13. N q
 R. 8
 h .
10.4.14.  q = 5 108 -
  R = 7 . -
8 .
 10.4.15.  8 
R = 0,5 , 8  -
d = 2 (. 10.4.4).
q = 3,14 107 . -
 8
x  A, 
d x = 0,5 8 .
A 10.4.16. ,
 -
R E = 100 /. 
? R = 6400 .
10.4.17.  d = 1 ,
. 10.4.4 8 8,  -

222
. 
8 ? 8
12
= 1,7 8/3. , 8 8 6C .
 |e| = 1,6 1019 .
10.4.18. R = 10 -
= 1,1 107 /2. -
8 : ) ; )
, ; )
; 8) , -
. 8
.
10.4.19. R
Q. ( -
8 ).
8 .
10.4.20. Q -
R 8 . E
8 r .
8 E r.  -
= 1.
10.4.21.  r1
R = 2 , 8 ,
8 -
r = 2R ?
10.4.22.  -
, , 8
E0 = 120 B/, h = 1,5 
E = 25 /. R . h.

10.5.
# 


10.5.1. -
, , E = 104 /.
 . -
, .
10.5.2.  m = 20 8 -
q = 106 .
, (. 10.5.1), -
m, q
:
) ;
) . . 10.5.1

223
10.5.3.  m = 10 8
q = 2 106 , 
l = 0,4 , 8-
  ,
m, q  8 = 60.
 -
. 10.5.2 -
= 1,77 107 /2 (. 10.5.2). -
.
A E 10.5.4. -
= 1,77 /2 -
 -
B E = 2 105 /,  -
 (. 10.5.3).
. 10.5.3  A B. -
 8 .
10.5.5.
E1 q = 107 .
 -
E = 3 104 /,  -
. , -
E2 , -
.
. 10.5.4
S = 1 2.
1 2
10.5.6.
q = 107 .
 (. 10.5.4).

E1 = 5 105 /, E2 =
A B C
= 2 105 /. ,
-
. 10.5.5
 .
10.5.7. 
 d = 20 8 8.
1 = 5 /2 ,
2 = 1,77 /2 (. 10.5.5). : ) -
, 8  ; ) -
8  A, B, C. 8
 x ( -
X  -
).
10.5.8.  
8 8
(. 10.5.6). 1 2,

224
 A E1 = 3000 /,  B
E2 = 1000 /.
10.5.9.   ,
q 2q, 8 8.
8 8 F. -
8  A, B C (. 10.5.7). , -
, .

E2 A
q
2 B
B
E1
2q
1 A C
. 10.5.6 . 10.5.7
10.5.10.  -
, 8 8, -
F.  , -
,
-
? ,  , .
10.5.11.   1 2 -
8 8
 = 10 /2. , -
q = 2 ,  A
(. 10.5.8), .
10.5.12.   , -
q, 2q 3q, 8 8 ,  -
 10.5.9.  S. -
, .
10.5.13.  -
 (. 10.5.10). -
1 = 4 107 /2,
2 = 3 107 /2.
 A, B, C, D  .
q 3q 2q 1

2 A B
q A + 2
1
D
C

. 10.5.8 . 10.5.9 . 10.5.10

225
10.6. # # .

10.6.1. , -
  1231 (. 10.6.1) .
10.6.2.   -
q = 3 : )  1 = 400 -
 2 = 100 ; )  1 = 400
 2 = 400 ?
10.6.3. E = 5 / -
q = 4  r = 40 .  -
8 = 30 .
, 8 -
,  -
 .
 10.6.4. q = 2 105 -
 -
= 50 /2.  1  2
8 = 60  (. 10.6.2). -
,   -
.  1 2 l = 5 .
 10.6.5. e 
8 8 -
. q, -
8 4q. -
.  S, d.
10.6.6. -
 8 8 d = 5 ,
8 . -
 = 1010 /2. -
.
10.6.7.  A B
8 , 8 -
 (. 10.6.3). -
 1 = 3 107 /2 2 = 4 107 /2
1
E
B
q
2 1
1 l bb
A
3
2 aa
2
. 10.6.1 . 10.6.2 . 10.6.3

226
.   8. -
a = 3 ; b = 4 .
10.6.8. 
, -
, -
1, 2, 3? -
h1 h2 .
10.6.9. 
S = 1 2 , d = 5 8 -
8. 1 = 2 107 /2
2 = 4,2 107 /2.  , -
n = 3 ?
10.6.10. 8,  -
,  8 8
, A.  -
, : )  -
; ) n ?

10.7. # #

10.7.1.  A R1 = 1 ,  B
R2 = 0,5 8 q = 2 107 . -
 A B?
10.7.2.   8 -
n = 9 .  -
?
10.7.3. 8  A A =
= 30 ,  C C = 40 (. 10.7.1).
 B, AC = CB.
10.7.4. AB  O -
 , 8 0 (. 10.7.2).
 O,  ABO -
  , AB AB?

A B

A B C
O

A
. 10.7.1 . 10.7.2

227
10.7.5. 8 q = 105  A
EA = 2,5 /,  B EB = 3,6 /. ,
q0 = 2 107  A
 B.
10.7.6. q1 = 4 108
q2 = 3 108 R = 0,3 8 8. -
  -
n = 3 ?
10.7.7.  8 8
q, 8 8
, l?
10.7.8.   q = 10 7 ,
8 8 ,  
 -
l0 = 8 .  8
8 ,
   -
l = 10 ?
10.7.9.  q1 = q q2 = +2q -
l = 3a 8 8. 8 -
 - , ,
 .
 10.7.10. 
8, q0  C  B
q1 q2 (. 10.7.3)? a, d, l
.
10.7.11. q1 = 2  q2 = 5  -
r = 40 8 8  A B
(. 10.7.4). CD, AB
l = 30 , q0 =
= 100 . 8 
C  D.

r
A B
q1 q2 B C q1 q2

l
d l a
q0
C D

. 10.7.3 . 10.7.4

228
10.7.12. q1 = 1,7 108 q2 = 2 108
8 q0 = 3 108 l1 = 2
l2 = 5 .  -
, q1 q2?
 10.7.13. q, q, q  
 (a, a, 0), (0, a, 0) (0, a, a) .
8 .
 10.7.14.  l
q . -
8 ?
10.7.15.  q = 3 108
 a = 10 .
8 a
8 8.  -
8 ?
10.7.16. 8 8
a = 5  q1 = 6,6 108 . -
8 8 q2 =
= 3,3 109 8 8 -
.
10.7.17. 8 -
R = 1 , ,
8 E = 30 /? 
 ,
?
10.7.18. a = 5 -
1 = 1,2 , b = 10 2 = 900 .
, 8 8 .
 10.7.19. . -
0 = 100 , l = 30 =
= 50 . R ?
10.7.20. 8
q = 2 108  , -
d = 1
r = 1 , 8
= 109 /2.
10.7.21. , -
n .  8
8 ?
10.7.22.  R = 10 -
q = 10 .  8 -
, 10%?

229
 10.7.23.  -
R2  R1 =
= 15 R2 = 30 -
R1 1 2 3 (. 10.7.5). -
O q1 = 2 108 ,
q1
q2
q2 = 4 108 . -
8 ,

l1 l1 = 10 , l2 = 20 l3 = 40 . -
l2 8 -
l3 .
10.7.24. -
. 10.7.5 r .
2r . -
. .
10.7.25. R1 = 2 q1 =
= 1,33 108     -
R2 = 5 ,  q2 = 2 108 . -
8 l1 =
= 1 , l2 = 4 l3 = 6 .
10.7.26. q = 106 
R = 1 . Q = 1,5 106 .
8 r =
= 1 .
10.7.27.  r,
2r 3r q, 2q 3q . -
 .
10.7.28.  , 
 R, .
d. 
q1 < 0, q2 > 0. 
q > 0 8 
8?

10.8.  

10.8.1. , ( )
8   -
8 .
10.8.2.  E =
= 6 / S = 1 2 (. 10.8.1).

230
, , -
S.
10.8.3.  -
8 8. -
q = 4 (. 10.8.2).  -
 8 ?  -
?
10.8.4. R = 1 8 -
8 8 q = 4 .
.
10.8.5. 8 8
r = 2 , l = 1 8 -
q = 5 .
10.8.6.  , -
l = 0,9 , -
8 1 = 1,2 , -
88 2 = 2,0 . -
, , 8
.
10.8.7.  r 0
    R = 3r.
, -
?
10.8.8.  R1 = R
 , 
R2 = 2R R3 = 3R (. 10.8.3). q. -
 8
E r
.

E
q
R2

R1 R3
q

. 10.8.1 . 10.8.2 . 10.8.3

231
 10.8.9.  
 R1 = R, R2 = 2R
R2 R3 = 4R  , -
R1 R3 q (. 10.8.4). -
8
q
.
 10.8.10. 
, -
-
1, 2.
 -
. 10.8.4 .
10.8.11.  -
 8 8 -
d = 10 , .
 Q = 4 108
a = 2 .  -
 , ?
10.8.12.  8 8
8. -
   .
q = 4 .
A B (. 10.8.5)? a =
= 1 , d = 3 ;  S = 100 2.
10.8.13. , 
  10.8.6.
. a d 8 -
; a = 6 , d = 10 , 1 = 30 , 2 = 40 .

a 1
B d
q a
d d
2

. 10.8.5 . 10.8.6
10.8.14. 8
 , -
. -
 a b.  .
10.8.15.  -
 

232
. -
8 a b 8 .
8 -
, .

10.9. 

 10.9.1.  , q = 108 ,
l = 3 -
 .  ?
10.9.2. q = 4 108 -
a = 10   -
. , -
a .
10.9.3.   m = 1 8 -
l = 10 -
 (. 10.9.1).  -
a = 10 . 
8   8 = 30.
.
10.9.4. q = 2 108 Q = 4 108 -
 -
a = 10 b = 20 . -
 
(. 10.9.2). , q.
10.9.5. l = 10 -
q = 4 108 .  -
, l = 20 ?
, 8 : )
; ) 8 = 60  .
10.9.6.   8 -
 k 
(. 10.9.3).  , -

a Q
k
l d q
a m, q
h

. 10.9.1 . 10.9.2 . 10.9.3

233
h .  8 -
h. ,
.
10.9.7. 
R = 4 8 .
n = 480 /. -
r = 2 8 . 8
8 .
8 .
10.9.8.   d =
= 10  a = 20 /2 -
a , 
d (. 10.9.4). -
8 , 
8 8 ,
. 10.9.4 , -
  .

10.10.  

10.10.1. 
q1 = 6,6  q2 = 1,2   R = 10
8 8?  -
, ?
10.10.2.   -
 , -
 . 8 -
8 
 . .
10.10.3.  -
,  ,  -
 . 8 -
  . 
, .
10.10.4.  8 .  -
  ,  -
8 8 R = 40 ?
10.10.5.  r, q,
.  -
  -
 ,  8 -
 , . -
8 .
10.10.6.  r, q,
 , 8 -

234
 ,  8 -
 .   0 -
, > 0. -
8 .   .
10.10.7.   q1 =
= 8 109 q2 = 52 109 
8 8.   -

8 8.
 . 
.
10.10.8. 8
8 8,
, () -
  q = 20 . 
, -
 = 800 8/3  -
= 2?  V = 1 3, -
8 , 8 , E = 100 /.
10.10.9.  -
R1 = 20 q = 2 
(. 10.10.1).  -
, 8 R1 R2
R2 = 2R1, R3 = 3R1. -
q R3
, -
r = 50
. 
= 2. 8
E(r).
10.10.10.  - . 10.10.1
q = 4 108 8 .
 , 8 8
.
10.10.11.  -
 E = 1,6 104 /. -
.
10.10.12. q = 4 108 .
 8 , 8
8 .
10.10.13.  q,
 8 8, -
8   . -
,  -
.

235
10.11. 

10.11.1. 1) 8 , -
8 R .
10.11.2. q = 3 108
8 = 6 103 . 
8 .
10.11.3.  , -
8 R = 5 q = 25 ?
10.11.4.  8 , -
 8 a b, a < b,
  -
.
10.11.5. R1 = 0,1 q1 = 4 108 ,
R2 = 0,3 q2 = 2 108 .
. 8
.
10.11.6. , = 1000 , -
. -
 0 = 300 .
8 R1 = 20 .  8 ?
10.11.7.  . -
,   
-
. 8
.
10.11.8. d1 = 10 q1 = 6 1010 ,
88 d2 = 30 q2 = 2 109 . -
 .  ?
10.11.9. R1 = 10 R2 =
= 15 ,  8 8,
1 = 120 2 = 60 . 
,  ?
.
10.11.10. ,  n = 4
, .  
8 , -
? 8 .
10.11.11. n = 27  
 .
1)   -
.

236
 -

 ?
10.11.12. 8 8 -
 R1 R2
1 2 . 8 -
, ?
10.11.13.  -
8 ,  R
Q N  ?

10.12.  

10.12.1.  
(), 
S1 = 500 2 .  d1 = 4 . -
, 
S2 = 250 2 . -
d2 = 0,4 .  
  ?
10.12.2.   -
 8 , -
8 E = 30 /?
   S = 100 2.
10.12.3.   8 -
D = 20 , d = 2
8 8,  ,
.  -
, -
U = 3 ?
10.12.4.  ,
8 d1 = 1 , U1 = 100
  .  , -
d2 = 1 ?
10.12.5.  ,
8 d1 = 0,5 ,    -
8 .   -
, ,  8 ,
d2 = 5 ?
 10.12.6. ,  8 8 
8 8 8 . -
= 1 ,  -
S = 100 2, d = 1 .

237
10.12.7.  C = 100 -
U = 200 .   , -
 ?
 10.12.8. 8 8 -
 . 1. 
8 ? 2.  , -
    8 ?
10.12.9.   S
d
  . , 
, l.
10.12.10. 8 
 C = 1  n = 2 ,  -
, 8
= 1000 .   ?
10.12.11. 8 -
8 8 8 ,
88  -
 = 2. 8
E = 5 10 6 /.
10.12.12. 8 8 8 -
 : -
 V = 100 3,  E = 106 /.
10.12.13. 8 8  w =
= 200 /3.   -
,   S = 200 2?
10.12.14. 8 -
d = 10 ,  S = 100 2. -
q = 2 , 8 -
 F = 0,1 .
, , -
, 8 8 8.
10.12.15.  S 
 ,
p0 (. 10.12.1). 
, -
q? ,
. 8
.
10.12.16. 8 -
, 
,  -
1 = 2 2 = 3 (. 10.12.2). 
.  S = 100 2, -
d = 2 .  .

238
10.12.17.  
d = 5 8 
(. 10.12.3).  d -
,   ?

d
1
S S
p0 p0 p0
2

. 10.12.1 . 10.12.2 . 10.12.3


 10.12.18.  8 8 -
  -
a  . 
,   -
S, d.  -
8 .
10.12.19.  
S d -
, 
, d1 = d
--- .  -
3
.
10.12.20.  8 8 -
  -
a .  -
,  S, d.
,  8  -
.
10.12.21. 
8 
  - d1 1
1, 2 d1, d2 -
(. 10.12.4). -
 8 ,
d2
  S = 100 2.
10.12.22. -
 8  - 2
:
 d1 = 1 -
d2 = 2 . - . 10.12.4

239
 = 3000 . -
8 
.   1 = 7, -
2 = 2.
10.12.23.  8 -
 -
1 2.  -
  -
,  ?
10.12.24.   -
0 = 60   
. 8  
   -
= 2.  2
 . -
  ?
10.12.25.  8  -
, 8 -
,  , -
 1 2, 2 > 1.   S,
d.  .
10.12.26.  -
 S -
d
d 1  -
d
2  = 3 , 
  10.12.5. 
  -
. 10.12.5 ? -
2 -
.

10.13. 

10.13.1.   C1  
   C2 = 600 , -
 C = 120 ?
10.13.2.    -
   8
. 8  -
,  .
 8
?

240
10.13.3.   -
 , , -
 S = 314 2, -
d = 1 .   , -
8  (1 = 7), 88
(2 = 2)?
10.13.4. ,
U0 = 800 ,  -
, .
  U1 = 100 . -
 .
10.13.5.  C1 = 4 , -
U1 = 10 ,   C2 = 6 , -
U2 = 20 , -
.   8 -
?
 10.13.6.    C1,
8 1 = 80 , -
   C2 = 60 , 8
2 = 16 .  C1, -

= 20 ,  , :
) ; ) .
 10.13.7.   K K
  C1 = R
= 1  C2 = 2  -
U1 = 400 U2 =
= 100 B (. 10.13.1).
 8 Q - C1 U1 C2 U2
R  ? + +
10.13.8. 
C1 = 3 ,
1 = 300 , 8
  C2 = 2 , . 10.13.1
2 = 200 , .
  Q ?
10.13.9.   -
8 8 .   -
 8 ?
10.13.10.    C =
= 800   (. 10.13.2).
   .

241
) ) )

) ) )

) ) )
. 10.13.2
10.13.11.   -
 A B,    10.13.3, C = 2 .
10.13.12.  , 
 10.13.4, C1 = 2 , C2 = C3 = 4 .
10.13.13.   -
 A B,    10.13.5, C = 26 .
3C
C C A

C C1 C C C1 C 2C 2C
A B A B
C C C C C
B
. 10.13.3 . 10.13.4 . 10.13.5
10.13.14.   -
 A B,    10.13.6, C = 5 .
 10.13.15.  
   C, 8 -
8,    10.13.7.
C C C
A A
C

C C
C C
C C C B
C
B
. 10.13.6 . 10.13.7

242
10.13.16.  -
  C3 (. 10.13.8) ( -
)  C2?  ?
10.13.17.  (11 = 6 , 12 = 3  13 = 2 )
 (C1 = 3 , C2 = 2  C3 = 1 ) -
 ,
8 8 (. 10.13.9).  -
.
 10.13.18.  A
B ,  10.13.10,  -
C1 = 10 , C2 = 20 , C3 = 30 , C4 = 40 ,
  1 = 10 .

C1 C2
C1
C3 11 12 13 a A b
B
C1 C2 C3
U C3 C4
C2

1
. 10.13.8 . 10.13.9 . 10.13.10

10.13.19.
 A B , C1 C2
 10.13.11.  
C1, C2 11, 12  . A
10.13.20.  B
,  10.13.12.
 8 - 11 12
  A B,   M N.
  C1 = 2  C2 = 5 . . 10.13.11
  Cx Cy,  -
 
8,  
.
10.13.21. 8   (. 10.13.13) -
U,  5  . -
   4?
10.13.22.  , 
 10.13.14.   C1, C2, C3
11, 12  .

243
A C 1 2 2C
C1 C2 C3
5 11 12
M N
3C 3 4
C1 C2
Cx Cy U
B
. 10.13.12 . 10.13.13 . 10.13.14

1 2  10.13.23. , 
O 10.13.15,  1, 2 3 -
C1 C2   C1, C2 C3.
C3  O. ,
 .
3
10.13.24. C1 C2 -
. 10.13.15    8 -
(. 10.13.16).   
1  C2 r  -
C3.  
C1 C2   C3?
   -
r C;  1.
 10.13.25. 
 8  -
C3   q.
. 10.13.16    -
S,  -
d.  
 x  -
 ?
10.13.26.  8 8  -
.   -
8 ,  .
 d 1 : 3.
 -
, Q.  -
S.
 10.13.27.   -
8 8   -
,  1 : 3.
 , -
Q?

244
10.13.28.  8 8
  d (. 10.13.17).
 
q.  -
, -
l?
 10.13.29.  8 -
8   d.  -
  b
Q . -
 .
10.13.30.  
S  , 8 
. d 
8  -
8  1 : 3 (. 10.13.18). -
,  
8 , 8 -
q.

1
q d
4

d l q
3
4
d
d

. 10.13.17 . 10.13.18

10.13.31.  -
 C = 1    q =
= 10 5 .  ,
 8  -
?
10.13.32.  ,

8 ,    10.13.19?
,  -
S, d 8 -
.
10.13.33.   
 S = 10 2 q = 2 106

245
8 8 ,    10.13.20.
 8  d = 10
, 8.  8 -
,  8  ?
10.13.34.   
 S = 5 2 q = 107 .
 8  d = 4
, 8.   -
,  8 , 
  10.13.20?
10.13.35.   
 S = 15 2 d =
= 10 q = 3 106 8
8 ,    10.13.21. 
,  88?

+ 1
1 d
2d + 4
1d
1 1 2
2 d
d d 1
2
2
d d
1
d 1
d
2 1 2
4
d

. 10.13.19 . 10.13.20 . 10.13.21

10.14.

10.14.1.   -
 E,  .
S.    ,
   ?
 10.14.2.  E0
 8 -
 ,  -
8 E.  ,
 
?    S, -
d.

246
10.14.3. 
E0  8 -
 E0 E0 E0
, -
 8 E (. 10.14.1). E
 ,
 180? -
   S, . 10.14.1
d.
10.14.4.   -
8 8 , 8 
  (
 ). A1.
 8 = 45, A2.
A2/A1.
10.14.5.  E0
 8 -
 ,  -
8 E.  ,
  ?  -
  S, d.
10.14.6. 
E0  8 -
 E0 E0 E0
,   -
8 S, d. -
  E
.
8 -
 E (. 10.14.2). -
 , . 10.14.2
 ?

10.15.

10.15.1.  m = 1012 8 8-
8 .  -
, ,
.  ,
  =
= 200 , , ,
0 = 50 ? -
d = 1,6 .

247
10.15.2.  8-

1 2. l =
= 5 . Q.
, , -
r = 1 (. 10.15.1). 

, ? -
r n l. .
10.15.3. q = 7 108 -
 8   1 (. 10.15.2) -
. q  1
 3, 8 ,
123. ,  -
 .   C = 1010 ,
Q = 5 104 .
10.15.4. 8  -
8 ,   -
  m = 10 8 q = 106 (. 10.15.3).
 , -
8 n = 2 ? 
.
r +Q m, q
q
1
1 2
Q l
3
Q
2

. 10.15.1 . 10.15.2 . 10.15.3

10.15.5. , 8  5 106 /, -
8 
E = 103 /.  
?  8 ? 
 8 ,
8 , l = 0,8 ?
 10.15.6. q = 107 -
+
m = 3 106 8  1 -
l  -
q  =
1 2 = 5 1010 /2 (. 10.15.4). 
  2, -
l = 1  1, -
. 10.15.4 ?

248
10.15.7. 8   
m, q.  -
, 8 d
.  , 8
8 d.
10.15.8.   
.
  v = 104 / 
 . -
, 
?  
.
10.15.9.
 , 8 E.
m q, M -
Q (. 10.15.5).  8
8 , -
?
10.15.10. ,  
OX, 8 , -
8  x  10.15.6.
  vmin 
?

E1
x1 x2
0
X
m, q M, Q
0

. 10.15.5 . 10.15.6

10.15.11.   x = 0 -
 , OX, -
.   -
v = 104 /.
 x, . . 
E = x, 8 = 9,1 103 /2.  ,
   .
 10.15.12. 8 -
. -
 E = x, 8 = 105 /2. -
 8 W q = 2 1010 , -
 l = 1 ?

249
10.15.13. m q 8-
 v0  -
E. 8
 8 (. 10.15.7). -
  t. 
.
 10.15.14. , q 8 W, -
  8 .  Q,
8  C, d.
 . 
 ,
?
 10.15.15. ,  8 W,
 , 8 -
. -
d, l. h  -
(. 10.15.8).   -
.  .


v0
d v
e

E l h

. 10.15.7 . 10.15.8

10.15.16.    
 8 -
, 8 L = 15  .
 U = 50
 H = 21 .
 d = 18 , l = 6 . -
  .
10.15.17.   l = 5
 8 = 15  . 8  W =
= 1,5 . d = 1 . -
,  
8 .

250
10.15.18. m = 1012 8
q = 2 1011 - E
 
E = 40 / 8- m, q
= 120  -
v0 = 220 / (. 10.15.9).  v0

h = 3 ?
 -
? - . 10.15.9
.
10.15.19. m q (q > 0) 8-
 8  v0 . -
8 -
 E, 8
 . , -

8.
10.15.20. m - v
q > 0  -
,  8
  (. 10.15.10).

E,  d. E
d
 v0 - v0
8  .
   8
   - m, q
? . 10.15.10
.
10.15.21. q 
 l 8   ,
8 .  8
,  E.
.
10.15.22. ,  -
,  
l 8. , 8 -
,  
, 8 
E = t, 8 .  E -
.  , 8
.  |e|,  me. -
.

251
m,e 10.15.23. , 8
 v,
v 8 1
1 2,
2 > 1 (. 10.15.11).  8
2  8 -
8 , 
8 ? 
1 2 me |e| .
. 10.15.11 10.15.24.  -
m, 8 -
,  . -
,  -
 E,
 .  q.
10.15.25.  m = 10 8,
q = 5 , .  
88 -
 (. 10.15.12). -
, 8 8 0 = 30 ,

E = 2 /, -
 .
E  10.15.26.  -
m, q
E
0  m q > 0
(. . 10.15.12).
, -
 8 0.
. 10.15.12  .

10.16.
10.16.1.   -
8 8,  ,
 v0,  .
,  .
10.16.2.  8
, 8 8 -
 v = 106 /?
10.16.3.  . -
a 8 8 
v1 v2, v1 > v2. 
8 ?

252
10.16.4.  R = 5 1011
8 .   ,
8 ?
10.16.5. m = 1 8 q = 106
 8 8 Q = 2 106
, l1 = 5  v0 = 30 / -
8 , .  -
, 8 l2 = 4 Q.
8 .
10.16.6.   v v
v,  m, e m, e
 d -
8 , -
(. 10.16.1).  - d
8 - . 10.16.1
?
10.16.7. a 8  q1.
m, q2 ( q1, q2 > 0),
.  q1 ,
 l0
q1?  .
 10.16.8. 8  d 8
8  m ,
q.   ,
?    vmax
?  .
10.16.9. 8 8-
  - m, q2 q1
q1 = 3 106 ,   -
 .
8  - . 10.16.2
6
 m = 10 8 q2 = 2 10 (. 10.16.2). -
, 
l1 = 20 .    8 ,
l0 = 25 ,
, 8   , l2 = 30 ?
10.16.10. 8  ,
8 = 30 8, h = 1  -
m = 10 8,
q = 1 .  ,
,   -
Q = 2 . , 
8 .

253
10.16.11. 
m = 9 8 q =
= 9,8 8
 ,
8 = 30 8 (. 10.16.3).
 Q
m,q2 Q l = 10
,
l
 ? -
 ,
. 10.16.3 8 Q
?
10.16.12.  
,  ,
.  -
l0,   q
.   
, m? .
10.16.13. , 
, 8 -
8  8 -
8 .  8  8 -
n , . 
n    8 8?
m
 -------1- = 3.
m2
10.16.14.  m = 2 8 Q = 10,5 109
  , -
l = 50 . -
   .  8-
  -
, 8 ?  8
g = 10 /2. 
.
A O 10.16.15.  m = 2 8,
q, 
F R
 A  R =
B = 10 (. 10.16.4). 8
q 8 -
mg 8 Q
WA = 2 103 .
8 , 8 q
Q  B, -
. 10.16.4   -

254
8 ,  -
, F = 0,1 .   -
.
10.16.16.  -
 ,  -
, 8  -
 R = 17,3 , m, q m, q
 - R
(. 10.16.5). -
 8-
.  -
.  . 10.16.5
,
, Q
.
h
10.16.17. 
m = 6 8, q = 1 , m, q
l
l = 40 .  -
h = 30 -
Q = 2  (. 10.16.6).
. 10.16.6
 
88 -
.   -
.
10.16.18.  -
  q = 2  m = 6 8  -
, -
l = 0,1 , 8.
8.  
8 . .
10.16.19.  - m, q m, q
 m = 2 8  8

8 . - l l
 l = . 10.16.7
= 0,1 8 8 (. 10.16.7).  
q = 2 106 .    -
  , 
 = 0,2?
10.16.20.    1, 2, 3
m = 9 8 q = 2  
8 8 a = 0,5 .  -
.   , 8
?

255
10.16.21. 
q1 q2 l. m, q3 -
8  q2, ,  -
.  
q1 q2, q1?
10.16.22.    m =
= 1,8 8 q = 107  -
a = 0,4 . : ) 8 ,
8 ; ) , .
q 10.16.23.  -
  -
a = 10
(. 10.16.8).  .
q   , 8
q ?
8  m = 9 8, q =
= 108 . .
q  10.16.24. 8
2008-8 a = 5
. 10.16.8
  -
 .  -
 , 
, -
. , 88 -
 8  -
W = 0,01 . 8 .
10.16.25.    R -
 m,  q. -
 , -
  E. 
, -
,  , 8
? .
10.16.26. m, q,
8 8 ,  . -
  -
,  8?  M,
R, Q.
 10.16.27. m, q,  v0
8  -
, 8 8 .  R, 8 Q
(Qq > 0), M.  .
1.  , 8 -
?
2.  ,  ?

256
10.16.28.  R -
 Q,
.  8 
, 8 ? -
l.  |e|.
10.16.29. 
R1,
- R2
q1, 
  R2, M, q v
R1

q2 (. 10.16.9). , - q2 q1
-
, ,

.  . 10.16.9
. -
q  M
.
10.16.30.  - v0 m, q0
R
 R = 102 ,
q = 108 , - q

(. 10.16.10). q0 = . 10.16.10
= 109 m = 106 8 
,  v0 = 1 /.
 .
10.16.31.  -
m1 = 100 8 R = 20 -
.
Q = 3 . . , -
,  
v = 5 / m2 = 40 8 q = 2 .
, 8 .
10.16.32.  R = 1 , -
= 1012 /3, -
  (. 10.16.11).
.  -
, R v0
 v0 = 1 /, -
?
 |e| = 1,6 1019 , 
me = 9,1 103 8. . 10.16.11

257
10.17.

10.17.1.  m = 0,1 8  , -
l = 1  .  -
q = 10  -
 E = 3 105 /. -
  ?
 10.17.2.  8 
 , 8 m, l.

.   , -
   -
E?  , -
 q0 .
10.17.3.  m = 30 8 (-
 ) 8  -
 8 .
8   F =
= 0,1 , 8  T1 = 2 . 
, 8 , -
. 8   -
.  8 g = 10 /2.
10.17.4.  , -
, -
l  m q > 0.
 , 8.
10.17.5.  8
+ 
  m = 1 8
(. 10.17.1). 
 , q =
m, q = 103 , -
= 15,3 1013 /2?
10.17.6. 
. 10.17.1 8 l  m, -
8 8
E.  8-
q q. .
k  10.17.7. 8 -
m 8   8-
, -
h  k = 50 / (. 10.17.2).
d = 1,1 .
  -
. 10.17.2 , -

258
 A = 0,1 .
. m = 54 8.
10.17.8.  m q 
l.  , -
l  8   , -
(. 10.17.3). -
.
10.17.9.  m, -
8 q, 8 R,
  Q (qQ > 0) (. 10.17.4).
10.17.10. 8  -
: R = 20 , 2R
(. 10.17.5).  m = 10 8
q = 106 ,  O   Q =
= 2 106 .   -
 2R
R?

O
l Q Q

2R
R R
l m, q m, q

. 10.17.3 . 10.17.4 . 10.17.5


 10.17.11.  ,  -
, , 
,  . -
 l0.
 . .
10.17.12.  8 8 88
l   , -
,  .
  q. -
 , m.
10.17.13. - q l
, - q
 l , 
  10.17.6. l
l
 m q . q
10.17.14.   R = 1
l q
q = 1016 .  . 10.17.6

259
, 8  x n R 8
.  |e| = 1,6 1019 ,  m =
= 9,1 1031 8. .

11.

11.1. . 

11.1.1.  8
t1 = 2 q1 = 20 .  -
,   q2 = 60 .
11.1.2.   I = 10 . -
, 
t = 1 8.
11.1.3. , 8
, S = 1 2.
 I = 105 .
 .
11.1.4.  C = 100 ,
U = 300 , t = 0,1 . -
 .
11.1.5. ,  -
 t = 10 -
 
I0 = 0 I = 3 .
11.1.6.   I = 0,1 + 0,2t.
, 
t1 = 5 t2 = 10 .
11.1.7.  , 8 -
8   11.1.1. , 
t = 30 ,  .
I,  11.1.8.  -
8  -
2 S = 400 2 -
d = 2
U =
1 = 120 . -
  v = 10 /
8  -
0  d -
10 20 30 t,
= 2. 
. 11.1.1 .

260
11.1.9.    -
 = 1  d = 1 -
U = 100 8  
 v = 10 /.  -
 8 .
11.1.10. , 8 , -
r = 0,5 1010 .

11.2. 

11.2.1.  R = 10 , -
S = 1 2. .
11.2.2.  
S = 300 2, d = 2 . -
20%-8  = 15,3 . -
.
11.2.3.  S = 1 2 -
 R = 10 . 8
?
11.2.4.  ,
8 n = 20%, 8 -
m = 50%?
11.2.5. 8 , -
8 8 S = 6 103 2, R = 3 .
 11.2.6. 
 .  ,
 10 -
? 3,3 , -
1,65 .
11.2.7.  l 8 S
8  = x, 8
, x , 8
 . .
11.2.8.  8  C, 8 R,
 . -
.

11.3.


11.3.1.    -
S = 2 2  (. 11.3.1), -
R0 = 10 ,

261
 8 
8 R = 2 ?
11.3.2. -
, , R1 = 6 ,
, R2 = 1,125 . -
8 .
11.3.3.  
R0 = 10 . -
, , -
 R = 1 ?
 11.3.4. , -
. 11.3.1 , n = 6,25
, . ,
 8  -
88.
11.3.5. 
R1 = 2 , R2 = 3 R3 = 6 , -
R0 = 4 ?
11.3.6. 8 -
. 
, ,
 .
,  .
11.3.7. 8 R =
= 10 .  ?
  .
11.3.8.  r
R R ,  11.3.2,
 r?
R r 11.3.9.  -
R = 5  -
. 11.3.2 R0 = 3 . 
8, ?
11.3.10. , -
 11.3.3, , R = 4 .
R
R/2 R/5 2R
R
R R
R R 2R

R
) )
. 11.3.3

262
 11.3.11. , 
 11.3.4, R = 1 .
11.3.12. ,
 11.3.5, R = 9 .

R R
R R R
R
R R R R

R
R R R R R

. 11.3.4 . 11.3.5

11.3.13. ,
 11.3.6, R = 5 .
11.3.14.  
A B (. 11.3.7) ,
8 R = 10 .

R R

R R
2R 2R

R R A
2R 2R B

. 11.3.6 . 11.3.7
11.3.15.   A
B  8,   11.3.8, ,
8 R = 6 .

B A
B

A B

) ) )

. 11.3.8

263
 11.3.16. 8 , -
8  (. 11.3.9),  8
 17. 8  R = 0,3 .
11.3.17. ,
 11.3.10. 8 R = 4 .

6 7
2 3

5 8
1 4

. 11.3.9 . 11.3.10

11.3.18. , -
 11.3.11. 8 R = 7 .
11.3.19.  Rx ,
 11.3.12,
?

2R 2R 2R 2R

R R R R R Rx

. 11.3.11 . 11.3.12

11.3.20.  11.3.13   , -
8 8 ,
 R1 = 4 R2 = 3 .
.

R1 R1 R1 R1

R2 R2 R2 R2 R2

. 11.3.13

264
 11.3.21. 8 , -
 (. 11.3.14). -
, R = 1 .
R R R R

R R R R R

R R R R
. 11.3.14

11.4.  '

11.4.1.   I d 0,1
 . 8
R d 50 000 .  ?
11.4.2. t = 5  q =
= 180 . , 8
R = 10 .
 11.4.3. ,
 I = 1 U = 1,2 ? -
 d = 0,5 , l = 47 .
11.4.4. U = 120 
I = 4 . ,  -
, 
, U0 = 220 .
11.4.5.  U = 210 ,
R = 105 .
, U0 = 220 .
11.4.6. 8 
  . 8
n = 4 , 88 
.   ? -
 .
11.4.7.   8 8
, 8 S1 = 1 2 S2 = 2 2 
.  -
,  U = 9 .
11.4.8.  R = 60 , -
U = 120 ,  -
U0 = 220 .   -
? 8 -
 S = 0,8 2.

265
11.4.9.  ,
8 , -
, U. 
 ,

n = 2 ?
 11.4.10.  , 
,  I0 = 4,8 . -
,  , 
8 .
11.4.11.   -
R2 R3 ,  11.4.1?
1   , 8
A   ?
R1 : R1 = 2 , R2 = 4 , R3 = 6 , 1 = 5 .
. 11.4.1  
.
11.4.12. ,  : U1 = 3,5 ,
I1 = 0,35 U2 = 2,5 , I2 = 0,5 , R = 30
 U = 6 .  , -
 8 ?
11.4.13.   , -
,  11.4.2, , 8 
,   11.4.2, ? -
.
R R
A A
R

) )

. 11.4.2
 11.4.14.  ac , -
 11.4.3, U = 12 .
R1 = 10 , R2 = 5 , R3 =
= 10 .

R2 R2
R1 R1
a b c
R3 R3 A

. 11.4.2 . 11.4.4

266
 11.4.15.
R1 = 4 , R2 = 2 R3 = 4 ,  
I1 = 3 (. 11.4.4).  I2 I3 R2 R3.
11.4.16. ,  -
R1 = 1 , R2 = 2 R3 = 3 (. 11.4.5),
 1, 2, 3 1 = 10 , 2 = 9 , 3 = 6
.
R2 2 R1 R2
1 R1 2
A B
1
3 1
R3 3
R2 R1
. 11.4.5 . 11.4.6
11.4.17.  A B
,  11.4.6,  
1 = 80 , R1 = 2 , R2 = 8 ? -
 .
11.4.18. 8 -
,
 11.4.7. - U R R
8 88 -
 R. 8 -
 . . 11.4.7
U. -
,  K2
8, -
n = 3 . R
11.4.19. ,
 11.4.8,  - R R
1 Rx
Rx, , 8
 K1
 K1   K2,
3 , 8 - . 11.4.8

 K1   K2. -
  . R5
11.4.20. , -
R1 R2 R3
8  ,
 11.4.9,
R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 = 1 ,  R4
1
 1 = 12 ? -
 . . 11.4.9

267
R2 11.4.21.
U1 = 100 , -
U2 = 40 (. 11.4.10).
R1 R3 R2
 I2 = 1 .
c U3 = 60 ,
. 11.4.10 U4 = 15 . -
R1, R2, R3.
11.4.22.  A, B C -
, . -
:
RAB = 10 , RBC = 20 , RAC = 30 .  A C 
 1 = 1,5 ,   B C , -
8 r = 5 .  ?
 .

11.5. 

11.5.1.   -
 t = 1 , 
I = 0,5 , U = 220 ?
11.5.2.   t = 1 -
  l = 2 -
8 S = 0,45 2,  I = 4 ?
11.5.3. 8 8
V = 1 t1 = 20  
U = 220 ,  I = 8 ?
 11.5.4.  -
R = 120 , 8 8.
  -
r = 50 .  , 8
  , 8
?
11.5.5.  :
P = 800 , U = 220 . 
8 .
11.5.6. 8, -
U0 = 10 .  8
, 8 8 , 8
n = 2 , 8, -
8 ?
11.5.7.  P = 500 -
U0 = 110 . , -

268
  U = 220
.
11.5.8.  
= 30% .  -
?
11.5.9.  R  -
 1.  
. 
8 ,
n = 4 T -
, ?
 .
11.5.10. ,  -
, P.   ,
P1. 
.
 11.5.11.  
P1 = 40 P2 = 60 , U0 =
= 110 ,   U = 220 ,
? .
11.5.12.  . -
 t1 = 5 ,
 8 t2 = 15 .  -
 ,  : ) -
; ) ?
11.5.13.    K  ab
,  11.5.1, 
. Rx,
  , R = 20 .
11.5.14. U = 1
= 220  ;
 P = 800 . R Rx
 a
 
- R K b
.
? . 11.5.1
11.5.15. ,
 11.5.2, -
R1 = 3 , R2 = 4 , R3 = 6 , -
 U = 12 . - R1 R2 R3
, -
R2.
  - V
.
. 11.5.2

269
R3 R4 11.5.16.  -
R1, R2, R3, R4 -
R2 R1    , 
  11.5.3.
R1 P1 =
. 11.5.3 = 0,9 .  -
R1, R2 ?
 .
11.5.17.  -
1 = 5% , .  -

8, , ,
2 = 1%?
11.5.18.   P = 1  
.   , -
8. p0 = 105 , -
8   S = 1 2. ,
8 8 .
11.5.19. 8 8 
R = 10 . , 
, m = 100 8,
 = 1 , -
 = 70%?
11.5.20.  -
, ,  I = 1,3
U = 220 ,
= 1,5 ?  = 35%.
11.5.21. 8  -
 V = 10 3.  -
8  t1 = 10
t2 = 100  j = 3 /2? -
 = 70%.
11.5.22.   Q = 8,7 107
.   -
d = 103  8 8, -
8 ?
U = 220 .
11.5.23. m = 11 -
v = 36 /.   8, -
U = 550 , 8 = 80%. -
= 0,02 .
11.5.24. m = 1 
h = 15 t = 30 .
 U = 220 , 8 = 80%. 
 .

270
 11.5.25. 8, , -
  U = 220 .
V = 500 3 h = 20 . 
 8,  (8 -
) = 44%? = 103 8/3.

11.6. 
11.6.1.   
R = 100 .  -
RA = 1   I = 10 . -
  .
 .
11.6.2. U0 = 120 -

U = 100 R1 = 20  R2 = 15 . -
 8 , -
.
11.6.3. ,  A B C
11.6.1,    AB
 U1 = 6 . -
   B C, U2 = 4 ,
  A C, U3 = 12 . 8
. 11.6.1
 , -
.
11.6.4. 
 1 = 6 . 
 ,  n =
= 2 ,   .
  . -
.
11.6.5.

.  11.6.2, , . -
  , -
R ? -
RA RV.

V V

R R
A A
) )
. 11.6.2

271
R1 11.6.6. , 
11.6.3,
R2 = 300 . -
R2 V

8, 8 
. 11.6.3 , = 2% 8
R2? -
R1 = 100 . -
R
  .
V1 11.6.7. (. 11.6.4) -
V2
. 1 = 9 , -
R .
V3
V1  U1 =
= 2 .  -
. 11.6.4 ?

11.7.

11.7.1. RA = 0,16 -
R = 0,04 .  -
 IA = 8 .  .
11.7.2.  100 n = 1
8. 8  -
 I = 1000 ? -
RA = 90 .
11.7.3. , 8
 IA = 10 , RA = 0,18 
N = 100 . 
 8 , -
 I = 100 ? 
?
11.7.4. -
 . -
, n = 10 . 
, -
?
 11.7.5. . -
, 8 n1 ,
8, n2 . 
,
,  : ) ; ) -
?

272
11.7.6. 8, 8 RG = 290 ,
, 8-
n = 10 . , 
 8, -
.
11.7.7. ,  , 8
R1 = 350 (. 11.7.1, ),  R = 10
R1  R2 = 100 (. 11.7.1, ).
, 8 8, -
. 8. -
 .

R1 R2

G G

) )
. 11.7.1
11.7.8. RV = 2 . -
UV = 30 , 8 
150 .  
8 ,
U = 75 ?  ?
11.7.9. : U1 = 3 ,
U2 = 15 U3 = 75 .  IV =
= 0,3 . R1, R2 R3,
RV = 103 .
 11.7.10. .  , 
, , 8 -
n1 ,  , n2 .
 , -
,  : ) ;
) ?
11.7.11. 8  -
 -
R. 
n = 10 .   -
, 8, -
R.  ,

273
? 8
.
11.7.12. RG,
R
R1,  . -
  U1 = 1 . 
R2 R1, 8
 U2 = 10 ?
 11.7.13.  , 
 I = 2 , R = 0,5 ,
 n = 10 . -
,  -
 , 8
 ,
U = 220 .
11.7.14. R = 5 , -
 I = 15 . 
 8 , -
: )  I = 150 ; ) U = 150 ?
11.7.15. ( -
)  
R = 200 . -
0
 8 -
.  8-
R .  -
  A B (. 11.7.2) 
A B   ( 0). -
 
. 11.7.2  ? ?

11.8. ' .
 '

11.8.1.   1 = 3,6 .  -
 8  8, -
A = 72 ?
11.8.2. 1 = 3 -
 I = 0,1 .
t = 10 .
11.8.3.  1 = 4,5 ,
r = 2 .   R =
= 7 .  -
.

274
11.8.4.  R = 2 , 
   1 = 1,1 ,  I = 0,5 .
   .
11.8.5.   
8 , 
n = 3 ?
 11.8.6.   
1  ,  , -
8  8 , ? 
 r = 0,5 , R = 200 .
 11.8.7.  11.8.1 - I1 R
  1 =5 , 1
r = 0,1 .  I1 I2,  I2 R
R1 = 4 a 2
b
R2 = 6 . r
11.8.8.  
R = 10    - I
  1 = 1 - . 11.8.1
r = 0,5 ,
.  .
11.8.9. -
R,   -
r, . , -
R (  ) -
n . .
11.8.10.  -
r 8 R. , 
,  8, 
. .
11.8.11.  ,   -
R1 = 4 , I1 = 0,2 . -
R2 = 7 ,  I2 = 0,14 .
 ,   ?
11.8.12.  I1 = 1,5 
U1 = 20 ,  I2 = 0,5 
U2 = 8 . , ?
11.8.13. ,
,  8
R1 = 1  U1 = 2 ,
 R2 = 2
U2 = 2,4 .
11.8.14. 8 32%,
 20% . 
, 60%?

275
11.8.15.  -
  U = 2,8 . 1 = 3 ,
r = 1 . .  -
 t = 5 ?  -
 ?
11.8.16.   1 = 2 , -
r = 1 . , -
P = 0,75 . ?
11.8.17.  r =
= 0,08  I1 = 4 P1 = 8 .
  I2 = 6 ?
11.8.18.   ,
8 1 = 3 r = 1 ,
 ? 8
8 .
11.8.19.  Pmax
  1 = 100 -
r = 20 ?  P.. -
,   
= 0,1  8 ?
11.8.20.   1 = 2,2 -
r = 1  , 
m = 30,3 8.   ,
 .  8-
 t = 5 ?
 11.8.21.  8   :
R1 = 4 , 8
R2 = 9 .  ,
, . -
.
11.8.22. n = 2,25 .
, , .
,  r  -
8 R .
11.8.23.  8  -
,  I1 = 5
P1 = 9,5 , I2 = 8 P2 = 14,4 .
11.8.24.  
   , -
R1 = 200 R2 = 500
  P = 200 ?
11.8.25.  r = 1
 R = 8 . -
  . -

276
, -
.
11.8.26.    1 =
= 1,5 r = 0,5 , -
8 R0 = 30 . -
 . , -
8,   .  
I0 , 8, ? -
8  .

11.9.  

11.9.1.    1 = 3 . 8 -
  U = 2,5 .
 .
11.9.2.  -
8 , 
= 80%?
11.9.3. , 
R = 5 , = 50%.  ,
8  2R?
11.9.4.  1 = 20 -
r = 0,25  . -
,  I = 8 .
11.9.5.   1 = 100 ,   -
 R = 10 , = 25%. -
, .
11.9.6.  R  -
  8 = 20%.  
 , , -
, ?
 11.9.7.   
I = 0,8 ,  8  I.. = 2 .
11.9.8.  1 = 12 . -
  = 1
 8   I = 2 ,  
  I0 = 3 ?
11.9.9.    -
r = 1 8 (). -
 . -
  8 .
8 .
11.9.10.   
1 = 4,5 r = 1,5 8

277
().
  .
   . 8
.

11.10.  

11.10.1. 8 11 = 12 12 =
= 6  r = 10 -

R = 10 . 
.
11.10.2. 8-
  , -
r1 r2.  R -
8
 ?
11.10.3.  8 1 = 1,5
r = 0,5 .    -
,
P = 6 , U = 12 ?
11.10.4.  
 R = 4 . 
I1 = 1,83 .  , 
8 .  I2 = 0,34 .
8 ,
 8 R 8
  I3 = 1 I4 = 1,3 .
 11.10.5.  n = 8 , -
. 8 1 = 1,5 , -
r = 0,25 . -
 R1 = 10
R2 = 50 . .
11.10.6.
 ,  11.10.1? -
8 1, r. -
.
 11.10.7. n = 5 -
  1 =
= 1,4 r = 0,3
8.   , -
, P = 8 ?
. 11.10.1 Pmax ?

278
 11.10.8.    1 = 120
r1 = 0,5 r2 = 0,6 -
 
R = 10 . 8
 , -
.
11.10.9. N   
R. r
8 , , 8 -
,  -
 ?
11.10.10.  , 

P0 = 160 .  -
,  8 -
?
11.10.11. N = 400  -
, n 8,
  m , -
. 8 r = 1 ;
R = 100 .  n m 
?
11.10.12.   -
r = 1 
 R,
 . -
R,
= 9 .
11.10.13.  11 = 1,3 12 = 2
r1 = 0,1 r2 = 0,25 -
 . 
.
11.10.14. 8 11 = 1,5
12 = 2  . -
,    , 
U = 1,7 . -
.  .
11.10.15. 8 11 = 10
12 = 6  r = 1
 R =
= 0,5 .  , 1 -
.

279
11.11.  #

R1 A R2  11.11.1. 
R2 (. 11.11.1)
11 R3 12  A B, -
  11 = 4 12 = 3 , -
B
R1 = 2 , R2 = 1 , R3 =
= 6 .
. 11.11.1
 .
R2 12 11.11.2.  -
R (. 11.11.2) 8 -
11 R1 , 11 = 1,5 , 12 = 3,7 , R1 = 10 ,
R2 = 20 , R = 5 . -
R   .
11.11.3. -
. 11.11.2 R1 = 5 , R2 = 1 , R3 = 3 , 
  11 = 1,4 ,
1 A B
   11.11.3. -
 , 
R1 R2 R3 I   A B,
R3   I = 1
. 11.11.3 ,  . -
  .
R2 12 11.11.4. 
R  11.11.4.
R1 R3 R R, R1, R2, R3, 11, 12 .
11 
 .
. 11.11.4 11.11.5. 11 = 10
11, r1 12 = 8
r1 = 1 r2 = 2 -
12, r2 R = 6 ,  -
  11.11.5.
R , 8 .
11.11.6. 11 = 8
. 11.11.5 12 = 6
11, r1 r1 = 2 r2 = 1,5 -
R = 10 , 
12, r2   11.11.6. -
, 8 .
R 11.11.7. 8
1 = 2 -
. 11.11.6  -

280
R. -
r1 = 1 r2 = 2 .
R, , 8
, I1 = 1 ?  I2, 8 -
,   IR .
11.11.8. 11 = 1,5 , 12 = 2 , 13 = 2,5 -
R1 = 10 , R2 = 20
R3 = 30 ,    11.11.7. 
R1. .
11.11.9. ,  11.11.8,
, 8 8, 11 = 1,5 , 12 = 6 ,
R1 = 3 , R2 = 6 .  -
 .
11.11.10. ,  
,  11.11.9. R1, R2, R3, 11, 12
.   .
R1 11, r1
R2 R3 12
R2 12, r2 11
G
12 R2 R1
11
R3 13, r3 R1

. 11.11.7 . 11.11.8 . 11.11.9

11.11.11. ,  -
,  11.11.10. 1 
 R , -
 .
11.11.12. ,  -
,   11.11.11, R1 = 15 , R2 =
= R3 = R4 = 10 ,   1 = 7,5 . -
  .

R 2R R1

R2 R3
2R R

R4
1 1

. 11.11.10 . 11.11.11

281
11.12. # 

1,r 11.12.1. ,  
11.12.1,   1 = 20
R r = 2 .
R = 6 ,  -
C = 108 . .
C 11.12.2. -
8  ,  -
. 11.12.1  11.12.2.   1 = = 2 ,
8 r = 0,5 . -
1,r R = 4,5 ,  -
C1 = 2 1010 C2 = 6 1010 .
R
11.12.3. 
 C = 1  ,
 11.12.3, 8 R1 =1 , R2 = 4 ,
C1 C2 1 = 6 , 
. 11.12.2  r = 1 .
11.12.4.
 A B ,
 11.12.4. R1, R2, C1, C2,
R1 1 .
1,r C   .
R2 11.12.5. 
, 
. 11.12.3 ,  11.12.5? -
  -
, 8  C = 2 ?  
1 = 3,6 , R1 = 4 , R2 = 7 , R3 = 3 . -
 .

2R
C1 A C2 R2

R1 B R 2 C R3 R
3R C
R1
4R
1 1
1
. 11.12.4 . 11.12.5 . 11.12.6

11.12.6.   
C = 1  ,  11.12.6. -
  1 = 10 .  .

282
11.12.7.  , -
8  A B , 
11.12.7.   1 = 10 ,  8 -
C = 1 .  .
11.12.8.   
C = 1,5 ,  11.12.8. -
  1 = 6 , r = 1 ,
R1 = 8 , R2 = 2 .

2R R1 R2 2C 3C
C B

A C C
R
3R C
R2 R1 3R R

1,r 1
1
. 11.12.7 . 11.12.8 . 11.12.9

11.12.9.  (. 11.12.9).
. R, C 1 .
11.12.10. q1 q2   C1
C2 ,  11.12.10. -
. R1, R2, R3, R4, 11 12 .
11.12.11.   
,  11.12.11, C1 = 1 , C2 =
= 2 , 1 = 10 ,  A B
= 5 .
11 R1
C
C1 11 12
C1 C2
R4 C2
R2 A B R
1 A B

12 R3 I

. 11.12.10 . 11.12.11 . 11.12.12


11.12.12.   , -
 11.12.12, 11 = 4 , 12 = 2 , C = 106 ,
R = 1 , I = 1 .
11.12.13. ,  11.12.13, -
R1, R2, C1, C2, U.   K,
8 ?

283
11.12.14. , 
R1 (. 11.12.14)   K,
1 = 500 , r = 10 , R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 = 20 , C = 10 .

C1 C2 R3 R2

K R1
R1 R2 R4 K
C
1 r
U

. 11.12.13 . 11.12.14

11.12.15.   -
,  11.12.15,  K 
1 2? ,
  .
11.12.16.   l -
d  ,   -
 11.12.16. 
  v0 .   1, -
r.  R ,
  8  8 -
?
11.12.17.   l -
d  ,  
 11.12.17.  -
.  
 ? 1 -
 , R .
 .
1
C 3R
1
2 K v0
v0 2R
R
1,r C
R 4R
1

. 11.12.15 . 11.12.16 . 11.12.17

284
11.13.  

11.13.1. - 
8  8
t = 109 .  -
l = 30 ?
11.13.2. , 8 S = 5 2,
.  8 
v = 0,31 /,  n = 7,6 1027 3.  -
 ?
11.13.3.  l = 1 
I = 10 .  -
.  |e| = 1,6 1019 , me = 9,1 1031 8.
11.13.4.  8 -
 8  
j = 11 /2, , 
.
11.13.5.  8 -
 S = 1 2  I = 1 ?
11.13.6.   8 -
 8 l = 2 ,
  8 U = 2 ? ,
  -
.
11.13.7.   j = 0,36 /2.
  
8 ?
11.13.8.  8
S = 5 2  (. 11.13.1). I
8 
1 = 1,7 108 , 8 2 = 110
1 2
108 .  ,
8  -
,  . 11.13.1
,  I = 5 .
11.13.9.
 t0 = 0 t = 2400 .
 11.13.10.  
t1 = 20 R1 = 35,8 .  -
t2 , 
U = 120  I = 0,33 ?
 11.13.11. 88
R = 30 

285
t = 900 .   -
S = 0,6 2, ?
 11.13.12. , 8-
 . t0 = 0 -
R0 = 120 , R0 = 20 . -
  I0 = 22 .   I -
 , 8 T = 50 K?
11.13.13.  , -
8,  8
, 0 20 ?
11.13.14. 8  -
  -
. 8 
 I1 = 29 ,  
I2 = 20 . 
.
11.13.15. -
t = 50 .
20 .
11.13.16. 0  8-
R = 480 . , 8
 t = 1500 , 8 = 0,0005 K1.
11.13.17.  8
l = 100  , -
8 S = 10 2?
t1 = 25 , t2 = 20 .
11.13.18. 8 8 
S = 5 102 2 8 R = 1,5 102 ,
8 U = 1,6 . -
 .

11.14. . 

11.14.1.  
t = 20 ,  I = 4 ?
11.14.2.  AgNO3
CuSO4 .  m2
, 8 m1 = 180 8?
11.14.3.  8  -
t = 5   I = 2,5 -
8 ?   
.

286
 11.14.4.   -
(CuCl2)  m = 4,74 8,
 I = 2 ?
 11.14.5. ,  -
 AgNO3,  
I = 0,9 .  , =
= 5  m =
= 316 8?
11.14.6.  -
.  m1 = 3,9 8, -
m2 = 2,24 8 .  -
.  ?
 11.14.7.  
= 30 m = 2 104 8.
 , 8 ,
 .  -
k = 108 8/.
11.14.8.   -
t1 = 15 Imax = 5 ,
t2 = 1
t3 = 15 .
8 .   
.
11.14.9.  NiSO4 
 j = 0,15 /2.   
t = 2 S = 1 2 ? -
   .
 11.14.10.   8 
 () m = 99 8? -
 S = 25 2,  j = 200 /2.
8  .
 11.14.11. -8 
j = 0,7 /2. 8 -
 , 
d = 0,05 ? n = 1.
11.14.12.   AgNO3 -
8  v = 1 /? -
  .
11.14.13. 
q = 103 . 8 , -
V = 0,25 p = 129 . -
 n = 2.

287
11.14.14.  8
8 , t = 6 8
 m = 120 8?
R = 1,2 ,   -
.
11.14.15.  
t = 50 m = 3 104 8.
 , ,
8 R = 0,4 ,   -
k = 108 8/.
11.14.16.  Al2O3
. 8, -
m = 1 , , -
U = 6 , = 70%. n = 3.
11.14.17.  
 :
2H2 + O2 = 2H2O + 5,57 1019 .
U, 
.
 11.14.18.   8
V = 2,5
T = 298 p = 105 ,  -
U = 5 ,  = 75%? 
 k = 108 8/.

11.15.   #

11.15.1.   -
, 8, 8 8
W = 24,5 ?
11.15.2.  -
E = 3 /. -
  ,
8 8  = 5 .
11.15.3. 8
 r = 0,5 ?  ?
,  , E =
= 3 /.
11.15.4.  -
8 , 
N = 109  , -
8   S = 80 2 -
d = 10 ?

288
11.15.5.  , -
, 10 . 8
8 , -
600 ? 8 1,7 1018 .
.
11.15.6. , -
t d 1 . ,
 , q = 20 , -
  U = 2 . 
8 ?  8
 , n = 5 ?
11.15.7.  
8 , 8 W =
= 21,5 , 8 8  = 0,4 ?
11.15.8.  -
,  R K
 11.15.1. 
 K  . 8- 1
 -
8 8 U3, 
8. -
,  8, U =
. 11.15.1
= 80 ,  I = 1 .
  1 =10 . 
 8? 
.
11.15.9.  T
? 8  W =
= 2,5 1018 . 8   8
.

11.16.  ''

11.16.1. -  U =
= 4 ,  I = 3 .  -
.
11.16.2.   -
v = 8 / . .
11.16.3.   -
U = 16 ,   l = 30 .
  ?
11.16.4. 8  -
-  U1 = 2 sin 100t,  -
  U2 = 2 cos 100t.  
 ?

289
11.16.5.  j = 102 /2  
 8 v = 5 103 /.
.
11.16.6. 
, .
D = 1 , h = 4 . 
U = 220  I = 2 .
 , -
 v0 = 3 106 /.  
e
8 = ----- = 1,76 1011 /8.
m

11.17.  '

11.17.1.  , InAs (-
),   ( )  -
,
8 (Ge, Si). 8 -
 ? ?
I 11.17.2.  11.17.1 -
8 , -
8 , 8
2 .  8 
 
?
1  
 ?  -
0 U 8
. 11.17.1
8?
11.17.3.  8
 n = 3 1019 3.  -
 8 ?
11.17.4.  , -
R = 1 ,
U = 30 .   -
I1 = 10 . 8 8 , 
I2 =15 .  8
?
11.17.5. R1 =
= 1 105 , R2 = 2 104 . 
 ,
U = 50 .

290
11.17.6. ,  -
R1 = 20 ,  -
R = 5 . 8 ,  -
( ) n = 3 .
?
11.17.7. 8
, -
0,5  5 , 10  0,1 .
11.17.8. , -
,  12 ,
600 .  .

12.

12.1. #  

12.1.1.   
I = 20 . 8  ,
r = 2 .
12.1.2. 
d = 5 88.   -
  I = 10 . 8-
 , r1 = 2
8 r2 = 3 88 .
12.1.3.
 d = 5 .  -
   I = 30 .  8-
8 , r1 = 4 8
r2 = 3 88 .
12.1.4. 8  B = 2 104
  -
  I = 50 . 8
,   88 .
12.1.5. 
 -
8 8 -
  (. 12.1.1). -
8   A, -

d = 0,2 .  
I1 = 30 , I2 = 40 . . 12.1.1

291
12.1.6. 88  R = 5,8 
88 B = 1,3 104 . .
12.1.7.  88  O, -
   I = 10 8 ,  
 12.1.2. R = 50 .
12.1.8.  I = 20 ,   
S = 1 2,  8 -
 B = 0,22 .  U 
 , ?
 12.1.9. 8  R = 4  -
 d = 5 8
8.    I1 = I2 = 4 .  8-
8 8  : ) 
  ; )    -
.
12.1.10. 8  8 -
O  -
 (. 12.1.3).  88  O
B0 = 2 104 .  88 8 
 I1 = 8  B1 = 1,6 104 . -
B2 88 8   O 
I2 .

. 12.1.2 . 12.1.3

 12.1.11.  B 88
R = 10 ,  
  I = 50 (. 12.1.4).
12.1.12.  B 88
R = 10 ,  
  I = 50 (. 12.1.5).

292
. 12.1.4 . 12.1.5

12.1.13. 
d = 0,8 ,  8 8  8.
8  
I = 2 ?  .
12.1.14.  l = 30 N = 1000 .
 88 , -
 I = 2 . 
.
 12.1.15.  d = 1 -
, 8  88
B = 30 .   
I = 6 . 8  , -
 8  8?  -
.

12.2.

12.2.1. q = 2 106
 v0 = 10 / 8
(. 12.2.1)  B = 0,1 . 
  88 -
. -
, . . 12.2.1
12.2.2. q = 2 108
 v = 8 / 8
 B = 0,25 . 8  8-
 = 30 (. 12.2.2).
, .
12.2.3.  
 v = 106 / 8 -
 B = 0,01 . , -
, . . 12.2.2

293
12.2.4.  8 88 -
 B = 1   8
1). .
12.2.5.   v = 4 104 / -
8  B = 108 
8 . 8-
 .
12.2.6. 8  B = 2
 8  ,
8 p = 1,67 1021 (8 )/ . -
 ?
12.2.7. m = 1022 8 q = 1016
8  R = 1 8 -
 B = 0,1 .  8 -
?
12.2.8. 8  B = 0,1
  v = 104 /
m = 1012 8 q = 1010 . 
, 8 
?
12.2.9.  8 -
 8 . -
,  , -
: ) ; ) 8.
12.2.10.  -
8  -
8 .  -
8 , -
: ) ; ) 8?
12.2.11.  8-
8 l.   v -
. 12.2.3     B,  8-
(. 12.2.3).  8  8 -
88 ?
12.2.12. 8 
m = 2 1010 8 q = 108 
v0 = 104 / 8  B =
1)   , 
  .
  
 ( ) . -
  .
,    
 B .

294
= 0,05 , 8 -
 v0 (. 12.2.4). 
 -
R = 10 , -
 v0 .  -
 -
? . . 12.2.4
12.2.13.
A (. 12.2.5)
m = 1020 8
q = 1016 8-
 B = 0,1 , -
8   -
 . l = 20
 
l0 = 1 .   -
. 12.2.5
8 ?
.
12.2.14.  8
R = 5  ,
8-
 B = 5 1010 . -
 ( 8
) 8 
 v = 10 / (. 12.2.6). . 12.2.6
 .
12.2.15.  8
 B = 4  v = 106 /, -
 88 . -
  t = 4,47 109 .
12.2.16.  8 -
 B = 20  v = 5 10 5 / 8 = 30
  88 . -
8 ,  8 .
12.2.17. 8  B = 100 
.  -
, R = 5 , 8 h = 20 .
12.2.18.  8-
.  A (. 12.2.7) 
 v 8 
 88 . 
 88  
 C? AC = l.
12.2.19. 8 -
 B = 0,4 . 12.2.7

295
8 h = 10 .  8
1 W = 4 .
.
12.2.20. -
2  v = 106 / -
8 OX 8-
,   B1 = 2
. 12.2.8 B2 = 8 (. 12.2.8).  8 -
    . -
 8 OX.
12.2.21. , 8 8 -
8  R1 = 3 , -
, . - 8  -
 R2 = 1,5 .
 .
12.2.22.   -
= 1  8 
B = 102 8 = 30  . -
,  8 .
12.2.23. , 
= 1 , 8  B =
= 0,2  . -
,  8 , 8 .
12.2.24.   8
 E. t = 0,01
 8 -
 B = 10 , 8 -
 E. -
8 88   .
12.2.25.   8
 E = 1,6 /. s,
 8 
B = 0,03 , 8  
,  R = 2 . -
,   .
12.2.26. |e|   8
m   8  -
- .  
8 88  B = 5 104 ,
8   .
, ,
l = 7,5 ( , 8 8 -
). |e|/m,
  U = 10 ,
 l = 10 .
12.2.27.  8 8-
8  B = 1 , 8 8 -

296
R = 2 . 
 , -
.  ,
8  n = 3 ?
12.2.28.  8
 B = 0,1 
E = 103 /.  -
,  , .
 .
12.2.29.   8 --
, 
  8 -
E = 10 /  B = 0,1 ?
12.2.30.   8-
, E  B  -
.   v : ) -
; )  ; ) 8  -
 E B.
12.2.31.   R = 0,1
8  B = 0,1 .
t0 = 0   , -
8 8 . -
  8  n = 2 ?
8 E = 100 /.
 12.2.32.  8
,  8 8.  -
 v0  . 
8 h2 8   8 h1 8 ?
 12.2.33. 8 
B = 0,06  E = 25 /,
8 8. -
 v0 = 25 / - 8
= 60  . 8 8  ,
 ? - -
m = 4mp, q = 2|e|, 8 |e| = 1,6 1019 -
, mp = 1,67 1027 8 .
12.2.34.   8
= 30  
m = 10 8 q = 106
(. 12.2.9).   
,
8 -
 B = 0,1 , -
8  
 ?
 = 0,1. . 12.2.9

297
 12.2.35.  m = 10 8 q = 106
8  -
 l = 50 .
8  B = 0,1 , 8
(. 12.2.10).
 8 = 30. -
.
12.2.36.  m = 10 8 q = 106
 l = 50
8 8  B = 0,1 . 8 
,  v0, -
  B (. 12.2.11). 
 v0  8 
?
12.2.37. m = 20 8 q = 106
 l = 50
8  B = 0,1 ,
8  . -

h = 10 ,   B (. 12.2.12),
.
, 8 .

. 12.2.10 . 12.2.11 . 12.2.12

12.3.

12.3.1.  l = 1 , -
 I = 1,5 , 8 
B = 0,1 . , , -
88 .

298
12.3.2.   88 ,  -
  l = 5 F = 50 ?
  I = 10 .  -
   88 .
12.3.3.  l = 50 ,  -
 I = 2 , 8  B = 0,1
F = 0,05 . 8 
 8 .
12.3.4. 
l = 0,4 8
(. 12.3.1).  -
F = 0,2 .  
I = 2 . 
 88 ,
8 = 30 . . 12.3.1
12.3.5. 8 8 -
, 8 -
 8 .  ,
 , -
8 ? 8 -
 B = 0,01 .   8
m
----- = 0,1 8/.
l
12.3.6.  l = 0,2 8
 8 8-
 B = 0,5 , 8 -
 .   8
  I = 5 ?
12.3.7. 8 8
 l = 0,25 m = 0,015 8.
8 
B = 0,3 , 8  .
8  ,
 I = 0,2 .
12.3.8. m = 0,1 8 l =
= 0,25 8 
8 88 88
 B = 0,2 .  8 -
 8 8 -
8 ,  I = 10 ? -
= 0,1.
12.3.9.  m = 0,2 8 l = 0,6
8 , 8-
 B = 0,1 , 8 8-
(. 12.3.2, ).

299
  I = 20   -
, 8,  ,
8 F = 0,5 . 
8,  
?
12.3.10. 8-
   -
 1 = 10 r = 0,1 .
 m = 10 8.
8 .
8 , 
. a = 0,1 , -
= 0,6.
.
12.3.11.  m = 1 8 l = 0,5 -
 , 8
= 30 8,   8-
8  B = 0,1 (. 12.3.3).
   -
  8 ,
  I = 10 ? = 0,1.
 12.3.12.  m = 0,5 8
l = 1   , 8
= 30 8. 8
 B = 0,1 , 8
 .  8 ,
 I = 5 ,   12.3.4.

 = 0,2.
12.3.13.  8   8
= 30   
m = 5 8 l = 10 .  -
  
k = 0,2 / (. 12.3.5).   -
U = 4 . ,   x
,

. 12.3.2 . 12.3.3 . 12.3.4

300
8  B = 0,1 , 
.    = 0,1,
8 R = 20 .
12.3.14.  l = 24 R = 36
8  8
 B = 0,1 , 8 
 .  ,
8 -
U = 5,4 ?
12.3.15. 8
8 8 , 8
 .  
  (. 12.3.6).  C1 -
,  8  -
8 = 5,  8 8 -
  2 = 30  8 
= 3. .

. 12.3.5 . 12.3.6

12.3.16. ,   I = 100 , -
8 
.  f -
,  8 B = 0,1 ?
12.3.17.  -
l = 2 , -
R = 40 8 8.   -
 I = 5000 .  F
?
12.3.18.   -
, r = 8,7 8 8, 8-
F = 25 .  , -
8 l = 320 .
12.3.19.   8. -
  -

301
8  m = 1 8 l = 9,81 . -
  I = 2 .  r =
= 0,1 .  ,
8 ?
12.3.20.  l = 15 8
 B = 2 .   8
, . R =
= 0,5 .  P , -
8    
v = 10 /?
12.3.21. 8 ,  8
B = 0,2 ,  l = 30 .
  I = 5 .  
v = 10 /  8-
8 . : 1) 
t = 20 ; 2) , .
12.3.22.  A 8
 B = 0,5 
l = 0,4 ,   I = 15 , d = 0,4 ,
 -
?  8 = 30
 .
 12.3.23.  L = 8 
I = 50 . 8 
B = 20 ,  -
.   ,  -
l = 10  ?

12.4. '  #

12.4.1.  ,
 S = 10 2, 8-
, M = 0,4 .   I = 1 . -
 88 .
12.4.2.  S = 400 2
8 ,   8 = 60
 8  B = 0,2 .  
I = 4 . , .
12.4.3.  
S = 150 2, N = 200  ,  -
 I = 4 , 8 -
B = 0,01 . M, -
,  8
= 60 .

302
12.4.4.  8, N = 200  -
8 , 8 .  S = 1 2.
    8
 (B = 5 ). 8 8 
I = 2 ,  8 = 30. -
C  . (  ,
, -
,  8  , . . C = M/).
12.4.5.  R = 50 
I = 50 . 8 .
 12.4.6.  R = 5 -
8  B = 0,1 .  
8 = 60 . 8-
  , ,
 I = 5 .
 12.4.7. 8, 8
, 8  B,
 (. 12.4.1). 8-
 S, , 8 8 , I.
, ,
, .
 12.4.8. ,  
8, 8  S = 1 2
   8 U = 110 , 
  12.4.2.  
 88  B = 2 . -
,  .
= 0,017  .
12.4.9. ,  
8,     8 -
U = 2 8, 8. 

. 12.4.1 . 12.4.2

303
   8  B =
= 0,5 . ,
,  a = 10
R = 1 .
12.4.10. ,  -

8 ,  -
 I0 = 10 ,  I = 5 .
 , -
   12.4.3.
 AD = BC = a = 50 -
.
AD l = 20 ,
AB = DC = b = 20 .
. 12.4.3 12.4.11. 
R = 1,5 8 , 
8   .  -
 I = 10 .   88
 , ,   8-
,  T = 2,5 ? 8-
  .
 12.4.12.  R = 10 ,
 S = 1 2,  I = 10 . -
8 , 8 -
.    B 8-
8  ?
= 2,3 108 /2.

12.5. # 

12.5.1.   S = 20 2 -
8  B = 0,5 . 8-
, ,  
8 = 60   88 .
12.5.2.  8-
 B = 0,6 ,   -
8 = 30. 8-
  = 24 . .
12.5.3. 8 ,  8 B = 20 , -
l = 0,1 .
 .
8 ,   .
12.5.4.  8  -
 88 -

304
B = 1,8 105 B = 4,6 105 .  8  8-
 ,  
 88 ?
 S = 30 2?
12.5.5.  R = 0,1
8 ,  -
 8 .  88 B = 20 .
 8 , ,
8 8 , : ) 180 ; ) 360 ?
12.5.6.  8-
,  8  -
.  8 , -
, ,  , -
8 ?
12.5.7.  8 -
8 l = 1 8 -
 B = 0,1 , 
 . 88 
, ,  , 8
.
12.5.8.  8-
. , , ,
. 
8 , ?
12.5.9.    N = 400
8  B = 10 , -
 8 = 60  . -
 R = 20 .   -
, 8  = 0,4 ?
12.5.10. 8  8 -
,   
.  88 B = 6,28 .  -
I = 5 .  R = 4 .  ,
 8 = 90 8 , -
?
12.5.11.  ( a = 20 ), 
 I = 20 , 8
 B = 0,1 . ,  -
 8 , -
   8
, 8 = /3.
12.5.12. , 8 
a = 10 ,  I = 10 .   -
8 = 20  88 (B =

305
= 0,2 ). A, 
8, .
12.5.13. , 88
R = 10 ,  I = 10 .    -
8  B = 1 , -
 B1 8 88 . -
, 
.  -
.

12.6. # '

12.6.1.   a = 10
8  B = 0,5 ,
  .
t = 0,5 . 8-
,  .
12.6.2.  a = 10 -
8 ,    -
8 = 60 88 .
 88 , ,
  , t = 0,01 ,
1i = 50 .
12.6.3.    D = 10 ,
N = 200 , 8
,  8 B1 = 2 B2 = 6
t = 0,1 . -
 ,    -
.
12.6.4.  88  -
, N = 400 ,
 1i = 100 .
12.6.5.    -
S = 10 2,
8  B1 = 2,2 B2 = 0,2 -
t = 10  1i = 80 ?
12.6.6. 8 , , -
,    12.6.1.
8 , , -
.   N = 100.
12.6.7.   b = 80
 a = 0,1 /2 8 8-
8  B = 10 . , -

306
. 12.6.1
 8 8-
8 (. 12.6.2), 8 -
, ,   . 
   88 .
12.6.8.  a = 5
 v = 100 /
X ,  .
8 88 
 .   x1 = 0  8-
8 B1 = 0,2 ,   x2 = a
B2 = 1
--- B1 (. 12.6.3). , -
2
OX x < 0 , ,
 , 8  -
,  .

. 12.6.2 . 12.6.3

12.7.  ,
'' ''
## ,
# '

12.7.1.  , 8
R = 2 , 8 .
88 8 , ,

307
1 = 0,6 2 = 0,2 .  -
 ?
12.7.2.   .
 r = 10 , 8 R = 2 . 
, 
 88 B = 5 105 ?
12.7.3. 8  B = 20
   , 8  -
 8 .  8-
.  , 8-
, q = 4 104 .  8
?  S = 200 2, R = 0,5 .
12.7.4. 8 -
8 .  -
 -
 88 . ,  
8 = 30, 8 : ) 0
30; ) 30 60.   -
 88 .
12.7.5.  r = 0,1 8-
 B = 0,2 .   -
 8 = 60.  
, ?  S = 1 2.
12.7.6.  N = 100   8 -
R = 200 . 8  S = 10 2. -
 8  B = 0,02 , -
  .  -
 8,
8  ?
12.7.7.    8  -
8  B = 0,1 , -
8   . -
  , , -
 , ?
 l = 1 , R = 100 .
12.7.8. l = 1 ,  -
.   -
, 8 8 -
, ? R = 0,05 .
 88
B = 20 .
12.7.9. 8 8 m = 3,14 8
. 8 
B = 0,17 , 8   -
.  , 8, -
, , ?

308
12.7.10. r = 5
R = 0,17  8-
 B = 10 . , , -
, . 
 ?
12.7.11. r = 4
R = 0,1  8-
 B = 20 . , ,
, .  -
 ?
12.7.12. l = 0,8 , -
. R = 1 .
  8 -
 B = 31,4 .   -
, 8  8 ?

12.8.  #

12.8.1.  8-
,    12.8.1,
 v = 2 /.  88
B = 1,2 . -
8 .
12.8.2.  ,
 l = 50 , 8  . 12.8.1
v = 800 /. , 
 ,  -
88 B = 5 105 .
12.8.3.   -
v = 50 /. 
 , 8
l = 9 , 8  8-
8 B = 2 105 .
12.8.4.  l = 1 -
h = 10 , -
.  , 
 , 8 8
 B = 10 ?  88
 .
 .
12.8.5. ,  , -
8  v = 4 /
8 = 60  8 .
l = 0,4 ,  88 B = 10 .

309
12.8.6.  -
8  B = 1 ,
 ,  .
    -
,   v = 10 /. -
 l = 1 (. 12.8.2). -
.
12.8.7.   a b c 8-
 v = 20 /  8 -
 B = 0,1 (. 12.8.3).
. -
 .

. 12.8.2 . 12.8.3
12.8.8.  8 -
S = 102 2 d = 0,5 -

v = 8 / h = 0,2 (. 12.8.4). -
.
8  B = 0,4 ,
  .
.
12.8.9. 8  B = 0,1
8 8  8
 = 10 / l = 50 . -
 ? 8
  .
12.8.10.  R = 20 
 R/2 ,    12.8.5.
 8  = 2 /. -
   8 
B = 0,01 .  -
.
12.8.11.  l = 0,4
8 h = 1 
 8  B = 1 .
 8 = 5   (. 12.8.6).
 , 
 .

310
. 12.8.4 . 12.8.5 . 12.8.6
12.8.12.  m = 100 8
l = 1 8  -
 k = 1 /.  -
 8  A = 0,1 .
 ,  -
, 
8  B = 102 , 8
   .

12.9. ' 

12.9.1. 8 , -
, = 0,6 , 
 11 = 1,2 . 88
 8  , 8 -
R = 0,24 .
12.9.2. 8  -
S = 60 2. 88 -
 . 8  -
,  8  B
-------- = 0,5 /. -
t
 R = 1 .
12.9.3.   a = 20
8 , 8
  . -
R = 0,5 .   B/t 8-
,   I = 40 ?
12.9.4.  88 , -
8 , 
B = 0,2t. -
: R1 = 2 , R2 = 0,5 , R3 = 0,2
(. 12.9.1).  S = 270 2. -
 .
12.9.5.  r = 4
R = 0,2 8- . 12.9.1

311
.  88 , 8-
 8  12.9.2. 8 -
8  .

. 12.9.2
12.9.6.  AC , 
, 8 ,  8
 8   (. 12.9.3).
a,  v.
, 8 . 8 
.

. 12.9.3 . 12.9.4

12.9.7.   8 -
 . 
 ,
8 . 8  -
,  .   -
 I1 = 4 .   .
12.9.8.  AC l = 0,5
R = 2 8 ,
  1 = 1 (. 12.9.4, ).
 8 
B = 0,2 .  ,
 v = 5 /: ) ; ) . -
 . -
  .
12.9.9. 
8  B = 20 , 8
  . 

312
 v = 2 /.  
t = 2 ,  r0 = 16 ,
8 R = 5 .
12.9.10.   S = 20 2 -
 8 88 . -
 88  B = 1 104t2. -
 R = 0,5 .  
t = 10 ?
 12.9.11.  R = 20
l = 0,5  8 , 
8  B = t, 8 = 10 4 /, t
. ,  ,
    8-
8 .
12.9.12. 8 
B = 0,2 8 . -
   .
 R = 0,25 .  8-
 88  v = 5 /
 ?  8-
,  l = 20 8
(. 12.9.5).
12.9.13.  = 50 , 8-
, 8 ,
 8  B = t, 8 = 0,02 /,
t . 
t = 100 , 8, 
 8.   
 88 .
 12.9.14.   a = 10
 v = 70 / 8
(. 12.9.6).  88 B = 0,1 . -
, ,

. 12.9.5 . 12.9.6

313
 Q, 
8 , b > a, -
 R = 2 .   -
  88 .
12.9.15.  l = 1 8
, 
 (. 12.9.7). -
 R = 200 .   
8 ,  8
 B = t, 8 = 0,02 /, t
. ,
. 12.9.7 .
12.9.16.  , N = 500  -
8 , 8 ,
. 8 S = 5 2, -
R = 125 . 8
,  8 
B
-------- = 105 /.
t
12.9.17. , N = 10  -
, 8 . -
8  . t = 0,1
8  B = 0,01 .
: ) , 8 ; )  -
,  . 
R = 1 ,  a = 5 .
12.9.18.    
a = 62,8 8 -
 B = 0,2 ,  
 .  ,  -
, .
 S = 2 2. , 
t = 2  .
12.9.19. , N = 200  -
8 , 8 ,
.  88 -
B
-------- = 0,2 /.  
t
R = 20 ,
. . -
  r = 5 .
12.9.20.
  R = 100 . -
  v = 2 /.
l = 20 . 8

314
 B = 1 . -
 , -
(. 12.9.8).
. -
.
12.9.21. 
AC, - . 12.9.8
8 r,  v,
 AC,  -
 OD OE, 8 8
8 . OE l, AC
 OE (. 12.9.9).
-
8  B, -
8 
 . - . 12.9.9
, 
AC  O  E. -
 OD OE .
12.9.22.  8  . -
 
(. 12.9.10).  8
 B, 8 -
 .  l, -
R.  F  , 8
 v?
12.9.23. 8 8 8-
 B = 0,05  -
,   R = 1 , 
  l = 50 m = 1 8
(. 12.9.11).  .
.
12.9.24. 8 -
, 8 8, 8
 m l.
 R (. 12.9.12).
8  B,

. 12.9.10 . 12.9.11 . 12.9.12

315
8  . -
 F. -
 .
.
 12.9.25. -
, 8
8,  8
 m l
(. 12.9.13).
 R.
8-
 B,
. 12.9.13
8  . -
  , -

.  .
 12.9.26. , 8
, 8 8 = 30. 8 -
 ,   8. -
 .
 8 
B = 0,05 .  8 F = kx,
 8, 
x, 8 (. 12.9.14,
).   , -
8 = 0,2 /,  -
k = 0,1 /. .
12.9.27.  r = 80
.      -
R = 0,2 ,    12.9.15.

. 12.9.14 . 12.9.15

316
 8 ,     8
m = 0,15 8. 8 , -
 8, , 8 , -
8  B = 0,5 , -
8   .
 .
12.9.28. OA R =
= 4 L = 0,5  -
, 8 . -
  
 1 = 0,3 - 1
r = 1 .
. 12.9.16
8  B = 0,05 , -
8   
(. 12.9.16). 8  = 20 /.
: )  ; ) -
P .
12.9.29.  S = 10 2 -
   C = 106
8 ,  8 -
 B = t, 8 = 1 /, t .
. 88 
 .
12.9.30. , -
8  l = 60
8 8,   -
m = 100 8. 8   -
 C = 10 . 8-
 B = 102 , -
,  .

8 F = 0,5 , -
 .  8
  , 8 s = 40 .
. -
.
12.9.31. -
, 8 8-
,  8
 m l (. 12.9.17).
 -
 C. -
8  B,
8 
,  . - . 12.9.17

317
 . -
,  .
12.9.32. 8  , -
8 8 l = 0,4 8
= 45  8, 
 m = 0,4 8 (. 12.9.18).
   C = 50 .
8 
B = 0,1 , 8 -
.  -
b = 50
.  
, . -
 .
12.9.33. , -
. 12.9.18 8-
,   
 C1 = 1  C2 = 2 
(. 12.9.19).
   C3 =
= 3 .  -
C3,  8-
8  
. 12.9.19 = 5 /.

12.10. '. '

12.10.1.  , 
 I = 5  8  = 25 .
12.10.2.   L = 0,04 .  -
I = 0,4 .  8
,  ?
12.10.3.   L = 20 . -
 , t = 0,02
 I = 0,04 ?
12.10.4.  , -
 I1 = 5 I2 = 10 t = 0,1
  , 1s = 10 .
 12.10.5.   L = 0,03 
I = 0,6 .   -
 t = 103 .
,  .

318
12.10.6.  -
   L = 0,2 , -
,  , 1s = 10 ?
12.10.7. ,  8 L = 6 , -
N = 400 . , 8 , I = 10 .
8 ,  .
12.10.8. , N = 500 , 8-
 = 30 ,  I = 10 .
 .
 12.10.9. 8  ,
N = 100 , = 2
  I1 = 4 I2 = 20 .
 L .
 12.10.10.  R = 20 -
L = 0,01 8 . 8
8  =
= 1 ,   I = 0,05 .  q
?
12.10.11.   
1 = 1,2 , R = 1  -
L = 1 .   I0. -
8 , -
  I/t = 0,2 /.
Rt t = 2 -
?
12.10.12.  , -
 12.10.1, -
 L = 9 ,
R1 = 5 , R2 = 25 . -
 K ,  1
I = 2 .  -
   K?
  . 12.10.1
 .
12.10.13.  , 
12.10.1,   1 = 3 ,  
L = 2 , R1 = 100 , R2 = 200 . -
 K .  
  K?
  .
12.10.14.  , 
12.10.1,   1 = 15 ,  
L = 103 , R1 = 10 , R2 = 20 .
 

319
R1    K. -
  -
.
12.10.15. ,   -
 L = 2 , -
1s = 10 + 4t.    -
?
12.10.16.  L = 2
 I =1 . 8 88 -
.
12.10.17.  I = 10 , -
8 8 W = 0,5 . -
8 ,  .
12.10.18.  L = 4 N = 60
 . 8 88 -
8 ,   -
 I = 12 .
 12.10.19.  8 ,
  I1 = 4 I2 = 6 8
88 W = 102 .

13.

13.1.   '

13.1.1. 
,   C = 2,2 
  L = 0,65 .
13.1.2.     -
,   C = 50 -
 = 10 ?
13.1.3.   -
1 = 3 105 . , -
 , 8 ,
2 ?
13.1.4.   -
L = 3 8  
r = 1,2 , d = 0,3 8 8.
 T . T1
,  -
 = 4?

320
13.1.5.   ,
8  L1 = 0,1 
L2 = 10 ,  C1 = 250 C2 =
= 25 000 ?
13.1.6.   8
 C = 0,16   -
n = 3 .  C0 ,
  .
 13.1.7. 8    1, -
  1 = 12 , 8  1 -
 2,   2 = 16 .
 -
 1 2?
13.1.8.   
  , -
.   T1 = 20 .
,  
?
13.1.9.   -
L = 1   C = 10 . -
8 Um = 100 . -
   
.
13.1.10.  -
8  U = 30 
3 . .
13.1.11.   -
. ,  
qm = 106 ,    
Im = 3,14 .  .
13.1.12.   -
= 2    L = 2 .
qm = 2 106 . :
)  ; ) 
; )  . -
. 
.
13.1.13.  -
  u = 50 cos 105t,
  qm = 5 105 . -
 .
13.1.14.   -
L = 1,6   C = 2 105 .

321
, 8 8 
u1 = 2 , 8  i1 = 0,01 .  -
 ?
13.1.15.    L = 10
 C = 100   8
Um = 100 .  ,
8  2 ? -
.
13.1.16.  Um = 100 , -
 = 5 .
 .  -
 u = 70,7 ?
13.1.17.   -
L = 0,2   C1 = C2 = 4 ,
.  -
 ,  
 Im = 0,1 .
13.1.18.     C =
= 1,6 1011 .  um = 500 .
  u
= 400 . : ) 8 ; ) 8 -
8 ; ) 8 88 -
.
13.1.19.    
L = 0,3 ,   Im = 30 .
8 8  8 88
 , 8 8 
n = 3 8 .
13.1.20.  13.1.1 -
  K1,  -
1 1
 C2 = 10 
1 = 12 .  K1 
  K2. -
2  -
  .
. 13.1.1   L = 3 , 
 C1 = 2 .
13.1.21.  ,  -
 L = 5    C = 13,33 ,
 Um= 1,2 .  -
. : )  -
; )  8 ,  -
 N = 28.

322
13.1.22.     C =
= 10   qm = 2 104 .  -
  8
?
13.1.23.  C = 2 105 ,
U0 = 103 ,  -
L = 4 103  .
 
U = 600 ,   8 I = 20 . -
   ?
13.1.24. , -
 T = 106 ,  L = 0,1
 R = 1 .  -
8 8  ? ,
 
.
13.1.25.   L =
= 14 , R = 0,5 
 555,5 .  ,
, -
  qm = 55,55 1010 ?
 13.1.26. ,   C1 =
= 400 , C2 = 800  C3 = 800  -
. 
U = 10 . t0 = 0    -
 L = 200  , 
. t1 = 2 104   C1
, 8 
. q0  -
?
13.1.27.    C1 = C2 =
= 200  ,  -
   C3 = 100 . -
U = 10 .
t0 = 0     L = 2 
,  . -
t = 2 105  C1 ,
8  . -
 U0 -
.

323
13.2. ' . 

13.2.1. 8  = 50 . -
 8 .
13.2.2.   i = 8,5 sin (314t + 0,661).
, 8
.
13.2.3.    -
S, 8 
B , 8  
88  (t) = 0 + t, 8 0,
, t .
13.2.4.  S = 200 2 = 8 1
8  B = 0,2 . : )  -
88 , 8 ; )  -
,  . -
  8 (. 13.2.1).
13.2.5. 8 (. 13.2.2) -
, .  -
.

. 13.2.1 . 13.2.2

13.2.6. S = 400 2,
N = 100 -
 , 8
 B = 0,01 , 8 -
.  , -
 , 8   = 1 / .
13.2.7.  S = 200 2 N = 100  -
8  B = 30 .
 1).
t = 0  8 ,  -
, 
1m = 6 . ,  , -
t = 0,02 .
1)    -
 B.

324
13.2.8.  8 ,   -
 10 = 24 , n1 = 600 / -
 I = 0,2 . R = 20 .
8 ,  -
, n2 = 1400 /?
13.2.9. 8 
(k = 8). ,
8  ( = 50 )?
13.2.10.   ,  -
, . -
0 = --- ,  T = 0,02 . -
3
T
t = ------ u = 5 . : ,
24
 , .  -
.
13.2.11.  

i = 4 sin 314t + --- . : ,


6
8  . -
 : t1 = 0,01 , t2 = 0,04 ?
13.2.12.   -
,    13.2.3.

) )
. 13.2.3
13.2.13.  8 -
t
 i = Im ---- , 8 Im  ,
T
T . .
13.2.14. , 
8 ,  I = 2 . -
 .
13.2.15.  8 
U = 71 T =

325
= 0,02 .  , 8 8
, . 8 8 -
 U1 = 86,7 .
 13.2.16. 8  = 50 -
U = 120 .  8
  = 1 ,
8 8 U0 = 84 ?
13.2.17. 8   
R = 40 .  , -
t = 3 ,
Um = 311 .
13.2.18.   -
,
U = 230 ?
13.2.19.   R = 4
  i = 6,4 sin 314t. -
  ,
.
13.2.20. 8 , -
 C = 10  8
XC = 2 .
13.2.21.  8  -
( = 50 ). U = 220 .
 I = 2.   ?
13.2.22. 8 8 
U = 127   8 -
, . -
  ,  8
?  -
U = 3,5  I = 0,28 .
13.2.23. 8 8  -
U = 127 , -
 8 R = 100 -
 C = 40 .  .
13.2.24.  ABD (. 13.2.4) -
 . 
AB
UAB = 20 ,  BD UBD = 10 . -
. 13.2.4
 AD.
13.2.25.   L = 35 
8 . 
= 50 .

326
13.2.26.  -
 U = 127 , I = 0,5 . -
  8  = 50 .
13.2.27.    L = 0,5 -
 i = 0,1 sin 628t. -
  .
13.2.28.   L = 0,02
  8 = 50 . -
U = 100 .
88  8 
.   .
13.2.29.  ABD (. 13.2.5) -
 . -
 AB
UAB = 30 ,  BD UBD = 40 . -
. 13.2.5
 AD.
13.2.30.  AD (. . 13.2.5) 8 -
 1 = 20.  ,
 n = 3 ?
13.2.31. 8  -
L =30  R = 30 .  -
  : ) -
8 U = 311 cos t, 8 = 314 /;
)  8 U = 311 ?
13.2.32.   -
L = 30  R = 10
 8 u =
= U0 sin t, 8 U0 = 179 , = 628 /.
V = 10  t1 = 40 .  
,   -
   8 -
, 8 -
?
. = 103 8/3, -
r = 2,26 106 /8.
13.2.33. -
8  (. 13.2.6) -
: R = 3 , XL = 6 , XC = 2 . -
 . 13.2.6
.
 13.2.34.   R = 15 -
 L = 52  8  -
= 50   C =

327
= 120 . U = 220 .
 -
,  .
13.2.35. 8  = 400 -
  L = 0,1 .   -
 , ?
13.2.36. 8  = 4,2 .
 ,  
C = 2,2 .   .
13.2.37.  ABD (. 13.2.7)  -
.   L = 0,25 ,  -
C = 100 . 8 
, ,  -
 .
13.2.38. 8   -
C = 10  1 = 4 . 8 -
   -
 Cx, 2 = 1 .
 Cx  .  -
 .
 13.2.39.  13.2.8  R =
= 2 ,   L = 50 ,  
C = 25 . 8 -
 8  = 50 .
 ? ?

. 13.2.7 . 13.2.8
13.2.40. R, L, C -
   8 U = U0 cos t, 8
U0 = 179 .   = 10 .
 ,
 , R = 50 , C = 0,05 .

13.3.

13.3.1.  N1 = 1000
, N2 = 100. -
 U1 = 220 .  -

328
 ?  -
 ?
13.3.2. , U1 = 100
U2 = 3300 ,   .
 ,  8  -
.  U = 0,5 .   -
 ?
13.3.3. 8 -
k = 0,1. 
U2 = 4,4 . -
?
13.3.4. 8 -
k = 0,1.  U2 = 5,6 .
,    , 8 
,  U0 = 0,4 .   
 ?
13.3.5.  , N = 200
, 8 , -
 = 0,02 cos 100 t. , -
 , -
.
13.3.6.   -
I1 = 0,1 U1 = 1,1 , -
 U2 = 220 .  -
 . -
.
13.3.7.  -
k = 20  U1 = 220 .
,
 r = 0,1 , 8 R = 1 ?
13.3.8.  8
 k = 8  -
U1 = 220 .  r = 1,2 , -
 I = 5 . -
 8 .
 .
13.3.9. , , P = 100 ,
 U2 = 50 .
 , = 0,9.
13.3.10. P = 40 , -
 U = 50 , -
= 0,9.  .
13.3.11. 8 -
k = 0,5. 8, 

329
, U2 = 216 . 8 R = 10,8 ,
 r = 0,2 . -
,  -
.
13.3.12. -
, U1 = 480 U2 = 30 . -
, , 8
= 95%   n = 380 . 
  I = 8 .
13.3.13.  8 -
 N1 = 2200 .   -
  -
U2 = 6,3  I2 = 1 , -
U = 220 , 
r = 0,2 ?

13.4. #

13.4.1. 8 -
 8,  8-
h = 36 000  , -
. 
8 8 -
?
13.4.2. s = 1,2 .
  -
8 , 8
, 8, ?
13.4.3. , 8 -
, = 20 .
 .
13.4.4.  
,  = 24 26 .
.
13.4.5.  13.4.1 8 -
8 8 -
() . -
.
13.4.6.  13.4.2 8 -
8  -
.  .
13.4.7.    
 I = 0,1 cos 6 105 t. -
.

330
. 13.4.1 . 13.4.2
13.4.8.   8
1 = 1010 ,  -
2 = 2000 ?
13.4.9. ,  -
,   L = 10
  C = 10 .  -
.
13.4.10.   -
L = 2    C = 1800 . 
?
13.4.11.  8  
 L = 1 .   ,
, = 1000 ?
13.4.12.   ,
  L = 2 8 -
?  -
 = 11.
 S = 800 2, d = 1 .
 13.4.13.   -
,  8 -
8 L = 1 , 8  C1 =
= 50 C2 = 100 ?
13.4.14.     -
 L1 = 0,5  L2 = 10  -
 C1 = 10 C2 = 500 .  -
 8 ?
13.4.15.  8 
C1 = 56 C2 = 667 .    -
,   -
1 = 40 2 = 2600 ?
13.4.16.   -
 L = 4 102 ,  
 Im = 10 ,  
Um = 50 ?   .

331
13.4.17. 8   -
 C.   ,
8   -
   m/n?
13.4.18.   -
. , 
,   qm = 106 ,
   Im = 10 .
 13.4.19. ,  -
,   qm =
= 2 108 ,    Im = 1 . 
 ,   L = 2 107 ?
13.4.20.   -
, 8 8
t = 100 ?
13.4.21.   ,
 t = 1 ,
, l = 30  8?
13.4.22.  = 15
N = 4000 1 . 8
= 2 .    -
 8  ?
13.4.23.  . -
= 1500 .
= 1,2 .   -
?

332
4

14.

14.1.

14.1.1. 8 = 60. 
h = 10 ?
14.1.2.  S
8 -
 l1 = 0,5 .
 r = 10 .
  l2 = 1
(. 14.1.1).
 .
14.1.3.  . 14.1.1
 h1 = 1
l1 = 2 . 
l2 = 60 . .
14.1.4.  ,
 h = 1,7  s = 3 ? -
 ,  , l = 2,4 .
14.1.5. h = 15 , -
, l1 = 10 .
8 d = 10 (
), l2 = 15 .
 ?
14.1.6.
 . 8
8  , 8  8, -
  -
.  8  , , 8
  . l = 100 ,
8. -
. 8 8 -
 a = 60 ,  b = 65 .
14.1.7. -
l1 = 3 ,   l2 =
= 15 .  ?

333
14.2. .  

14.2.1. 8 
, 8
= 80?
 14.2.2. 8  S
  (. 14.2.1).  ?
 14.2.3.  AB  
CD ,   -
 (. 14.2.2).
14.2.4.  S1 S2
 CD ,    14.2.3. -
, 8 8 , 
  .

. 14.2.1 . 14.2.2 . 14.2.3


 14.2.5. 
, 8 A  (  B, . 14.2.4).

. 14.2.4
14.2.6. 8 8 = 30. -
 8  8  , -
: )  ; ) -
 ?
14.2.7.  8 -
8 .  8  8
 ,
8  : )  ; ) 8
= 60  8?
14.2.8.  H = 1,8 , 8 ,
, 8 = 60 8.
  ?

334
14.2.9.   , -
 8 8 . -
 = 182 .  ,
 ?
14.2.10.  A,  -
H = 34 8 = 15,6 8, 8 -
8 = 17,1 8?
14.2.11. 8 R = 5  -
. h = 3
.   
, 8 H = 1,8 , -
?
14.2.12.   h = 1 . 
l1 = 2 8.  -
,   ,
8? l2 = 4 .
14.2.13.  l = 5 h = 3
 .  8, -
a = 2 ,  .
,  8
, 8 , ?
 14.2.14. 8   8
R = 15 ,   .  -
,
 8 -
8 = 30?
14.2.15. 8 , 8 ,
,  l = 2
8 .  d = 10 .
 ,  -
 .
14.2.16.   BC  v = 1,5 /
(. 14.2.5).  
 ?  ?
14.2.17.    S 
u = 0,5 /.    -
8  (. 14.2.6), 8 -
?

. 14.2.5 . 14.2.6

335
14.2.18. 8 
v = 1,5 / 8 = 30   .  -
 ?
14.2.19.   . -
 8  , 
8 = 25?
14.2.20. 8 
 AB = 10 (. 14.2.7).  8-
,  -
8  O 8 = 15?
14.2.21.    -
. 14.2.7 n = 0,5 /. 
  -
  R = 10 , 
 ?
14.2.22.  8
R = 2 .  8 , -
  50 ?
14.2.23.  8  8
8 8 . l = 1,2 -
 . -
 8 = 12 -
. ,  -
   8 = 15.
14.2.24.  , 
  , -
8 , 8 -
 . 
  -
,   l = 1 ? -
8  l .

14.3.  
 14.3.1.   8 8
 8. , , -
8. 8 8
, 8 .
14.3.2. 
, 8 = 30 8  8, -
r = 10   .
1.  x 8 8 -
?
2. 8 8 .
14.3.3. -
.  ?

336
. 8 , 8 8 -
, 360
------------- .

 14.3.4.  N -
,  88 8 = 45, -
8  ? , -
.
 14.3.5.  , -
8 8,  . 
  8 ,
8 8, -
   v = 5 /?
14.3.6.  -
8  , - a
8 = 30, a = 40
(. 14.3.1).
-
?
14.3.7. 8 
8 8  . 14.3.1
l1 = 30 , 8  8 8 -
 l2 = 40 . -
l3 = 50 .  -
 8 .
14.3.8.   8 8 = 40.
, 8 , 
(. 14.3.2).   8 -
8 , -
  v = 2 /?
14.3.9.  A 
1, 2, 3 ,    14.3.3, 8  1 3 -
8 8,  2  . , -
8 
 A.
14.3.10. , ,  A, -
8 88  (. 14.3.4),
 A, -
.
3
v
2 A
A
S
1

. 14.3.2 . 14.3.3 . 14.3.4

337
14.4.  

14.4.1. 8   R = 1,6 .
   ,
?
14.4.2. d = 2,8 88 8 -
  R = 0,9 8  -
 . 8
?
14.4.3.  8 
 f = 30 8 .  -
 ?  -
 F = 20 .
14.4.4. 8   
R = 80 -
f = 80 .
.
14.4.5.  88  F = 30 .
s = 6 .  -
d  ?
14.4.6. 8  
  .  
 ,  
R = 80 ,  8 
 a = 40 ?
14.4.7.   -
   R = 56 ,
 8  .
  f = 20 . ,
8  ,  .
14.4.8. , 8 -
   R = 64 , -
d = 16 .
14.4.9. 8  -
  8 8  , -
8
 1 = 1,5. 8  l = 16
,
2 = 0,5.  .
14.4.10. 8  88  -
d = 40 8  .
 8   ,
, 88 ,
8, ,  ?
 88  R = 60 .

338
14.4.11.  8  8 -
8 ,  . d = 50
8   
. 
?  8  R = 80 .
14.4.12.  88 8 
 F1 = 20  -
   F2 = 25 . -
  .  
88  d = 28 8
h = 2  8 
.  -
, 8 , 88 .
14.4.13. 8  h =
= 10 8 
 
.   , -
  ?
14.4.14. ,  -
,  . 
8  . -
 8  , -
, 8 ?

14.5. 1)

 14.5.1.  , , -
?
14.5.2. 8 -
, , 8 = 17,2.
14.5.3.  8 ,
 ?
14.5.4.  , -
  n,
  8 . ,  -
,  , 8 , 
8 .  8  8
?
14.5.5.  .  
. , 8 = 20  8-
.   ,
8 h = 50 ?
1)   n 
.

339
14.5.6. 8 H = 1
. ,  8-
 ,
 8 = 30 -

H (. 14.5.1). 8 -
,
 .
14.5.7. , -
. 14.5.1 , 8 8, -
 , 8 , -
8 . h1 = 1 h2 = 90 -
8 1 = 5 2 = 10 .
8 ?
14.5.8. 8 H = 1 , -
h = 0,1 . -
8 = 70.
14.5.9.  -
8 = 45 -
, ,
. -
(. 14.5.2).  , -
  8 ,
n  , -
?
14.5.10. 8  -
. 14.5.2 = 60. -
 l1 = 10 .  .
 14.5.11. 8 h = 2
8 , 8 R = 3 .
.
14.5.12.  8  ,
, 8 ?
14.5.13. h = 1,5
. 
 ?
14.5.14. : -
 n1 = 1,3, n2 = 1,5. -
,  ,  -
l = 20 .
h
8 , -----1- = 2.
h2
14.5.15. 8 8 h = 1,2 -
 . 

340

? 8 = 30.
14.5.16. , 8 , -
, 8
= 60  8,  .
 8    ?
14.5.17.   ,
8 h = 20 . H = 30
.  -
 ?
14.5.18.  , -
8 , 8 . -
  , 8 -
h = 10 ,  8-
h0 = 8 ?

14.6. '

 14.6.1.  8 
8 8 n = 1,51
n = 1,53. 8 8 8 -
 -
.
14.6.2.  8 8 8 -
8 ?
14.6.3.
8 = 30 8 = 45.
8 8 8 ?
 14.6.4. 8 H = 7 -
 .  
, 8 .  -
  ?
14.6.5.  8 
8 .  
n = 1,328, n = 1,335. -
8,  -
.
14.6.6.  -
d = 40 , 8 .
8 . 
n = 1,4, h = 5 .
14.6.7.  8 ,
88
,  8 s = 15 -
? h = 1,5 .

341
 14.6.8. h = 180 8
H = 2,4 . s , 8 -
,  , 
8 8 8 -
. 8.
14.6.9.   ,
,  8 = 60  8
, -
. 8, 
  8.
14.6.10. 8 -
8 .  8  -
, , 8,
8 ?  n.
14.6.11. (  ) 8 -
8  n = 1,28. -
 8 , -
, 8 .
 14.6.12. 8 8 -
,  8 n,
 . 8 
8 8 , 8 . (:
8  .)

14.7.
' '
14.7.1.   
d = 3 8 = 70.
.
 14.7.2.  
 8 = 60.   d,
l = 20 ?
 14.7.3.    -
d = 2 8 = 45. -
, , , ,
 , ,
.
l .
14.7.4.   d = 3
.  -
, 
8
l = 2 ? 8   ,
, .
14.7.5.  a
.  8 -

342
  d 
n.  
 ?
14.7.6.  -
 d
 S, -
 (. 14.7.1). n
x -
?   n. S S S
 S a
.
 14.7.7. , , - x d a
 .  8
 , . 14.7.1
 -
?
 14.7.8. 8 ,
 8 n1
8 nx 8.
8 .  8 ?
14.7.9.   -
8,  -
. , 
 .
  , -
 . .
 14.7.10.  8
8  ,
 (. 14.7.2)? . 14.7.2

14.8.  ', '

14.8.1. 8 8-
= 30  
8 (. 14.8.1). ,
 8  ,
 n = 2.
14.8.2.  -
 . 14.8.1
 8 = 25.  -
8 n = 1,7.
8 .
14.8.3. 8 8
= 10.  

343
8 8 1 = 10.  -
8 n = 1,6. 8  -
8 .
 14.8.4.   -
8 . ,

 .  -
8 1 ,
?  -
8 n = 1,5.
14.8.5.  8
 8 = 36. 8 = 40.
 8 ? 
8  n = 1,54.
14.8.6. 8 
8
8 (. 14.8.2).   -
n 8 -
8?
14.8.7.  8
. 14.8.2  8 = 30
(. 14.8.3), 8  8-
?
 14.8.8. 8  
(. 14.8.4).  8 ,
8 AB, 8 AC?
14.8.9.  -
8 8. 8 .
8 8 -
 . -
8 .
14.8.10. 8 (. 14.8.5),
8 , AC  8 BC -
, 8 AB . 8
, .
 8 BC  = 0,895
,  AC. -
 .
A B
B

A C

C
. 14.8.3 . 14.8.4 . 14.8.5

344
 14.8.11.  -
8  (  8)
8 (. 14.8.6). 
, 8 R = 2 . 8
,  
d = 3 8 .
 14.8.12. 8  R.
  
(. 14.8.7).   n = 1,8. 8 -
 2.  R.
8 . 
?


R
2

R
d
. 14.8.6 . 14.8.7

14.8.13. 8 = 50 -
8  .
,  
,  
 . -

, ?

14.9. ,

14.9.1. D -
8 (. 14.9.1). -
d (d < D). 
 , -
 ?
14.9.2.  - d
 ,
8 -
8 R =
= 0,5 .  . 14.9.1

345
n = 1,33.  -
8 ?
14.9.3.  
,  . , -
8 , -
,
8, 90. 
.
14.9.4.  8 
d = 1,24 ,
?
 14.9.5.    -
  ,  , ,
 . -
, ,
 4 8 .
14.9.6.   R =
= 3 , . -
. 8 ,   .
14.9.7.   -
8  -
n = 1,41 ,    14.9.2. 
 8  -
8 ?
14.9.8.  -
. 14.9.2 8 .
OO,
, a (. 14.9.3).   -
,  ,
OO?   n, -
R, R > na.
14.9.9.   ,  -
,   O (. 14.9.4, ). x = 4 .
,  -
(. 14.9.4, )?

R
O O O
a n n

x x

) )
. 14.9.3 . 14.9.4

346
14.10.

14.10.1. 1) : ) 8 -
 ; )  ; ) -
8 ; 8) 8
 . 8 .
14.10.2. -
8  S,  -
.  -
. ,
 8 (. 14.10.1). 2F F F 2F
14.10.3. 
S
, 8 -
, d -
: ) d ; ) > d > 2F; . 14.10.1
) d = 2F; 8) 2F > d > F; ) d = F.
14.10.4. 8  S
,  14.10.2, .

) ) )

S S S
2F F 2F F F

. 14.10.2
14.10.5. , -
8 ,    14.10.3.
14.10.6. , -
8 ,    14.10.4.
14.10.7. 11 22, -
,    14.10.5.

A B2 B1
A O O
B F F
B
A1 A2
F 2F F

. 14.10.3 . 14.10.4 . 14.10.5


1)   .

347
14.10.8. 8 
,    14.10.6, . -
8  ,
.
) ) )

F 2F

S F 2F S S 2F F

. 14.10.6
14.10.9.  14.10.7  1
. 2 -
.
14.10.10.  14.10.8 1
. 2
, 2 8 8 
8  .

1 1
O O O O

2 2

. 14.10.7 . 14.10.8

14.10.11.  S 8 -
S (. 14.10.9, , )  -
 (OO 8  ).
14.10.12.  14.10.10  AB 8 -
AB. ,
 8  .

S S A B
S
O O O O

S B
) ) A
. 14.10.9 . 14.10.10

348
14.11. '

14.11.1. d =
= 40 .  F = 30 . -
.  ?
14.11.2. 8 d = 20 -
  F = 4 . -
 8 ?
14.11.3. 
, 8
?  -
F = 20 .
14.11.4. 8 , -
, 
.  l = 4 .
 .
14.11.5.  h = 5 -
 F =
= 10 , f = 12 . -
.
14.11.6. d =
= 80 . 8
f = 30 .  .
 14.11.7. 
 . -
 8  ,
b = 15 . , 
x = 50 .  -
F .
14.11.8.  -
 F = 10 , -
 a = 20 ?
 8 
.
14.11.9.  F = 25
 ,
l = 5,25 .  
l = 25 .  ,
 8 ?
14.11.10.  8 
. 8   A, 8
 B, 8 
 B, 8   C O A B C O
(. 14.11.1). 
, AB = 5 , BC = 15 . . 14.11.1

349
14.11.11. ,
 2l = 100 , -
. a = 20 , 
. -
8 ,
.  -
.
14.11.12. h = 5 . -
8 H1 = 15 .
8 , l = 1,5
, ,  -
H2 = 10 . 
.
14.11.13. ,
D = 9  F = 50 ,
 . d -
, 8 = 32.
14.11.14.  8 2
,  F -
d, d < F. -
8 . 
.
14.11.15. 8
. 
8  d = 10 .
8 
  . 
8, 8 n = 2 . -
 .
14.11.16.  8-
 l = 24 8 8.

F = 9 ,  -
?

14.12.

14.12.1. n = 5
, . -
. -
.
14.12.2. l = 2
d = 40 .
. -
 .

350
14.12.3.  F1 = 12
 1 = 9. 8
 -
2 = 3.  .
14.12.4.
8 8  .
 -
d1 = 60 d2 = 20 . 
 .
14.12.5. 1 = 2
8 .
d = 1 , -
2 = 3 .  ?
14.12.6. 2 -
8 . -
d = 1 ,
f = 12 .  .
 14.12.7. 8  A (. 14.12.1),
1 = 2, 8  B,
2 = 3.  3, -
 AB?
14.12.8. , 8  A
(. 14.12.2), ,
, 8  B, . 
 AB 8 ?
14.12.9. ,  -
, ,   -
 14.12.3.  -
8 .
14.12.10. ABCD ,   -
 14.12.4. 8 -
,  F = 5 , 8-
2a = 6 .

B C
F F F/2

B A O B A F

A D

. 14.12.1 . 14.12.2 . 14.12.3

351
 14.12.11. ABCD , -
 8   -
. h = F
---- , 8 F 
4
(. 14.12.5). 8-
. 180 8 AB,
8.
ABCD -
.

B B

C
A C h
2F F O O

D D
a a A

. 14.12.4 . 14.12.5

14.13. .

14.13.1. 8  S,
 (. 14.13.1). 
. ,  8
.
14.13.2.  ,
, d
: ) > d > F; ) d = F; ) F > d > 0.
 14.13.3. 8  S
, 8  14.13.2.
14.13.4.  14.13.3 , 8
 F. -
. OO 8 -
 .

S F O F O
F
S

. 14.13.1 . 14.13.2 . 14.13.3

352
14.13.5.  S 8 S1 -
,    14.13.4. -
.

S B
S1
O F O
F A
O1 O2

. 14.13.4 . 14.13.5

14.13.6. AB ,   -
 14.13.5. 8 .
14.13.7.  S  
14.13.6, , .  .

) )

F F S

. 14.13.6

 14.13.8. 
(. 14.13.7).  .
14.13.9.  14.13.8 -
8 
 F: 1 -
, 8 -
, 2 8  . -
 (OO 8 
).
1
1
2 O O
F
1 2 2

. 14.13.7 . 14.13.8

353
14.14. '

14.14.1.  F = 12 .
f = 9 .
 ?
14.14.2.  8 -
 d = 1 ,
8  .
 .
14.14.3. n =
= 3 8 .  -
?
 14.14.4. d = 12,5 -
 D = 10 .  -
?
14.14.5. 
d1 = 1,2 . 8  -
d2 = 0,6 . 
 l = 10 . 
.
14.14.6.  8  -
 F = 25 . -
 f = 15 .  -
, -
l = 2 ,  8 
?
14.14.7.  8 
d = 8 . ,
, 8 -
8 = 0,05 , -
8 = 0,15  .  -
.
14.14.8.  
F = 40 .
8 
f = 150 . , 8 ,
.
 14.14.9.  -
 F = 9 .
 8  . 
,
 ?
14.14.10. d = 10 -
 F = 20 . 

354
, -
 -
?
14.14.11.   -
F = 12 
,  , -
8.  8  . -
 l = 7,8 .
.
 14.14.12. 
F = 5 D1 = 2 d = 20 -
 S. 8 -
l = 20 . D2
8 .
14.14.13.  -
  8  .
 d = 5 .  8 
l = 20 . 
 D = 15 .  .
14.14.14.   -
 F = 4 . , -
l = 3 ,
.   -
, = 20%?
14.14.15.  l = 21 -
,   R = 5 .
 , 8  -
r = 3 , ,
.  ?

14.15.  

14.15.1. 
 F = 40 . -
 8
8 n = 3 
.
?
 14.15.2. , l,
8  8  ,
 .  d
   -
 F (F < d) , 8 
. 8  -
, 8  R.

355
14.15.3. m = 1 8 -
 k = 10 /
(. 14.15.1). d =
= 30 . -
F h0 = 1 . 
 8
d  ? 
. 14.15.1 F = 20 .
14.15.4.  m -
8  
F a (a > F) . 
P,  P = P0 sin t
 8  (P0
). -
 8 -
 .
14.15.5. 8  -
F = 20 . 
 , 8  8 8
2  ? -
 8  H = 15 .
14.15.6.   8 = 45
 8  . 
, 8 
 8 8 ?  -
F = 10 .

14.16.

14.16.1. 8
h = 15 .   F =
= 20 8 ,
.
. 
?  n = 1,33. 8 -
8 .
14.16.2. .
h = 20 -

F = 10 . f = 12,5 -
. 8 ,
 n = 4
--- . 8
3
.

356
14.16.3. 
a = 30 ,   D = 5 .
 , -
   -
d = 15  n = 1,5?
14.16.4.   -
.  -
  d = 6 .  -
,
? 8 .
14.16.5.   8
 -
 F.  
8 . 8  -
 . 
, -
8 8 d. 
.
14.16.6.  -
 8 h = 20 .
, 
l = 10 , -
.  F = 1,6 .
8 .  
n = 1,5.

14.17.

14.17.1.  
F1 = 6  F2 = 10
 . ,
,  ,
,  -
.
 14.17.2. ,  -
  . -
 ?
 14.17.3.
0,2.   -
,
1
--- . , 
3
-
.

357
 14.17.4.  8 
 F = 3 -
f = 4 . l = 3 -
  . -
 .  -
?
14.17.5. 
 F1 = 20 F2 = 10 . -
l = 30 .
d1 = 10 . 
?  .
14.17.6.  d1 = 30
 F1 = 20 . 8
l = 40 -
 F2 = 12 . -
?  .
14.17.7.   -
, 8  . -
l = 16 . 
F1 = 8 , F2 = 5 . h = 9
d = 40 . 
? 8 h?
14.17.8.  -
. 
F = 25 8,
4 ?
14.17.9. 
F1 = 20 F2 = 15 , ,  -
,
a = 15 .  ,
 , -
l = 5 ?
14.17.10.  
F1 = F2 = 30 8 8 -
l = 15 . ,  
.  -
.
 14.17.11.  , -
l = 5 . 
F1 = 10 F2 = 10 . 
( ) -
?
 14.17.12.  F1 = 0,4
l = 0,9 -

358
 2 = 2 ,  .
d1 = 0,6 .
.
14.17.13.
d = F1 + F2 8 8, 8 F1, F2  .
,  . -
 .
14.17.14. , , 8 -
 , .
, 1 = 2, -
, 2 = 3. 
?  .
14.17.15.  F1 = 10 ,
F2 = 20 F3 = 9 , 
, a = 15
b = 15 .  .
 8  -
.

14.18. 

14.18.1.  S  -
 8 -
 . , -
 8  . -
?
14.18.2.  S 
. -
  .  -
, 8 , -
, , -
?
 14.18.3. d = 9 -
 F = 6 . -
  l = 10
.  ?
14.18.4.   
F  .  S -
 d, F < d < 2F.
  -
.
14.18.5.    8-
 l = 20
.  F = 10 .  -

359
 d = 20 -
.  -
 8.
14.18.6. 8 8- -
. 8  
, 8 , -
 . 
, 8
,  F = 18 ,
8 R = 40 ?
14.18.7.   3 --- F
2
, 8 F  . -
 8 45 8 
(. 14.18.1).  ,  -
8 
.  8 = 10 -
,  .  8 -
, ?
14.18.8.  AB -
 , 8  8
,  A  
(. 14.18.2).   , -
 .  -
F.  8  ,
8   .   -
  .

o
45
A
F

. 14.18.1 . 14.18.2

14.19. '.

 14.19.1. ,  -
F = 1,25 .
14.19.2.  D = 50
 .  ,
8  8 ?

360
14.19.3.  8 -
 8 
F = 2 ?  ?
l = 5 8, -
8 .
 14.19.4. 8- 
8 8 .  -
 .
14.19.5. ,
l = 50 . 8 -
,  -
 D = 2 ?
14.19.6. a b = 8 8 2. -
  , 
 8 ,
 c d = 1,2 1,2 2.
  l = 4 .
14.19.7. 8 8 ,
. 
 F = 13,5 .  
, k = 10 ?
14.19.8. 88 9 12 2 -
l = 50 . 
,
, 8   F = 12 ?
14.19.9. 8  ,
8 h = 2 .  -
 , 
 F = 10 , 
l = 50 ?
14.19.10. 8 8 -
8,  ,
 x = 0,01 ? 
 , 8 -
?   -
 F = 10 .
14.19.11. 8 , -
88  v = 10 /. -
 ,
x = 0,2 . 
 F = 10  -
d = 5 . 8  -
  .
14.19.12. 8, , -
, .  
8 = 45 d = 150 8. -

361
v1 = 18 /,  v2 = 36 /. 
  8,
 x =
= 0,03 ?   F = 5 .
14.19.13.   
 v.   
 8 , -
? , , k.
14.19.14. 8
 . -
 , -
 r?  . -
d ,  -
8 F,  R.
14.19.15.  -
8 l1 = 15 -
h1 = 30 , 8 l2 = 9
h2= 51 .  .
14.19.16.  
 F = 5 ,
  d = 0,8 ?
?

14.20. . 

 14.20.1.    8
8 8,
8 (d0 = 25 )?
 14.20.2. , , 8, -
d = 16 8.   8 ?
14.20.3.    ,
  l = 20 ?
14.20.4.    , -
, l = 50 ?
14.20.5.  8 
a1 = 10 a2 = 25 . ,  -
,    D = 4 .
14.20.6. ,  8 
 d = 25 8.  
 ?
14.20.7. , 8  ,
   -
n = 1,5. ,
 8 ,
  D = 2 ?

362
14.20.8.  -
  D = +5 . 
 ,
8  ?
14.20.9.    -
,  -
. , 8  -
,  8 , -
 8  , h = 20 .  
?
 14.20.10.   ,
, 8 8  ,   -
. .  -
8,  ,  -
.  dx
8    8?

14.21. . 

14.21.1.    -
F1 = 2   F2 = 40 . -
   d = 18 .
, .
14.21.2.    F =
= 0,5 ,   
a = 16 .  = 200.
.
14.21.3.    F =
= 1,25 ,  F = 10 . 
 l = 16 .
   , -
8 8 d0 = 25 ?
14.21.4.    F =
= 0,5 ,   
l = 16 .  = 200.
.
14.21.5. , 8-
  F1 = 140 , 8 -
 F2 = 28 .
14.21.6.  F = 50
. 8   -
 , , -
 a = 50 . 
 ?

363
14.21.7.    -
F = 45 F = 5 .
-
, .  -
.
14.21.8.  
F = 100 ,  F = 8 .  8
8  -
8 d0 = 25 ? 8 = 0,5.
14.21.9.   8 
 F = 14,1 . 8 
  F = 2,5 .
14.21.10. , 8 -
 F1 = 20 ,  -
.
 14.21.11.   
F1 = 150   F2 = 10 . -
 8 , -
8 8 0 = 31?

14.22. '
 14.22.1.  
, 8   n,
 R. .
 14.22.2. ,  -
 
n = 1,5  .
 14.22.3.  F1 
 (1 = 259 ), -
(2 = 589 ) F2 = 16 .
  -
n1 = 1,504 n2 = 1,458.
14.22.4.  F -
:
) : R1 = 15 R2 = 25 ;
) -: R1 = 15 R2 = ;
) 8- ( ): R1 = 15
R2 = 25 ;
8) 8: R1 = 15 R2 = 25 ;
) -8: R1 = ; R2 = 15 ;
) -8 ( ): R1 = 25 ,
R2 = 15 .

364
14.22.5.   n1 = 1,5
n2 = 1,7   .
F
------1  .  
F2
 ,  , -
8  
n = 1,6?
14.22.6.  
R1 = R2 = 50 . 
n = 1,5.  D .

15.

15.1. .

15.1.1. 8 ,
 8 = 628 .
15.1.2.  8 
I = 100  8 8 = 0,2 .
15.1.3. 88  1) ,
  = 76 . -
 I = 120 . 8 8 .
15.1.4. 
P = 100 , 2) = 12 /.
15.1.5. I = 60 . ,
 S = 0,4 2, 
r = 2 ,
 a = 2 .

15.2.

15.2.1. 8  d = 20
 = 10 .
?
15.2.2. ,  I = 100 , -
h = 1 .
.
15.2.3. 8 , -
8 . 
 8 ?
1) ,  -
.
2)  ,  ,   .

365
15.2.4.   -
, 8  n = 4
8.  8 
 , 
l = 120 ?
15.2.5. 8 , -
8 r1 = 2 .  
, -
r2 = 3 ?
15.2.6.  8 -
t1 = 3  I1 = 15  r1 =
= 50 .  8  -
I2 = 60  r2 = 2 , -
  ?
15.2.7.  8 , -
n = 1,41 -
,  ?
15.2.8. 8
8 = 10.  -
E1 , ,
E2 8 ?
15.2.9. 8 
.  E1
 E2 -
.-8? .-8 = 60.
15.2.10. h = 3 r = 4
( 8) I = 100 . -
E1 8
E2 .
15.2.11.  I = 200 
8 = 45 ,
E = 141 .  r 8
?  h ?
 15.2.12.   S = 25 2 -
.  h ,
8  ?
 15.2.13. 88 D = 2
I = 100 . E
 0,5 m h m
m 0,9  0,1 . 8 E = f(h).
15.2.14. 88 D = 1,2 -
 ,
h1 = 40 .

366
h2 = 2 8 
.   T
 : 8 8
8 8 ?
15.2.15. 8 D = 30 ,
 . h , -
, 2 -
.
15.2.16. H = 2 88 -
D = 3 I1 = 100 .
I2 = 25 , ,
. 
 ?
15.2.17.  S I =

= 100  h1 = 1
(. 15.2.1). 
h2 = 0,5   .

.
15.2.18.  , -
 ,
E = 9 .  - . 15.2.1
, 8  
: ) , -
; ) 8 , 8 -
?

15.3. 

15.3.1.    -
 10 15 . -
, 8 = 60 , I = 15 .
 B .
15.3.2.  8 
d = 20 . I = 80 . -
 0 , R  B .
15.3.3. -
8 8   B1 = 3 106 /2
8   B2 = 5 103 /2,
 d1 = 2 , 8  d2 = 20 .
15.3.4. ,  -
  d = 2 ,

367
I = 100 .  ,  
: ) 8 ; ) 8 .
 D = 10 .  
r = 5 ?
15.3.5. , , 8-
E = 106 .
8 = 32.  B .
15.3.6.  
I = 10  8,  8
B = 1 /2,  8 = 0,8?
 15.3.7. 8 S = 20 30 2 -
  = 120 .
E, R  B 8 ,
 = 0,75.
15.3.8. ,  -
, 8 , -
,   
( ), = 1,75 103 .  5 3,6 , -
= 0,75.
 15.3.9. 8 S = 10 30 2 -
I = 100 , 8 0,5% 8 -
8 . 8.
 15.3.10.  I = 100  -
8 W = 122 /. -
  K ,
P = 100 .
15.3.11. ,  ,
E = 150 ,  B = 1 /2  .
 8 .

16.

16.1.  

16.1.1. ( )
t = 4,3 8. s ?
16.1.2.  ,  -
 .
16.1.3.   ( )
8 n1 = 1,6444, 8 n2 = 1,6852.
 8 8 .

368
16.1.4.    
?
16.1.5. . 
 ?
16.1.6. 8  -
 = 40%. -
8 .
16.1.7.  s = 1 ?
16.1.8.  
 . , -
.
16.1.9. . 
.  
?
16.1.10. -
 h = 2 . 
8 -
?
16.1.11.  8 n1 =
= 1,331, 8 n2 = 1,343. 8 -
, 8 = 80.
16.1.12. 8
= 40.  v1 =
= 2,25 /, 
n2 = 1,6. 8 .
16.1.13. 
8 h = 30 .  -
,  , , .
16.1.14. 8 8 , -
8  8-
0 = 44.  -
 .
16.1.15. 8 , -
8. -
 v = 2 108 /, 
c = 3 108 /.
16.1.16.  1 = 0,76  -
  n1 = 1,6444, -
2 = 0,4  n2 = 1,6852.   -
?
16.1.17. , 8
0 = 589 . 8
? 8 ,  8 ?

369
16.1.18.  , -
, = 7,5 1015
= 0,3 .
16.1.19.  8
n = 1,343.  -
 ?
16.1.20.  8
 l = 3 : ) ; ) ;
) ? = 5 1014 .
16.1.21.  l1,  -
 ,   -
 l2 = 1,5 .
 16.1.22. 8 
, ( = 495,4 )  -
  = 0,17 .  -
?

16.2.

16.2.1.  MN
(. 16.2.1)  -
 S
8  A -
8. 
8 .
16.2.2. -
 8 , :
. 16.2.1
) --- ; ) ; ) 2n --- , 8 n .
2 2
16.2.3. 8
  h = 0,5 .
 .  
?
16.2.4. 
 (. 16.2.2). -
a = 1 .

. 8 = 30.
16.2.5.  -
8 -
d = 0,2. .
16.2.6. 8
( 1 = 0,76  2 = 0,38 ), -
. 16.2.2  -

370
d = 1,8  : )  ; ) -
.
16.2.7. 8  8
.   -
, : ) 8
; ) 8 ?
16.2.8. 8 
 d = 2,25 .  -
, : )  ( = 750 );
) ( = 500 )?
16.2.9.  AB 8 
 S1 S2 (. 16.2.3).
  O, : )  S2
2,5 ; )  S2 -
3; ) S2O S1O
1,5 ?
16.2.10. S2O (. 16.2.9)
S1O l = 900 .  O, 

= 5 1014 ?
16.2.11. 8  S1 S2 (. .
16.2.3)   =
= 600 . ,   O 
 , OC = 4
S1S2 = 1 .
16.2.12.   -
= 590 , 8
 S1 S2,  d = 200 .
x = 15 O 
(. 16.2.4)  C -
. l 
.

. 16.2.3 . 16.2.4

371
16.2.13. 8  ,
 d = 0,24 ,  l = 2,5 .
 -
, x = 5
N = 10,5 . 8  ?
 16.2.14.  -
 8,
(1 = 500 )  (2 = 650 )?
16.2.15. 8 -
 ( = 600 ). d = 1 ,
 L = 3 .
.
16.2.16. -
 8 =
= 520 ,  x = 4 N =
= 8,5 .  , -
 l = 2,75 .
16.2.17.  -
 d = 0,5 ,
 L = 5 .
, l = 5 8 8. -
8 .
16.2.18.  
8 .  8  -
  S (. 16.2.5). -
-
,  -
 (
). .  -
  b.
16.2.19.  8-
= 2 103 8 -
8  S, 8 a =
= 1 (. 16.2.6). , -
,  . -
, -
b = 4 .   n = 1,5.
= 600 .
 16.2.20.  -
 8 8 
S 8 8  (. 16.2.7). -
x ,
= 0,7 ,  
h = 1 ,  l = 4 .
16.2.21.  F = 10
,  d =

372

. 16.2.5 . 16.2.6

= 0,5 (. 16.2.8).
, b = 60 , -
 8 -
( = 500 ), a = 0,15 .

. 16.2.7 . 16.2.8

16.2.22. , -
 (n = 1,33) ,  -
 1 = 630
 2 = 450 .  d ,
?
16.2.23.  d -
, 8  n =
= 1,54,  =
= 750 : ) ; ) ?
 .
16.2.24.   d = 0,5 
= 590 . 8 -
 ,  -
 n = 1,48,   -
?  ,
 ?

373
16.2.25.  , -
 d = 0,4 .   n = 1,5.
 , 8  ( 1 =
= 350 2 = 750 ), ?
 .

16.3.  
16.3.1.    -
,  .
,  , ,  -
8: ) 8  , -
 8; )  8 , 
  ?
 16.3.2.  N0 -
 , ( = 546,1 ) -
8  8 = 198'?
16.3.3.  
d = 6,62 107 .  8  
8 = 30. ?
16.3.4. 8,  
8  , -
 = 589 . l = 1 -
 N = 5 . -
 .
 16.3.5.   
. 8  ( = 700 ) -
8 , 8-
= 30  . d -
.  N0 -
?
16.3.6.  .
 8   8 =
= 11,5.  8  8 -
,   ?
 16.3.7.   
8 .  8  -
8 = 3648  . d ,
8 .
 16.3.8.   
. (1 = 589 )  8 -
 8  1 = 178.   -
8  8  2 = 2412. 2
N0 .

374
16.3.9.   -
= 590  8  
8 = 1012. ,  -
8   
8 0 = 618.  .
16.3.10.   
. 8 8 -
1 = 440  8 .
8 8  ,
8 ?
16.3.11.   ,
1 = 490 2 = 600 . -
 1 8 = 10.
8  8 -
  .
16.3.12.  d = 0,006 -
 . 8  8
8  = 436. .
16.3.13.   
, 8. 
 8    1 = 670
 8 ?
 16.3.14.   
.  d -
 , = 41 -
1 = 656,3 2 = 410,2 ?
16.3.15. , 8 ,
 8  
, ,  8
 = 440 . -
 .
16.3.16.   ,
8 1 = 490 2 = 600 .
    ?
 16.3.17.  k 
( = 589 ),  -
 d = 2 .
16.3.18. = 590
 , N = 500 l = 1 .
 , 
 .
16.3.19.   -
8   8 1 = 85.
 8 ?
 .

375
16.3.20.   
8 .  8  8
 = 3648.   ( -
)   ?
16.3.21.
 d = 0,01 .  -
 x = 11,8 8
 l = 2 . -
.
16.3.22. 8  8 
(  0,38 0,76 ), -
8 , l = 3  
d = 0,01 ?
 16.3.23.   F ,
  , -
, 
1 = 404,4 2 = 404,7  8  l =
= 0,1 ?  d = 2 .
16.3.24. d -
, 
1 = 589 2 = 589,6 ?  a = 2,5 .
16.3.25.   d = 2 . -
 
( = 600 )  8 ? -
 a = 2,5 .
 16.3.26.   d = 2,5 .
d
-  = 589 
8 ------
d
8 .
16.3.27. 8   =
= 668  8  d------- = 2,02 105 /.
d
d  .

17.

17.1.

17.1.1.  
v = 2,4 108 /?
17.1.2. - d 2 
( 8 90% - ).
  8 -, ,
, s = 30 ?

376
17.1.3.  , 
,  v = 0,99c
(c = 3 . 108 /  ), t = 20 ?
17.1.4. l0 = 1 . 8
, 8 -
 v = 0,6c, .
17.1.5.   v  -
8 = 10%?
 17.1.6.   v , -
8 2 ?
17.1.7. ,  , -
, = 95%  .  -
 8 -
0 = 1 8 ?
17.1.8.   v 8 
,  l0, , -
 ?   -
 , 25 ?

17.2.  
17.2.1. ,  -
 -
   , 8 
(v n c).
17.2.2. ,  225 000 /
, , 8 -
 240 000 / 
.    ?
17.2.3.  0,90c.
8, 0,01 , 8
 0,95c (c = 3 . 108 / 
).  ?
 , -
?
17.2.4.  8
8  v = 0,95c. 
 , 8 -
.

17.3. #
17.3.1.   m0 = 5
 v1 = 8 /,  v2 = 2,9 108 /. -
    .

377
17.3.2.   
: ) 1%; ) 50%?
e
17.3.3. ----
-   8
m
: ) v n c; ) v = 2 108 /; ) v = 2,2 108 /; 8) v =
= 2,4 108 /; ) v = 2,6 108 /; ) v = 2,8 108 /.
e
- =
8 m ----
m
= v---  .
c
17.3.4. m = 1 8. 8
-.
17.3.5. 
8 E = 4,19 ?
17.3.6. , -
= 1 ,  2H2 + O2 =
= 2H2O + 5,75 105 .
17.3.7. 
 8 w = 74 /(2 ). 
t = 1000 ?
17.3.8.  P = 3,9
1026 .  n = 3 ?
.

17.4.  # 

17.4.1.  8 , 
8 v = 0,75,   .
17.4.2.  
,  v = 0,9c?
17.4.3.  ,
  8 E =
= 1 ?
17.4.4.    8 -
8 ?
17.4.5.  , 8 
8: ) E1 = 1 ; ) E2 = 1 .
17.4.6.   8 
8 ?
17.4.7.  8 E  -
,
= 5%? : ) ; ) ; ) .
17.4.8.  , 8 8 n =
= 10 8 8 .

378
 17.4.9.  
8 E = 10 .   -
?
 17.4.10.   -
.
17.4.11.   U
, 8 n =
= 3 ?

17.5. '. # '

17.5.1. ,  8 v =
= 0,75c,   .
17.5.2. ,   -
n = 3 8 ,
 .
17.5.3.  8  E = 0,8 . -
.
17.5.4. ,  ,
8  r = 0,1 . -
8  B = 10 . -
 8 .
17.5.5.  8 - E = 500 . -
8  -
r = 0,8 .  88 .

18. -

18.1.

18.1.1. 8 : ) 
1 = 4,17 1015 ; ) 8
2 = 1017 ; ) - 3 = 2,4 1021 .
18.1.2. , 8 8 E =
= 3,2 1019 .
18.1.3.  8  ( =
= 0,76 ) 8 ( =
= 0,40 )?
 18.1.4. , 8
= 5 107 .
18.1.5.  v = 105 /.
, 8 8 8 8 .

379
 18.1.6.   v 8 ,
8 = 520 ?
18.1.7. ,  8
 8,  , -
= 3 .
18.1.8. 8  8 -
, 8  v0 = 105 / 8 -
= 8 . .
18.1.9.  8 =
= 4 107 8 8 8
T = 300 ?
18.1.10.   -
8  8 8 8 8 ,
8 = 800 ?
18.1.11. , 8 -
 t = 127 C. 
  .
18.1.12.  ,
 8 E = 3,2
= 2,76 107 .
18.1.13.    -
 n = 1,8
. 8 , 8
= 7 107 .
 18.1.14.  
 S = 2 2 t = 0,5 p = 3 109 8 /.
8  8 E, -
.
18.1.15.  
= 331 .  8
E = 6 109 ?
18.1.16. . 
= 0,5  8 E = 1 ?
18.1.17.  ,
t = 1 N = 2 1021 = 500 .
18.1.18.  P = 100  n = 5 1020
. .
18.1.19. 8 -
 = 694 .
 , P = 2 ,
 S = 0,1 2.
18.1.20.  ,
8 P = 1012 ? -
= 500 .

380
18.1.21.  8  
= 500 P = 20,8 1018 . 
  8,
?
18.1.22.  P =
= 2 1010 .  , -
t = 2 , -
= 5 107 .
18.1.23.  P = 100  -
= 579,1 .   
, = 50%  -
?
18.1.24. 8 ,
U = 50   I = 1 ,  n =
= 2 1013 = 100 .
 8 .
 18.1.25. 8 P = 125 . 

, 612,1; 579,1; 546,1; 404,7; 365,5; 253,7 ? -
2; 4; 4; 2,9; 2,5;
4% 8. , 80% 8
.
 18.1.26.  P = 60 . -
 n = 1019 . -
= 7% . , -
8 . ,  -
 .
18.1.27.  m = 0,4 8 
n = 2,4 1018 ,  = 5,5
107 .  8 8  t = 30 ?
18.1.28. V = 0,4 8 -
 = 0,5 . 
8 n = 1018 .  8 T =
= 10 ? , 8 8
.
18.1.29.  8 -
P.  ,
 -
R,  .
18.1.30.  8
P = 1 . , -
= 1 ,
, t = 10  -
S = 1 2,  -
l = 10 .

381
18.1.31.  8 = 2
104 . P = 3,5 , =
= 540 .  
, 8 8 n =
= 100 ?  d = 0,4 .

18.2.

18.2.1. 8 E = 4 -
8  . -
, .
18.2.2. = 300 8
= 30  8. , -
.
18.2.3. P = 50
 . -
.
18.2.4. 8 
. P = 2 .
 S = 1 2,  -
,  8 .
18.2.5.   = 1014 1 -
8 = 30 .
, 8 
 N0 = 1015   8
.
18.2.6.  J =
= 0,2 /2 8 = 60   -
= 0,9. -
.
18.2.7.   =
= 660  -
= 0,8.  ,  -
8 S = 1 2 , -
p = 1 .
18.2.8. P = 90
,  k = 60%  n = 20% -
8 . 8 8 . -
.
18.2.9.  
P = 60 . -
 R = 5 ,  8 k =
= 9% 8 . , -
.

382
18.2.10. 8 E = 10 8 -
8 8  
8 = 60. k = 30% 8 -
, . 
, 8 t = 5 1012 ?
18.2.11. 8  -
  r,
R = 2 8 8 = 30  , p = 5 107 .
.
18.2.12. 8  
 = 1010 . -
 n = 109 3. 8 -
 = 30, = 20% ,
8. .
18.2.13.  8 -
 , 8 8
.  d = 40 .
8 , C =
= 1,4 /(2 ). ( 8, 1 2
1 .) ,  -
.
18.2.14. m = 15 8,
l = 40 , 
8 E = 90 . 8,  -
, 8,
8 , 8 .
18.2.15.   -
, -
.  1
 50 /, 1000 2,
10 ?  -
?  -
.

18.3. 

18.3.1.  8 
  ?
18.3.2. . . - -
(1888 8.)  -
. 8 :
 -
295 . A
 ,  .

383
18.3.3. 8  8
0 = 295 . , 8 
?
18.3.4. , 
 : ) = 10 107 ; ) =
= 3,32 107 ; ) = 2 107 ?
18.3.5. 
,   -
 v = 3000 /?
18.3.6.    8
,  ,
1 ?
18.3.7. = 0,2  -
  8 E = 2 . -
  8
.
18.3.8.  8  ,
8 =
= 400    v = 6,5 105 /.
18.3.9. ,  -
, p = 5,7 1027 8 /. 
 . A = 5 .
18.3.10. p = 2,67 1027 8 /
 , 8 A = 2 . -
 8  ?
18.3.11.   
8 ,
1 = 330
2 = 165 ?
18.3.12. -
1 = 150 2 = 500 , 
  n = 3 .
 8 .
18.3.13. 8  8 -
k = 1,3 8 . -
 8 , -
  v = 4 105 /.
 18.3.14.  
 -
U = 0,8 . 8
0,  .
18.3.15.
1 = 124 , 2 =

384
= 414 . -
?
18.3.16. 
.
1 = 1,6  .
 
2 = 3 . -
 .
18.3.17. = 600   -
,  -
U.
= 25%
U = 0,41 . .
 18.3.18.  h, ,
, 1 = 2,2
1015 , U1 =
= 6,6 , 2 = 4,6 1015 -
U2 = 16,5 .
18.3.19.  , -
 , , -
 1 l 500 , -
2 < 1 -
U2 = 2 . 2
 .
18.3.20.  , 8 -
8 , I = 4,8 1010 .
,   -
, , .
18.3.21.   -
P = 30 .  n = 12  , -
, . -
 . 8
= 2 1015 .
18.3.22. -

= 180 -
,
 18.3.1.
- , -
: ) 
; ) ,

. . 18.3.1

385
18.3.23.  r = 0,5 -
,  8 ,
.  ?
18.3.24.  -
= 200 . 8 8 -
, ? 
A = 4,36 .
18.3.25.  R = 1
,  .  -
,  
 8 -
E = 40 /?  .
18.3.26.  (. 18.3.2) -
 . 8  (. .
 8 ),
?   A.
18.3.27. 8 (-
8  ) 1 =
= 600 1 = 1,2 .
 -
8 2 = 400 ?
18.3.28. (. 18.3.3) , 8
A = 6 1019 ,
= 2 107 . 8 -
,    -
1 = 2 .
 ,  ?
 18.3.29.  8 -
(8 ) ( -
). 
 U0 = 0,6  .
= 230 . 
U
,  ?   v

. 18.3.2 . 18.3.3

386
, 8 , 
 ?
18.3.30. 8 E = 4,9 
,  8 A = 4,5 . -
 ,
 .
18.3.31.   -
= 83 .  
 ,
  -
 E = 7,5 /?
8  0 = 332 .
18.3.32.   -
= 200 .  -
 , -
8  . -
l = 1  
, 
, pmax = 5 1025 8 /. -
8 ,  A = 4,74 .
18.3.33.    -
= 400 .  -
 E = 50 /.
  .  -
 
? ,  -
  .
8   0 = 577 .
18.3.34.  
S = 6 104 2  d =
= 10 .
= 200 .
 8 . -
,   -
, t = 1 n = 105
.  A = 3 .

18.4. 

18.4.1.  8
 8 60? (
= 2,4263 1012 .)
18.4.2. 8 8
, 8 8 45,  =
= 10,7 . ?

387
18.4.3. 8 -
8 = 3,62 . 8 .
18.4.4. 8 -
8 1 = 2 2 = 2,4 .
8  .
18.4.5. 8 = 5 -
8 1 = 30,  8
2 = 60  . : ) -
; ) .
 18.4.6. 8 E = 0,75
 8 = 60. , -
  , : ) 8 -
8 ; )  8 
; ) .

388
5

19.

19.1.

19.1.1.   : ,
, , ?
19.1.2. 
r1 = 0,5 108 , r2 = 5 1014 .  -
?
(r3 = 1 ),  ?
19.1.3.  8 -
8  ?
19.1.4.  -, 
 v = 1,6 106 /,  -
, 8 , ?
19.1.5. 8 -
, 8 E = 13,6 .
 19.1.6. 8,
.

19.2. #

 19.2.1. rn  -
 vn  .
19.2.2.  -
, 
?
19.2.3.  8 
, n-  ? 
 ,
?
19.2.4. 8
n-  .  -
 ?
19.2.5.  n- -
.   ,
?

389
19.2.6.  -
n-  . 
 8 ?
19.2.7. 8 8
  .
   .
19.2.8. , 8 -
 .
19.2.9. 8 8 -
8  .
 8  -
? ?
19.2.10. 8 8 -
 8  .
 8   -
.
19.2.11.  8 
n- 8 
.
19.2.12. 8 8 -
8  . 
8  ?
?
19.2.13.  8  -
n- 8  .
19.2.14.  8 -
, 8 -
 ?  8  8
?

19.3.

19.3.1. n-   8
  8 Li2+.
19.3.2. 8 
n- 8 .
Li2+ n = 2.
19.3.3.  8 +Ze -
8 .  -
, 8   -
8 n.
19.3.4.  8  n- -
8 .
8 n = 2.

390
19.3.5.  8 8
+Ze.  -
, 8    8
n. 8 n = 3.
 19.3.6.  -
-, ,  -
. ,  -
- , . -
- m = 1,88 1028 8, 8 .
19.3.7. m 8 -
- , 8 , , -
 F = Ar, 8 A -
.   ,
: ) ; ) -
 ; )
8 .

19.4. 

19.4.1. 8  
 . -
, .
19.4.2. 8 88
.  
 8 ? .
19.4.3.
 .
19.4.4. , 8 -
 , 8 
 .
19.4.5.  -
= 485 . 
?
19.4.6.   -
 , n = 4 -
. , 8  ?
19.4.7. , 8 -
  
8.
19.4.8. ,   Li2+
8 88 .
19.4.9.
= 6,17 1014 .
.

391
19.5. #, ' (#)

19.5.1.   8 -
,  ?
19.5.2.  -
8 8 E = 6,79 . 1. -
 8 ? 2.  -
, 8  ?
19.5.3. 8 8-
8 8 E = 2,55
( 8 ).
.  8 ?
19.5.4. 8 E =
= 14,53 . , 
.
19.5.5. 
8 E1 = 21,6 ,  E2 = 41 , -
E3 = 64 .  , -
8 , -
= 25 ?
19.5.6. 8 -
.
19.5.7. 8, -
, 8 .
19.5.8. 8 , 8
 .
19.5.9. -
8, 8 .
 19.5.10. Ui: )  -
8 8; )  8 .
19.5.11.  8 E = 12,8 -
, , 8
 , 8. 
8 ?   -
( ) 8
8 8 8
?
19.5.12.  8 , -
, 
  ?
19.5.13. 8 -
, 8 , , -
 -
8
?

392
19.5.14. ,  U =
= 12,3 , . -
8 , 8
8 .
19.5.15. 
8  N = 1 .
8  t = 1 -
n = 3,8 1023 . 8 
S = 106 2. = 80% -
. , ,
  ,
 8  .

19.6. 

19.6.1. , ,
8 , 8 
 v = 4 106 /. ?
19.6.2.  -
8 n = 3. 8-
8  .
19.6.3. = 780 A 
. 
 E = 200 /.  -
.  -
8 ?
19.6.4.   
8.   ?
.
19.6.5. 
. -
,   , . -
  8 .
19.6.6. , 8  v0 =
= 4,6 104 /,  8-
He+.  , -
,  v = v0, -
. , -
8, .
m = 1,67 1027 8, 8 M = 4m.
 19.6.7.   
, .
 d = 5 .   -
 , -
  8  8 = 41?

393
20.

20.1.

20.1.1.  , -
7 17 235
, : 3 Li , 8 O , 92 U .
7
20.1.2.  , 3 Li ,
11 13
5B , 7N , ?
20.1.3.  
m = 1 8?
20.1.4.  , 
V = 1 ,  -
t = 27 C p = 1 ?
20.1.5. 8, ,
 r = r0 3 A , 8 r0 d 1,4 1015 ,
A , .
79
20.1.6.  35 Br -
8 ?
20.1.7. , 8
 , .
20.1.8.  ,
8 =
= 1,5 1017 8/3?
20.1.9.   m = 1000 ,
8 8
= 1,5 1017 8/3?    
?

20.2.  . #

20.2.1.   -
 :
m = Zmp + (A Z)mn m m = ZM 1 + (A Z)mn Ma,
1H

8 m , Ma .
20.2.2.  -
7
8 3 Li .

394
20.2.3.  8 -
2
1 H .
20.2.4. 8, --
. - m = 6,644 1027 8.
20.2.5. 8, 
4
8 2 He m = 1 8.
20.2.6. 8 , 8 -
8 , E = 7,72 . 8 -
, 8 .
3 4
 20.2.7. 8 1 H 8 2 He .
 ?
18
20.2.8. 8  8O E1 = 139,8 ,
19
E2 = 147,8 . -
9F
8, 8 .
20.2.9.  8 ,
14
7 N ?
20.2.10.  8 ,
4
8 2 He  ?
20.2.11. 8,
16 12
 8 O - 8 6 C , -
, 8  E1 = 127,62 , 8-
E2 = 92,16 , - E3 = 28,30 .
20.2.12. 8 , -
7 14 27 40 63 113
: ) 3 Li ; ) 7N ; ) 13 Al ; 8) 20 Ca ; ) 29 Cu ; ) 48 Cd ;
200 238
) 80 Hg ; ) 92 U . = f(A), 8 A -
.
20.2.13. 8 8 , 8 -
, E = 26,3 .
8 .

20.3. 
( )
60
20.3.1.  27 Co
-.  ?
.

395
30
20.3.2.  15 P ,
-?
238
20.3.3.  92 U 
-. . 8
?

20.3.4.  -
64 A
29 Cu ZX + 1 e + .
232
20.3.5.  90 Th
-  -?
8
 20.3.6.  3 Li 8
8 - 8 -?
20.3.7.  - -
235 211
92 U 83 Bi ?
20.3.8.  Th  -
8 ( - 
-,  
),
-  - 8
208
82 Pb ?
220
20.3.9.  86 Rn -
 v1 = 16 /.  ?
  ?

20.4.  #

20.4.1.  t =
= 1 ?
N0 = 106.
20.4.2.  t =
= 1 ? N0 = 106.
20.4.3.   -
T.  t = 3T?
20.4.4. , -
, t = 100 k = 2
--- -
3
8  .

396
20.4.5. 8  8 -
3 . 
8?
210
20.4.6. 84 Po -
207
82 Pb .  m = 1 8 -
t = 70 ?
24
20.4.7.  11 Na , 
-.  , m = 1 8
8 8 t = 1,4 .
-?
 20.4.8. , , -
 8 ,

. t , ,
238
m = 1 8 92 U m = 320 8
206
82 Pb .
 20.4.9. m1 = 2 8. 
T
 t = ------1- , 8
2
T1 .
20.4.10. m = 2 8 -
t = 1 8 8, 
V = 86 3. , -
8.
20.4.11. : ) 222Rn;
) 8 14C.
20.4.12.  
= 4 107 1. 8
= 75% ?
20.4.13. : ) 24Na; ) -
232Th.
 20.4.14.  8  -
8 8 ,
8 8 ?
14
 20.4.15.  8 6C
-
4/5  8
. -
.

397
20.5. 

20.5.1.  - -
,
 8.  -
14 4
 : 7N + 2 He
17 A
8O + ZX.  ?
20.5.2. 
9 A 12 1
8: 4 Be + Z X 6C + 0 n .  -
?
4
20.5.3.  - ( 2 He )
27 1
( 13 Al ) ( 0 n ).
 8
.
20.5.4. Pu -, -
242
 96 Cm - .
.  -
?  94, 8
239.
14
20.5.5. 7 N -
-.  -
.
27
20.5.6. 13 Al -
24
 11 Na .  -
?
20.5.7. -
238 239
92 U  92 U . -
- 8
239
93 Np . - -
232
94 Pu ,  8 -
8. .
20.5.8.  8 -
,  . -
7
, 3 Li 8 8-

398
: )  ; ) Be
.    .
20.5.9. -
:
27 1 A 4 56 A 56 1
) 13 Al + 0n ZX + 2 He ; ) 25 Mn + Z X 26 Fe + 0 n ;
A 1 22 4 27 26 A
) Z X + 1 H 11 Na + 2 He ; 8) 13 Al + 12 Mg + Z X .
20.5.10. ,
242 22
94 Pu 10 Ne . , ,
 8 .

20.6. # 

7 1
 20.6.1. 8  3 Li + 1 H
4
2 2 He .
20.6.2.  :
7 1 7 1 9 1 10
) 3 Li + 1 p 4 Be + 0 n ; ) 4 Be + 0 n 4 Be + ;
7 4 10 1 16 2 14 4
) 3 Li + 2 5 B + 0 n ; 8) 8 O + 1 d 7 N + 2 .
20.6.3.  8 -
7 4 10 1
 3 Li + 2 He 5 B + 0 n ?
20.6.4. 8 -, 8
2 3
 1 H + n 1 H + .
20.6.5.  -
4 2 3
 8 2 He 1 H 1 H .
 8 -
.
9 2
20.6.6. 8  4 Be + 1 H
10 1
4 Be + 1 H .  8  -
m = 1 8?
2 3 4 1
20.6.7.  1 H + 2 He 2 He + 1 p
8 E1 = 18,4 .  8
3 3 4 1 3
 2 He + 2 He 2 He + 21 p ,  2 He
2
m = 0,006 ... , 1 H ?

399
20.6.8. 8 , ,
8, C A B,
: EAB = EC (EA + EB), 8 EA, EB, EC 8
. 8,
 16O - 8
12. 8 : E
16 = 127,62 , E = 28,30 , E 12 =
O C

= 92,16 .
6 2 7 1
20.6.9.  3 Li + 1 H 3 Li + 1 p 8
Q = 5,028 . 8 E1 = 39,2 ,
E2 = 1,72 . .
20.6.10. 8 =
= 8,5 /  -
A1 = 140 8 1 = 8,3 /, -
8 A2 = 94 8 2 =
= 8,6 .  , 
m = 1 8 . mp = mn =
= 1,6724 1027 8.
20.6.11. ,  235U -
8 E0 = 200 , 8, -
8 m = 1 8 , 8 8 m1,
 1 8 .
20.6.12. 235U 8
Q = 200 .  8  -
8?
20.6.13. 8 88 235U
 .
 P = 10 ; = 20%. 8, -
 , Q = 200 .
20.6.14. ,
 m = 220 8 235U = 25%. -
,  235U 8 Q = 200 .
 20.6.15. 8, -
11
- 8 6 C ,
 8  . 
11
.  8 6 C
 M = 100 t = 30 , -
0 = 20 C?
24
20.6.16. 11 Na m = 10 8, -
-, ,

400
M = 1000 .  . -
T = 2
--- .  8 -
3
 ?
210
20.6.17. 84 Po  -
.  .
T = 140 .  , -
8 = 0 C, , 8,
m = 10 8 t = 35 ?

20.7.  
210
20.7.1.  84 Po -
 8 E = 5,3 .  -
8 8, -.
20.7.2. m 8 -
E , -. -
-, : ) ; ) -
.
40
20.7.3.  19 K  -
8 E = 9,4 .  8
 -.
7
20.7.4.  8 8 3 Li
 , -
 . -
  8 -
  8 
, 8  = 170.
mp = 1,00783 ..., 8 m = 4,00388 ...
 8  .
20.7.5. , -
7
3 Li , . -
.   8 
 ? 
8  .
210
20.7.6.  84 Po -.
8 ? 
8, , -
 8 8 ? 8
m = 206,087 ...  - 8 -
.

401
 20.7.7.  8 ,  -
2 3 4 1
 1 H + 1 H 2 He + 0 n . -
 8 .
20.7.8. 8 () 8 , -
11 1 4 8
 5 B + 0 n 2 He + 3 Li -
, E = 4 .  8 -
8 ? , 8
 8
 ,  , . 
8  . -
m 11 = 11,0211 ...
5B

14 4 17 1
20.7.9.  7 N + 2 He 8 O + 1 p ,
-
8, 8 8 E = 14,5 . -
8, 8  .
 20.7.10. 
2 3 4 1
1H + 1H 2 + 0 n

,  8 E = 2 -
 ( -
).  8 , -
 . 8 E -
8 ,  8 E =
= 17,6 .

20.8. # # '

20.8.1. h0 = 14,7 -
- 2 .  , -
n = 4 ?
20.8.2. h0 = 3
.  -
h = 12 ?
20.8.3. h0 = 3,85 -
-.  ,
n = 32 ?
20.8.4. -
h = 4 n = 8 .
, 8 .

402
20.8.5. 
8 50 . 8 -
, 8 , 7 
.  8 6 -
, ?

20.9.

20.9.1.  , 8
0 0
8, 8, : 1 e + +1 e 2. -
8 8 .
20.9.2.  ,  -
 8 E = 0,24 ,  .
8 .
20.9.3. 8 E = 3 8 -
. 
8  , , 8 .
20.9.4. .
, .
 8 ,  .
 8  -
.
20.9.5. 8 - ( = 47 ), -
. 
8 . .
20.9.6. = 1010 -
8  
.   ? 
 v n c.
 20.9.7. 8
 .  -
8, . 
m1 m2.

403

1.

1.1.5.  ,  -
 , -
,   . -
, s = nl + L.  -
+L 120 12,5 + 600
: v = s-- ; v = nl
---------------- ; v = -------------------------------------------- / = 14 /.
t t 150
: v = 14 /.
1.1.6. , 
 . 
 t1 = --t- , ,  -
2

: s1 = v1 --- .  , , s2 = v2 --t- ,
t
2 2

s = s1 + s2 = (v1 + v2) --t- .  


2
v1 + v2 + 60
v1 = -- = ------------------ ; v1 = 40
s
-------------------- / = 50 /.
t 2 2

 , s1 = --s- , -
2
s1 s
 t1 = ------ = ---------- .  ,
v1 2v 1
s
s2 = --s- ,  t2 = -----1- = ---------
s .
-
2 v2 2v 2

1 2 s(v + v )
 t = t1 + t2 = -------------------------
-.
2v 1 v 2
 
2v 1 v 2 2 40 60
v2 = s-- = -----------------
- ; v2 = -------------------------- / = 48 /.
t v1 + v2 40 + 60

: .

404
2s s
1.1.9.  v = ---------------------------
- ,  t1 = ------ ,
t 1 + t p + t2 v1
s
t2 = -----
- , t . -
v2

, t = s 2 1
- ------ = 3000 .
1
--v-
-----
v1 v2
:  tp = 3000 .
1.1.13. 

v = s-- , (1)
t

 
s
u = ----
-, (2)
t0

 s  , t0
. (1) (2), ,  -
 :
v t0
--- = ----- . (3)
u t

 s1 = 1,2s. -
s
 t1 = ----1- = 1,2t.
v

t0 = t1 + t + = 1,2t + t + . (4)

(4) (3),
v 1,2t + t + v 1,2 40 + 12 + 15
--- = --------------------------------- ; --- = ----------------------------------------------- d 1,9.
u t u 40

: --v- d 1,9.
u
1.2.9.   v,  l,
  n.  -
 u,  
nl
t1 = ------------
-, (1)
v+u


n1l = vt1. (2)

405
(1) (2)
n
n1 = u ------------
-. (3)
v+u


n
n2 = 3u ----------------
-. (4)
v + 3u

2n n
1 2
(3) (4) n = ----------------------
- ; n = 100.
3n 1 n 2
: n = 100.
1.2.10.   
v v, v + v,
l l
t = -----------------
- + ------------------ . ,
v v v + v

2l
v = v 1 --------
- ; v = 6 /c.
v t

:  v = 6 /.
1.2.18. v  , nv  
,    
2 2
 (. 1.2.5) v1 = v + ( nv ) + 2nvv cos = v 3 ,
.
:   .
1.2.24. ,
 ,
   v2 = v v1,  v1 
v
 (. 1.2.6).  v2  = arctg -----1-
v

 , , m = arctg a
--- ,  -
h

a v1
nv v1

v2 v
v
. 1.2.5 . 1.2.6

406
v
 . , --a- l -----1- ,  v1 m av
------- ;
h v h
v1 m 1,2 /c.
:   v1 = 1,2 /.
1.2.25.
, . v1
: v  ()
(), v1 -
() -
(). 
 v = v1 + v2,  v2  - v v2
,
. .  . , v2 = v v1 . 1.2.7
2 2 2 2
(. 1.2.7),  v2 = v + v 1 ; v2 = 80 + 60 / =
= 100 /.
: v2 = 100 /; - -
v
= arctg -----1- d 37  .
v
1.3.3.   X:
x 2 x1 46
vx = ------------------
- ; vx = ------------------ / = 2,5 /. 
t 2 t1 51
, X. -
( ) v = |vx|; v = 2,5 /.    -
,  1) 

x = x0 + vxt, (1)

 x0  ( -
t0 = 0). (1) :

x1 = x0 + vxt1 x0 = x1 vxt1; x0 = 8,5 . (2)

x0 vx (1) 
:

x = 8,5 2,5t.

 s = vt; s = 2,5t.
1) -
.

407
v  
. 1.3.6,  vx(t), x(t)
. 1.3.7.
4 0 6 X,
t = 2 -
. 1.3.6 x = vxt; x = (2,5 2) =
= 5 . t = 2
s = vt; s = 2,5 2 = 5 .
v, : 1) vx = 2,5 /; 2)  -
/ ,
X; 3) v = 2,5 /; 4) x = 8,5 2,5t; 5) s =
0
1 2 3 4 5 t, c = 2,5t; 6) . 1.3.6; 7) . 1.3.7; 8) x =
2,5 = 5 s = 5 .
1.3.6. ,
t0 = 0 t1 = 2 ,
x,   , -
,  , -
6 x = 3 . ,
4 t1 = 2 t2 = 6 ,
2  -
, , 
0
1 2 3 4 5 t, c ,  -
2
4 x = x0 + vxt,

. 1.3.7 
x2 x1 33
v, vx = ------------------
- = ------------------ / = 1,5 /,
/c t2 t1 62

0 x0 = x2 vxt2 = (3 (1,5) 6) = 6 .
2 4 6 t, c
1,5 x = 6 1,5t. 
. 1.3.8 1 x x
5  v = ---------------
- =

x,
= ----------------------
1, 5 3
- / = 0,9 /.  -
19 5
 
13  1.3.8.
: x = 6 1,5t; v = 0,9 /;
. 1.3.8.
1.3.9.  K :
3 xK = xM 19 3t = 3 + 5t t = 2 .
0 2 4 t, c 
. 1.3.9 x = (3 + 5 2) =

408
= 13 .  .
. 1.3.9.
: t = 2 ; x = 13 ; . 1.3.9.
1.4.5.  
 v = v0 + at. t1 = 2 
v1 = v0 + at1, (1)

v1 = nv0. (2)
t2 = 6 
v2 = v0 + at2, (3)
,   , 
,
v2 = kv0. (4)
(1)(4),
t
k = 1 + (n 1) ----2- ; k = 13.
t1

:  k = 13 .
1.4.11. , , (. 1.4.5)
2
t
s1 = a a
------------ = --- ,
2 2
:
2 2
a 4 t t 3a
s2 = s2 s1 = -------------------- a
------------ = ------- ,
2 2 2
:
2 2
a 9 t a 4 t
s3 = s3 s2 = -------------------- -------------------- = 5a
------- ,
2 2 2
2 2
a 16 t a 9 t 7a
s4 = s4 s3 = -----------------------
- -------------------- = ------- .
2 2 2

s1 s2 s3 s4

s2
s3
s4
. 1.4.5

409
, t = 1  ,
 , , 
: s1 : s2 : s3 : s4 ... = 1 : 3 : 5 : 7 ... .
: s1 : s2 : s3 : s4... = 1 : 3 : 5 : 7... .
1.4.12. s1, t1:
2
at
s1 = v0t + --------1- .
2
s1 + s2, t1 + t2:
2
1 a(t + t )
2
s1 + s2 = v0(t1 + t2) + ---------------------------
-.
2
,
2(s t s t )
2 1 1 2
- = 0,07 /2 .
a = ------------------------------------
t1 t2 ( t 1 + t 2 )

: a = 0,07 /2.
1.4.13. ,  , -

2
at
l1 = --------1- ,
2

  ,
2
at
l2 = v1t2 + --------2- .
2
,    v1:
v
t3 = -----1- .
a

t0 = t3 + t2 .

, ,
2
at
s = --------0- .
2

,
2 2 2
l l t + l t
2 1 1 2
s = ----12- --------------------------
- ; s = 612,5 .
t 1 2l 1 t 2

: s = 612,5 .

410
2
at
1.4.14. l  : l = --------1- ,  
2
.  t5,
2
at
, 5l = --------5- ,  t5 = t1 5 .
2

t4 = t1 4 = 2t1.
 ( )
t2 = t5 t4 = t1( 5 2); t2 d 1,2 c.
: t2 d 1,2 .
1.4.15. l  , v0  -
  ,  
 , t .
, ,
2
at
l = v0t1 + --------1- ,
2

2
1 a(t + t )
2
2l = v0 (t1 + t2) + ---------------------------
-.
2
 
v0 = at.
,
2 2
2t + 2t t t 1 2 1
t = ------------------------------------- ; t d 31 .
2 ( t1 t2 )
: t d 31 .
1.4.16. 1.  , -
, .
  , 

h1 = <v1> t1, (1)


 <v1>  .
 +v v
  , <v1> = ---------------------------- =
2
0 + v v vt 1
= ------------- = --- . , (1): h1 = -------- .
2 2 2
  ,
 h2 = vt2,  

411
; ,  -
vt
h3 = --------3 .
2

h = h1 + h2 + h3 = --------1 + vt2 + --------3 = v ----1- + t2 + ----3- ;


vt vt t t
2 2 2 2

h = 4 4 --- = 4(2 + 8 + 1,5) = 46 .


+8+ 3
--2- 2
h
 : <v> = ---------------------------
- , <v> = 3 /.
t 1 + t2 + t3
2.  , 
,   .  
 . 1.4.6, .
0 < t < 4  a1 = 1 /2; -
4 < t < 12  a2 = 0,   -
; 12 < t < 15  a3 = 1,3 /2.
   . 1.4.6, .
0 < t < 4  -
0 4 /; 4 < t < 12 
a, 4 /;
/2 ) 12 < t < 15 
1 4 /c 0.
 
0 . 1.4.6, .
4 12 15 t,
0 < t < 4 -
1,3
)  y1 =
v, a1 t 2
/ t2
= -----------
- = ----- .
2 2
4
 -
: h1 = 8 .
0 4 12 15 t, 4 < t < 12
y, :
)
46 y2 = v t = 4(t 4) = 4t 16.
40 :
h2 = 32 .
12 < t < 15
:
3 a t 2
8 y3 = vt + ---------------
- = 4(t 12)
2
0 4 12 15 t, 1,3 ( t 12 ) 2 2
-------------------------------- = 2t
--------- + 14t 140.
. 1.4.6 2 3

412
: h3 = 6 .
: 1) h = 46 , <v> = 3 /; 2) 1.4.6, , 1.4.6, , 1.4.4, .
1.4.18. :
s = 2s1 + s2,
 s1 , ;
2
at
s1 = --------1- (t1  ); s2 -
2
:

s2 = v --t- 2t1 ,
2

 v   ,  (-
)   (),
v1 = at1.

, 
:
2s
a = ---------------------------
-.
t 1 ( t 2t 1 )

2
 , y = t1t 2t 1
. t1,  -
b t
: t1 = ------
- = --- . , 
2a 4

10s
- = 0,2 /2 .
amin = ---------
2
t

: amin = 0,2 /2.


1.4.19. 1- . -
:
a t2
- ; x = 15t + 0,4t2 .
x
x = x0 + vx0t + ----------- (1)
2

a
, x0 = 0; vx0 = 15 /; -----x- = 0,4 /2,  ax =
2
= 0,8 /2.
5 (1):
x = (15 5 + 0,4 52) = 85 .

413
 5 :
vx = vx0 + axt; vx = 19 /.  :
v +v
x x0
v = --------------------
- ; v = 17 /,
2

2
s = v0t + at
--------- = 85 .
2
, .
2- . (1). -
, : vx = xR = (15t + 0,4t2)R = 15 + 0,8t; vx = 19 /.
: ax = (vx)R = (15 + 0,8t)R = 0,8 /2.
: ) x0 = 0, vx0 = 15 /; ) x = 85 , vx = 19 /; ) v = 17 /,
s = 85 .
1.4.20.  t0 = 0
 x0 = 5 OX -
 v0x = 4 /  ax = 4 /2. -
,
,  .
 ,    .
  : vx = 4 4t,
0 = 4 4t t = 1 .1) , -
0 m t m 1 
OX, 1 m t m 3  -
.  :
x = 5 + 4t 2t2 = (5 + 4 2) = 7 .
 ,  -
OX,
s1 = x x0 = (7 5) = 2 .
 :
x = (5 + 4 3 2 32) = 1 .
,   ,
s2 = x x0 = (7 (1)) = 8 ,

s = s1 + s2 = (2 + 8) = 10 .
: s = 10 .
1)
   , 
.

414
1.5.9.   -
.     ,
 v. 
2
h = vt + g t----- ; v = h gt
--- ------ . (1)
2 t 2

   -
v2
H = ------
- ,  (1):
2g

2
1 h
- --- ------ - = 2,17 .
gt
H = ------
2g t 2

: H = 2,17 .
1.5.11. OY  ,
  .
: . -
t1 t2,
, h = 14,7 , -

t = t2 t1. (1)
 :
2
t
y = v0t g ----
- . t1 t2  y = h,
2
2
h = v0t g t-----
2
gt2 2v0t + 2h = 0. (2)
 (2) t1 t2:
2
0 v v 2gh 0
t1,2 = ---------------------------------------
- , . .
g
2
0 v v 2gh 0
t1 = ---------------------------------------
-, (3)
g

2
0 v + v 2gh 0
t2 = ---------------------------------------
-. (4)
g
2
0 2 v 2gh
(3), (4) (1) t = ------------------------------- = 2 .
g
: t = 2 .

415
Y 1.5.12. Y  ,
 O
(. 1.5.1). 
:
h g
gt 2
v y = vt --------
-. (1)
2

  h ( -
0 ), (1)
. 1.5.1 2
gt
h = vt1 --------1 (2)
2

2
gt
h = vt2 --------2 , (3)
2


t2 = t1 + t. (4)
(2)(4),
2gh + g t 2 2
v = --------------------------------
- ; v = 20 /.
4
v2
 hmax = ------
- = 20 .
2g
: v = 20 /; hmax = 20 .
1.5.13. OY  ,  
 OY  v = v0 gt.
v
  , -----0- = v0 gt1,
n
0 v (n 1)
 t1 = ------------------------ = 1 . 
ng
v v (n + 1)
 , -----0- = v0 gt2  t2 = ------------------------
0
=
n ng
= 3 .
( g = 9,8 /2,   19,6 -
9,8.)
: t1 = 1 c; t2 = 3 c.
1.5.17.   

2
v
h = ------
-;v= 2gh , (1)
2g

416
   

2
h v1
--- = ------- ; v1 = gh . (2)
2 2g
   2
, . .
v
v01 = -----1- , (3)
2
2 2
v 2 v 01
: h
--- = --------------------- , 
2 2g

2
v2 = v 01 + 2gh . (4)

(4) (2), (3)


5gh
v2 = --------------
-. (5)
2

(1) (5) ,
    
v 2 2
------ = ----------- = 1,26 .
v2 5
v
: -----1- = 1,26.
v2
1.5.18. . Y
,   0
(. 1.5.2).
a) , 
: h
g
gt 2
y = --------- . (1)
2

   (y = h, t = t1), -
Y
2
gt . 1.5.2
(1) : h = --------1 , 
2
 :
t1 = 2h g ; t1 = 7,8 .
)   v,  -
 v,  :
gt 2
y = vt + --------
-. (2)
2

417
   (y = h, t = t2), (2) :
2
gt
h = vt2 + --------2 , 
2
2
gt2 + 2vt2 2h = 0.
,
v v 2 + 2gh
t2 = ---------------------------------------- .
g
, t2 = 7,3 (  -
 ,   t > 0).
)  v,  -
 v ( ), -
 :
gt 2 .
y = vt + --------
- (3)
2
   (y = h, t = t3), (3)
2
gt
: h = vt3 + --------3 , 
2
gt32 2vt3 2h = 0.
,
v 2 + 2gh
t3 = v------------------------------------
-.
g
, t3 = 8,3 (  -
 ,   t > 0).
: ) t1 = 7,8 ; ) t2 = 7,3 ; ) t3 = 8,3 .
1.5.23. 
t1 = 9
2 2
t 81
h1 = g ----1- = g ------------ , (1)
2 2
 t2 = 6 -

2 2
t
h2 = g ----2- = g 36
------------ . (2)
2 2

 -

s = h 1 h2 . (3)

418
2
45
(3) (1) (2) s = g ------------ ; s = 9 .
2
  v1 = gt1 = 9g,
v2 = gt2 = 6g.   -
v = v1 v2 = 3g; v = 6 /.
: s = 9 ; v = 6 /.
1.5.27. . Y Y
 ,  O,
 t0 = 0 y2
 (. 1.5.3).   u
: g O
y1 = vt. (1) y
v
  -
.  -
y1
 :
u = u v.
. 1.5.3
 :
gt 2 = (u v)t gt 2 .
y2 = ut --------
- --------- (2)
2 2


y = y2 y1. (3)
 

u uv
t1 = ----------
- = ------------- , (4)
g g
. (1)(4), -
 t1:
2
gt u2 v2
y1 = (u v)t1 --------1 (vt1) = ------------------ ; y1 = 19,2 .
2 2g
t2,   -
,  : y2 = y1, -
(1) (2):
2
gt
(u v)t2 --------2 = vt2,
2

t2 = 2u
------- = 4 .
g
: y1 = 19,2 ; t2 = 4 .

419
1.6.11.       -
,  
v1 = R, v2 = (R d).
kd
v1 = kv2, : R = k(R d),  R = ------------
- .
k1
,  :
v v (k 1)
= -----1- = -----------------------
1
-,
R kd

v1 ( k 1 )
n = ------
- = ------------------------ = 3,2 .
2 2kd
: n = 3,2 .
v 1.6.13.  
v v D
  -
: v = v + v, 
v
v v D v  
vD
vB
.
   ,
B v
v vA = 0 (. 1.6.13),  ,
v = v.
  B (. 1.6.13):
2 2
v A v vB = v + v = v 2v = 5,6 /,
. 1.6.13   C (. 1.6.13):
2 2
vC = v + v + 2vv cos ( 90 ) = v 2 ( 1 + sin ) = 7,7 /.
v
   D , vD = -------------- = --v- ,
2 2
  D
vD = v + vD = v + --v- = 3v
------- = 6 /.
2 2
: vA = 0; vB = 5,6 /; vC = 7,7 /; vD = 6 /.
1.6.14.    , 
  v1 = v v, v2 = v + v,  v
  
, v   
 ( ) . -
1 2 v +v
, v = -----------------
- = 6 /. -
2
v
 : = -------------- = 20 /.
R
: = 20 /.

420
1.6.15.    v1 = v + v, -
v = v1 v.  

v2 = v v = v (v1 v) = 2v v1 = 4 /

 .
: v2 = 4 /, 
.
1.6.17.   
,   , -
 AB, ; AB
 . R
 1.6.14, x

2 2 A B
R --- ; 30 ------ =
2 d 2 36
x= x=
2 2
d
= 24 .
)
 1.6.14, 
v
:
v R+x v(R + x)
----- = -------------- ; v = ---------------------- ; v = 4,5 /.
v x x v
 
x
(R x) 2 ( 30 24 )
v = v---------------------- ; v = ----------------------------
- / = 0,4 /.
R 30
v
: c  v =
= 4,5 /, v = 0,4 /. )
1.6.18. 1.    - . 1.6.14
 ,  A  -
 .  
  (. 1.6.15).
AB,
 A   
v.   -
 v. -
v
R ,  B
 : ------ = ------------
- v
v Rr
v
vR 4
v = ------------
- ; v = ------------------ / = 10 /.
Rr 1 0,6
A
2.  v  . 1.6.15
 v .

421
  , v = v (  A),

v v
= -------------- = ------ ; d 1,7 /c.
R R
: 1) v = 10 /, 
v; 2) d 1,7 /.
1.6.21. 
  

= 2
------- , (1)
T

, 
v = r (2)

a = 2r, (3)
 T = 24  -
, r = R cos ,  ,
R ,  . (1) (2)
v = 2
------- R cos ,    , -
T
= 45
v = 465 /; v = 328 /; v = 0.

4 2
- R cos ,   -
(1) (3) a = ---------
2 T
 , = 45
a = 0,034 /2; a = 0,024 /2; a = 0.

: v = 465 /, v = 328 /, v = 0; a = 0,034 /2,


a = 0,024 /2, a = 0.
1.6.26.    ,
2
 = t
-------- .   
2
2, 
= 2N.  ,
2
2N = t
-------- ,   
2

= 4N
------------
2
; = 6,28 /2.
t

422
   :
= t = 62,8 /.
:  
a = R d 0,3 /2,

v = R; v = 3,14 /,

an = 2R; an = 197,2 /2.

: = 6,28 /2; = 62,8 /; a d 0,3 /2; an =


= 197,2 /2; v = 3,14 /.
1.6.27.   :
= () = 50 50t.
 = 0, 0 = 50 50t t1 = 1 .
  :
2
1 = 40 + 50t1 25t 1 ;

1 = (40 + 50 1 25 1 2) = 65 ;
 :
= 1 0; = 25 ;
 :
N = 25
------- = -------------------- d 4;
2 2 3,14
,   :
s = R = 12,5 .

: N d 4, s = 12,5 .
1.6.28. , v = at.
2 ( a t ) 2
 , an = v------ = ---------------
-.
R R
( a t ) 2
an = ka, ---------------
- = ka, 
R

kR
t= ------- = 4 c.
a

423
   -
a ka
: tg = -----n- = --------- = k = 4, = arctg 4 = 75,96 d 76.
a a
a t2 a kR kR
,  , s = ----------
- = -------------
- = -------- ,
2 2a 2
s
s = 0,8 . N = ----------- d 0,3 .
2R
: t = 4 ; d 76; N = 0,3 .
1.7.2.
s = vt. (1)
,  ,
gt 2
h = --------
-. (2)
2

s = h. (3)
(1)(3),
2v 2
h = s = vt = v 2v
------- = ---------- ; h = 19,8 .
g g

: h = 19,8 .
1.7.7. 
2 2h
h = g t----- ; t = ------- .
2 g
 
s = (v + u)t = (v + u) 2h
------- ; s = 1100 .
g
: s = 1100 .
1.7.11. 
2 2h
h = g t----- t = ------- . (1)
2 g
  
lR
t1 = -----------
-. (2)
v

2R
t = l---------------
-. (3)
v
 , 
t = t1 + nt, (4)

424
 n  , . -

N = n + 1. (5)
(1)(5),
2h
v ------- R
g
N = -------------------------
- ; N = 9,23.
l 2R

 , ,
N = 9.
: N = 9.
1.8.1.  Y
 O
(. 1.8.9)  hmax
v g
 :
x = (v cos )t, (1)
gt 2 0 s B X
y = (v sin )t --------- . (2)
2 . 1.8.9
   Y
:
vy = v sin gt. (3)
 A ( ) t = t1, y = hmax, vy = 0. 
(3)
0 = vsin gt1,

v sin
t1 = ---------------- . (4)
g

(2)  A (4),
2 sin 2
hmax = v----------------------
- ; hmax d 41,3 .
2g
(2)  B (. . 1.8.5) -
(t = t2, y = 0, x = s):
2
gt
0 = (v sin )t2 --------2 .
2
  o  B:
sin
t2 = 2
----------------- . (5)
g

425
(1)  B:
s = (v cos )t2. (6)
(5) (6),
cos 2 sin v 2 sin 2
s = v-------------------------------------- = ----------------------- ; s d 240 .
g g

: hmax d 41,3 , s d 240 .


2 sin 2
1.8.2. hmax = v----------------------
- ,
2g
2 sin2 v 2 sin 2
s = v-----------------------
-. hmax = s, ----------------------- =
g 2g
v 2 sin2
- ,  tg = 4; = arctg 4 d 76.
= -----------------------
g
: d 76.
1.8.17.  -
v  ,  -
 1.8.10.  
xn 
0 X 2
x = (v cos )t; y = (v sin )t g t----- .
s 2
 1.8.10 
yn  :
xn = s cos ; yn = s sin .
Y
,
. 1.8.10
2v 2 tg d 2,4 .
s = --------------------
-
g cos
: s d 2,4 .
Y 1.8.18. y
v0
 (. 1.8.11):
h gt 2
y = h0 + (v0 sin ) t --------
-. (1)
2
h0
t1 t2
 y1 = y2 = h,
2
gt
h0 + (v0 sin )t1 --------1 =
0 X 2
2
gt
. 1.8.11 = h0 + (v0 sin ) t2 --------2 .
2

426

1 g(t + t )
2
sin = ------------------------
-. (2)
2v 0
t1
2
gt
h = h0 + (v0 sin )t1 --------1 . (3)
2
(2), (3),
1 2 gt t
h0 = h -------------- . (4)
2

y = 0, -
(1)
gt 2
0 = h0 + 2(v0 sin )t --------
-. (5)
2
(2), (4), (5),
:
--- t1 + t2 + t 1 + t 1 t 2 + ------- ; t d 4,2 .
2
t= 1 2h
2 g

: t d 4,2 .
1.8.20. XOY, Y
   1.8.12.

:
2
x = (v cos )t; y = h + (v sin )t g t----- . H
2 h
 - O X
 A, s
x = s; y = H. . 1.8.12


s 2
H = h + s tg g -------------------------
2 2
- (1)
2v cos


gs 2
v= -----------------------------------------------------------
-. (2)
2cos 2 ( stg + h H )

 , z = 2cos2 (s tg +
+ h H) .

427
 z . 
z  :

( z ) = (2cos2 (s tg + h H)) = 0,

H h + ( H h ) + s2
= arctg --------------------------------------------------------- d 50,6,
s

(2) v d 7,7 /.
: c d 50,6
v d 7,7 /.
Y 1.8.24. 
 ,  -
  1.8.13. 
A v1  AB -
g  :

H 2
B x = 0; y = H gt
--------- . (1)
2
v1 h
 
O C X Y :
. 1.8.13 vy = gt. (2)
 B (t = t1, y = h, v = v1) (1) :
2
gt
h = H --------1 ,   B:
2
2(H h)
t1 = ------------------------ . (3)
g
(3) (2),  :
(H h)
v1y = gt1 = g 2
------------------------ = 2g ( H h )
g

v1 = 2g ( H h ) . (4)
   B , 
  .
,  v1 -
 ( = 90 2 = 90 2 30 = 30 = )  ,
  BC -
,  :
x = (v1cos )t; (5)
gt 2
y = h + (v1 sin )t --------
-. (6)
2

428
 (t = t2, y = 0, x = s) (6) :
2
gt
0 = h + (v1 sin )t2 --------2 ,
2


2
1 v sin + v sin 2 + 2gh
1
t2 = --------------------------------------------------------------------- ;
g

(4) =

2g ( H h ) sin + 2g ( H h )sin + 2gh 2


t2 = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- (7)
g

(   ).
:

2(H h) 2g ( H h ) sin + 2g ( H h )sin 2 + 2gh


t = t1 + t2 = ------------------------ + --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ;
g g
2(4 2)
t = ---------------------- + -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2 9,8 ( 4 2 ) 0, 5 + 2 9,8 ( 4 2 )0, 25 + 2 9,8 2
d
9,8 9,8
d 10,1 .
(5) (7):

2g ( H h ) sin + 2g ( H h )sin 2 + 2gh


s= 2g ( H h ) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-;
g
2 9,8 ( 4 2 ) 0, 5 + 2 9,8 ( 4 2 ) 0, 5 + 2 9,8 2 2
s= 2 9,8 ( 4 2 ) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------- d
9,8
d 5,6 .
: t d 10,1 , s d 5,6 .
1.8.29.  ,
   .
t = v--- .   -
g
   , -
  
 , . . u = v. 
 ,  -


s = ut; u = s-- = sg
------ .
t v

429
 
2
u= u 2  + u 2 = v 1 + sg
------ = 9,1 /.
v

: u = 9,1 /.
1.8.30. t0 = 0   .
  ,  -
 

vy = 2gh ; (1)

  
gt 2
h1 = vyt --------
-, (2)
2

  
gt 2
h2 = h --------
-. (3)
2

 
h 1 = h2 . (4)

(1)(4), , 
 :

h = 3
--- h = 0,9 .
4

   -

s1 = v1(t0 + t1), (5)

s2 = v2t1, (6)

3h
t1 = ------- (7)
2g

2h
 , t0 = 4 ------- -
g
  . 
s1 = s2. (8)

430
(5)(8), 
 
v2 = 11v1 = 11 /.
: h = 0,9 ; v2 = 11 /.
1.9.6.  1 2  -
x
.  1   t1 = -----1- =
v1
y
= 5 .  2   t2 = -----1- = 1,25 c.
v2
  t1 t2,  .
 : x1(t) = x0 v1t ; y2(t) = y0 v2t. -

2 2
s(t) = x1 + y2 = ( x 0 v 1 t ) 2 + ( y 0 v2 t ) 2 .

 :

2 2 2 2
s(t) = ( v1 + v2 )t 2 2 ( x 0 v1 + y 0 v 2 )t + ( x0 + y 0 ) .

   -
 .   -
y = at2 + bt + c. t,   -
 , -

b 0 12 ( x v + y v )0 2 0 1 x v +y v 0 2
tmax (min) = ------
- = -------------------------------------------
2 2
- = -------------------------------
2 2
.
2a 2 ( v1 + v2 ) v1 + v2

 a > 0, -
2 2
; a < 0, . a = v 1 + v 2 > 0,

x 0 v1 + y0 v 2 10 2 + 5 4
tmin = ------------------------------- = -------------------------------
- c = 2 .
2
v1 + v2
2 4 + 16

, :
x0 v 2 y 0 v1 10 4 5 2 30
smin = ---------------------------------- = ----------------------------------
- = ----------- = 3 5 .
2 2 20 2 5
v1 + v2

:  1 2 ; smin = 3 5 .

431
1.9.9. h = 2r  -
 B (. 1.9.1):
2
v1 B v v 2
v1 = -----0- -----0- = v 0 2a0 2r,
2 4
vC 3
3 v0
  r = ------ ------ .
C 16 a 0
  C:
2 2 2
v C = v 0 2a0r = 5
--- v 0 .
8
A v0
  C
. 1.9.1

aC = a 2n + a2r ,


2
v 2 16 a 0
an = -----C- = 5
--- v 0 ------------
2
10 dv
- = ------ a0 , a = ------- .
r 8 3v 0 3 dt

2
v2 = v 0 2a0 b,

2v dv db
------- = 0 2a0 ------ 2va = 2av a = a0 ,
dt dt

100 2 2
aC = ---------- a0 + a0 = 3,48 /2.
9

: aC = 3,48 /2.

2.

2.1.5.  F = ma,  a = v--- -


t

. F = m v--- , 
t

v = Ft
------ = 11,75 /.
m

432
, , -
2
s = a t----- .  ,
2

F t2
s = ----
- ----- = 352,8 .
m 2
: s = 352,8 .
2.1.6. , ,  -
 F1 = ma1,  m , a1  
t1 = 3 .
 ,
 , .. :
v = (s)R = (96t 2t3)R = 96 6t2; 
 , .. a = (v)R = (96 6t2)R = 12t. ,
a1 = 12t; a1 = 36 /2.

v = 0 0 = 96 6t2 t = 4 .
 :
a = 12t; a = 48 /2,

F 0
m = ---------
- ; m = 0,5 .
a

, , t1 = 3
, F1 = ma1; F1 = 18 .
: F1 = 18 H.
2.1.7. (. 2.1.4)
F.  F = ma.
 X:
F
F = max ax = ----
-, v0x
m O
. . X , vy X
 v
v0x = v cos ,
a vx
 , -
, vy
Y
Ft 2
x = (vcos )t --------- . (1)
2m
. 2.1.4

433
 Y: Fy = 0, Y -
 vy = vsin ,  -
, ,
y = (vsin )t. (2)
, -
y
(2): t = ----------------  (1), 
v sin


Fy 2
x = (-------------------------
v cos )y
-------------------------------
2 2 2
F
= y ctg -------------------------------
2
y2.
vsin 2mv sin 2mv sin

 (. . 2.1.4).
s
2 2
x v v 0x
s = --------------------
-. (3)
2a x

   X . 2.1.4:
vx = vyctg = vsin ctg . (4)

vx, v0x, ax (3)

2 sin 2 ctg 2 v 2 cos 2 mv 2 ( cos 2 sin 2 ctg 2 )


s = v-------------------------------------------------------------------- = ------------------------------------------------------------------------ .
2F 2F
-------
m

mv 2 ( cos2 sin2 ctg 2 ) F


: s = ----------------------------------------------------------------------- - y2.
- , x = y ctg -------------------------------
2
2F 2mv sin2
2.2.5. F = mg :
v2
mg = ma.  a = g. l = ------
-,
2a
 ( ), 
 : v = 2gl . 
2
gt 2h
h = -------------- , , t = ------- . -
2 g
  s = vt =
= 2 gl = 0,7 .
: s = 0,7 .

434
2.2.26. Fp = F + mg Y
(. 2.2.10).  :
F
F + (mg)2 2Fmg cos --- + - = F2.
2
2
F
sin O
, mg
F = F2 ( mg ) 2 cos 2 mg sin . (1) . 2.2.10

 Fp = ma,  Y:
Fpsin = may. (2)
(1) (2),
F 2
ay = g sin -------- cos 2 sin - .
mg

,   :
ay t2 sin F 2
h = ----------- = g---------------- -------- cos 2 sin - t2 = 4068,7 d 4,1 .
2 2 mg

: h d 4,1 .
2.3.7.  a = g (sin cos ), 
 :
1 3 4
3tg = 4, cos = --------------------------
- = --- , sin = --- .
1 + tg 2 5 5

 (, = 90 )

a2 = g -sin --- - cos --- = g(cos sin ) = 1,96 /2.


2 2

: a2 = 1,96 /2.
2.3.8. , , -
. 2.3.10, , .
 
  :

mg sin + F = ma1, (1)
N mg cos = 0, (2)

mg sin F = ma2, (3)
N mg cos = 0, (4)

435
Y Y

a1

N O a2 N F
O
F
mg mg

X X
) )
. 2.3.10


F = N. (5)
(1)(5)  :
a1 = (sin + cos )g, (6)
a2 = (sin cos )g. (7)
 , 
,
2
v0 = 2a1s, (8)

t1, 
v0 = a1t1, (9)
 v0  . (8) (9)
2
a t
1 1
s = ----------- .
2
 , ,
 a2 t2. ,
2 2 t2 2 a
a1 t 1 = a 2 t 2 ----- = n2 = -----1- . (10)
t1 a2

(10) (6) (7),


sin + cos
n2 = ------------------------------------
-,
sin cos

436
 :
21
= n - tg = 0,2 tg.
---------------
2
n +1

2.3.12.   (. 2.3.11),
F = mgsin F. (1)

F + F = mgsin + F. (2)
 ,
mgsin F = ma. (3)
(1)(3), :
2Fgsin
a = ------------------------ ; = 1,87 /2.
2F + F

2.3.18. a1 = a,  (. 2.3.12):
mgsin T = macos .
a0,  T = 0:
mgsin = ma0cos a0 = g tg = 5,6 /2.
:
1) a < a0,
a1 = a = 4 /2; T = m(g sin acos ) = 0,14 ;
2) a > a0, T = 0,   -
(. 2.3.13).   :

a1 = a + a.

a
T N N
F
N

F
mg mg mg

a a
X X

. 2.3.11 . 2.3.12 . 2.3.13

437
a1  : N + mg = ma1
a
(. 2.3.14)

a mgsin = m(acos a).


. 2.3.14
a = acos g sin = 3,7 /2.
 
2
a1 = a + a 2 2a acos = 7 /2.

: 1) a1 = 4 /2, T = 0,14 ; 2) a1 = 7 /2, T = 0.


a 2.3.20.   -
Y  (. 2.3.15), -
F , ,
N :
F < N. (1)
mg 
O X  OX OY:
Nsin F cos = ma; (2)
. 2.3.15
Ncos mg + Fsin = 0. (3)
(2) (3)  
:
F = m(acos + gsin ); (4)
N = m(gcos asin ). (5)
(1),
m(acos + gsin ) < m(gcos asin ),

tg
   a < -----------------------
- g. , -
1 + tg
 ,   ,
tg
amin = ----------------------- g.
1 + tg

< tg .
,  
 .
tg
: amin = -----------------------
- g.
1 + tg

438
2.4.5.  , -
v2
,   an = -----
- ,  v
r
  , r -
,   2.4.19: r = lsin .
v 2
an = --------------
-. (1)
l sin
 : mg
, T Y
(. . 2.4.19). -

, 
mg + T = man, - T
l
X Y:
O
Tsin = man; (2) X
Tcos mg = 0. (3) mg
) (2) (3) - . 2.4.19
g tg = an, -
(1)
v 2
g tg = --------------
- v = gl sin tg ; v d 3,8 /.
l sin
) :
mg 5 10 3 9,8
T = ------------
- ; T = ---------------------------------- = 24,5 .
cos 0, 5
: ) v d 3,8 /; ) T = 24,5 .
2.4.9. : Y
mg ; F
,    - N
, -
  F = N; N
 (. 2.4.20). C
F

 , -
 -
X mg O
, -
 C. , - . 2.4.20
,  O (. . 2.4.20).
  X Y:
F = man; (1)
N mg = 0. (2)

439
2
)  an = v------ . (1)
R
 , ,  -

v2 v2
mg = m -----
- = -------- ; = 0,4.
R gR

)   :

F N
tg = --------
- = -------- = = 0,4 = arctg = arctg 0,4 = 22.
N N

: ) = 0,4; ) = 22.
2.4.14.  -

Y R= d
--- , (1)
2

 -
,  ,
F  : mg, -
N N  ,
X mg (. 2.4.21).
 
,  
F ,

. 2.4.21 F = mg. (2)
, , -
  X:
N = man, (3)

v2
an = -----
-. (4)
R

,
F = N. (5)

(1)(5), :

gd
v= ------- d 11,1 /.
2

440
2.4.15. t  , -
 2.4.22,  a = t , 
.  : T
mg.  : T + mg = ma, -
 X:
T mgcos = man, (1)
 an = 2l .  (1),

T mgcos = m2l
T = m(2l + gcos t) = 0,2 (40 + 9,8cos 10t) = 8 + 1,96 cos 10t.
: T = 8 + 1,96 cos 10t.
2.4.16. :
1) 2)  . -
. . 2.4.23  , -
.  
Y:
Nsin Fcos = m2lcos ,
Ncos Fsin mg = 0,

F = N.

N ( sin cos ) 2 l cos
----------------------------------------------- = ----------------------- ,
N ( cos sin ) g
  :
2 l cos g sin
= ----------------------------------------------
2
.
g + l sin

X Y
N
O F

T
F
mg l

mg
0 X

. 2.4.22 . 2.4.23

441
2 l cos g sin
= ----------------------------------------------
2
< 0,   -
g + l sin
. , F =
g sin 2 l cos
= ----------------------------------------------
2
= 0,15.
g + l sin
: = 0,15;
 .
2.4.19. m -
, 
 ,   
T T 2.4.24.
2
 a = v------ . 
R
: 2Tsin = ma.  ,
X sin d .
m
. 2.4.24 m = ------
- 2,  m
2
, m = V ( , V
d 2
: V = S . 2R, S : S = ---------
- ).
4
,
d 2 v 2
T = -------------------
- d 0,3 .
4
 ,  
, F = T, , F = 0,3 .
: F = 0,3 H.
2.4.20. . 2.4.25  ,
Y .
l  
F Y:
N Fsin Ncos = m2R,
R Fcos + Nsin mg = 0,
mg 
F = N.
0 X
. 2.4.25 N ( sin cos ) m 2 l sin
R = lsin ----------------------------------------------
- = ----------------------------
N ( cos + sin ) mg
g ( sin cos ) g ( ctg )
l = --------------------------------------------------------------
- = ------------------------------------------------
- ; l = 10 .
2 ( cos + sin ) sin 2 ( cos + sin )
: l = 10 .

442
2.4.21. -
   ,
 C ()   ,
,  OC = l
(. 2.4.26).
  vC
  , . . . -
   
 .     B -
vB = v,     -
.  A  vA = 0,  v = --v- .
2
  , -
 .  -
: mg  N,  -
 (. 2.4.27).

Y N
A

C v/2 C
an a
vC a
v mg
O B X 0

. 2.4.26 . 2.4.27

,    = 45 -
2
v
,  an = a = -----C- v = v = --v- .  
l 2
 :
2 2 v 2 2 v2
vC = v  + v = ------- , aC = a n + a = ---------
-.
2 2l

 :
v2
mg N = ma N = m(g a) = m -g ---------
-- d 0,232 .
2l

  F = N (  ), F = 0,232 .
: F = 0,232 .

443
2.5.6.   
 Y (. 2.5.41):
F1cos T F1 = m1a, (1)
N1 + F1sin m1g = 0; (2)
T F2cos F2 = m2a, (3)
N2 + F2sin m2g = 0, (4)

F1 = N1, (5)
F2 = N2, (6)
F1 = (m1g F1sin ). (7)
Y
F1 N1 N2 F2
T T

O X
m2g
m1g
. 2.5.41

(1)(7), :
1 F ( cos sin ) F ( cos sin ) 2
- g;
a = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
m1 + m2

1 2 F m ( cos + sin ) + F m ( cos sin ) 2 1


T = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ .
m1 + m2

2.5.7.    M m (. . 2.5.6
),  -
, , -
. , ,  . 2.5.42, , .
N1
a
F M N2 m
F
a T
T F
N2
mg
Mg
) )

. 2.5.42

444
  Y:
 
F T F = Ma, (1)
N1 N2 Mg = 0, (2)
 
T = F = ma, (3)
N2 mg = 0, (4)

F = N2. (5)
(1)(5), :
F = 2mg + (M + m)a; F = 25 .
2.5.9. . . 2.5.43. Y
.
1-. -
,
  -
 Y N1
: Fy O

m2gsin = Fy F2 = m2a, F1
N2
N2 m2gcos = 0,
 F2 = 2N2,  : F2 m1g
Fy
m1g sin Fy F1 = m1a,
X m2g
N1 m1 g cos = 0,
 F = 1 N1, Fy = k x. . 2.5.43
,
m m g( )
1 2 2 1 1 1 m + m 2 2
x = -------------------------------------------
- tg > ------------------------------------ .
k ( m1 + m2 ) m1 + m2

2-. ,
:
m1gsin 1m1gcos Fy = 0,

1 m g ( sin cos ) 1 1 1 m + m 2 2
x = --------------------------------------------------------
- tg m ------------------------------------ .
k m1 + m2

445
2.5.13. , 
  l1 = 8 , -
a 
a (. 2.5.44), 
T1 T1 :
M1 m M1 = m1 + m 2 = m1 + m
----- (l l1),
l
M1g mg
M2 = m2 + m
----- ,
T T 2

----- -l1 ---- .


m = m l
M2
l 2

M2g ,  , 
 . 
. 2.5.44  :
M2g T = M2a,
mg + T T1 = ma,
T1 M1g = M1a.
,
g ( 2m + m ) ( m l + ml ml )
2 1 1
T = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ = 52,92 .
l ( m + m1 + m2 )

: T = 52,92 .
at 2
2.5.14.   --------
- , -
2

h
--- , . .
2 h at 2
--- = --------- . (1)
2 2
,  , -
 2.5.45.
 
  :
m1g T = m1a, (2)
T a
a T m2g = m2a. (3)
m1
T (1)(3),
m2 1 gt 2 h
m1g m2 = m1 ------------------
2
- = 0,27 ,
gt 1 + h
m2g
T = m1 -g 2h -- d 2,8 .
------
t2
. 2.5.45

446
 T F = T
F = 2T = 5,6 .
: m2 = 0,27 , d 2,8 , F = 5,6 H.
2.5.15. , -
m1 m2
, . 2.5.46. - a a
  -
. ,
m1g
T = F. (1) m2g
   m1 , . 2.5.46

T m1g = 0, (2)
 
m2g F = m2a. (3)
m2 m1
(1)(3) F = m1g a = ---------------------
- g.
m2
m
: = g 1 -------1-" ; F = m1g.
m2
2
2.5.20. m1  h t: h = at
--------- .
2
 : m1g T1.
 :
m1g T1 = m1a.
 m  -
T1 T2 F = mg ( 
).  :
T1 T2 mg = ma.
 m2 T2 m2g.
 : T2 m2g = m2a.
, :

m 1 m2 2h m 1 + m 2 + m
) = ---------------------
- ------
2
- ---------------------------------- = 0,32,
m t m

) T1 = m1 -g 2h -- = 8,16 ,
------
t2

T2 = m2 -g + 2h -- = 2 .
------
t2

447
2.5.22.   .

m2g m1g = (m1 + m2)a.
,
m ( m + m )a
= -------2- ------------------------------
1 2
- = 0,4. (1)
m1 m1 g

N a )  
a01 = a1 + a,
F m1 T
 a    -
(. 2.5.47).
m1 g  :
T a2
a1 N + T + m1g + F = m1a
m2
 Y:
m2 g T F = m1a, (2)
N m1g = m1a1, (3)
. 2.5.47

F = N. (4)
 
a02 = a1 + a.

 :
T + m2g = m2a02
 Y
T m2g = m2(a1 a). (5)
(1)(5),
g(m (m + m )) + m a
2 1 2 2 2
- = 0,08 /2.
a = --------------------------------------------------------------------------
m1 + m2

 
2 2
a01 = a 1 + a d 2,2 /2.

 
a02 = a1 a d 2,1 /2.

448
) ,  N1
).
: ) a01 d 2,2 /2, a02 d F a

d 2,1 /2; ) a01 d 2,26 /2, a02 d F
d 2,7 /2.
2.5.24. , N2
,  . 2.5.48.
 - ) Mg
 
 (. 2.5.48, ): N2
F N2 = Ma, (1) Fy F


)
(. 2.5.48, ): mg
N2 Fy = N2 kx = ma, (2) . 2.5.48
 Fy = kx  , x 
, ,
() .
,   -
Fy . -
 N
N2 mg = 0. (3)
  (1) (2),
F N 2 N 2 k x
---------------------- = ----------------------------- .
M m

C (3)
F mg mg k x
----------------------- = ------------------------------ ,
M m


F mg m ( M + m )g F
----- g ------------------------ = ----- ---------------------------------------- = 2 102 = 20 .
x = m
k M k M

: x = 20 .
2.5.27. . . 2.5.49.
 - F2
: F2
F1 F
F1max = 1(m1 + m2) = 14,7 ,
F2max = m2g = 4,9 . . 2.5.49

449
  :
F2 = m2a2,
F F1 F2 = m1a1.
) F m F1max, a1 = a2 = 0,  F = F1,
F2 = 0.
) F1max + F2max > F > Fmax, a1 = a2 = a,
 F F2max = a(m1 + m2), 
F ( m + m )g
1 1 2 F
- , a = ---------------------- g = 1,63 /2; a = 0.
a = -----------------------------------------------
m 1 + m2 m1 + m2
) F > F1max + F2max, a1 a2, 2m2g = a2m2, 
2 2 F m g ( m + m )g
1 1 2
a2 = 2g = 2,45 /2, a1 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------
- = 3,3 /2,
m1
a = 0,85 /2.
: ) a1 = a2 = 0; ) a1 = a2 = 1,63 /2, a = 0; ) a1 =
= 3,3 /2, a2 = 2,45 /2, a = 0,85 /2.
2.5.28.   ,
  .  ,
2
at .    
: l = --------
-
2
:
F ( m + M )g
F (m + M)g = Ma a = ---------------------------------------
-;
M
 
2l 2lM
t = ----- = ---------------------------------------- , t d 1,7 .
a F ( m + M )g
: t d 1,7 c.
2.5.34. -
N1 ,  a1 = a2 = a; F max = N. -
Y N  
Y  
F  (. 2.5.50):
F F F N cos Nsin = ma, (1)
X 0 = Ncos Nsin mg, (2)
N ma = Ncos + Nsin . (3)
mg
mg (1) (3)
. 2.5.50 0 = F 2N(cos + sin ).

450
(2)
mg
N = ---------------------------------------- F = 2mg (---------------------------------------------
cos + sin ) + tg
= 2mg -----------------------
- d 25 .
cos sin cos sin 1 tg

: F d 25 H.
2.5.35. 
,     
(. 2.5.51):
2mg T1 = 2ma,
T1 T2 = 2ma,
N 2mg = 0,
T2 mg = ma,

  (. 2.5.52):
N1 + T1 + T2 + N + 3mg = 0,

T1 T2 F  = 0,
F  = N1.

2
, l ------ =
39
= 0,0513.
: = 0,0513.

O
X
N
N
T2 T2 T1 T1

T2 T1 Y
T2 T1 T1 T2 F
2mg
T1

mg T2
2mg
N

3mg

. 2.5.51 . 2.5.52

451
a2 2.5.37. , -
N2 ,  . 2.5.53.
T     ,
F 
. -
mg  
N1  :
a1
mxg T = ma1, (1)
mxg F
T T F = Ma1, (2)
N1 N2 Mg = 0, (3)
a1 F = ma2, (4)
N2
N2 mg = 0, (5)
Mg F = N2. (6)
. 2.5.53 (3)(6)
mg = ma2,
a2 = g. (7)
(1) (2) :
mxg mg = (m + M)a1, (8)

m m
x
a1 = ----------------------
- g.
mx + M

   
Y : a1 > a2,
(7) (8) :
m x m
T T ----------------------- g > g,  :
mx + m

a1 mx > (M + m)
-------------------------- .
1

2.5.43.   m1, m2,


O m1g T m3 (. 2.5.54)
2
T a1, a2, a3,
2 a3   m2, m3
a2
 2 a.  -
m 3g
m2g a 2 = a = a 1,
. 2.5.54 a 3 = a a 1.

452
  :
T m1g = m1a1,
m2 g T
---- = m2a2,
2
T
---- m3 g = m3a3 .
2

,
 :
m 1 m 2 4m 2 m 3 + m 1 m 3 g
- = ------ = 0,58 /2,
a1 = -----------------------------------------------------------------
m 1 m 2 + 4m 2 m 3 + m 1 m 3 17
a2 = 2,88 /2, a3 = 4,04 /2,

:
T1 = m1(g a1) = 3(9,8 + 0,43) = 28 ; T2 = 14 ;
F1 = 28 ; F2 = 56 .
: T1 = 28 H; T2 = 14 H; F1 = 28 ; F2 = 56 .
2.5.45. ,  ,
  . 2.5.55,
a3 = a1 + 2a2. (1)
a1
 , - F
 , 
Y : N

Fcos mg F T = ma1,
mg
N = Fsin .
T
, F = N. F a3
T T T

,
Fcos mg Fsin T = ma1. (2) a2

 mg
4m
2T 4mg = 4ma2, (3)

m 4mg

T mg = ma3. (4) . 2.5.55

453
, F = 12mg, , (1)(4),
:

---- = --- ; 2 = 1,63 /2.


a2 = 2g sin cos + 1 g
3 6

3. .

3.1.13.   F = m1a1  -
F Ft
 a1 = -------
- ,  : v1 = a1t = -------- = 1 /. 
m1 m1
Ft
: v2 = -------
- = 2 /.   -
m2
: v = v1 + v2 = 3 /.
: v1 = 1 /; v = 3 /.
F 3.1.21.  :
1 m v
mg,  Fp = ----------- -
t
 F (. 3.1.4).   -
,
Fp + mg + F = 0. (1)
Fp
(1)
mg
2
. 3.1.4 F= F p + ( mg ) 2 2 F p mg cos ( 90 ) =
m1 v 2 2m 1 v
= -----------
+ ( mg ) 2 + --------------- mg sin = 22,6 H.
t t

: F = 22,6 H.
3.1.22. 
p1 = 2mv. ,
S t, N0 = vtSn,  n 
p
.  : F1 = N0 --------1- =
t
2mv
= 2mv2Sn = N0 ------------ . :
t

F
p1 = ------1 = 2mv2n = N0 2mv
------------ .
S t

454
 : p2 =
= mv. , , N1 = (1 k)N0,
,  , N2 = kN0 .

:
N mv ( 2 2k + k )
p2 = (1 k)N0 2mv mv 0
------------ + kN0 -------- = ------------------------------------------------
-.
t t t

2/1, :

p2 N 0 mv ( 2 k ) t 2k 5
------ = -----------------------------------------
- = ------------- = --- .
p1 N 0 2mv t 2 6

3.2.9.    , -
  , , -
:
m1v = (m1 + m2)u, (1)

 v   m1 ,  
 . ,
m1 = nm2. (2)

n
(1) (2) u = v ------------
- .  
n+1


v = v u = v 1 ------------- = ------------
u
v
-.
n+1 n+1

 v 1
------ = ------------- ,
v n+1

= v 100%
------ 100% = ----------------- d 33%.
v n+1

: d 33 %.
3.2.17.   v1,  -
 .  ( )
0 = Mu mv1 Mu = mv1.

  
v = v1 + u ^ v1 = v u ^
Mu = m(v u).

455
:
mv
u = ----------------- = 0,5 /.
M+m

3.2.27.  :
0 = mu1 Mu2, (1)

 u2   , u1 = v cos u2
   -
.
(1) :
cos
0 = mvcos (m + M)u2 u2 = mv
----------------------- ;
m+M

u1 = vcos -1 ----------------- = vcos -----------------


m M
.
M+m m+M
v sin
 t = ---------------- ;
g

2v 2 sin cos M
l = u1 2t = ------------------------------------- ----------------- ,
g m+M

v 2 sin 2 M
l = ----------------------- ----------------- ; l = 1,65 .
g m+M
: l = 1,65 .
3.2.34.
v
 , -
v2
u  , u = v1 v.
v3 v    ,
v 1
u 
v ,  -
. 3.2.5  , -
120    -
 (. 3.2.5).  -
  :
v2 = v3 = u 2 + v 2 2uv cos

v2 = v3 = ( v1 v ) 2 + v 2 2 ( v 1 v ) cos 60 d 87 /;

v2 v v
------------------- = ------------------------------------- ; sin(120 ) = ------ sin 60 = 0,97; = 42.
sin 60 sin ( 120 ) v2

: v2 = v3 d 87 /; = 42.

456
3.2.36.  

v1 = 2gh . (1)

 v0  -
:
mv1 = (2M + m)v0 . (2)
.  :

mg = (2M + m)a. (3)

 h.
 :
2
h = v0t + at
--------- . (4)
2

(1)(4),

2h M+m
t= ------- 2 ----------------- 1 d 0,8 .
g m

: t d 0,8 .
3.2.37. X (. 3.2.6)
, C1
, .  - m1
(p)x = 0 ,
l1 m2
  - C2
v. = 0 - C3 l2
: x. = M h
= const. , 
: O X

x. =
C1
m ( l s + h ) + m ( l s ) + M ( s )
1 1 2 2 m1
-
= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
m1 + m2 + M
l1 + s h
0 = m1s + m1h m2s Ms;
C3 s C2 m
s(m1 + m2 + M) = m1h; M 2

m h 1
s = ----------------------------------
- = 8,3 . l2 s
m1 + m2 + M

: s = 8,3 . . 3.2.6

457
3.3.9. )   , F = mg. -
A1 = Fh = mgh.
)  F mg = ma,  a = 2h
------
2
-
t
2
  h = at
--------- .
2
A2 = Fh = m g + ------2- h.
2h
t

2
A = A2 A1 = 2mh
---------------
2
- = 18 .
t
: 
A = 18 .
3.3.10. . 3.3.13  ,
. F:
N F A1 = Fscos = 25 981 ;
:
F
A2 = Fscos 2.

mg
  2 = 180, F = N = (mg Fsin ),

. 3.3.13
A2 = s(mg Fsin ) = 1812 .

:
A3 = mgs cos 3,   3 = 90, A3 = 0;
A4 = Nscos 3 = 0.

A = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 = s(F(cos + sin ) mg) = 24 169 .
: A1 = 25 981 ; A2 = 1812 ;
A3 = 0; A4 = 0; A = 24 169 .
X mg 3.3.31. ,
 
(. 3.3.14).
N N = 0. 
minv2
mg = m --------------
- , , 
R
F mg
vmin = gR = 30 /.
. 3.3.14

458
  v > vmin, .
 ,
  :
2
N mgcos = m v------ ,
R
     
,  .
, ,
F = N.
:
v2
F = m ------ + gcos - .
R

.  F
2
 : F = mv
--------------- (. 3.3.15).
R
 A = Fs,   s =
= 2R,
mv 2
A = --------------- 2R = 2mv2 = 30 .
R

: A = 30 .
3.4.13. : mg,  N,
F = N F (. 3.4.1). .
 :
mg + N + F + F = 0,
 OX OY:
F mg sin F = 0,
N mg cos = 0.
Y

F
mv2 F X
R N
O
O F
R 3R s
2 R 2
2R
mg

. 3.3.15 . 3.4.1

459
,
F = mg sin + mg cos .
,
N = Fv = mgv(sin + cos ).
,  :
dN
-------- = mgv(cos sin ) = 0,
d
1
= ctg = arctg ------- = 60.
3

 

Nmax = mgv
------------ = 11,32 .
4

: = 60; N = 11,32 .
3.5.19.  , ,
.  
E = A(F),

2
 E = 0 mv
-----------  , A(F ) =
2

= mg --l- .
2

mv 2 l
----------- = mg --- .
2 2

,  
v= gl d 3,43 /.
: v d 3,43 /.
3.5.25.  
A = E = E 0 = E,
 E    :
E = E1 + E2,

m v2
1 1 m 2 x2
1 m v2 2 2 m 2 ( l x )2
2
 E1 = -------------- = ---------------------
- ; E2 = -------------- = ----------------------------------- 
2 2 2 2
  1 2 , x  -

460
 , (l x)   -
2
- (m1x2 + m2(l x)2). ;
. , A = ------
2
A X , :
2 m l
A = 0 m12x m22(l x) = 0 x = ---------------------
- = 0,6
m1 + m2
(. . ). -
2 l 2 m1 m 2
: Amin = -----------
- ---------------------- = 5 .
2 m1 + m2
: x = 0,6 ; Amin = 5 .
3.7.7. m0 , -
,   (. 3.7.23),
Tmax = m0l0g.
, 
(. 3.7.24),  OX OY:
m0(l x)a = T,
m0 xa = m0xg T,
 l , x , 
. ,
0 m xg ( 1 x )
T = ---------------------------------
-.
l
T(x) ;
m 0 gl
T x  , x = --l- , T = -------------
- . -
2 4
0 m gl
 T m Tmax, -------------
- m m0 l0 g, l m 4l0 .
4
, lmax = 4l0 = 20 .
  :
mgl mv 2
----------- = ----------- v = gl = 4gl 0 = 14 /.
2 2
: lmax = 20 ; v = 14 /.
O X
Tmax a
N
T

T
m0(l0 x)g a
Y

m0xg
m 0l 0g
. 3.7.23 . 3.7.24

461
3.7.16.   
v0 mv 2 mv 02
----------- = -------------- + mgh. (1)
A B 2 2
. 3.7.25:
h h = R(1 + cos ). (2)
AB (. c. 3.7.25)
s = 2Rsin . (3)
. 3.7.25  , AB -
, :
2
0v sin 2
s = ----------------------- . (4)
g

gR ------------- + 2 ( 1 + cos ) = 4,9 /.


1
v=
cos
: v = 4,9 /.
3.7.22.  A
O  mg -
T. T -
l  -
v , . -
A
B  :
h
v0 2
H mglcos = -----------0 ,
mv
2

   A
. 3.7.26
(. 3.7.26):
v0 = 2gl cos . (1)

,  . -
 .  B
   v

v = v0cos . (2)
  
 A  B:
2
mv 2
mg(h lcos ) + -----------0 = mgH + mv
----------- ,
2 2

462
 (1), (2)
h lcos + lcos = H + lcos3


H = h lcos3 d 46 .
: H d 46 c.
3.7.23.  -
T,  . 
 ,  F.
:
F. = N. (1)

  ,
   (. 3.7.27):
mv 2
----------- = T mgcos , (2) X l
l
T
 v   . -
ee  : T
mv 2 N m
mglcos = ----------- . (3)
2 F. mg
M
(2), (3)
Mg
T = 3mg cos . (4)
. 3.7.27
:

0 = Tsin F., 0 = N Tcos Mg;

(1) (4) :
cos ( sin cos )
M = 3m
----------------------------------------------------------------- d 37,5 .

3.7.25. 0 (. 3.7.28) ;
1 ;  kx2/2,
  mg (n 1)x. 2 -
 kn2x2/2,  
.  :
kx 2 kn 2 x 2
---------- + mg(n 1)x + A = ----------------- (1)
2 2

463
:
mg = kx, (2)
 k  , .
(1), (2),
2 (n 1)2
A = kx
-------------------------------- = 0,72 .
2

: A = 0,72 .
3.7.28.   ,
: mg,  N  F = kx (. 3.7.29).
 :
ma = mg N kx.

0 1 2 1 2 3

x kx
nx
l
a
E = 0

mg

. 3.7.28 . 3.7.29

N = 0, x = l. , ma = mg kl,

(g a)
l= m
----------------------- . (1)
k


2
l = at
--------- . (2)
2

(1), (2),
2m ( g a )
t = --------------------------- d 0,3 . (3)
ka

464
2 3  -

mv 2 kl 2 k x 2
----------- + mg(x l) + -------- = -------------- , (4)
2 2 2

 v = at   2, x 
. (1), (3), (4),
-
a ( 2g a )
-------- -1 +
x = mg ------------------------
2
-

d 0,22 .
k g

: t d 0,3 ; x d 0,22 .
3.7.29. . . 3.7.30.  
pmax = mvmax. (1)
1
m
x 2
h m
l vmax

. 3.7.30

  1
2 :
2 mv 2
mg(h l + x) = kx
---------- + ----------- . (2)
2 2

 ,   -
. , ,
:
mg kx = 0. (3)
(1) (3), :
2
pmax = m 2g ( h l ) mg
------------ d 0,16  /.
k

3.7.32. . . 3.7.31.
:
A = E  + E , (1) F
m
 
k x 2
E = -------------
-, (2)
2 . 3.7.31

465
  
mv 2 m 2 R 2 m 2 ( x + l ) 2
E = ----------- = -------------------
- = ------------------------------------ , (3)
2 2 2

2 ( x + l ) 2 + k x 2
A = m
-------------------------------------------------------- .
2
 F = man,  F = kx -
, an = 2(l + x) . ,
m 2 l
kx = m2(x + l) x = ---------------------
-.
2
(4)
k m
(1) (4),
km 2 l 2 k + m 2
A = --------------------- --------------------------2- = 1,69 .
2 ( k m )

: A = 1,69 .
Y 3.7.33. XOY
(. 3.7.32). OX
 , -
N  
M v0x = v0cos

mg .
OY -
v0 ay = g,  vy 
O 
vy = v0 sin gt
X
 M 
. 3.7.32 :
0 = v0sin gt0,
 t0 .
, 
 R  v0x,  -

0x v 0 v cos
= t = --------
- t = -------------------- t.
R R
t0 n = 4 , . . 
= 2n. 
0 v cos 0 v 2 sin cos
2n = -------------------
- t0 , 2n = ---------------------------------- .
R gR

466
,
2 2ngR
v 0 = --------------------------
-.
sin cos
F 
N   .
,     (
),
2
N = mv
----------- ,
R
 v = v0 cos   M.
 :
F=N= m 2ngRcos 2
---------------------------------------------- = 2nmg ctg d 8,5 H.
R sin cos
: F d 8,5 H.
3.7.34. XOY
(. 3.7.33). OX  m O
 ,
v0
 
X
v0x = v0 h
n N v
.
OY - mg
ay = g,  
Y
vy = gt.
. 3.7.33
,   h, -

gt 2 2h
h = --------
- ^ t= ------- .
2 g
,  
 R  v0x = v0. -
   
0x v 0 v
= t = --------
- t = ------ t.
R R
v
t   = -----0- 2h
------- , n =
R g
v0 2h
= ------
- = ----------- ------- d 2 .
2 2R g
F  N  -
 . N , -

467
    ( -
):
mv 2 mv 02
N = ----------- F = -------------- = 5 H.
R R
: F = 5 H; n = 2 .
3.7.35. ,
 (. 3.7.34),   K
 : v v0 =
K v0
v = 0 v = v0 , 
v 0

0 v = r. (1)
. 3.7.34  
v
E = mgH,  H = h + 2H ------ (v  ).
v0

h hv 0 hv
H = ----------------------------
- = --------------------- = --------------------- . (2)
1 2v /v 0 v 0 2v v 2v

m   -
.  -
 m, -
v1 (. 3.7.35). 
v0
  :
2 2 2
v 1 = v + v0 + 2 v v0cos ,
2 2 2
m v 2 = v + v0 2 v v0cos ;

v0  
v2 2
m ( v + v )
2
2 2
1 2
. 3.7.35
E = -------------------------------
- = m v + v 0 ,
2

  

m (v 2 + v 2)
0 2
E = ----------------------------
- = m v . (3)
2
  E = E.
(1)(3),
2
v + v + gh
= ----------------------------------- = 250 /.
r
: = 250 /.

468
3.8.13.  
(. 3.8.12):  123  , 
34 .

1 R N1
Rh N2
2
H v 0 F v
h
3 4
mg Mg
l

. 3.8.12
 123   , ,
 v0,  
:
2
MgH = 1
--- M v 0 v0 = 2gH ,
2

 M  , H .
 34  -
, l.   
:
E3 4 = A3 4(F),
  
2
E3 4 = 0 1--- M v0 ,
2


A3 4(F) = Fl = N2l = Mgl.
,
1 2
--- M v 0 = Mgl.
2

 v0  123
H = l. (1)
  12, ,
 2    .
   2 -
X:
mv 2
----------- = N1 mg cos ,
R

469
 v    2, m .  
  N1 ,
N1 = 2mg.
 v  12  :

Mg(H h) = 1
--- Mv2 ^ v = 2g ( H h ) .
2

,
m 2g ( H h ) Rh
------------------------------------- = 2mg mg -------------- ,
R R
h
 , cos = R
-------------- .
R
(1) H
h= 1
--- (2l R) = 0,67 .
3
: h = 0,67 .
3.8.15. 1 2
(. 3.8.13)  :
2
1 mgH + A = mgh + mv
----------- . (1)
2

N = 0, -

H 2
2
h mv 2
X mgcos = ----------- , (2)
mg R
 (. 3.8.13)
. 3.8.13 R
cos = h
-------------- . (3)
R
(1)(3),

A = mg
-------- (3h R 2h) = 0,44 .
2

: A = 0,44 .
3.8.18.  
m1 v 2 kx 2
-------------- 1m1gx = ---------- , (1)
2 2

 x ()  
.

470
 ,
F = F, . . kx = 2m2g. (2)
(1), (2),
2 m2 m2
v = g -------------- 2 1 + 2 -------- d 5,03 /.
k m 1
: v d 5,03 /.
3.8.19.   -
1 2 (. 3.8.14):
kx 2 k(x + x)2
mgx + Fx + ---------0- = ---------------------------
0
. (1)
2 2

F
x0
x0 + x
mg

1 2
. 3.8.14
 1:
mg = kx0. (2)
(1), (2), :
Fmin = kx
------- = 4 H.
2
3.8.23.  m
,  - k
1 (. 3.8.15) ,
, , 
  (- v0
2). 
 - m
, , , 1
l

( 3).   -
,   m
2
3 . l1
 1
3  -
  - m
: 3

E1 + A1 = 0, . 3.8.15

471
2
mv
 E1 = -----------0    1,
2
A1 = 2mg(l + l1) 
1 3, l1  -
2.
2
mv 0
----------- = 2mg(l + l1). (1)
2

2 3  -
 
En2 + A2 = E3,
2
kl
 E2 = -------1-  2,
2
2 = mg(l + l1) 
2
2 3, 3 = kl
-------- 
2
3. ,
2
kl 1 kl 2
----------- mg(l + l1) = -------- .
2 2

mg 2 mg
l1 = mg
------------ + ------------ + 2 ------------ l + l 2 .
k k k

(1), (2),

v0 = 8g l + mg
------------ d 1,4 /.
k

: v0 d 1,4 /.
3.8.24.  
m -
T (. 3.8.16). -
F x
h mg = F, mg = kx, (1)
vmax  x .
k mg
(1) x = mg
-------- d 9,8 < h.
k
. 3.8.16 -

472
 , x < h,  -
 
2 mv max 2
mgh = mg(h x) + kx
---------- + ------------------- , (2)
2 2

 vmax   .
(1), (2)
m
vmax = g ----- = 1 /.
k

h,
  
2 mv 2
mgh = kh
---------- + ----------- ,
2 2

 v    . -
   .
,
2 kh 2
Q = mv
----------- , Q = mgh ---------- = 34,5 .
2 2

: vmax = 1 /; Q = 34,5 .
3.8.25.   -
(. 3.8.17):
m1a1 = m1g,
ma2 = m1g T,
m2a2 = T m2g.

v0 a1
a2
F
F T

T
m1g
Mg a2

m2g

. 3.8.17

473
 , , 
:
2 a t2
v = v0 a1t, v , = a2t, h = -----------
-.
2

v = v , . , -

( m m ) ( m + M )v 2
1 2 2 0
h = ---------------------------------------------------------------------- = 0,33 .
2g [ ( m 1 + m 2 + M ) m 2 ]

,    , -

2
mv ( m + m + M )v 2
Q = -----------0 ---------------------------------------------
1 2
- m2gh.
2 2

,
v2 1 m ( m m )
1 2
Q = -----0- m1 ---------------------------------------------------------
- d 21,2 .
2 ( m1 + m2 + M ) m2

: h = 0,33 ; Q d 21, 2 .
3.9.2. 
:
m1v1 m2v2 = 0, (1)

m 1 v 21 m 2 v 22
----------------- + ----------------- = E. (2)
2 2

(1), (2), , M = m1 + m2
( ),
Mv v1 2
E = ------------------
- = 12 .
2
: E = 12 .
3.9.5.   , -
, , ,
:
p = p m1v1 + m2v2 = m2v.

, m1 = m2 v1 B v2 ( ),

2 2
v= v 1 + v2 = 10 5 = 22,36 /.

474
   , -
:
2 2
m1 v1 m 2 v2 m2 v2 2 2 2 2
----- v 1 + v 2 v 1 + v 2 = 0.
2
Q = -------------
- + -------------
- -------------- =m
2 2 2 2

: v = 22,36 /; Q = 0.
3.9.6.  :
(m1v1)2 + (m2v2)2 = (m1 + m2)2u2, (1)

m 1 v 12 m 2 v 22 ( m 1 + m 2 )u 2
-------------- + -------------- = ---------------------------------
- + Q. (2)
2 2 2

(1), (2), :
2 2
m m (v + v )
1 2 1 2
Q = ---------------------------------------
- = 0,84 .
2 ( m1 + m2 )

3.9.13.
l0 (. 3.9.15), l0 m
k
, -
 , x0. x0 H
  M 1
   u, - x
 :
2
mgh = 1
--- mu2 ^ u = 2gH .
2 . 3.9.15
   -
,  :
mu = (M + m)v0,

 v0    .
    -
2,  -
x. -
  ,  -
 1 2

2 2 2
( M + m )v 0 kx 0 ( M + m )v kx 2
----------------------------- (M + m)gx0 + ---------- = ----------------------------- (M + m)gx + ---------- ,
2 2 2 2

 v    2.

475
-
 1:
Mg = kx0,

2
m 2 gH Mg 2 M 2 g2 ( M + m )v kx 2
----------------- (M + m) ------------ + --------------- = ----------------------------- (M + m)gx + ---------- ,
M+m k 2k 2 2

k Mg ( 2M + m ) 2m gH 2 2
v = ----------------- x 2 + 2gx ---------------------------------------- + ------------------------- .
M+m k(M + m) (M + m) 2


:
v = (400x2 + 19,6 0,3)1/2.
3.9.19. , ,  M, -
,  , -
v1,    :
1 2 1 2 k
--- k x 0 = --- M v 1 , v1 = x0 ------ ,
2 2 M

 x0 .
  -
m,  .
 -
(  m ). -

Mv1 = (M + m)v.

 :
Mv 1 0 Mx k
v. = ----------------- , v. = ----------------- ------ .
M+m M+m M
-
 M   m.  
M    
, , -
,    -
. a   -
.  :
1 2 1 2 1 2
--- kx 0 = --- k x 1 + --- (M + m) v . ,
2 2 2

476
 x1  ,
m
x1 = x0 ----------------- . (1)
M+m

 m, , , 

M
x2 = x0 ----------------- . (2)
M+m
(1) (2)
x2 M
------ = ------ = 2.
x1 m
: 2  .
3.10.2.  :
m1v1 + m2v2 = m1u1 + m2u2 (1)

 :
2 2 2 2
m1 v 1 m 2 v2 m1 u1 m2 u2
-------------- + -------------- = -------------- + -------------- . (2)
2 2 2 2
(1), (2),
2m v + v ( m m )
2 2 1 1 2
u1 = ---------------------------------------------------------- . (3)
m1 + m2

u1 = 0, (3)
2m2v2 + m1v1 m2v1 = 0,

m1 v2 1
-------- = 1 2 ------ = --- .
m2 v1 3
: m1/m2 = 1/3.
3.10.3. 
 :
p 0 = p1 + p 2 ,

E1 = E 2 + E 1 .

 :
2 2 2
p
0 2 p 1 p
- , E 2 = ------------ , E 1 = ------------ .
E1 = --------
2m 2m 2 2m 1

477
,
2
E (m m )
2 1 2
E 1 = ------------------------------------- = 0,62 ,
4m 1 m 2

E1 = E 2 + E 1 = 5,62 .

:    E1 =
= 5,62 , E 1 = 0,62 .
3.10.7. 

Mv0 = u + mv,

u = v0 mv
-------- . (1)
M
   

2 2 2
Mv 0 Mu mv
------------ = ------------- + ----------- . (2)
2 2 2

(1), (2), 
2Mv
v = -----------------0 .
m+M
    (M = m/2)
4mv 0
v2 = -------------------- =4
--- v;
2m + m 3
  (M = m/4) 
4mv 2 2
v3 = -------------------- =4
--- v2 = 4--- v,
2m + m 3 3

    (M = m/8)
4mv 3 3
--- v3 = --- v.
4
v4 = -------------------- =4
2m + m 3 3

 ,  
 
7
v8 = --- v d 9,989 /.
4
3

: v8 d 9,989 /.

478
3.10.8.  m m1
2 v2 v1

m1 m2,  v1 v2
(. 3.10.18).  - . 3.10.18
 :
m1v1 + m2v2 = m1u1 + m2u1, (1) m1 m u1 2 u2
2 2 2 2
m1 v1 m 2 v2 m1 u 1 m2 u2
-------------- + -------------- = -------------- + -------------- , (2)
2 2 2 2 . 3.10.19
 v1, v2  .
(1) (2)
m1(v1 u1) = m2(u2 v2), (3)
m1(v1 u1)(v1 + u1) = m2(u1 v2)(u2 + v2). (4)
 c
, . (3), (4)
v1 + u1 = v2 + u2. (5)
(1)(5), 
:
( m m )v + 2m v
1 2 1 2 2 ( m m )v + 2m v
2 1 2 1 1
u1 = ---------------------------------------------------------- , u2 = ---------------------------------------------------------- . (6)
m1 + m2 m1 + m2
(6) .
   m2  -
 m1,   
:
( m 1 m 2 )v 1 + 2m 2 v 2
u1 = ---------------------------------------------------------- = 13,75 /,
m1 + m2
( m 2 m 1 )v 2 + 2m 1 v 1
u2 = ---------------------------------------------------------- = 8,75 /
m1 + m2

(. 3.10.19).
(. . 3.10.18)  
( m m )u + 2m u
1 2 1 2 2
u 1 = ----------------------------------------------------------
- = 10 /,
m1 + m 2
( m m )u + 2m u
2 1 2 1 1
u 2 = ----------------------------------------------------------
- = 15 /.
m1 + m2
 ,    -
 ,  .  ,
   u1, u2, u 1 , u2 .
: u 1 = 10 /; u 2 = 15 /.

479
3.10.9. 1 2 
 X, + = .
 (  OX
OY) :

mv = mv1cos + mv2cos , (1)


0 = mv1sin + mvsin , (2)
2 2
mv2 = m v 1 + m v 2 , (3)
 m  , v   ,
v1 v2  .
m,  -
(1), (2) .
2 2
v2 = v 1 + v2 + 2v1v2cos , (4)
2 2
v2 = v 1 + v 2 . (5)

(4) (5):
0 = 2v1v2cos .
   , , -
, cos = 0, . . = 90.
: = 90.
3.10.23.   (. 3.10.20,
, )  :
mv = Mu mv1, (1)
2
mv2 = Mu2 + m v1 . (2)
,   m
M :
m
v1 = v M
----------------- , (3)
M+m
2m
u = v ----------------- . (4)
M+m

   m s1 = l + l1
(. 3.10.21, ),  M s2 = l1 l.   -
  (t1 = t2),
s1 s2 ( l + l1 ) ( M m ) ( l1 l ) ( M + m )
------ = ----- ----------------------------------------- = ----------------------------------------- . (5)
v1 u v(M m) 2mv

480
n+1
(5), l1 = l ------------
- = 9 .
n3
: l1 = 9 .

) m M

l
v1 u

) m M

mM
)

l1

. 3.10.20

3.10.29. u  
.  -

mv = (M + m)u. (1)
  ,
 u ( ). 

mv 2 ( M + m )u 2
----------- = mgh + ----------------------------- . (2)
2 2

(1), (2), :
Mv 2
h = -----------------------------
-.
2g ( m + M )

3.10.31.   C
 (. 3.10.21, )  -
.    C 
:
mv 2
mg(R + h) = -----------C- , vC = 2g ( R + h ) . (1)
2

481
 
    .
  , -
   .
 B    -
,    v (. 3.10.21, ).
m
h
A B B
R v
C
M vC v

) )
. 3.10.21
   -
:
mv C2 ( M + m )v 2
------------ = ----------------------------- + mgR, mvC = (M + m)v,
2 2

(1)
m 2g ( R + h ) m 2 2g ( R + h )
------------------------------------ = --------------------------------------- + mgR, Mh = mR.
2 2(M + m)

, h = mR
---------- = 4 .
M
: h = 4 c.
3.10.32.  
1 3 (. 3.10.22):

2 k 1 v0 3 mv0 = mv1 + mv3,


2 2 2
mv 0 mv mv
----------- = -----------1 + -----------3 ,
. 3.10.22 2 2 2

 v1, v3  .
,
v1 = 0, v3 = v0,
. . .
:  -
 , ,
 ( 2)  v0, ( 1) -
.

482
1 2
 
1 2. , -
, .
 -
  -
.   
:
2
mv 2 k x 2
mv0 = 2mv, -----------0 = 2 mv
----------- + -------------- ,
2 2 2

 v  . :
m m
x = v0 ------- , lmax = l0 + x = l0 + v0 ------- d 13,6 ,
2k 2k
m
lmin = l0 x = 10 v0 ------
- d 6,5 .
2k

: lmax d 13,6 c; lmin d 6,5 c.

4.

4.1.11. F,
 , -
: F1 , (
), F2 ,  ,
, . .
F = F1 F2, (1)
,    ,

F1 = G mM
-----------
2
-, (2)
d
mM
F2 = G ----------------------
2
= G mM
-------------
2
, (3)
d R
----
d
2

G  , M , 
, :
R 3 R 3
--- ---- = --------------
M = 4 M 4
- --- ---- = ------ .
M
(4)
3 2 4 3 3 2 8
--- R
3

483
(1) (2), (3) (4),
:
M
- M ------ = G ---------------
M 7mM
F = G -----
2 2
.
d 8 8d
4.1.13.  
C
s F2 F1 = GMm
---------------- ,  M = 4
--- R3
l 2 L 3
B
A F  ,
L F1 .  , -
. 4.1.7 , F2 = G Mm
------------- , 
s 2

4 3
M = --- r , s
3
. (. 4.1.7).
:
F = F1 F2 F = F12 + F 22 2F1 F2 cos .
, s2 = l2 + L2 2lLcos l2 = s2 + L2 2sLcos , ,
,
R6 r6 2R 3 r 3 ( L 2l cos )
F= 4
--- Gm ------4- + -----------------
2 2
- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- d 5,7 .
3 L L l 2L 2 ( L 2 l 2 ) l 2 + L 2 2Ll cos
: F d 5,7 H.
4.1.14.
C  -
A
, -
B . 1 2
S1 O S2 (. 4.1.8) 
 A, 
BC 
. 4.1.8 S1S2. -
1 ( AS ) 2 2 ( AS ) 2 1 ( AS ) 2 1 ( AS ) 2
-----------------------
- ------------------------ , ---------------------------- ---------------------------- , 
cos 1 cos 2 cos 1 cos 2
,   A,
(,
), 1 = 2,    S1OS2 .
, ,
m ( AS ) 2
1 m m ( AS ) 2
2 m
- = G ---------------- , F2 = G -----------------------------------
F1 = G ----------------------------------- - = G ---------------- ,
2
( AS 1 ) cos 1 cos 1 2
( AS 2 ) cos 2 cos 2

 m , .
.

484
  -
, , -
 . , ,  -
, , -
,  .
4.2.3.  

M
g0 = G --------
2
-,
R

 , R .
  -
 :

M
g = G ----------
2
-,
R

 , R .
,
2
g0 M R
------- = -----------------
2
.
g R M

2
, R = nR, M = kM. g = g0 n
------ =
k
= 1,65 /2 .
: g = 1,65 /2.
4.2.10. m -
 (. 4.2.1).

 r (r n R) m1
. 
  .
 m1 =
= S1r, m2 = S2r,  -
r2
  m : R
F1
m m 1 m m 2
F1 = G ----------------
2
- F2 = G ----------------
2
-, A F2
r1 r2

 r1,r2  m2
m1 m2. . 4.2.1

485
S S
,  = ------21 = ------22 , ,
r1 r2
:
F1
------ = 1.
F2

 , ,
m  , .  m
 ,  -
r. : M1 =
3M
=4
--- r3,  ; = --------------
3
.
3 4R

mM 1 mM r 3 r
F = G --------------
2
= G --------------------
3
- = mg0 ------- .
r R r 3 R

r
: F = mg0 ------
-.
R
4.2.13.  
MC
g = G --------
2
-, (1)
RC

 MC RC .
RC 
R sin
RC = D
---- = ----------------- , (2)
2 2
 R , ,  -
.
,   -
 :
M M 4 R 2
F = Ma, G ------------------
2
- = M --------------
2
,
R T

4 2 R 3
M = -----------------
2
. (3)
GT

(1)(3) :

16 2 R
2 2
- = 274 /2.
g = ----------------------
T sin

486
4.2.22. . 4.2.2 ,   -
,  ,
.  .

A
g2
g1
m1 r1 r2 m2
g
l
r1 r2
g
g1 g2
A
. 4.2.2

g = g1 + g2,  g1 g2 
 ,
:
1m 2 m
g1 = G -------
2
- ; g2 = G -------
2
-.
r1 r2
  :
2 2
g2 = g 1 + g 2 2g1g2 cos ;
2 2
l2 = r 1 + r2 2r1r2 cos .
, :
2 2
1 m 2 m 1 2 2 m m 2 2
- + -------
g = G -------
4 4
- ---------------
3 3
- ( l r1 r2 ) ;
r1 r2 r1 r 2

g, g, , -
,  :
2 2
2 g + g + g2
1
= arc cos ----------------------------------- .
2gg 1
4.4.2.  m 
Gm M
F = ------------------------
2
,  
( R + h )
v 2
a = ----------------
-:
R + h
m M v 2
G ------------------------ = m ----------------
-.
( R + h ) 2 R + h

487
m :
GmM
mg0 = -------------------
2
.
R

 :
2 v
- , = ----------------- .
T = ------
R + h

, :
3
---
2
2 ( R + h )
T = -------------------------------
-.
R g 0

4.4.7. ,
  an = m2R..
 :
Gm M C
----------------------
2
= man.
R .

,
2 R 2.
- = 2,2 1030  = 2,2 1027 .
M = ------------------
G
4.4.12.    -

4 2
a = ---------
2
- R, (1)
T

 R  .
 : F1 -
mM
F1 = G --------------
2
- , F2  -
R
mM
F2 = G --------------------------------
- ,  R , N ,
( 60R R ) 2
  .

 , (1)
 :
mM mM 4 2
G --------------
2
- G --------------------------------2- + N = ---------
2
- Rm.
R ( 60R R ) T

488
, 
 , :

mM mM M
- = G --------------------------------2- ; R2 = (60R R)2 ---------- ;
G --------------
2
R ( 60R R ) M

2R2 243RR + 7290 = 0;

243R 59049 R 2 58320R 2


R1,2 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = (---------------------------
243 27 )
- R ;
4 4
R1 = 67,5R; R2 = 54R.

 R1 = 67,5R ,  
60R, . .  -
R = 54R ,
,
2
N = 4
---------
2
- Rm = 0,17 H.
T

 -
 .  , . . , 
 , 0,17 H ,
, . 
   ,
  .
: N = 0,17 H.
4.4.14. 
v
, ,
,  F

 r, C
(. 4.4.1).


F = = G ------------------
2
- ,  . 4.4.1
r
4 2
 a. = ---------
2
- r,  -
T
.  F = ma. . -
( ):

r
T = 2r -------------- . (1)
GM

489
v 
 ,
C F F
   .
O  , , ( = ),
v -
. 4.4.2 (. 4.4.2).
r1 = --r- ,  F1 =
2
2 2
M 4
= G --------
2
- ,  a. 1 = ---------
2
- r1,  1
r T1
.  F1 = Ma.1.

r
T1 = 2r ------------------ . (2)
2GM C

1 T
(1) (2), ------1- = ------- = 0,7.
T 2
1
: --------- =
0, 7
= 1,4 .
4.4.15. m1, m2, R1, R2
R1 R2  . 
: m1R1 = m2R2 (. 4.4.3).
m1 m2 = R1 + R2. -
. 4.4.3 2
R1 = ---------------------
-.
m x
m1 + m 2
m1 + m2 = 2,  ,
2 m x
R1 = ------------
-.
2M
 F = ma, 
m m
1 2
F = G ---------------
2
-   ,
x
2
a = 4
---------
2
- R1 . -
T

2
GT M
x3 = ---------------------
2
.
2

490
= 2, 
 . ,

2
2GT M
x3 = -------------------------
2
. (1)


M M
F1= ------------------
2
- ,  R ,
R
2
.  a1 = 4
---------
2
- R.
T
 F1 = Ma1.
:

2 3
4 R
= ----------------
2
-. (2)
GT

(2) (1), x = 2R =
= 3 108 .
: x = 3 108 .
4.5.5.  :

mv 02
-------------- + E0 = Eh,
2

 E0   :
M m
E0 = G --------------
- , Eh  
R
 h:

M m
Eh = G ----------------
-.
R + h

2
, GM = g0 R , , -
, :
2
v R0
h = -----------------------------
- = 2500 .
2
2g 0 R v 0

491
4.5.8.  
  
:
A = (T2 + U2) (T1 + U1), (1)

 T1, T2 , U1, U2 


  .
 
2 mM
T = mv
----------- , U = G --------------- ,
2 r

(1)
2 2
mv mM mv mM
A = -----------2 G --------------- -----------1 G --------------- , (2)
2 r2 2 r1

 M ; v1, v2   -
 :

GM GM
v1 = -------------- , v2 = -------------- . (3)
r1 r2

(3) (2),

mM mM mM mM
A = G --------------- G --------------- G --------------- G --------------- ,
2r 2 r2 2r 1 r1

mM
A = G --------------- ----
1
- ----- = 2 10 10 .
1
2 r1 r1

10
: A = 2 10 .
4.5.9. a    ,
  (h n R), -
  
mM
E = G --------------- .
2R


A = 2RF = E.

492

mM M m mM R

E = G -----------------------------
- + G --------------- d G ----------------------
-,
2 ( R + R ) 2R 2
2R

 R .
M M M
, g = G --------
- v2 = G --------------------- , v1 = g --------- . -
2
R R + R r

M R 2F R
v = v2 v1 = 1
--- G --------- ------- = ----------- ------- = 2,54 /.
2 R R m g

  .
: v = 2,54 c/.
4.5.10.   
(  
 ):
2
mv 0 mv 2 GmM
----------- = ----------- -------------------- , (1)
2 2 R
mv0l = mvR, (2)

 v  -
,  v B R, .
M
(1) (2) , g = G ---------
2
- , -
R

2g R
- d 2,45 106 .
lmin = R 1 + ------------------
2 v0
6
: lmin d 2,4 5 10 .
4.5.11.  v1    -


v1 = v0 + v.

 v0 

2
mv 0 Mm
----------- = G ------------ ,
2 2R 1

493
 R1 = R + h1 = 6,57 106 .
GM
v0 = ----------- = 7,805 103 /,
R1
v1 = 7,815 103 /.
  -
:
mv1R1 = mv2R2,
 v2  
v R
1 1 v (R + h )
1 1
- = ---------------------------- = 7,778 /.
v2 = ------------
R2 R + h2

: v2 = 7,778 /.
4.5.12.   , -
 ,   .
  ,
  ,
. -
  
 :
A = E = E,
2
mv mM M
 E = -----------2 0, E = G --------------- 0. , g0 = G --------
2

-.
2 R R
,
v2 = 2g 0 R = 11,2 /.

    v1 = g 0 R , v2 = v1 2 .
: v2 = 11,2 /; v2 = v1 2 .
4.5.14.    :
mv 2 mM
----------- G --------------- = 0.
2 r
  m, 
 :
mM
m2r = G --------------
2
-,
r

 = 2
-------    ,  -
T
.

494
,

v= 2 2r
------------------ = 42,3 /,
T
 T = 365 .
: v = 42,3 /.
4.5.15.   -
,   m  v
,  :
mv 2 mM
------------- G --------------- = 0,
2 R

 MC = 2 1030  , RC = 1,5 1011 -


.    -
:
2GM
v = ------------------ .
R

    ,
 v0 ,  ,
 :
2
M m mv 0 GM
- = ----------- v0 =
G --------------
2
-------------- .
R R R

  
 
v = vC v0 .
    , -
2GM
  v2 = ----------------- ,  ,
R
R .
 , , -
,
2 2 2
mv 3 mv 2 mv
----------- = ----------- + ----------- .
2 2 2
,
2GM GM
v3 = ----------------- + -------------- ( 2 1 ) 2 = 16,7 /.
R R

: v3 = 16,7 /.

495
4.6.2.  
 :
R1
2 2 2
T R T1
-------2- = -------
- ^ R 1 = R 3 -------
2
-.
3
T1 R1 T
R2
(. 4.6.3) R2 = R1 + R =
T 12
. 4.6.3 = R 3 - + R, 
-------
T 2

R2 = 7,88 103 .
R2,  :
2 2 2 3
T R 2 T R2
-------2- = -------3- T 2 = ---------------
3
,
T2 R2 R

3
R 2
T2 = T -------
3
- ; T2 = 6457,21 = 107,62 .
R
3
: R2 = 7,8 8 10 ; T2 = 107,62 .
h 4.6.3.   ,  
 (. 4.6.4),
 :
2
R T1 ( h + H + 2R ) 3
O ------2- = ---------------------------------------
-.
3
T2 8R

2
T ---
H h = 2R ------1- 3 H 2R = 220 
T2
(R = 6370  ).
. 4.6.4 : h = 220 .
4.6.5.  
  :
GmM mv 2
-------------------
2
= ----------- ,
r1 r1


2 GM
v 1 = -------------- .
r1

496
 , 
r1 r2:
3 2
r1 T1
----3- = ------2- .
r2 T2

1 R +r 1 2r
- , T1 = ------------- . -
r2 = ------------------
2 v1
,

R +r 1
T2 = 2 ------------------
-.
8GM

t = T2 2 ,   
.
R +r 1
: t = ------------------
-.
8GM
4.6.6.  -

,   a
.   
, a
 v -
,  , -
. , v = 0, a
(  ). 

( 0,5a ) 3
= T --------------------
3
- = T 0,125 ,
a

 T  . -

T 0,125
--- = ------------------------- = 64,6 .
2 2

5.

5.1.2. : mg;
T1, T2,  : T1 = T2 = T. -
, mg + T1 + T2 = 0.

497
X  X,  
l  5.1.10. 
h mg
T1 T2 2T sin mg = 0 T = ----------------
-.
2 sin

mg    , sin d tg = 2h
------- .
l
. 5.1.10
10 9 , 8 20
T = mgl
----------- = -------------------------------- H = 980 H.
4h 4 0, 5
: T = 980 H.
5.1.8.  : mg,  N
T (. 5.1.11).    -
,  
(. 5.1.12),   OAB . 5.1.11.

AO mg AO mg
--------- = -------- , --------- = -------- .
AB T OB N

A
T
d
l
mg T
N
r B
O N

mg
. 5.1.11 . 5.1.12

, AO = d + r, AB = l, OB = r, :
l r
T = mg -----------
- , N = mg ------------ .
d+r d+r
5.1.10.   A:
F + T1 + T2 = 0. (1)
  T1 = T2 = T, (1) 
(. . 5.1.7) :
F 2T cos F
--- = 0 T = ----------------------------- .
2 2 cos ( 2 )
:  .

498
5.2.8.  : (M + m)g
,  T1 T2 (. 5.2.10).
. , , .
 X :
T2 + T1 + T1 (m + M)g = 0.

  2 = 1,

4T1 = (m + M)g T1 = (m + M) --g- .


4
,   , -
 , ,

F = T1 = (m + M) --g- = 300 H.
4

: F = 300 H.
5.3.2.  .
 : mg , N  ,
T ; ,   . -
 5.3.3 , , , 
, , -
, :
mg + N + T = 0.

C T
T2 O1
N
T1 R R

T mg
T1
O

(m + M)g
. 5.2.10 . 5.3.3

499
 OCO1  ,

mg = N N = mg ( R + r ) , mg = T T = mg ( l + r ) .
-------- ------------- --------------------------- -------- ---------- -------------------------
R R+r R R l+r R

:
, 05 9 , 8 0, 4
N= 0
------------------------------------------ H = 0,784 H d 0,8 H;
0, 25

0, 05 9 , 8 0, 3
T = -----------------------------------------
- H = 0,588 H d 0,6 H.
0, 25

a 5.5.2. O ,
 .
-
  (. 5.5.5). -
-
O x.. X
. 5.5.5 N

m1 xi
=1
x. = i----------------------- ,
N

mi
i=1

1 1 m x +m x +m x +m x +m x
2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5
x. = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- =
m1 + m2 + m3 + m4 + m5

m ( 2a ) + 2m ( a ) + 3m 0 + 4ma + 5m 2a 2
= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- = --- a.
15m 3

: x. = 2
--- a.
3
5.6.1. ,
, -
, ,  -
Y (. 5.6.17):
N1 N3 = 0,
N2 mg = 0.

 :
mg --l- cos N3l sin = 0.
2
. 5.6.17

500
, :

N1 = N3 = mgctg
---------------------- = 0,5 H, N2 = mg = 1 H.
2

5.6.9. -
 Y (.
5.6.1):
N1 F2 = 0,
F1 + N2 mg = 0,
 N1, N2  , F1 =
= 1N1, F2 = 2N2 -
, , mg
(. 5.6.18).
 :
F1lcos + F2l sin mg --l- cos = 0.
2
, - . 5.6.18
:
mg
2 mg
N1 = ---------------------- ; N2 = ---------------------- ;
1 + 1 2 1 + 1 2

mg
1 2 mg
2 1
1 2
F1 = ---------------------- ; F2 = ---------------------- ; = arctg ---------------------- .
1 + 1 2 1 + 1 2 2 2

5.6.22.  
 ,   -
 5.6.19; x
  .
, :

Mgx mg R
---- + x x = -----------------

m R,
----
2 Mm 2
 m .  
R 2
M pR2, m p ---- , m = M
------ , 
2 4
M4 R R . 5.6.19
x = -------------------------
- ---- = ---- .
MM4 2 6
  :
x 1 1
sin = ---
- = --- = arcsin --- d 9,6.
R 2 6

:   > tg , .

501
5.6.23. , -
, -
F = ma, -
  (. 5.6.20).
,
 -
,
. 5.6.20 l1,
l2.  -
 :
N1 = N + N1 N2 = N N2,

 N  .  
,
2N = mg. (1)
:
N1 + N2 mg = 0,
2N + N1 N2 mg = 0,
N1 = N2,

. .  .
  ,  :
kl1 = kl2,

l1 = l2.
 :

maH + (N N)L = mg L
--- ;
2

(1) N = kl

l = maH
--------------- = 0,1 .
Lk

: l = 0,1 .
5.7.2. 
 
(. 5.7.13):
. 5.7.13 Nl1 fl2 = 0,

502

 l1 = R sin
--- N, l2 = R 1 + cos --- ( = 60)
2 2
f, f = N c .
,

sin ---
2
= -----------------------
- =2 3 d 0,27.

1 + cos ---
2
: d 0,27.
5.7.8.
 O (. 5.7.14):
3a
M1 g a
--- + M2g ------- N2a = 0,
4 4
 a 
-.
  O:
. 5.7.14
M2g --l- sin --- + Tl cos --- N2l sin = 0.
2 2 2

, :
M +M
1 2
- g tg --- .
T = -----------------------
4 2

5.7.9.  . -
 , .
: Mg,
 N1 
, F1 -
 N2 -
.
OZ, -
   5.7.15.
N1 F1 ,  
- . 5.7.15
.

Mz = Mg --2-
l
sin N2l cos = 0.

 : mg,  N3
 , F2
  N2
, N2 = N2.  N3

503
  O . 
OZ, OZ ( F2
N3 ):

M z = N2l cos mg a
--- m 0.
2

N2 :

sin
N2 = Mg
-----------------------
2 cos

,

Mgl sin mga


-------------------------- ------------ m 0,
2 2

m arsin ma
--------- = 30.
Ml

: m 30.

5.7.10. l = 2dn sin --- , 
2
n  , , 
 (. 5.7.16).
,  ,

  sin --- d
--- . , l = dn.
2 2
 F1 F2,
  :
f Fd,  F1 = F2 = F,

l f nd2F.
. 5.7.16
2 2
l1 = n1d 1 F, l2 = n2d 2 F;

l2 = l1 1 1
--- 22 = --- .
2 5

: l2 = 1
--- .
5
5.7.11. 
:
Fx1 mgx2 = 0. (1)

504
 x1  -
 3x1, 

3 x
x2 = -------------1- . (2)
2
(1), (2), :
x
F = mg ---------2- = 3
--- mg.
x 1 2

5.7.12.  
F
a = ----------------- .
M+m
 , , -
,
(  O, 
 !), :
. . . .
( F . . + N )R cos l ( F . . + N )R sin ,

. .
 F. . + N -


 
. .
; F . . + N -
 -
(. 5.7.17).
,
. .
F . . + N = mg, . 5.7.17
. .
F . . +N = ma.
F
, mg cos l ma sin , cos l ----------------- sin .
M+m
 ,
h h ( 2R h )
sin = R
-------------- , cos -------------------------- .
R R
 :
( 2R h ) F Rh ( M + m )g h ( 2R h )
g h ---------------------- l ----------------- -------------- , F m ---------------------------------------------------------- = 150 H.
R M+m R Rh
: F = 150 H.

505
5.7.13. -
  -
, -
T,
  .
  -
 , -
, -
-
A  (. 5.7.18), . .
, -
 
 .
. 5.7.6
:
MgR l Tx cos .
,  N  T..
.
 :
R + x = l tg , x = l tg R.

T 
 OY :
mg
0 = T cos mg, T = ------------
-.
cos

,
mg
- (l tg R) cos ,
MgR l ------------
cos

 :
(M + m) R( M + m)
tg m R
--------------------------- m arctg --------------------------- .
lm lm

(M + m)
: max = arctg R
--------------------------- = 45.
lm
5.7.14.   ,
F, -
.    .
, -
,
.

506

 b
 
 (. 5.7.19).
 N1, 
 F.. h
  , -
 :
0 = N1 mg, ma0 = F..
 , - . 5.7.19
, , -
 -
  (. 5.7.20):
(M + m)a0 = F., 0 = N2 (M + m)g,
F. = N2.
,

a0 = g, mgb l mgh, l h
--- = 2.
b
. 5.7.20
: l 2.

6.

6.2.23.    
, F, -
  (. 6.2.11),

F = 2F, (1)

S
F = p ------------------------- sin , (2) . 6.2.11
cos ( 2 )

p = gh g S
----------- = --------------- . (3)
2 2

(1) (3),
tg
32
F = g S --- d 2,6 H.
2
: F d 2,6 H.

507
6.3.13.  6.3.7 -
-

 (11).



1 1 1 1
h1, h2, h 1 h 2 .
. 6.3.7 
:
11  , . .

h1 + h2 = h 1 + h 2 . (1)

:
2 2
S1h2 = S2 h 1 d 1 h2 = d 2 h 1 . (2)


h1 + h2 = h 0 , (3)
h2 = h 2 . (4)

(1) (4),

16
h 1 = h0 --------------- = 0,3 ; h2 = h0 --------------- = 4,8 .
17 17

: h 1 = 0,3 c; h2 = 4,8 c.
6.3.14. -
, (II)
, ,
(. 6.3.8):
p0 + 1gl = p0 + gh1,
 1,
, h1 = l h.
,

l = h --------------- = 10 h.
. 6.3.8 1

: l = 10 h.

508
6.4.11.  6.4.5  ,

 . 1
: F1 = pS1, -
 F1 = p0 S1, F Y
T. 2 , -

F1 F1 T F = 0.
a
: - O
,  F2 = p0S2
F2 = pS2. -

:
F2 + T F2 = 0. . 6.4.5

,
FS
F 2
p = p0 + ------------------- = 120 ; T = ------------------- = 20 .
S1 S2 S1 S2
a

: p = 120 ; = 20 .
6.4.12.  6.4.6  ,
: mg, - . 6.4.6
 F = p0(S2 S1), -
F = (p0 + gh) (S2 S1)  N.
( ) N = 0. 

F F mg = 0.

, :
m
h = ---------------------------
-.
( S2 S1 )

6.5.21.  -
, 
  (. 6.5.13). 
mg -
 F.
 F

F = F pS0, (1) . 6.5.13

509
 F : F = 0 gV, V  -
S S0 h1 = h h2,

V = 1
--- (Sh S0 h2), (2)
3

p :
p = 0 gh1. (3)
 ,
h2 h 22
------ = ------ , h = h1 + h2,
S S0


S0 S0
h1 = h 1 ------ , h2 = h ------ . (4)
S S

(2) (4) (1),

S0 S -
--- 0 g Sh S0 h ------- 0 gh
F= 1 1

------0- S0
3 S S

S0
--- 0 gh S + 2S0 ------ 3S0- .
F= 1
3 S

 -

S0
--- gSh = --- 0 gh S + 2S0 ------ 3S0- ,
mg = 1 1
3 3 S

o
S 32 S
= 0 -1 + 2 ------0 3 ------0 .
S S

6.5.23.    -
, -
 
(. 6.5.14).  , 

F = gV = g . 1
--- HR2,
3

510
p

. 6.5.14 . 6.5.15

F = F F,
 F = [p0 + g(H + h)]S , F -
 , S = R2
.
,

F = -p0 + g h + 2
--- H R2 d 3,2 .
3

: F d 3,2 .
6.5.28. 
(. 6.5.15). ,
, :
N + F mg = 0,
  F = N = mg F,
F = gV, m , V 
.

V = V + hS,

m = V = (V + hS)
m . ,

V= m
----- hS,

F = mg g V = mg g ----- hS = g hS = 0,47 H.
m

: F = 0,47 H.

511
6.5.31.  6.5.16  ,
. -
A
,
Mi = 0.
mg
 O
:
. 6.5.16
mg --l- cos F 1 --- l cos = 0,
3
2 8

 m = V, F = g . 3
--- V.
4
, :
15
------- = ------ .
16

6.6.18. , 
 :

mg = 1 2
--- 1gV, mg = --- 2 gV, mg = 3 gV0 ,
3 3

 V , V0 ,
. 
m +m
1 2 m +m
1 2
3 = ---------------------
- = ------------------------- ,
V1 + V2 V2 ( n + 1 )

 m1, m2, V1, V2 :


m1 = 1V1, m2 = 2V2.
, :
V0 2(n + 1)
------ = -------------------------- .
V 3 ( 2n + 1 )

I 6.6.21.  6.6.5 -
A
 m -
A .
I
,
mg F1 mg = 0, (1)

V
F1 = g ------0 , (2)
g 2
. 6.6.5 m = g(V0 V ), (3)

512
, , V0 ,
V .
(1) (3),
2
V = V0 ----------------------
-. (4)
2

II ,
F2 (m + m)g = 0, (5)


m = V1 (6)
, , V1 .
(1), (2), (5), (6),
V
V1 = ------0 . (7)
2

(7) (4), :
V1
------ = ----------------------- = 0,53.
V 2

6.6.22. II  (. 6.6.6):
F (m1 + m2)g = 0, (1)

 F :
F = g(V1 + V2), (2)
V1 , V2 , .

. 6.6.6

513
 :
m1 = 1V1, (3)
m2 = 2V2, (4)
 1 , 2 .

Sh = V1 + V2, (5)
 S , h .
(1) (5),

V1 = hS -----------------2- , (6)
1 2

1
V2 = hS -----------------
-. (7)
1 2

III,  ,
Sh1 = V1 + V3, (8)

 h1 .
, :

V3 = V2 -----2- . (9)

(6) (9),
2 2 +
2 1 2
h1 = h --------------------------------------------
-.
( 1 2 )

:
1 ( ) ( ) 2
h0 = h h1 = h ----------------------------------------
- = 1 .
( 1 2 )

: h0 = 1 .
6.6.23.  (. 6.6.7):
 1, -

F1 = [p0 + 1 g(H h)]S,
c  2, -

F2 = (p0 + 2 gH)S,

. 6.6.7 mg.

514
 ,
F2 F1 mg = 0.
,
m hS 1
H = --------------------------- d 4,3 .
( 2 1 )S

: d 4,3 .
6.6.28.  R
,   ,
S0
  6.6.8.

(m + m)g = F, r H
 m = 1
--- Sh (S = r2 = 2
3 h

= h tg ), F = 1
2 2 --- S0 Hg -
3
(S0 = R2, H = R ctg ).
. 6.6.8
-
,
3 3m
h = ( Rctg ) -------------------
2
- d 24 .
tg
: h d 24 c.
6.7.11. F = Fmin mg  -
F    ,
x (. 6.7.6).   -
 , .  ,
 b.
 :
E = A,
FA

x b
F a

mg

. 6.7.6

515
  
E = 0 mgb,
F -
:
A = A(F) + A(F) = Fb Fb;

0 ga 2 ( a b ) + ga 3 0
F = --------------------------------------------------------- .
2

:
mg = 0ga2(a b).

 : m = a3, -

F= 1
--- (0 )ga3 = 15,68 .
2

: F = 15,68 H.
6.7.13.  : -
,  .
 ,
. .  -
,   -
;
:
mg = gSx H = x,

 S = R2  , m = SH
.

 :
Hx
E = A,
x
  -
hH  (. 6.7.7)
h
E = mg(h x),



. 6.7.7 A = A1 + A2 + A3.

516
 -
Fmax = gSH :

A1 = Fmax (h H) = gSH (h H).

 -
gSH + gSx
F = -------------------------------------------
-  -
2
:

gSH + gSx
A2 = F (H x) = -------------------------------------------
- (H x).
2

  : A3 = Q. -
,

gSH + gSx

mg(h x) = gSH (h H) + -------------------------------------------
- (H x) Q.
2

,
2H
Q = gR
-------------------- {( ) [2h ( + )H]} d 47,5 .
2

: Q d 47,5 .
6.7.14.   -
. R
C
x D
m = r2l  AB
CD (. 6.7.8):
h l
Amin = mg(h + x).
   , A B
r2l = R2 . 2x.
, . 6.7.8

r2 l
Amin = glr2 h + ----------
- = 0,83 .
2
2R

: Amin = 0,83 .
6.8.3. , . . , 
, Q = vS,  S
 .  -

517
  ,
2
. . Q = vmaxSmin = (vmaxd min )/4.

Q
dmin = 2 ---------------- = 0,89 .
v max

  ,
   .   S = Q/V, 
 W .
: dmin = 0,89 .
6.8.13.     v = 2gh ,
v = 0 (. 6.8.12).   p1 = p0 +
+ gx.
   p = p1 p2,  
 0 2gh .
mv 2
 
--------------- = (p1 p2)Sh,  m =
2
2
= Sh  . , v
--------- = p1 p2 =
2
= gH. -  
 (. 6.8.13)
p = p0 g(h x).
: . 6.8.12, . 6.8.13.
6.8.24.   
p1 = p0 + gH.
    -
3R ,  a = 2 3R. -

p1

v
p0
2gH
p2

O Hh H x O H H+h x

. 6.8.12 . 6.8.13

518
   m = 4RS. 

pS p1S = m2 3R,
 p   , S -
 . :
p = p0 + gH + 12 2R2.

: ) p1 = p0 + gH; ) p = p0 + gH + 12 2R2.

7.

7.1.16. ,   :
x = A sin (t + ),
   v = (x) = A cos t.

x2 v 2 = 1.
------2- + -------------
- (1)
A A 2 2

  = 2
------- , (1) :
T

v = 2
------- A 2 x 2 = 12,56 /.
T

7.2.5.  
x = A sin (0t + ); (1)

  
v = A0 cos (0t + ). (2)

  
:
2 m 02 A 2
E = mv
----------- = -------------------- cos2 (0 t + ), (3)
2 2
kx 2 m 02 A 2
- = -------------------- sin2 (0 t + ),
E = --------- (4)
2 2

k
 02 = ----
- , k  .
m

519
(4) (3),
E
------- = tg2 (0 t + ).
E
  = . ,
tg (0 + ) = 1,

0 1 + = --- + n,  n = 0, 1, 2, ...,
4

0 2 + = --- + n,  n = 1, 2, 3, ... .
4

0 = 2, = ---
6

21 + --- = --- + n, 1 = ------


1
+n--- .
6 4 24 2

22 + --- = --- + n, 2 = ------


5 n
+ ---- -.
6 4 24 2
1 5
, : 1 = ------ + n n
--- ,  n = 0, 1, 2, ... ; 2 = ------ + ----- ,
24 2 24 2
 n = 1, 2, ... .
7.3.8.  F = kx.  -
 m, mg = kx,  -
x = mg
-------- . -
k
, ,
x2 = 2x = 2mg
------------ . (1)
k
 ,
mg
x2 = -------- . (2)
k1
(1) (2),
2mg mg k
------------ = -------- k1 = --- .
k k1 2
 -
k2 = 2k.  ,  -

m m
T1 = 2 ------ T2 = 2 ------ ,
k1 k2

T k
------1- = -----2- = 2.
T2 k1
:   2 .

520
7.3.16. X -
 (. 7.3.8).  B -
 -
.   -
  C l1 = Mg
----------  B, 
k
M  . -
  
 O l2 = (-------------------------
M + m )g
-  B -
k
   
( O),  -
  C C1. 
A = OC = OC1.   OC = l2 l1 = mg mg
-------- , A = -------- .
k k
: A = mg/k.
7.4.13.  ,  - . 7.3.8
 :
x = A cos (0 t + 0).
 A = 2l 0 = 0, -
g
0 = --- . ,
l
g
x = 2l cos --- t .
l

 B (. . 7.4.2)   x = l.


l = 2l cos g--- t1 ,
l

 t1    B,
:
l
t1 = 2
--- --- .
3 g

l
T = 2t1 = 4
--- --- d 1 c.
3 g

: T d 1 c.
7.4.16.  
l
T1 = 2 --- . (1)
g

521
(. 7.4.4) -
 : mg, -
N -
F, 
  a.

O mg sin F sin = ma.
  ,
. 7.4.4 , sin d d x
--- ,
l

+F
a = mg
------------------- x.
ml

,   -
x ,
OX, ,   -
,
mg + F
------------------- = 2.
ml

 

2 ml
- = 2 ------------------- .
T2 = ------ (2)
mg + F

(1), (2),

T2
F = mg ------12- 1 = 29,4 .
T2

: F = 29,4 .
7.5.8.  , -
 , :
mg + kx01 T0 = 0, (1)
3mg + kx02 T0 = 0, (2)

 x01 x02 ,
T0 .
(1) (2) :
2mg + k(x02 x01) = 0. (3)

522
 m -
x,
ma = mg + k(x01 x) T1, (4)
3ma = T1 3mg k(x02 x), (5)
 1 .
(4) (5) (3)
4ma = 2kx.

k 2m
= --------- T = 2 --------- .
2m k

 :
kx 01 2 kx 02 2 4mv 02 k ( x 01 A ) 2 k ( x 02 + A ) 2
------------- + ------------- + ---------------- = ------------------------------- + ------------------------------- + 3mgA mgA,
2 2 2 2 2

m
 (3) : A = v0 ------- .
2k
: A = v0 m ( 2k ) ; T = 2 2m k .
7.5.9. :
m1g T0 = 0, (1)
m2g + kx0 2T0 = 0, (2)
 x0 , 0
.
(1) (2)
(2m1 m2)g = kx0. (3)
 m1 -
x, 
m1a = m1g T1, (4)

m2 --a- = 2T1 m2g k -x0 + x


--- ,

(5)
2 2

 1 .
(4) (5) (3)
m2
-2m + ------- x
1 - a = k --- . (6)
2 2

k 4m 1 + m 2
= -------------------------- T = 2 -------------------------- .
4m 1 + m 2 k

523
 :
v max 2 A 2
m 2 ------------ k x 0 + ----
m 1 v max 2
2 kx 02 A 2
--------------------- + ----------------------------- + ---------- = m1gA + m2g ---- + ----------------------------- ,
2 2 2 2 2

k
 (3) : vmax = A -------------------------- .
4m 1 + m 2
4m 1 + m 2 k
: T = 2 -------------------------- ; vmax = A -------------------------- .
k 4m 1 + m 2
O 7.5.11. m
(. 7.5.16): -
 F -
mg. M
:  -
F, Mg -
O
 N1.
 -
:
I, 
. 7.5.16 ,

F mg = mamax
N1 = (M + m)g + mamax;
N1 F Mg = 0

II,  ,
F + mg = mamax
N2 = (M + m)g mamax,
Mg F N2 = 0

 F .
 
amax = A2,
 A .
 F
 N.
F 1 N1 ( M + m )g + mA 2
--------- = ------- = -------------------------------------------------2- = 1,5.
F 2 N2 ( M + m )g mA

,
N2 = 0 mA2 = (M + m)g,

524
,

A = (-------------------------
M + m )g
2
- = 0,08 = 8 .
m

: N1/N2 = 1,5; A = 8 .
7.5.12. 1. a , l2 -
. -
k1l1, k2l2.
O :
2
k 1l 1 a
--- k2l2 --- a = 0,
3 3


k l
1 1
l2 = ----------
-.
2k 2

2. 
  -
x (. . 7.5.17).

2x
x
--- , ------- . -
3 3
,
l + x
--- , l2 ------- . -
2x
1 3 3
  -

x 2 2x 2 . 7.5.17
k 1 l 1 + --- k 2 l 2 -------
3 3
E1 = ------------------------------ , E2 = --------------------------------- .
2 2

mv 2
   E = ----------- ,  v  -
2
.     -
:
E1 + E2 + E = const.


,

1 k + 4k 2
a = ---------------------
- x,
m

525
k + 4k
1 2
- = 2   .  
 ---------------------
m
 T = 2
------- , , ,

m
T = 6 ---------------------- .
k 1 + 4k 2
k l
1 1 m
- ; T = 6 ---------------------- .
: l2 = ----------
2k 2 k 1 + 4k 2
7.5.13.  -
 (. . 7.5.18)
F = mg sin .
   -
 ,
mg sin = kx,
 k  ,
x = R 
. ,
. 7.5.18 mg sin = kR.
 , 
. sin d
k = mg
-------- .
R
  
2
E = kA
---------- ,
2
 A = smax . ,
2
mgs max
- = 12,5 . 10 6 .
E = ---------------------
2R
7.5.17. -
 
,  
0 = 2
------- :
T
vmax = 0A,
 A = l 
(. 7.5.19). ,
vmax = 2l 2l
------------- , T = ------------- .
. 7.5.19 T vmax

526
     -
,   -
,  -
 :
2
mv max Mu 2
mvmax = Mu, mg(l l cos ) = -----------------
- + ------------- .
2 2



4gMlsin 2 ---
2Mgl ( 1 cos ) 2 Mgl
vmax = --------------------------------------------- = -------------------------------- = 2 sin --- ----------------- .
M+m M+m 2 M+m

  , sin
--- d .
2

( M + m )l
T = 2 ------------------------- = 1,23 .
gM

: T = 1,23 c.
7.5.20. : F = g(v + sh)
mg.
:
mg + F = 0 mg = F. (1)

S   ,
h , 
mg = g(V + Sh).
  x -

F = g(V + S(h + x)) mg;
F = g(V + S(h + x)) g(V + Sh);
F = gSx.
 , . .
F = kx, 
2
k = gS = g d
---------- . (2)
4

 :
m() = kx. (3)

527
k
02 = ----
- , (3) -
m

: () + 02 = 0. 0 = 2
-------  -
T
. 

m
T = 2 ----- . (4)
k

4 m
(2) (4), T = --- --------- , 
d g
16m
= -----------------
2 2
= 0,89 . 103 /3.
T d g

: = 0,89 103 /3.


.

7.5.23. (. 7.5.20)
: mg FA = 2x0 g,  0
 , :
mg 2x0g = 0.

O -
(-
 )
: mg -
FA = g(x0 + x). -

F = mg F = g2x, (1)
 k = g2  -
. 7.5.20 .
 (1), F
, .
 
2 2 2
kA = ga A = 3,1 .
W = ---------- -----------------------
2 2

: W = 3,1 .
7.6.1.  ,  t
 
 T , . .
t = T,
m
 t = --l- , T = 2 ----- .
g k

528
 m = M
------ = 5 . -
2
m0 g
 k = ----------- .
x0
, :
l 2m0 g
v = ------
- = --------------- = 0,48 /.
2 x0
7.6.4.  , -
 

0 = ----- ,
m
 = 4k   -
.

 .
0 , -
,   -
, .
= 2 N
----- . -
t
,
2N 4k
------------ = ------- ,
t m

t 4k
- ------- = 5,8 / = 20 921 /.
N = ------
2 m
  .
: N = 20 921.
7.6.7.  mg
 N.  :
N mg = ma.
N = 0. , N > 0, . .
mg + mamax > 0 g > amax,

 amax = 2A = (2)2   -
 , , 
. :
g
g > (2)2A A < -----------------
- = 6, 2 .
2
( 2 )
  0 > A, .
: ,   A k A0.

529
2

8. - .

mN
8.1.8.   N = -------------A- . -
M
,  H2O:
M = (16 + 2) 103 / = 18 103 /.
 , 1 
m NA
n= N
----- = ------ -------- = 4 1018 1/.
t M t

: n = 4 . 1018 c1.
8.3.12.  n = N
----- ,  N 
V
m
.  = ----- ,  m : m = m0N
V
(m0 ).   -
3kT
 v = ------------ .
m0
-
, :
v 2
- = 2,4 1023 3 .
n = -----------
3kT
)
8.4.16. -
,
,
. ,
 ,

) . -

. ., . . -
. 8.4.10 (. 8.4.10, ).

530

, 
x (. . 8.4.10, ):
p0Sl = 1RT, p0Sl = 2RT;
p1S(l x) = 1RT, p2S(l + x) = 1RT.

1 RT 2 RT
p = p1 p2 = --------------------
- --------------- ,
S(l x) l+x
, -
 :
1 RT
2 RT 0 2xp Sl 2xp S 0
F = pS = --------------
- --------------- = -------------------- d -----------------
-,
lx 2 l+x 2
l x l
 , x f l.
  F f x,  .

2xp S 0 m
- = kx, T = 2 ----- .
-----------------
l k
, 
ml
T = 2 -------------- d 0,44 .
2p 0 S

8.5.7. V2 
.
V V T
------1- = ------2- , , V2 = V1 ------2- .
T1 T2 T1

T
m = 2V2 = 2V1 ------2- = 0,0144 .
T1
8.7.8. 


 . -

(. 8.7.4).
.
  -
:
1
p 0 S --- l
1 pS --- l + x
2 2
-------------------- = ----------------------------- , . 8.7.4
T T + T

531
1
p 0 S --- l
1 pS --- l + x
2 2
-------------------- = ----------------------------- ,
T T T
T
x = l---------
-.
2T
  :
1 3
m l+m l --- ---
4 4 l
xC1 = ------------------------------------
- = --- ,
m+m 2
1 3 1
m --- l + --- x x + m ( --- l + --- x x )
1
4 2 4 2 l 2 x + x
x2 = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = ----------------------------
-,
m+m 2
 m  . ,
:
l T
x = x
--- = ---------- d 5 .
2 4T
: x d 5 .
8.8.16. :
Mg p0S -
pS,  p0 p -
S .  :
Mg + p0S = pS.

,
p = Mg
---------- + p0 .
S
  :
V1 V2
------- = ------- ,
T1 T2

 V1 = Sh1, V2 = Sh2 , -
.  
h = h2 h1,

2 V V 1 1 V
h = ------------------- - T.
= ----------
S ST 1

 :

pV1 = m
----- RT1.

532
,
mR T
h = ----------------------------------- mR T
- = ----------------------------------- d 2,7 .
( Mg + p 0 S )
---------- + p 0 S
Mg
S

: h d 2,7 .
8.8.21. -
 
p1V = m
----- RT, (1)

nm
p2V = --------- RT,

 . (2)
(1) (2)
p2 = np1. (3)
  ,
p2 p1 = Mg Mg
---------- p1(n 1) = ---------- . (4)
S S
p1 (1) (4):
mRT Mg
-------------- (n 1) = ---------- . (5)
V S
 

m
p 1 V1 = ----- RkT, (6)

nm
p 2 V2 = --------- RkT. (7)

(6), (7)
nV
p 2 = p 1 ----------1- . (8)
V2
  ,
nV 1
p 2 p 1 = ---------- p'1 ----------- 1- = ---------- .
Mg Mg
V2
(9)
S S
p 1 (6) (9):
mRkT nV 1
- 1- = ---------- .
Mg
------------------ ----------
(10)
V 1 V2 S
(5) (10) . , V2 =
= 2V V1, ,
mRkT nV 1
------------------ ----------- 1- = -------------- (n 1)
mRT
V 1 V2 V

533
(n 1) V12 + V(kn + k 2n + 2)V1 2kV2 = 0
( kn + k 2n + 2 ) + ( kn + k 2n + 2 ) 2 + 4 ( n 1 ) 2k
V1 = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- V = V( 3 1),
2(n 1)

V2 = 2V V1 = V 3 ( 3 1).

V 1
------2 = ------- d 0,6.
V1 3
: V2/V1 d 0,6.
8.9.15.   12 34 p V -
,
p1 p2 p2 p4
------ = ------ ------ = ------ .
V1 V2 V3 V4

  41 23 ,
p2V2 = p3V3 p1V1 = p4V4.

, V2 = V4,
:
V2
V3 = ------2- = 4,5 .
V1

8.10.3. p1 p2  -
, V .
:

1 m RT 2 m RT
p1V = ----------------
- p2V = ----------------- .
1 2


m m
p = p1 + p2 = -------1- + -------2- RT
--------- ,
1 2 V

 1, 2 .
,
m +m
1 2 p(m + m )
1 2 1 2
- = -------------------------------------------------- ; = 0,52 /3.
= ---------------------
V ( 2 m 1 + 1 m 2 )RT

: = 0,52 /3.

534
8.10.7.     ( -
)  .
 V1  :
p1V1 = p 1 (V1 + V2);
 V2:
p2V2 = p 2 (V1 + V2),

 p1 p 2   .

p = p 1 + p 2 .
, :
p V +p V
1 1 2 2
p = -------------------------------- = 422,7 . .
V1 + V2
8.10.14.  -
  , 
 .   
,
.
 ,  .

m m
p1 V 1 V 2
--- = ---------- RT, p2 --- = -------- RT
2 2 1 2 2

p = p1 + p2
:
m m m
p = ---------1- + -------2- -------2- 2RT
------------- .
2 1 2 2 V

:
m
p V 1
--- = ---------- RT,
2 2 1
 :
m RT
1
p = ----------------
-.
1 V

m m m 1 RT
: p = ---------1- + -------2- 2RT
------------- ; p = ----------------
-.
2 1 2 V 1 V

535
8.10.15. (. 8.10.3)
, 
p1 = p + mg
-------- . (1)
S

) )
. 8.10.3
   , , -
, ,  -
2 :
p = --p- = 50 ,
2
, x (. 8.10.3, ), -
, 
mg = p2S, (2)
 p2 .
   , 

p1SH = p2S(H + x). (3)


(1)(3),
x = phS
----------- = 10 .
mg
: p = 50 ; x = 10 .
8.11.3. N 
VN = NV0 p0 T0 =
= 273 . ,
p1.  
T,  
p1 V p 0 NV 0
---------- = ------------------ .
T T0

p1 = p p0.

536
,

0 T V p
N = ----------
- ------ 1 = 7600.
TV 0 p 0

8.12.2.   , p0 V0 =
= (p0 + gh)V,  0 = 105 ,
4r 3
(p0 + gh)   h, V0 = ------------0- -
3
3
 , V = 4r
-------------  -
3
r0 V
h. , r = ----- , V = ------0 8p0 = p0 + gh, 
2 8
7p 0
h = --------- = 71,4 .
g
: h = 71,4 .
8.12.7.
(. 8.12.9):
F (m + m)g = 0,

F = gV,
 : =
RT
= -----------0 ; m  :
0
O
V
0
m = -------------
- . , V = . 8.12.9
RT

= 4
--- R 3 (R ).
3
,
3
4 2 R p MT 0 0
T = -------------------------------------------------------------
3
- = 336 .
4 2 R p 0 M 3mRT 0

 ,
  :
3
4 2 R p MT 0 0
T = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3
- = 328 ,
4 2 R p 0 M 3 ( m m )RT 0

T = T T = 8 .

537
   h = 10
T = 1 ,  

h= T
--------- h = 80 .
T

8.12.19. -

(. 8.12.10):
phS p x ( h + x )S
----------- = ----------------------------- ,
T0 Tx

 p = p0 + gh px = p0 + g(h x).
-
T x:
. 8.12.10
( h + x ) [ p + g ( h x ) ]
0
T = T0 ------------------------------------------------------------- ,
h ( p 0 + gh )

0 p
 , : x = ---------- .   p0 = gh,
2g
9
x = h
--- , Tmin = --- T0 = 315 .
2 8
 -
.
: Tmin = 315 .
8.12.20.   ,
x 
 x (. 8.12.11).

. 8.12.11

  -
I II:
p 0 Sh
-------------- = pS --- x- .
h
2 2

538
 
II (c. . 8.12.11) , . .

p + g h h
--- = p0 + g --- .
2 2

,  ,
m = Sx.


( )gh 2 S

m = -------------------------------------------------------
- = 384,5 .
2 [ 2p 0 + ( )gh ]

: m = 384,5 .

9.

9.2.13. ,  
.
 :
2 ( m + M )u 2
mv = (m + M)u, mv
----------- = ----------------------------- + Q
2 2

 , :
mMv 2
Q = -------------------------
-. (1)
2(m + M)

 
Q1 = Q. (2)

 , 
 ,
Q1 = cm(t t) + m. (3)

(1)(3),

2 ( m + ) [ ( t t ) + ]
v= --------------------------------------------------------------- = 420 /.
M

O : v = 420 /.

539
Q
9.3.4.  = ------- ,  Q  -
Q
,    t
:
Q = cm(t t) + rm
(m = V ), Q , 
:
Q = N.
:
V [ c ( t t ) + r ]

= -------------------------------------------
- d 3 .

9.5.14. 1  -
 :
t
V0c (1 t1) = (V V0) c (t2 1), 1 = ----2-
3

( , c  ), -
2

5t
2(V V0) c (2 1) = (2V0 V) c (t2 2), 2 = --------2- .
9



2t 2
t2 = 2 1 = --------2- = -----
-t .
2 2
9 3

 
13t
2(V V0) c (2 3) = (2V0 V) c (3 1), 3 = -----------2- ,
27
2t 2
t3 = 3 2 = --------2- = -----
-t ,
3 2
27 3


41t
(2V0 V) c (2 4) = 2(V V0 ) c (4 3), 4 = -----------2- ,
81
2
t4 = 4 3 = -----
-t .
4 2 3

540
2
n- tn = -------------
n+1 2
t .  tn m 1 C,
3
2 m 0,01, n l 5.
-------------
3n + 1
: n l 5.
9.5.19. 1- . ,
 t = 0 C:

Q = cm1(t t) = 47,25 .

 ,
Q = cm1(t1 t) = c V1(t1 t) = 12,6 ,

 m1 = V1 ,
.
 Q > Q, ,  Q
,  t.
 Q, 
:
Q = m1 = V1 = 165 .

Q Q + Q , , Q < Q + Q . -
,  t
t.


Q = Q + m1

:
m 1

Q Q

= --------------------
m 1 d 0,1 .

t = 0 C:

m = 1 )= 1
--- (m1 m 1 ) d 0,2 .
--- (V1 m 1
2 2

2- . . -
, ,

Q = m2 = 148,5 .

541
 -
t = 0 C:

Q = c V2(t2 t) = 151,2 .


  Q > Q , -
.

Q + cm2( t) + cm( t) = cV2(t2 ),


c V t Q
2 2
= --------------------------------------------------
- d 0,11 C.
c ( m 2 + m + V 2 )
: d 0,11C.
9.5.20. -
 ,  -
 :
c1m1(t t1) + c2m2(t t1) + m2 + c1m1( t) + cm2( t) =
= c3m3(t2 t) + m3 + cm3(t ) = 36,6 C.

: = 36,6 C.
9.5.21.  Q1 = rm,
 Q2 = m ( r
, -
). , m = m m.
mr
m = -----------
- = 17,2 .
r+
: m = 17,2 .
9.7.12.
pV = RT

,  , p = ------
2
(. )
V
 :

T = -----------
-.
RV

, n
n :
T
T = ------0- . (1)
n

542

U = 3
--- R (T T0 ). (2)
2
(1), (2) (,  ),
:
2nU
T0 = -----------------------------
- = 300 .
3R ( n 1 )
9.7.18.  , 

mv = (m + M + m) u,
 m  , u 
  .
   -
, :
1 1
--- mv2 --- (m + M + m)u2 = E.
2 2

   m n m n M,
m ( M m )v 2
E = ----------------------------------
-.
2M

, , 
:
E = U.
 

U = 2 . 3
--- RT = 3RT.
2

( M m )v 2 mv 2
T = m
----------------------------------- d ----------- .
6 MR 6R

2
mv
: T d ----------- .
6R

9.7.22.   U1 = 3
--- p1V1, -
2
U2 = 3
--- p2V2.  
2
U= 3
--- p (V1 + V2).  
2
U1 + U2 = U.

543
, 
1 1 p V +p V 2 2
p = -------------------------------- . (1)
V1 + V2
  , 
:
p1 V1 p 1 ( V 1 + V 2 )
------------- = ------------------------------- , (2)
T1 T
 :
p2 V2 p 2 ( V 1 + V 2 )
------------- = ------------------------------- . (3)
T2 T

p = p 1 + p 2 . (4)

(1)(4), 
1 1 p V +p V 2 2
T = T1T2 -----------------------------------------------
-. (5)
p1 V 1 T 2 + p2 V 2 T 1
: . (1) (5).
9.8.10. p , V0 ,
V = V0 + V  . -
 :
RT
pV0 = -----------
-.
V0
 
A = p V = RT V
-------- .
V0

V V 0 + V A
------ = --------------------- = 1 + ------------ = 6.
V0 V0 RT

: V/V0 = 6.
9.8.23.  
  pV (. 9.8.13).
  :
2 p p 1
A = -----------------
- (V2 V1).
2
-
 :
. 9.8.13 p1V1 = RT1; p2V1 = RT2, p2V3 = RT3.

544
 13 :
p1 T1
------ = ------- .
p3 T3

, :
R ( T T ) 2
2 1
A = -----------------------------------
- ; d 104 .
2T 1

9.8.26. , ,
A = A12 + A23 = A31,

2 3 p +p
 A12 = 0 ( ); A23 = -----------------
- (V3 V2 ) (
2
1p +p 3
); A31 = -----------------
- (V1 V3) ( ).   -
2
31   -
,
p1 p3 T1 T2
------ = ------ = ------2- = ------2- .
V1 V3 V2 V3

, :
R(T T ) T
2 1
- ------2- 1 .
A = -----------------------------
2 T1

9.9.5.  
Q = U + A. (1)

  

U1 = 3 1
--- RT1, U2 = --- RT2, (2)
2 2

 T1 T2  . -
T2/T1 = n, , (2),
U2
------- = n. (3)
U1

(1) ,
U2 U1 = Q A,

545
 (3)
A QA
U1 = Q
-------------- = -------------- .
n1 3

: U1 = (Q A)/3.
9.9.21. 
A = A12 + A23 + A34 + A41, (1)

 A12 = 0,   ; A23 = p2(V3 V2), V3


V2  3 2; A34 = Q,  
; A41 = p1(V1 V4), V1 V4  -
1 4.
(1),
A = p2V3 p2V1 + Q + p1V1 p1V4.

 -
:
p1V1 = RT1, p2V1 = RT2,
p2V3 = RT3, p1V4 = RT4.
, T3 = T4. , -

A= R (T1 T2) + Q = 339 .


: A = 339 .
9.9.26. ,  -
,  ,
Q = U = A. (1)


U = 3
--- R(T T0 ).
2

, ,
A = p0 (V V0 ) = p0 (3V0 V0) = p0 . 2V0,

 V = nV0 = 3V0 .

 :
p0V0 = RT0, 3p0 . 3V0 = RT0.

546
(1) :
Q= 3
--- p0 V0 8 + 2p0 V0 = 14p0 V0 .
2
    Q1 = 10 ,

Q = Q Q1, Q = 14p0V0 Q1 = 4 .
: Q = 4 .
9.10.11. 12 ,
Q12 = C(T T) = 2CpT0.
32 ,
Q23 = CV(T T) = CVT0.
  CV = Cp R,
Q2 3 = (Cp R)T0.
 ,  123:
Q = Q12 + Q23 = T0(3Cp R) = 78,7 .
: Q = 78,7 .
9.10.12.  
A = Q U,
  , ,

Q = C T, U = CV T.
,
A = C T CV T = R T.
 -
 :
p1V1 = RT1, p2V2 = RT2,
  -
:

p1 = ------
2
, p2 = ------
2
.
V1 V2

1 (V V ) 2
RT = p2V2 p1V1 = ----------------------------
-.
V1 V2

547
 
( V2 V1 ) 2R
A = RT = ----------------------------
- = ---------- d 1,66 .
V1 V2 2V 1

: A d 1,66 .
9.10.19. ,  ,
Q = U + A, (1)
 U = QV.
:
pV = RT,
p = RV.
T = V2
  ,
1p +p 2
pcp= -----------------
- , , ,
2
1 p +p 2
A = pcp V = -----------------
- (V2 V1).
2
, p = RV,

-------- V 2 V 1 .
2 2
A = VR
2

2 2
  T2 = V2 T1 = V 1 ,

A = VR VRT
-------- (T2 T1) = ----------------- . (2)
2 2


Q
QV = cVVT T = ------V- . (3)
CV

(1)(3),

Q = QV 1 + ----------------
R
= 580 .
2c V M

: Q = 580 .
A
9.11.6. = ------
- . , -
Q1
, ,   1231
pV-:
A = (2p0 p0) (3V0 V0) = 2p0 V0. (1)

548
12 : ,
,  
:
Q12 = 3
--- R (T2 T1). (2)
2

23 : ,
,  
,
Q23 = V23 + A23 = 3
--- R(T3 T2) + 2p0 (3V0 V0 ). (3)
2
:
p0 V0 = RT1, (4)
2p0 V0 = RT2, (5)
2p0 3V0 = RT. (6)
,  :
Q1 = Q12 + Q23. (7)

(1)(7), :
2
= ------ = 0,087; = 8,7%.
23

9.11.7.
A
= ------
-, (1)
Q1

 A  , Q  .
 ,  -
12341 pV- (. 9.11.15):
A = ( 1)( 1)p0V0. (2)
  -
 
 .
T3 > T2 > T1, T3 > T4. -
, 
 12 34,  34
41 .
12 , ,

Q12 = U12 = 3 3
--- pV0 = --- ( 1)p0V0. (3)
2 2 . 9.11.15

549
23 ,

Q23 = U23 + A23 = 3 5


--- p2V + p2V = --- p2V =
2 2
5
= --- p0V= 5
--- ( 1)p0 V0 . (4)
2 2

,  
Q = Q12 + Q23. (5)
(1)(5)
2( 1)( 1) 4
= ---------------------------------------- = ------ .
5 2 3 23
: = 4/23.
9.11.12.  (. 9.11.16)
A
= ------
-. (1)
Q1

 

--- (p2 p1)(V3 V1) = ----------- (n 1) ------ 1 .


RT 1 V3
A= 1
2 2 V1

  31 ,
:
. 9.11.16
p1 = kV1, kV12 = RT1,

p2 = kV3 kV22 = RT2,
 k  .
,
RT ( n 1 )
1
A = ------------------------------ ( n 1). (2)
2
23 T2 = T3, U23 = 0,

2 p +p 3 1 R nT
- (V3 V1) = -------------------- (n 1).
Q23 = A23 = -----------------
2 2
12 ; A12 = 0 Q12 = U12, . .

Q12 = 3 3
--- R(T2 T1) = --- RT1(n 1).
2 2
 

= 3Q12 ( n 1 ) = 90 .

550
,  ,
RT
Q1 = Q12 + Q23 = -----------1 (n 1)( 3 + n). (3)
2

(1)(3),
n1
= ----------------- 100% = 20%.
n+1

: A = 90 ; = 20%.
9.11.13.  1241 p
(. 9.11.17)
2 Q2,3 3
p2
A
1 = ----------------------------
-; Q2,4
1 2 + 2 4 Q1,2 Q3,4
 2342 p1
1 Q1,4 4
A
2 = ------------ . 0 V1 V2 V
Q 2 3
. 9.11.17
  -
:
A= 1
--- (p2 p1)(V2 V1).
2

,  1241,
Q12 + Q24 = Q14 + A,

 Q13 = U14 + A14 = 5


--- p1(V2 V1).
2
,  2342,

Q23 = V23 + A23 = 5


--- p2(V2 V1).
2

, :
1 p
2
2 = -------------------
- ------ = 1 + 41 = 2,5.
1 + 4 1 p1

9.11.14.  1231
A
1 = ------
-. (1)
Q1

,  ,
Q1 = U13 + A23. (2)

551
 1341
A
2 = ------
-. (3)
Q 1

,  , .
,   1341,
Q 1 = U13 + A13. (4)

, 23 ,
, 13 :
A23 = A13 + A. (5)
(1)(5), :

2 = ------------
-.
1+
9.11.23.   ( 12)
  , 
Q12 A12, .
( 23)  U23 =
= 3
--- RT . 31  -
2
, . . A31 + U31 = 0.   -
 1 2 , U31 = U23 = 3
--- RT. -
2
3
A31 = U31 = --- RT. 
2
3
A +A A 1 2 --- RT
1 2 3 1 2
= ------------------------------
- = --------------------------------------- ,
Q 1 2 A1 2

3RT
A1 2 = ---------------------
- d 12,5 .
2(1 )
: A d 12,5 .
9.12.7. 
A
= ------
-, (1)
Q1

 Q1  ,  .  
,
1T T 2 1 Q Q 2
= -------------------
- = -------------------- . (2)
T1 Q1

552
(1) (2), A = Q1 Q2, 
A
Q1 = A + Q2.  = ----------------
- ; = 18%.
A + Q2
: = 18%.
1 2 T T
9.12.15. = -------------------
- , -
T1

1 2 T T
= --------------------

- .   Q -
T1
A = Q,  -
A
Q = ----
- .

Q A ( T 1 T 2 )T 1 Q
----- = --------
- = --------------------------------------
- = 3,
Q A ( T 1 T 2 )T 1 Q

. .   3
 ,  .
: Q/Q = 3.
9.12.16.  -
   12 34,
   567.

Q
1 2 +Q 3 4 Q 5 6 7 Q 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1
= ----------------------------------------------------------- = ---------------------------------------------
-,
Q 1 2 + Q 3 4 Q 1 2 + Q 3 4

 A12345671 .
123671 34563. -
 . -

12 Q Q 67 A
123671
1 = -------------------------------------
- = ------------------------------------------- ,
Q1 2 Q1 2

34Q Q 56 A
34563
2 = -------------------------------------
- = ------------------------------------ ,
Q3 4 Q3 4

 A123671 = 2 A34563,

1 T T 3 2 T T
3
1 = -------------------
- , 2 = --------------------
T3 T2

( T1 = t1 + 273, T2 = t2 + 273, T3 = t3 + 273).

553
,
A1 2 3 6 7 1 T 1 T3 A3 4 5 6 3 T 2 T3
------------------------------------------- = -------------------- , ------------------------------------ = -------------------- .
Q1 2 T1 Q3 4 T2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1
A12345671 = A123671 + A34563 = 3A34563,

 , ,

123671 1 A T
34563 2 A T
Q12 + Q34 = --------------------------------------------------
- + ------------------------------------------- =
T 1 T3 T2 T 3

= A34563 -------------------
2T 1 T2
T 1 T 3- - .
+ -------------------
T2 T 3

,
3A 34563 3(T T )(T T )
1 3 2 3
= -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
- = ---------------------------------------------------------------- = 0,33.
2T 1 T2 3T 1 T 2 T 2 T 3 2T 1 T 3
A 3 4 5 6 3 ------------------- --------------------
T T - + T
1 3 2 T3

: = 0,33.
9.13.8. -
0 M
 : = --------------
-.
RT
 
 p1  p2:
p = p1 + p2.

p2 = p. 
= 1 + 2,  1 , 2
.

 :

1
p1 = -------- RT, p2 = ------------------ .
M M RT

 :

0M ( p p ) + M p
= --------------------------------------------------------------
-
RT

554
  :
p0
---------- = ----------------------------------------------------------- d 1,0046.
p 0 p ( 1 M /M )


: ---------- d 1,0046.

9.13.10. -
 :
0 2 p
= ------------ .
RT

 ( = 0) 
p1
 p2:
p0 = p1 + p2.

p2 = p,

p1 = p0 p2 = p0 p.

= 1 + 2,

 1 2
.
 -
 :

p1 = -----1- RT, p = ------ RT,
2 1

p
2 1 p
2 0 p
2 1 p
1 = ------------ = ------------ - , 2 = = ----------------- .
----------------
RT RT RT RT

 :
2 0 ( p p ) p 1
= ---------------------------------
- + ----------------- .
RT RT

555
,
2 0 (p p 1 1 ) p
1 1 1
1 = --------------------------------------
- + ---------------------- ,
RT 1 RT 1

2 0 (p p 2 2 ) p
2 1 2
2 = --------------------------------------
- + ---------------------- ,
RT 2 RT 2

1 p 0 ( T 2 T 1 ) 1 2 1 p 1 2 p 2
= 1 2 = -------------------------------------- ------------------ --------------- --------------- d 46 /3.
RT 1 T 2 R T1 T2

: d 46 /3.
9.13.14. ,  ,
m = m 2 m1 , (1)
 m2 ,  -
(  ); m1 -
.

 :
m
pV = -------1- RT, (2)

m2
pV = -------- RT. (3)


m
= -------1- . (4)
V
(1)(4), :
p
= ---------- m
----- d 13 /3.
RT V

9.13.15. t2 = 127 C
p = p 1 + p2,
T
 p 1  : p 1 = p1 ------2- ; p2
T1
.
p2 , -
, :
mRT
p2 = ----------------2- = 6,64 104 .
MV

556
 p2 < p, . -

T mRT
p = p1 ------2- + ----------------2- = 2,26 105 .
T1 V

: p = 2,26 105 .
9.13.17.   , -
1 =
= 0,0173 /3, 2 = 0,083 /3 ( -
).  ,
1 + 2
- = 0,0508 /3.
= -----------------------
2

   -
, , ,  ,
.   

---------- RT1 + ---------- RT2 = --- -------- + -------- RT,


im 1 im 2 i m1 m2
2 2 2

 m1, m2 -
:

m1 = 1 V V
--- , m2 = 2 ---
2 2

( V ).
,
1 1 T + T 2 2
- = 317,8 ; t = 44,8 .
T = --------------------------------------
1 + 2

, t = 44,8 > 40 C, , -

( 1 + )RT 2
= -------------------------------------
- = 7453 .
2V
9.14.5. -
 :
m
pV = -------1- RT1, (1)

 m1 .

557
 ( -
), 
:
m
pV = -------2- RT2, (2)

 m2  .
,  ,
m = m1 m2. (3)

(1)(3),

m = V
------- ------- ------- d 9,65 106 .
p p
R T1 T2

: m d 9,65 106 .


9.14.17. 80% (. 9.14.2, ),
. 
 Y:
FA1 mg = 0,
 m  (); FA1 ,
:
FA1 = gV;
 :
= + ;
 :
( p p )
= -------------------------------------
- ;
RT

Y Y FA2
FA1

O mg O mg

) )

. 9.14.2
558
p ; :
p H O
= ---------------------
2
-.
RT
0 (. 9.14.2, ),
FA2 mg = ,
 FA2 :
FA2 = 2gV,
0 p
2 . , 2 = ------------------
- .
RT
,
p ( H O ) 2
- = 0,39 /2 .
a = g -----------------------------------------------------------------------
p 0 p ( H 2 O )

: a = 0,39 /2.
9.14.18. , -
. , ,
:
F = (p0 p2) r2,
 p2 t2 = 10 C:
p2 = p2 + p2
(p2 , p2 ).
  , -
t2 = 10 C -

p 1 p2
-------- = -------- ,
T1 T2
 p1 t1 = 40 C:
p1 = p0 p1,
p1 t1 = 40 C.
t2 = 10 C:
p2 = p2,
 p2  t2 = 10 C.
,

F = -p0 1 ------2- + p1 ------2- p2 r2 = 37,7 .


T T
T1 T1

: F = 37,7 H.

559
9.14.19.   ( )
p = p1 + p2, (1)
 p1 = p , p2 -
.
    , -
:
p = p0+ gx. (2)
:
m m
pV = -------1- RT, p2V = -------2- RT
1 2

(1), (2)

p V 1 2 0 V ( p p + gx )

m1 = ----------------
- = 0,43 , m2 = --------------------------------------------------- = 4,85 .
RT RT

: m1 = 0,43 ; m2 = 4,85 .
9.15.9. 
Q = E1 E2,

 E1 = 8 d12   -
 . E2 = . d22  
, d2 .
8  8V1 = V2,  V1 = 1
--- d 13 , V2 =
6

=1
--- d 23  .
6
, :
Q = 4 d12 = 6 .

560
3

10.

10.1.16. 

kq 1 q 2
F = ---------------------
2
-, (1)
r

 k = 9 . 109 /  .
 . , -
 ,

Q = q1 + q2. (2)

(1), (2), :

Q2 r2 F
|q1| = 1
--- Q + ------- + ---------- = 4,26 104 ;
2 4 k

Q 2 r2 F
|q2| = 1
--- Q + ------- + ---------- = 2,6 105 .
2 4 k

10.1.25.  (. 10.1.7):
mg, T F.   -
 ,

T + mg + F = 0.

 -
 ABC,  - B
, , F = mg.  -
2 T F
F = kq
--------- , C
2
l mg
mg A
q = l -------- = 8,08 107 .
k

. 10.1.7
: q = 8,08 107 .

561
q q F q F F 10.2.2. -
1 2   q -
 -
l : F1 -
2
. 10.2.10  F1 = ------------------------------
q ,
4 0 ( l/2 ) 2
q2
F2  : F2 = -----------------2- . -
4 l 0
 (. 10.2.10).
ll
 ------------0- . -
2

ll
F = k ------------0- ,
2

 k  .
 -
F1, F2 F, ,   -
. :

F = F1 + F2.

, :

2
q = l --- 0 k ( l l0 ) .
5

10.2.12.  
  , -

q q 2
F = -------------------
2
,
4 0 a
a
 a -
Q F4 q F1 F3 (. 10.2.11).
a . -

F2
a :
q 2 2
q q
F1 = -------------------
2
F2 = -------------------
2
,
4 0 a 4 0 a
. 10.2.11

562

q 2
F3 = 2 -------------------
2
cos ,
4 0 a

 = 30. F3  , -
  F1 F2. 
. -
  -
Q,    q

qQ ,
F4 = F3 = ------------------
-
2
4 0 r

a
 r = ----------------
- q Q.
2 cos
,
q 2 cos q Q cos 2
-------------------2- = --------------------------
-,
2 0 a 0 a 2


q
- = 5,8 107 .
Q = ----------------
2 cos

: Q = 5,8 107 -
 .
10.4.7.  (.
10.4.5). 
Ex = E1 + E2 Ex = 2E cos ,

kq
 E = E1 = E2 = ------
2
, r = (x2 + a2)1/2 cos = x
--- .
r r
-
E
2kqx
Ex = -------------------------------
2 2 3 /2
.
(x + a ) E2 E1
 Ex :
r r
x
dE x
----------- = 0,
dx
+q a a +q
------- ------------------------------- = 0.
d 2kqx
dx ( x 2 + a 2 ) 3 / 2 . 10.4.5

563
  -
,  :
2 2
( x 0 + a2)3/2 2x0 . 3--- ( x 0 + a2)1/2 . 2x0 = 0.
2

a
x0 = ------- . -
2
, 
4kq
Emax = Ex(x0 ) = -----------------
-.
3 3a 2

4kq
: Emax = -----------------
-.
2
3 3a
q1 q2 10.4.8.  A
a  -
(. 10.4.6):
a r a E = E1 + E 2 + E 3 ,
E3 A  E1 q1;
a q3
E2 , q2;
E2
E3 q3 (q1 =
E = q2 = q3 = q).
E1

. 10.4.6 . -
E1 E3  
E2.

2 2
Ep = E1 + E3 ;

2 2
E = E p + E2 = E 1 + E 3 + E2 ;

E1 = E3 = kq kq
------2 ; E2 = ------
2
,r= a2 + a2 = a 2 ,
a r

 k  .
,

------2 2 + ---- = 535 /.


1
E = kq
a 2

: E = 535 /.

564
10.4.15.  l,  
q,  . 
 x   -


E = kq
----------
2
-,
r

 k  , r = R 2 + x 2
q  A (. 10.4.7). q =
= q, q,  A -
 ,
OZ.
 E  , -
q  A, 
 (. 10.4.8).  -
E OX OY , OZ
kq
EZ = E cos = ----------
- x
--- .
r2 r

Z Z

E E

E E
A
E
r r
x
q R q A
O Y
l O l
X
. 10.4.7 . 10.4.8

,  -
   A
kqx kx kqx
E = -------------------------------
2 3/2
- = -------------------------------
2 3/2
- q = -------------------------------
-.
2 (R + x ) 2
(R + x ) ( R 2 + x2 ) 3 / 2

  A
EA = E Ed,

565
Z  Ed , 
 d (. 10.4.9):
E
Ed = kqd
--------------
2
kqd
- = ------------------------------------
2 2
-.
EA r 2R ( R + x )
Ed
A ,  -
, 
r  A
x
R 2 2
EA = E + E d 2EE d cos ,
qd 2
kq x2 d 2xd
EA = ------------------------
2 2
-------------------- + ----------------- --------------------------------------------- d
. 10.4.9 (R + x ) R 2 + x 2 4 2 R 2 2R ( R 2 + x 2 ) 1 / 2
d 4 103 /
  :

E
= arcsin -------d sin d 0,036.
EA

: EA d 4 103 /; d 0,036.

10.6.4. -
q F (. 10.6.4)  1  2:
1 A = Fl cos ,
 F ,  -
2 
:
. 10.6.4
F = qE;


- ;  -
E : E = --------
2 0
: = 90 .
,

l sin
A = q-------------------------
- = 0,24 .
2 0

: A = 0,24 .

566
10.6.5.  - q 4q
(. 10.6.5).
, - E1
,
1 E2
E1 = --------
-,
2 0

q
 1 = ---
- . 10.6.5
S
.
, ,
2
E2 = --------
-,
2 0

 2 = 4q
------- .
S
 E1 E2 -
, -

3q
E = |E1 E2| = ------------- ;
2 0 S

:
3qd
= Ed = ------------- .
2 0 S

10.7.10.    -
, A q0  C
 B ,  -
,
A = WC WB,
 WC  q0  :
WC = q0(1C + 2C);

WB  q0 :
WB = q0(1B + 2B);
1, 2 q1 q2 
:
kq 1 kq 2 kq 1 kq 2
- , 2C = ----------- , 1B = ----------- , 2B = --------- .
1C = --------------------
d+l+a l+a d+l l

567
, :

A = kq0a ------------------------------------------
q1 q2
- .
( d + l ) ( d + l + a )-
+ ------------------
l( l + a)

10.7.13. 

W= 1
--- (q11 + q22 + q3 3),
2

Z   1, 2 3
(. 10.7.6) :
O q q q
q 1 = ------------------------- ------------------------- ,
a 2 Y 4 0 l 1 2 4 0 l 1 3
1
X q
2 = ------------------------- q
------------------------- ,
q 4 0 l 1 2 4 0 l 2 3
a
3
q q
3 = ------------------------- + ------------------------- ;
4 0 l 1 3 4 0 l 2 3
. 10.7.6
l1 2 = l2 3 = a, l1 3 = 2 , -
 12, 23 13 . -
,

q q q q
1 = ----------------
- ------------------------- , 2 = 0, 3 = ------------------------- + ----------------- ;
4 0 a 4 0 a 2 4 0 a 2 4 0 a

 :

q2
W= 1
--- q(1 3) = ------------------------- .
2 2 2 0 a

10.7.14.  -
 O (. 10.7.7):
= 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 .

q q     O
l
r = ------- ,
O 2
r
2kq
1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = kq
------ = --------------- ,
q l q r l

. 10.7.7  k  .

568
, 

= 41 = 4 2kq
------------------- .
l

10.7.19. :

0 = kq
------ , (1)
R

 k  , q , R -
.

= kq
------ , l
r
R
 r O A
.   r = R + l
(. 10.7.8),  A
. 10.7.8
kq
= -----------
-. (2)
R+l
(1) (2),
0 R+l
------ = ------------ ,
R

 :

R = l ---------------
- = 30 .
0

10.7.23. R
Q
Q
= ----------------- , (1)
4 0 R

r
Q
= ---------------
-. (2)
4 0 r

0 m r m R1  -
,
. (1),
1 q q
2
(0 m r m R1) = -------------------- + -------------------- . (3)
4 0 R 1 4 0 R 2

569
R1 m r < R2
 (2),  (1):
1 q 2 q
(R1 m r < R2) = ---------------
- + -------------------- . (4)
4 0 r 4 0 R 2

r l R2 -
 (2):
1 q 2q 1 q +q 2
(r l R2) = ---------------
- + ---------------- + ------------------ . (5)
4 0 r 4 0 r 4 0 r
 ( r = R1 r = R2)
(4), (5) r = R1 r = R2 :
1q q 2
(r = R1) = -------------------- + -------------------- = 0,
4 0 R 1 4 0 R 2

1 q +q 2
(r = R2) = -------------------- d 600 .
4 0 R 2
 1, 2 3 0 m r < R1, R1 m r < R2, r l R2
. ,
l1, (3)
q
1 q 2
(r = l1) = -------------------- + -------------------- = 0.
4 0 R 1 4 0 R 2
, l2 , -
(4), r = l2:
q
1 q 2
(r = l2) = -----------------
- + -------------------- d 300 .
4 0 l 2 4 0 R 2

,  l3 ,
(5) r = l3:
1 q +q 2
(r = l3) = -----------------
- d 450 .
4 0 l 3

 (r) -
, . 10.7.9.
600 : (r = l1) = 0; (r = l2) d
d 300 B; (r = l3) d 450 ;
400 . 10.7.9.
300 10.8.9. -
,
l1 R1 l2 R2 l3 .
0 q
5 1015 2025 30 3540 r,
. 10.7.9 q1 q3 .

570
R ,
kq kq kq 3
1 = ---------1 + -------
- + --------- = 0; (1)
R 2R 4R

c R3 ,
kq kq kq 3
3 = ----------1- + -------
- + --------- = 0, (2)
4R 3 4R 4R

 k  .
(1), (2) ,
4q1 + 2q + q3 = 0, (3)
q1 + q + q3 = 0. (4)
(3), (4),
q1 = --q- , q2 = --2- q.
3 3
(r) :
kq kq kq 3
1) 0 m r m R, = ---------1 + -------
- + --------- = 0;
R 2R 4R

- + --------- = ------ ---- --- ;


kq kq kq 3 kq 1 1
2) R m r m 2R, = ---------1 + -------
r 2R 4R 3 R r

------ + --------- = ------ --- -------- ;


kq kq 3 kq 2 1
3) 2R m r m 4R, = ---------1 + kq
r r 4R 3 r 2R
kq kq
4) r l 4R, = ---------1 + kq 3
------ + --------- = 0.
r r r
10.8.10.   
 .

1 , 1 , 2 , 2
(. 10.8.7, ).  -
(. 10.8.7, ).
1 2 -
, 1 2 .
  1 2 -
, :
2 + +
1 1 2
E1 = E 2 + E 1 + E 1 E 2 = --------------------------------------------- = 0,
2 0

2 + +
2 1 1
E2 = E 2 + E 2 + E 1 E 1 = --------------------------------------------- = 0.
2 0

571
E2
E1
E1
1 1 1 1
1
1 1 1 1
E1
E2 E2
E2
2 2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2

) ) E1

. 10.8.7
,
2 = 1 , (1)

1 = 2 . (2)

  (. . 10.8.7, ):
1 = 1 + 1 , (3)

2 = 2 + 2 . (4)

(1)(4), :

1 2 1 + 2
1 = 2 = ------------------
- , 1 = 2 = ------------------
-.
2 2

10.9.1. -
 -
q (q), 
. ,

kq 2 kq 2
F = ------------
- = ---------
2 2
d 2,5 104 ,
( 2l ) 4l

 k = 9 . 109 /.
: F d 2,5 104 H.
10.12.6.  

F = qE,

572
0 S
 q : q = C = --------- ; E -
d
q
 : E = --------
- = ------------- .
2 0 2 0 S
, :

S 2
0
- d 4,4 102 .
F = --------------------
2
2d

10.12.8. 1.   -
,   . -
 
q2
W = ------- .
2C

   C 

q2
W1 = ------- ;
2C

   ,  

q2
W2 = --------
-.
2C

 C = C
---   . ,

W2