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# Trigonometric Equation

## Theory Notes - Trigonometric Equation

1. TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS
An equation involving one or more trigonometrical ratios of unknown angle is called trigonometric
equation e.g. cos2x 4 sinx = 1. It is to be noted that a trigonometrical identity is satisfied for every
value of the unknown angle whereas, trigonometric equation is satisfied only for some values (finite or
infinite in number) of unknown angle. e.g. sin2x + cos2x = 1 is a trigonometrical identity as it is satisfied
for every value of x R.

## 2. SOLUTION OFATRIGONOMETRIC EQUATION

A value of the unknown angle which satisfies the given equation is called a solution of the equation
1
e.g. / 6 is a solution of sin = .
2

3. GENERAL SOLUTION
Since trigonometrical functions are periodic functions, solutions of trigonometric equations can be

.in
generalized with the help of the periodicity of the trigonometrical functions. The solution consisting
of all possible solutions of a trigonometric equation is called its general solution.
ps
We use the following formulae for solving the trigonometric equations: (n I)

LM OP
te

N 2 2 Q
yS

FG IJ
ud

## tan = tan = n + where

H ,
2 2 K
, n I .
St

LM OP,n I .
sin2 = sin2 = n , where 0,
N 2Q
cos = cos = n , where LM0, OP,n I .

2 2

N 2Q
tan = tan = n , where LM0, IJ ,n I .

N 2K
2 2

Note: (For these type of equations students must use these solution to get correct answers)

sin = 0 = n,

cos = 0 = (2n + 1) ,
2

tan = 0 = n,

sin = 1 = (4n + 1)
2

sin = 1 = (4n 1)
2
Page 1 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation

cos = 1 = 2n

cos = 1 = (2n + 1)

## sin = sin and cos = cos = 2n +

Note:
Everywhere in this chapter n is taken as an integer, if not stated otherwise.

The general solution should be given unless the solution is required in a specified interval or range.

DRILL EXERCISE - 1

## Solve the following trigonometric equation

1 3
1. tan + cot = 2 2. sin = and cos =
2 2

3. cos2 sin
1
4
=0 4. .in
sin sin 5 sin 3 , where 0
ps
1
te

4
yS

ud

## (a) Solution of equations by factorising.Consider the equation ;

(2 sin x - cos x) (1 + cos x) = sin2 x.
St

## (b) Solutions of equations reducible to quadratic equations. Consider the equation ;

3 cos2 x - 10 cos x + 3 = 0

## (c) Solving equations by introducing an Auxilliary argument. Consider the equation ;

sin x cos x 2 and 3 cos x sin x 2 .

(d) Solving equations by Transforming a sum of Trigonometric functions into a product. Consider
the example ; sin 5 x + sin 2 x - sin 4x = 0

(e) Solving equations by transforming a product of trigonometric functions into a sum. Consider
the equation ; sin 5x . cos 3x = sin 6x . cos 2x.
(f) Solving equations by a change of variable :
(i) b g
Equations of the form P sin x cos x,sin x.cos x 0 , where P(x, z) is
a polynominal , can be solved by the change.cos x sin x = t
1 2sin x.cos x = t2 . Consider the equation ; sin x + cos x = 1 + sin x . cos x .

Page 2 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation
(ii) Equation of the form of a .sin x + b . cos x + d = 0, where a ; b and d are real
numberes and a , b 0 can be solved by changing sin x and cos x into their
corresponding tangent of half the angle.Consider the equation 3cos x + 4 sin x = 5.
(iii) Many equations can be solved by introducing a new variable e.g. the equation
FG 1 IJ 0 by substituting,
H 2K
sin4 2x + cos4 2x = sin 2x. cos 2x changes to 2( y 1) y

sin 2x . cos 2x = y.

(g) Solving equations with the use of the Boundness of the functions sin x and cos x. Consider
FGx IJ FG x IJ
H K H K
the equation ; sin x cos 2 sin x 1 sin 2 cos x .cos x 0 .
4 4

## 5. SOME IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER

While solving a trigonometric equation, squaring the equation at any step should be avoided
as far as possible. If squaring is necessary, check the solution for extraneous values.

.in
Never cancel terms containing unknown terms on the two sides, which are in product. It
may cause loss of genuine solution.
ps
The answer should not contain such values of angles, which make any of the terms undefined.
Domain should not be changed. If it is changed, necessary corrections must be incorporated.
te

Check that the denominator is not zero at any stage while solving equations.
yS

Some times you may find that your answers differ from those in the package in their notations.
This may be due to the different methods of solving the same problem. Whenever you
ud

come across such situation, you must check their authenticity. This will ensure that your
While solving trigonometric equations you may get same set of solution repeated in your
St

answer. It is necessary for you to exclude these repetitions, e.g. n + , (n I) forms a
2
k
part of , k I the second part of the second set of solution (you can check by
5 10
k
putting k = 5 m + 2 (mI). Hence the final answer is ,kI.
5 10
Some times the two solution set consist partly of common values. In all such cases the
common part must be presented only once.
Now we present some illustrations for solving the different forms of trigonometric equations.
Which will highlight the importance of above mentioned points.

Page 3 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation

DRILL EXERCISE - 2

## Solve the folloiwng trigonometric equations

1. cos sin cos 2 sin 2 2. sin 5x + sin 3x = sin 4x

13
3. sin2x + cos4x =0 4. 4 sin4x + 12 cos2 x = 7
16

1 x
5. (1 tan )(1 sin 2) 1 tan 6. sin x + sin 2x + sin 3 x = cot .
2 2

2
7. 2cos 2x = 3.2 cos x 4 . 8. sin6 2x + cos6 2x = 7/16.

9. sin2x + sin22x = 1

Illustration 1:
Solve: 7cos2 + 3sin2 = 4
Solution:
Given 7cos2 + 3sin2 = 4 .in
ps
or, 7cos2 + 3 (1 cos2) = 4
or, 4cos2 = 1
te

2
2
1
yS

cos cos
2
2 3

ud

n 3 n I
Illustration 2:
St

## Solve: 3tan ( - 150) = tan ( + 150)

Solution:
Given, 3tan ( - 150) = tan ( + 150)

tan 150

3
or,

tan 15 0
1
tan 15 0
tan 15 4
0

tan 15 tan 15 2
or, 0 0 (By componendo and dividendo)

sin 15 0
15 0
2
sin 15 15
or 0 0

or, 2 sin2 = 2 or sin2 = 1 = sin
2
n
2 = n + (-1)n = + (- 1)n , n I
2 2 4

Page 4 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation
Illustration 3:
1
Solve: cos cos2 cos3 =
4
Solution:
4cos cos2 cos3 = 1
or, (2cos3 cos) 2cos2 = 1
or, (cos4 + cos2) 2cos2 - 1 = 0
or, 2cos4 cos2 + 2cos22 - 1 = 0
or, 2cos4 cos2 + cos4 = 0
or, cos4 [2cos2 + 1] = 0

If cos4 = 0, 4 = (2n + 1) = (2n + 1)
2 8
If 2cos2 + 1 = 0
1 2 2
or, cos2 = = cos 2 2m
2 3 3

= m

.in
3

Hence, = (2n + 1) or m where n, m I
ps
8 3

Illustration 4:
te

## Solve: tanx + tan2x + tan3x = 0.

yS

Solution:
tanx + tan2x + tan3x = 0
ud

## or, tanx + tan2x + tan (x + 2x) = 0

tan x tan 2 x
or, tanx + tan2x + 1 tan x tan 2x 0
St

1
or, (tanx + tan2x) 1 1 tan x tan 2x 0

If tanx + tan2x = 0, tanx = tan2x
or, tanx = tan(2x) x = n + (2x) or, 3x = n
n
x=
3
1
If 1 + = 0 then, 1 tanx tan2x = 1
1 tan x tan 2 x
2 tan x
or, tanx tan2x = 2 or, tanx 2
1 tan 2 x
or, tan2x = 1 tan2x
1
or, 2tan2x = 1 or, tan2x =
2
1 1 1
or, tanx = or x = m tan
2 2

Page 5 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation
x = m +
n 1
Hence x = or m tan 1 , n , m I
3 2

Illustration 5 :
Solve: 2sin2x 5sinx cosx 8cos2x = 2.
Solution:
In such problems we divide both sides by cos2x. This converts the given equation in a quadratic
equation in tanx, which can be easily solved.
Clearly, cosx 0 For if cosx = 0, then
2sin2x = 2 sin2x = 1 which is impossible.
Given equation is 2sin2x 5sinx cosx 8cos2x = 2
or, 2tan2x 5tanx 8 = 2sec2x [dividing both sides by cos2x]
or, 2tan2x 5tanx 8 + 2 (1 + tan2x) = 0
or, 4 tan2x 5tanx 6 = 0
or, 4tan2x 8tanx + 3tanx 6 = 0
or, 4tanx (tanx 2) + 3 (tanx 2) = 0

.in
or, (tanx 2) (4tanx + 3) = 0
either tanx 2 = 0

ps
tanx = 2 = tan (suppose)
x = n + = n + tan12
te

3
or, 4tanx + 3 = 0 tanx = = tan (suppose)
4
yS

3
x = n + = m + tan1 . where n , m I
4
ud

## 6. SOLVING SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS

Here we will discuss problems related to the solution of two equations satisfied simultaneously. We
St

## may divide the problems in two categories.

(i) Two equations in one unknown
(ii) Two equations in two unknowns.

Illustration 6:
Find all values of lying between 0 and 2, satisfying the following equations,
rsin = 3 and r + 4sin = 2 ( 3 + 1)
Solution:
Given equations are,
rsin = 3 ... (i)
and r + 4sin = 2( 3 + 1) ... (ii)
To find the value of , we must eliminate r.
3
Now, from (i), r =
sin

Page 6 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation
Substituting the value of r in (ii), we get,
3
4 sin 2 ( 3 1)
sin
or, 4sin2 2 3 sin 2sin + 3 = 0
or, 2sin (2sin 3 ) 1 (2sin 3 ) = 0
or, (2sin 3 ) (2sin 1) = 0

3
If 2sin 3 = 0, sin = = sin = n + (1)n
2 3 3
1
If 2sin 1 = 0, sin = = sin = n + (1)n
2 6 6
2 5
Values of lying between 0 and 2 are , , ,
6 3 3 6
Illustration 7:
Find the smallest positive values of x and y satisfying

.in
xy= , and cotx + coty = 2
4
Solution:

ps
Given xy= ... (i)
4
cotx + coty = 2 ... (ii)
te

## From (ii), sin(x + y) = 2sinx.siny

= cos (x y) cos(x + y)
yS

= cos cos (x + y)
4
ud

1
sin (x + y) + cos (x + y) = cos
4 2
St

1 1 1
sin (x + y) + cos (x + y) =
2 2 2

cos (x + y ) = cos
4 3

x+y = 2n
4 3

x + y = 2n . (iii)
3 4
7
for n = 0, x + y = (sin ce x , y 0) . (iv)
12
5
From (i) and (iv), x = , y
12 6
5
Hence least positive values of x and y are and respectively..
12 6

Page 7 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation

DRILL EXERCISE - 3
Solve the following simultaneous equations
1 3 1 2
1. sin x sin y = and cos x cos y = 2. yx= and cos (x) cos (y) =
4 4 4 2

1 1
3. cos (x y) = and cos (x + y) = 4. sin x + cos y = 1 and x + y =
2 2 3

1
5. tan x + tan y = 2 and cos x cos y =
2

7. TRIGONOMETRIC INEQUATIONS
To solve trigonometric inequation of the type f(x) a, or f(x) a where f(x) is some trigonometric
ratio we take following steps.
(i) Draw the graph of f(x) in a interval length equal to fundamental period of f(x).
(ii) Draw the line y = a.
(iii) Take the portion of the graph for which inequation is satisfied.

.in
(iv) To generalise add pn (n I) and take union over set of integers , where p is fundamental
period of f(x).
ps
Illustration 8:
Find the solution set of the inequation sin x > 1/2.
te

Solution:
When sinx = 1/2, the two values of x between 0 and 2 are /6 and 5/6.
yS

y
ud

y = 1/2
/6 5/6 x
St

## From, the graph of y = sin x,

it is obvous that, between 0 and 2
5
sinx > 1/2 for x .
6 6
Hence sin x > 1/ 2
2n + /6 < x < 2n+ 5/6

5
The required solution set = n 2 n , 2 n
I
6 6

Page 8 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation
Illustration 9:
1
Find the solution set of < tan x 1.
3
Solution:
1
< tan x 1
3

6
< x O
6 4 2 4 2
The required solution set will be

n , n
nI 6 4

DRILL EXERCISE - 4

.in
Find the solution set for following trigonometric inequation
1
Sin Sin + cos < 1
ps
1. 2.
2

x
te

1
3. log2 sin < 1 4. sin x <
2 2
yS

ud

## 8. PROBLEMS BASED ON BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

If the problem involves only one equation consisting of more than one variable or equation involves
St

variable of different natures then the boundary conditions of trigonometric functions is generally
used. It must be noted that
|sinx| 1 ; | cosx | 1; |sec x| 1; | cosec x | 1; |tan x| 0; |cot x| 0

Illustration 9:
Solve sin2x + cos2 y = 2sec2z
Solution:
L.H.S. = sin2x + cos2y 2
R.H.S. = 2sec2z 2
Hence L.H.S. = R.H.S. only when
sin2x = 1, cos2 y = 1, sec2 z = 1
cos2x = 0, sin2 y = 0, cos2 z = 1 cos x = 0, sin y = 0, sin z = 0

x = (2m + 1) , y = n and z = t where m, n, t are integers.
2

Page 9 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation
Illustration 10:
x
Solve: 2 cos
2
sin 2 x x 2 x 2 , 0 x / 2
2
Solution:
In this problem, terms on the two sides of the equation are different in nature, L.H.S. is in
trigonometric form, whereas R.H.S. is in algebraic form. Hence, we will use boundary conditions.
x
L.H.S. = 2 cos2 sin 2 x
2
= (1 + cosx) sin2x < 2 (since 1 + cosx < 2 and sin2 x 1)
1
R.H.S. = x2 + 2
x2
Hence L.H.S. is never equal to R. H. S. Therefore, the given equation has no solution.

DRILL EXERCISE - 5

x2 x
1. sin4 x cos7 x = 1. 2. Solve: 2 cos 2 2 x 2 x .

.in
6

## 3. 2cos x 2cos x = 4 4. sin2 x + cos2 y = 2 cosec2 z

ps
te

5. 2 sec2 x 1 = sin 3y
yS
ud
St

Page 10 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation

Drill Exercise - 1
5
1. = m , nI 2. = 2n + , nI
4 6

2 5
3. = n + (1)n , n I 4. 0, , , , &
6 6 3 3 6
5
5. , 6. = n ,nI
3 3 3

Drill Exercise - 2
2 m n
1. 2 n or , m, n I 2. x= , x = 2m , n, m I
3 6 4 3
n
3. x= 4. x = 2n

.in
2 6 4
FG IJ 2 n
5. H
n or m
K
, m, n I 6. x , n I
ps
4 7 7
n
x , n I
te

7. x n, n I 8.
4 12
yS

9. (2n + 1) , nI
6
ud

Drill Exercise - 3
St

1. {( (6n + 6k 1)/6, (6n 6k 1)/6), ( (6n + 6k + 1)/6, (6n 6k + 1)/6}, (n, k I).

## 2. {n, (4n + 1)/4, ((4n 1)/4, n)} (n I)

3. {( (6k + 6n 1)/6, (2k 2n 1)/2) , ( (2k + 2n 1)/2, (6k 6n 1)/6}, (k, n I).

1 5
4. ((1) sin
n
2 3 n, (1) n sin 1 2 3 n , (n I).
12 12

## 5. {( (4m + 1)/4, (8n 4m + 1)/4)}, (n, m I)

Page 11 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation
Drill Exercise - 4

7 11
1. 2n 6 , 2n 6 2. 2n , 2n
2
nI nI

## 3. (4n, (12n + 1)/3 ( (12n + 1)/3, 2 + 4n), (n I)

5 n
4. 2n, 2n 6 2n 6 , (2n 1) 5. R , n I
n I 4

Drill Exercise - 5

1. x 2n , n I , x n , nI 2. x=0
2

3. 4. x = (2n + 1)

2 .in
, y = m, z = (2t + 1) , (n, m, t I)
2
ps

5. x = n, y = (4m + 1) , (n, m I)
te

3
yS

Example 1 :
ud

Solution:
St

## Here sinx + cosx =2 2 sinx cosx = 2 sin2x (1)

1 1
or 2 ( 2 sin x 2 cos x ) 2 sin 2 x or sin x sin 2 x
4

or, 2x = n + (1)n x
4

Taking n even, n = 2m, m I, 2x = 2m + x +
4

x = 2m + where m
4
Taking n odd, n = 2m + 1, mI

2x = (2m + 1) x
4

Page 12 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation

2m 1
3x = (2m + 1) or x
4 3 12

1 1 3
Thus, x = 2m or 2m , where ml.
4 3 4

Example 2 :
Find the general solution of the equation
[cos (x/4) 2sinx] sin x + [1 + sin (x/4) 2 cosx] cosx = 0
Solution:
From the given equation
x x
sin x cos 4 sin 4 cos x 2 (sin x cos x ) cos x 0
2 2

or, sin (x + x/4) 2 + cosx = 0
or, sin(5x/4) + cosx 2 = 0 (1)

.in
Which is possible only if sin(5x/4) and cos x both are equal to their maximum value 1. Thus (1) is
satisfied if
sin (5x/4) = 1 (2)
ps
and cos x = 1 (3)
te

## From (2), sin (5x/4) = 1

yS

5x/4 = 2n + /2
or x = 2 (4n + 1) /5, where nI (4)
ud

## and from (3), cos x = 1

x = 2m, where m I (5)
St

Now the value of x satisfy both (2) and (3) are the value of x which are common in (4) and (5).
Thus we require the integral values of m and n, such that
2(4n + 1) /5 = 2m
m = (4n + 1)/5 (5)
Since both m and n are integers, therefore we can take only those integral values of n for which
4n + 1 is divisible by 5. Obviously n = 1 is the least positive integral value of n for which 4n + 1 is
divisible by 5. Thus we can take n = 1 + 5 l, l I .
From (4), x = (2/5) [4(1 + 5l ) + 1] = 2(4l + 1) , where lI

Example 3 :

Solve the equation cos2 [ (sin x 2 cos x )] tan ( x tan x ) 1
2 2 2
4 4
Solution:

Given cos2 [ (sin x 2 cos x )] tan ( x tan x ) 1
2 2 2
4 4

Page 13 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation

or, sin 2 { (sin x 2 cos 2 x )} tan 2 ( x tan 2 x ) 0
4 4
It is possible only when

sin 2 { (sin x 2 cos 2 x )} 0 (1)
4

and tan 2 x tan 2 x 0 (2)
4
from equation (1)

sin2 (sin x 2 cos x ) = 0
2

(sin x + 2 cos 2 x ) = n, n I
4
or, sinx + 2 cos2x = 4n
|sinx + cos2x | |sin x| + |cosx|2 1 + < 4
The equation has no solution for n 0 we consider n = 0
sinx + cos2x = 0
.in
ps
i.e., sin2x sinx 1 = 0
or, (sinx 2 ) ( 2 sinx + 1) = 0
te

sinx 2
yS

1
sinx = x = 2k /4, . k I
2
Also these values of x satisfy the equation (2), therefore the general solution of given equation is
ud

x = 2k , kI.
St

Example 4 :
Find the general solution of the equation sin4x + cos4x = sinx cosx
Solution:
The given equation can be rewritten as
4sin4x + 4cos4x = 4sinx cosx
or, (1 cos2x)2 + (1 + cos2x)2 = 2sin2x
or, 2(1 + cos22x) = 2sin 2x
1 + cos22x = sin 2x
or, 1 + 1 sin22x = sin2x
sin22x + sin2x = 2
This relation is possible if and only if sin2x = 1
(4n 1)
or, 2x = 2n + x n ( n I)
2 4 4

Page 14 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation
Example 5 :
tan + tan( + (/3)) + tan( + (2/3)) = 3
Solution:
From the given equation,
tan tan( / 3) tan tan(2 / 3)
tan + 1 tan tan( / 3) 1 tan tan(2 / 3) 3

tan 3 tan 3
or, tan 3
1 3 tan 1 3 tan

## tan (1 3 tan 2 ) (tan 3).(1 3 tan ) (tan 3) (1 3 tan )

or, =3
(1 3 tan ) (1 3 tan )

3 tan tan 3
or, 3 3
1 3 tan 2
or, tan3 = 1 = tan(/4) or, 3 = n + (/4)
or, = (4n + 1) (/12), where n I

Example 6 :
.in
ps
1
1
Solve x and y : 4 sin x 3 cos y
11 ,
sinx
5.16 2.3 cos y
2
te

Solution:
yS

1
Let, 4sinx = , 3 cos y
ud

## Then the equation becomes

+ = 11 (1)
52 2 = 2
St

(2)
On solving we get
12
= 2,
5
If = 2, 4 sin x 2; 2 2 sin x 2 ;
2sinx = 1;
1
sin x =
2

12 12
If = , then 4sinx = which is impossible as 4sinx > 0
5 5
When = 2, we get = 11 2 = 9
1
3 cos y
9 32

Page 15 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation

1 1
2; cosy =
cos y 2

1 1
Thus we have sinx = , cos y
2 2

x = n + (1)n and y = 2m , where m, n I
6 3

Example 7 :
Find all values of for which the equation sin4x + cos4x + sin2x + = 0 has atleast one solution.
Also find the general solution of the equation for that .
Solution:
Here (sin2x + cos2x)2 2sin2x. cos2x + sin2x + = 0
1 2
or, 1 sin 2 x sin 2 x 0
2
or, sin22x 2sin2x 2(1 + ) = 0

sin2x =
2 4 8(1 )
2
1 2 3
.in (1)
ps
3
But sin 2x is real; so 2 + 3 0, i.e.,
te

2
Also, 1 sin2x 1
yS

11 2 3 1

2 3 1
ud

As 1 +

3
So 1 + 2 3 = 1 =
St

2
Also 1 1 2 3 1

0 2 3 2

3 1
,
2 2

## from (1), sin 2x = 1 2 3

3 1
where ,
2 2
2x = n + (1)n, nI and sin = 1 2 3

x=
n
2

(1) n sin 1 1 2 3

Page 16 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation

3 1
where n and ,
2 2

Example 8 :
Solve for and :
tan + tan = 4
tan3 + tan3 = 2

Solution:
Here, tan + tan = 4
or, (tan 2) + (tan 2) = 0
Putting tan = x + 2
and tan = y + 2, then x + y = 0 (1)
again, tan3 + tan3 = 2

## 3 tan tan 3 3 tan tan 3

or, =2
1 3 tan 2 1 3 tan 2
or,
.in
3tan 3tan3 9tan tan2 + 3tan3tan2 + 3tan tan3 9tan2.tan + 3tan2. tan3
= 2(1 3tan2 3tan2 + 9tan2 tan2
ps
or, 3.4 {(tan + tan)3 3tan.tan (tan + tan)} 9.4 tan tan + 3.4 tan2 tan2
= 2 6{(tan + tan)2 2tan. tan} + 18 tan2. tan2
te

yS

## = 2 96 + 12 tan. tan+ 18 tan2. tan2

or, 6tan2.tan2 + 36 tan tan 42 = 0
ud

tan. tan == 7, 1
St

## or, (x + 2) (x + 2) = 7, 1 (using (1))

or, 4 x2 = 7, 1 ; x2 = 11, 3
Now, x2 = 11 x = 11
tan = 2 11
= n + tan1 (2 11 ) where nI.
x2 = 3 x = 3
tan = 2 3
= n + tan1 (2 3 ) where n I
Also, tan = 4 tan = 2 11 , 2 3
= m + tan1 ( 2 11 )
or m + tan1 (2 3 ), where m I.

Example 9 :

Page 17 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation

( 3 sin 2 x cos 2 x 2 )
For x ( , ), solve the equation ( 3 sin x cos x ) =4
Solution:
The given equation is
( 3 sin 2 x cos 2 x 2 )
or, ( 3 sin x cos x ) 4

## ( 3 sin 2 x cos 2 x 2 3 sin x cos x )

or, 2 sin x 6 =4

2 sin x
6
or, 2 sin x 6 4

Hence, 2 sin x 2
6

or, sin x 1 or, x + 2n
6 6 2

or, x = 2n

2 6 .in
ps
As x ( , ) ,
te

2
x= and x = are the solutions of the given equation
3 3
yS

Example 10 :
ud

## Solve for x and y: 12 sinx + 5 cosx = 2y2 8y + 21

St

Solution:
12sinx + 5cosx = 2y2 8y + 21
12 5
12 2 5 2 sin x cos x 2( y 2 4 y 4) 13
13 13

5
13cos(x ) = 2(y 2)2 + 13, where cos =
13
Clearly, LHS 13 because the greatest value of cos (x ) is 1
Also RHS 13 because the least value of RHS is 13
the equation can hold if the value of each side = 13
Thus cos(x ) = 1 and y = 2
x = 2n and y = 2
x = 2n + and y = 2

x = 2n + cos1 and y = 2, where nI.
13

Page 18 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation

Example 11 :
2 3
Find the solution set of the system of equations, x + y = and cos x + cos y = , where x
3 2
and y are real.

Solution:
2
x + y = 3 , cos x + cos y = 23

2 cos x 2 y . cos x 2 y = 23
2 cos . cos
3
xy
2
= 23 [x+y= 3 ]
2

## cos x 2 y = 23 which is not possible .

Example 12 :
Find the values of x, 0 x 2 , such that
sin x + sin 2x + sin 3x = cos x + cos 2x + cos 2x.
.in
ps
Solution:
The given equation can be written as
te

## (sin x + sin 3x) + sin 2x = (cos x + cos 3x) + cos 2x

2 sin 2x cos x + sin 2x = 2 cos 2x cos x + cos 2x
yS

## sin 2x (2 cos x + 1) cos 2x (2 cos x + 1) = 0

(sin 2x cos 2x) (2 cos x + 1) = 0
That is, either sin 2x cos 2x = 0 or 2 cos x + 1 = 0. In former case
ud

tan 2x = 1 2x = n (n I)
4
St

(4n 1) 5 9 13
x x , , ,
8 8 8 8 8
1 2 4
If 2 cos x + 1 = 0, then cos x = , that is x or
2 3 3
Example 13 :
If 32 tan 8 2 cos 2 3cos and 3cos 2 1 , then find the general value of .

Solution :
1
Given 3cos 2 1 or cos 2
3
1
1
1 cos 2 31
Now, tan 2 .........(i)
1 cos 2 1 1 2
3

Page 19 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation

## Now 32 tan 8 2 cos 2 3cos

4
1
or 2 cos 3cos 32 2
2
or, 2 cos 2 3cos 2 0
2
or 2 cos 2 4 cos cos 2 0 or, (cos 2) (2 cos 1) 0
1 2
or 2cos 1 0 [ cos 2] or, cos c os
2 3
2
2n , where n 0, 1, 2,.........
3

Example 14 :
Solve the equation e cos x = ecos x + 4

Solution :
Given equation is ecos x = ecos x + 4
1
or, z 4 0 , where ecosx = z (suppose)

.in
z
or, z2 4z 1 = 0
ps
4 16 4.1(1)
z
2
te

z 2 5
yS

z 2 5
ecos x = 2 5
ud

cos x = log e 2 5 1 and is imposible
St

no solution

Example 15 :
For what value of k the equation sin x + cos(k + x) + cos(k x) = 2 has real solutions ?
Solution :
Given equation is sin x + cos(k + x) + cos(k x) = 2
or sin x + 2 cos k . cos x = 2 or 2 cos x . cos x + sin x = 2
This equation is of the form a cos x + b sin x = c
Here a = 2 cos k, b = 1 and c = 2
Since for real solutions, | c | a 2 b 2

| 2 | 1 4 cos 2 k or 2 1 4 cos 2 k
3 1 1
cos 2 k sin 2 k sin 2 k 0
4 4 4
1 1 1 1
or sin k sin k 0 sin k
2 2 2 2

Page 20 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation

n k n
6 6

.in
ps
te
yS
ud
St

Page 21 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation

## SOLVED OBJECTIVE EXAMPLES

Example 1 :

1
If sinx + cosx = y y , x [0, ] , then

(a) x = /4 (b) x =
2

(c) x = (d) x = 3/4
6
Solution:

1
y 2 and |sinx + cosx|
y 2

1
Hence y + 2 and sinx + cosx = 2 , which is possible for y = 1, x = /4.
y
Hence (a) is the correct answer.
.in
ps
Example 2 :
If x2 4x + 5 siny = 0, y[0, 2), then
te

(a) x = 1, y = 0 (b) x = 1, y = /2
yS

(c) x = 2, y = 0 (d) x = 2, y = /2
Solution:
ud

(x 2)2 + 1 = sin y
x = 2, sin y = 1 x = 2, y = /2
St

## Hence (d) is the correct answer

Example 3 :
The set of all x in (, ) satisfying |4sinx 1| < 5 is given by

3 3
(a) , (b) ,
10 10 10 10

3
(c) , (d) none of these
10 10

Solution:
We have |4sinx1| < 5 5 < 4sinx 1 < 5

5 1 5 1
4 sin x 4

Page 22 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation

sin sin x cos
10 5

sin sin x sin
10 2 5

3
sin sin x sin
10 10

3
x ,
10 10
Hence (a) is the correct answer.

Example 4 :
The values of x between 0 and 2, which satisfy the equation sin x 8 cos 2 x 1 are in A.P. with
common difference
(a)/4 (b)/8

.in
(c) 3/8 (d) 5/8
Solution:
ps
We have sin x 8 cos 2 x 1
1
te

sinx |cosx| =
2 2
yS

Case I
when cosx > 0
ud

1
In this case sinx cosx =
2 2
St

1 3 9 13
sin2x = + 2x , , ,
2 4 4 4 4

3 9 13
x= , , ,
8 8 8 8
3
As x lies between 0 and 2 and cos x > 0, x = ,
8 8
CaseII
1
When cosx < 0 . In this case sinx |cosx| =
2 2

1 1
sinx cosx = or sin 2 x
2 2 2

5 7 13 15 5 7
x= , , , x= , as cosx < 0
8 8 8 8 8 8

Page 23 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation

3 5 7
Thus the values of x satisfying the given equation which lie between 0 and 2 are , , ,
8 8 8 8

These are in A.P. with common difference
4
Hence (a) is the correct answer.

Example 5 :
The number of points inside or on the circle x2 + y2 = 4 satisfying tan4x + cot4 x + 1 = 3 sin2y is
(a) one (b) two
(c) four (d) infinite
Solution:
tan4x + cot4x + 1 = (tan2x cot2x)2 + 3 3
3sin2y 3 tan2 x = cot2x, sin2 y = 1
tanx = 1, siny = 1 x = /4, 3/4,
But x 4 2 x 2 x = /4 only
2

## siny = 1 y = /2, 3/2, ..

But y2 4 y = /2 only .in
ps
So four solutions are possible,
te

## Hence (c) is the correct answer.

yS

Example 6 :
The equation 3sin2x + 10 cos x 6 = 0 is satisfied if ( n I )
ud

## (a) x = n + cos1(1/3) (b) x = n cos1(1/3)

St

n
(c) x = 2n cos1 (1/3) (d) x = cos1 (1/3)
2
Solution:
The given equation is equivalent to
3(1 cos2x) + 10 cos x 6 = 0
3cos2x 10 cosx + 3 = 0 (3cosx 1) (cos x 3) = 0
Therefore cos x = 1/3 (because cos x 3). Hence x = 2n cos1 (1/3), n I
Hence (c) is the correct answer.

Example 7 :

The equation 2 sin x cos 2 x 2 sin x sin 2 x cos 2 x sin 2 x has a root for which
2 2
(a) sin 2x = 1 (b) sin 2x = 1
(c) cos x = 1/2 (d) cos 2x = 1/2

Page 24 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation
Solution:
The given equation can be written as
x
2 sin (cos 2 x sin 2 x ) cos 2 x sin 2 x
2

x x
or 2 sin cos 2 x cos 2 x 2 sin 1 cos 2 x 0
2 2
Hence cos 2x = 0 or sin (x/2) = 1/2. That is , 2x = n + /2

or x/2 = k + (1)k (n, k I). In other words,
6

n
x or x = 2k + (1)k
2 4 3

n
If x = , then sin 2x = 1, and if x = 2k + (1)k ,
2 4 3

1 2 1

.in
cos x = cos and cos 2x = cos
3 2 3 2
Hence (d) is the correct answer.
ps
Example 8 :
te

A solution of the equation (1 tan) (1 + tan) sec2 + 2 tan 2 = 0 where lies in the interval
yS

## (/2, /2) is given by

ud

(a) = 0 (b)
3
St

(c) = (d)
4 6
Solution:
(1 tan) (1 + tan) sec2 + 2 tan 0
2

(1 tan4) + 2 tan 2 = 0
2t = t2 1

## (where t = tan2 ) By inspection (or by graph) we find y = 2t and y = t2 1 intersect in t = 3

tan2 = 3 tan = 3
8
y = 2t
= /3 as shown in the figure 1
y = t21
0 3 t
Hence (b) is the correct answer.
1

Page 25 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation
Example 9 :
Number of solutions of the equation tanx + secx = 2 cosx lying in the interval [0, 2] is
(a) 0 (b) 1
(c) 2 (d) 3
Solution:
The given equation can be written as
1 sin x
= 2cosx 1 + sin x = 2 cos2 x = 2 (1 sin2x)
cos x
2sin2x + sinx 1 = 0
(1 + sinx) (2 sinx 1) = 0 sin x = 1 or 1/2
3 1
Now sinx = 1 x = for which the given equation is not meaningful and x =
2 2

5
x= or
6 6
The required number of solutions are 2.

.in
Hence (c) is the correct answer.
ps
Example 10 :

The number of solutions of the equation 2cos = |sinx| , , is
te

2 2
yS

## (a) zero (b) 2

(c) 4 (d) more than four
ud

Solution:
We have 2cos = |sin x|
St

## It is true only for |sin x| = 1

sin x = 1
So, x = 2n /2 x [2, 2]
3 3
x= , , ,
2 2 2 2
Then the no. of solutions = 4.

Example 11 :
For what and only what values of lying between 0 and is the inequality,
sin cos3 > sin3 cos valid ?

(a) 0 , (b) 0 ,
4 2

(c) , (d) none of these
4 2

Solution:

Page 26 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation
We have sin cos3 > sin3 cos
sin cos (cos2 sin2 ) > 0
sin cos (1 tan2 ) > 0
( sin > 0 for 0 < < )
cos (1 tan ) > 0
2

## cos > 0 and 1 tan2 > 0

cos < 0 and 1 tan2 < 0
3
0 , or ,
4 4

Example 12 :
tan x = tan x if :
2 k 1
(a) x 2 k 1 , k

(b) x k ,
2 2

2 k 1 2 k 1
(c) x k , (d) x , k , k N
2 2

Solution:

.in
R.H.S. 0 for all x, the given condition is true for those values of x which lie in the I or III
quadrant and the values of x given by A abd B satisfy these conditions.
ps
Example 13 :
te

1
The number of solutions of the equation, cot x = cot x + (0 x 2) is :
sin x
yS

(a) 0 (b) 1
(c) 2 (d) 3
ud

Solution:
St

If cos x > 0
1
then (impossible)
sin x
Now if cot x < 0
1
then cot x = cot x +
sin x
2 cos x 1
=0
sin x
1
cos x =
2
2
x = 2 n , n I and 0 x 2
3
2 4
then x= ,
3 3

Page 27 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation

Example 14 :
The general solution of, sin x 3 sin 2x + sin 3x = cos x 3 cos 2x + cos 3x is
n
(a) n + (b)
8 2 8
n 3
(c) ( 1)n (d) 2 n + cos 1
2 8 2

Solution:
sin x - 3 sin 2x + sin 3x - cos x - 3 cos 2x + cos 3x
2 sin 2x cos x - 3 sin 2x = 2 cos 2x cos x - 3 cos 2x
(2 cos x - 3) sin 2x = cos 2x (2 cos x - 3)
2 cos x - 3 0 tan 2x = 1
n
x = 2 8

Example 15 :
The equation, cos 2x + a sin x = 2a 7 possesses a solution if :
(a) a < 2
(c) a > 6
(b) 2 a 6
.in
(d) a is any integer
ps
Solution:
te

k = a (say)
k sin x + (1 - 2 sin 2 x) = 2 k - 7
yS

2 sin2 x - k sin x + 2 (k - 4) = 0
k k2 16 k 64 k (k 8)
ud

sin x = 4 = 4 = 12 (k - 4) , 2
k4
sin x 2 sin x =
St

2
k4
1 2 1 2k6

Page 28 of 29 www.StudySteps.in
Trigonometric Equation

.in
ps
te
yS
ud
St

Page 29 of 29 www.StudySteps.in