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Characteristic & Classification of Living Organisms


Organization of the Organism


Movement In and Out of Cells


Biological Molecules




Plant Nutrition


Human Nutrition


Transport in Plants


Transport in Animals


Diseases & Immunity



Gas Exchange in Humans




Excretion in Humans


Coordination & Response

21 Drugs





28 Variation & Selection



Organisms & their Environment

31 Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering


33 Human Influences on Ecosystems


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DNA is the chemical from which chromosomes are made
1. CHARACTERISTICS AND CLASSIFICATION OF Each DNA molecule is made up of strings of smaller
LIVING ORGANISMS molecules containing four bases
Biologists compare the sequences of the bases in the
1.1 Characteristics of Living Organisms DNA of organisms from two different species
Movement: action by an organism or part of an The more similar the base sequence, the more closely
organism causing a change of position or place related the species are to one another
Respiration: the chemical reactions that break down Organisms which share a more recent ancestor have
nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy base sequences in DNA that are more similar than those
Sensitivity: ability to detect or sense changes in the that share only a distant ancestor
environment (stimuli) and to make responses
The sequences of bases in DNA and of amino acids in
Growth: permanent increase in size and dry mass by an
proteins are used as a more accurate means of
increase in cell number or cell size or both
classification (cladistics)
Reproduction: processes that make more of the same
kind of organism
1.3 Kingdoms
Excretion: removal from organisms of toxic materials,
Animal: Multi-cellular ingestive heterotrophs (eat living
the waste products of metabolism (chemical reactions in
cells including respiration) and substances in excess of
Plant: Multi-cellular photosynthetic autotrophic (make
their own food) organism with a cellulose cell wall.
Nutrition: taking in of nutrients which are organic
Fungi: Single celled or multi cellular heterotrophic
substances and mineral ions, containing raw materials or
organism with cell wall not made of cellulose, spread by
energy for growth and tissue repair, absorbing and
spreading of spores in moist/dark/warm environment,
assimilating them saprotrophs (feed off dead organisms) or parasites
Prokaryotes: Single celled organism with no true nucleus
1.2 Concept & Use of a Classification System Protocist: Single celled organism with a nucleus
Organisms can be classified into groups by the features
that they share 1.4 Vertebrates
Classification systems aim to reflect evolutionary MR FAB
relationships (change of adaptive features of a Mammals
population over time, as a result of natural selection) o Fur/hair on skin
Species: organisms which can reproduce successfully o Can live on land and in water
Classification is traditionally based on studies of o 4 legs
morphology and anatomy o Lungs to breathe
Morphology: the overall form and shape of their bodies o Give birth to live young
e.g. wings or legs Reptiles:
o Scales on skin
Anatomy: the detailed body structure determined by
o Usually 4 legs
dissection o Lungs to breathe
Binomial system: a system of naming species in which o Hard eggs
the scientific name of an organism is made up of two Fish:
parts showing the genus (starting with a capitol letter) o Wet scales
and species (starting with a lower case letter), written in o External fertilization and soft eggs
italics when printed (therefore underlined when written) o Gills to breathe
e.g. Homo sapiens Amphibians:
o Smooth, moist skin
KING PHILIP CAME OVER FOR GOOD SPAGHETTI o External fertilization and soft eggs
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species o Gills/lungs to breathe so can live on land and in water
o 4 legs
Kingdom Species = Similarity increases
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Birds 1.7 Viruses and Bacteria
o Feathers on body and scales on legs VIRUS BACTERIA
o Have 2 legs and 2 wings COVERED BY Protein coat Cell wall
o Lungs to breathe CELL
o Hard eggs No Yes
1.5 Arthropods (Invertebrates with Legs) CYTOPLASM No Yes
Crustaceans: (e.g. crabs) MATERIAL only a few genes several 100 genes
o Have an exoskeleton LIVING OR Non-living unless
o 1 pair of compound eyes NOT? in host
o 2 body segment cephalothorax and abdomen Two examples of virus structure
o More than four pairs of legs
o 2 pairs of antennae sensitive to touch and chemicals
Arachnids: (e.g. spiders)
o 2 body segment cephalothorax and abdomen
o Four pairs of legs
o Pair of chelicerae to hold prey
o Two pedipalps for reproduction
o Simple eyes
Myriapods: (e.g. centipede)
o Segmented body
o Additional segments formed 1.8 Dichotomous Keys
o One pair of antennae Dichotomous key: uses visible features to classify
o 70+ pairs of legs 1 or 2 pairs on each segment organisms. It is which gives you a choice of two features
o Fused head and thorax and segmented abdomen and you follow the one that applies: each choice leads
o Simple eyes to another choice until the organism is narrowed down
Insects: (e.g. bees) to its genus and finally species.
o 3 body segments head, thorax and abdomen
o 1 pair of antennae
o 1 or 2 pairs of wings 2.1 Cell structure and Organization
o Compound and simple eyes
All living things are made of cells.
1.6 Classifying Plants All typical cells have:
o Cell membrane: differentially or partially permeable
to allow certain substances to enter and leave the cell.
o Do not produce flowers
o Cytoplasm: where chemical reactions take place
o They are plants with roots, stems and leaves o Nucleus: contains DNA and controls the cell
o Have leaves called fronds o Mitochondria: organelle where aerobic respiration
o Reproduce by spores happens
Flowering plants: o Ribosome: makes protein and can be found floating
o They are plants with roots, stems and leaves within the cytoplasm
o Reproduce sexually by means of flowers and seeds A typical animal cell (e.g. the liver cell) has all above
o Seeds are produced inside the ovary in the flower Only plant cells have:
Monocotyledons Dicotyledons o Vacuole: stores food & water & helps to maintain
One cotyledon Two cotyledons shape of cell
Parallel veins Veins netlike o Cell wall: rigid to keep shape of cell
o Chloroplasts: contain chlorophyll, which absorbs light
Fibrous root Taproot present
energy for photosynthesis
Floral parts in 3s Floral parts in 4s or 5s
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A typical plant cell (e.g. the palisade cell) has all the Organelle: a specialized part of a cell that has its own
above things. function, e.g. the nucleus
Cell: the smallest part of a living structure that can
operate as an independent unit e.g. red blood cell
Tissue: a group of cells with similar structures, working
together to perform a shared function e.g. muscle tissue
Organ: a structure made up of a group of tissues,
working together to perform specific functions e.g. heart
Organ system: group of organs with related functions,
working together to perform body functions e.g.
2.2 Levels of Organization respiratory system
2.3 Size of Specimens
shape = = =
Transport No nucleus
of oxygen Flexible
3.1 Diffusion
Contracts This is the movement of molecules from a region of high
Many protein
to get concentration to a region of low concentration down the
MUSCLE fibres in
structures concentration gradient.
cytoplasm to
CELL This results in random movement of molecules until
closer shorten cell
equilibrium is reached
together when energy
available The diffusion of gases and solutes is important as
Move and without it, molecules which are needed for life, for
CILIATED Tiny hairs example glucose and oxygen for respiration, would not
CELL called cilia be able to get to the places they are needed. Water is
Elongated needed as a solvent
ROOT shape for Factors influencing faster diffusion:
HAIR CELL more surface o Larger concentration gradient
and water
area o Higher temperature
No cytoplasm o Smaller surface area
so water
passes freely 3.2 Osmosis
Transport No cross walls Movement of water molecules from a region of high
XYLEM water and so cells water potential to a region of low water potential,
VESSEL support connect to through a partially permeable membrane
plant form tube Conc. of solute outside cell = conc. inside cell no
Lignin makes it change in size
strong and Conc. of solute outside cell > conc. inside cell cell
waterproof shrinks (Plasmolysis)
Regular shape Conc. of solute outside cell < conc. inside cell cell
so many can swells (Turgid)
PALISADE Photo- fit in a small In animals:
CELL synthesizes space o Increasing solute concentration inside of cell can
Many cause cell to explode as a result of it having too much
chloroplasts water, crenation.

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In plants: Two strands coiled together to form a double helix
o Increasing solute concentration inside of cell causes Each strand contains chemicals called bases
cell to become turgid, vacuole fills up. Cross-links between strands are formed by pairs of bases
o Decreasing solute concentration inside of cell causes The bases always pair up in the same way:
cell to become flaccid, losing water and vacuole gets o A and T
smaller. Cell body shrinks, pulling away from cell wall o C and G
3.3 Active Transport
Movement of particles through a cell membrane, from a
region of lower concentration to a region of higher Catalyst: a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction
concentration against a concentration gradient, using and is not changed by the reaction
energy released during respiration Enzymes: proteins that function as biological catalysts
Active transport is needed when an organism wants to Enzymes lowers amount of energy needed for reaction
optimize the amount of nutrients it can take up - ion to take place
uptake by root hairs and uptake of glucose by epithelial Enzyme lowers the activation energy needed for reaction
cells of villi. to take place
Lock and key theory:
Carbohydrates: made from Carbon, Hydrogen and
Oxygen (CHO)
Fats and oils: made from Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
Proteins: made from Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Substrate: the molecule(s) before they are made to
Nitrogen and sometimes Sulfur (CHON[S]) react
Product: the molecule(s) that are made in a reaction
Catabolic reaction: molecules are broken down
Anabolic reaction: molecules are combined
Simple sugars Starch and glycogen
Fatty acids and glycerol Fats and oils 5.1 Effect of Temperature on Enzymes
Amino acids Proteins Enzymes have an optimum temperature: the
temperature at which they work best giving the fastest
4.1 Chemical Tests reaction 37C in animals
Starch: Add few drops of iodine, +ve result = blue-black When temperature increases, molecules move faster so
colour collide with an enzyme in less time
Reducing sugars: Add Benedicts reagent, then mixture Having more energy makes them more likely to bind to
is heated in water bath for 2 to 3 minutes. +ve result = active site.
brick-red precipitate, -ve result = remains blue If temperature is too high, enzyme molecules vibrate too
Proteins: Add few drops of Biuret reagent, +ve result = vigorously and enzyme is denatured; it loses its shape
mauve colour and will no longer bind with a substrate.
Fats: Emulsion test; ethanol is added to mixture, and this When the temperature is too low there is not enough
is poured into a test tube with an equal amount of kinetic energy for the reaction so it reacts too slowly.
distilled water, +ve result = milky-white emulsion
Vitamin C: Decolourisation of DCPIP shows that a 5.2 Effect of pH on Enzymes
vitamin C is probably present. Enzymes are sensitive to pH
Some enzymes work best in an acid and others in an
4.2 Structure of a DNA alkaline
Chromosomes are made of a molecule called DNA Enzymes work best at their optimum pH
Each chromosome is a very long molecule of tightly If the pH is changed then the enzyme will denature and
coiled DNA will no longer fit with substrate- no reaction takes place

PAGE 6 OF 35
5.3 Graphs for Changes in Enzyme Activity Warmed in ethanol until leaf is colourless to extract
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE EFFECT OF PH chlorophyll, which would mask observation
Dipped in water briefly: to soften leaf
Leaf is placed on a white tile and iodine is added. If
starch is present, colour will be blue-black and if absent,
it will remain orange

5.4 Enzymes and their Uses

Seeds to germinate: the enzymes turn insoluble food
stores to soluble.
Biological washing powders: enzymes are added to 6.2 Light Is Necessary for Photosynthesis
washing powders to help remove stains for example: Destarch the plant by keeping it in darkness for 48hrs
o Lipase for lipids from fatty foods and greasy Place a stencil over part of a leaf
fingerprints Place the leaf in sunlight for 4-6 hours
o Protease for proteins from blood stains Remove the stencil and test for starch
Food industry: +ve result = parts which received light turn black
o Isomerase converts glucose to fructose which is -ve result = parts which didnt receive light remain
sweeter, so less is needed to give a sweet taste yellow/brown
o Pectinase helps break down cell walls in fruit juice
production so it increases yield, lowers viscosity and
reduces cloudiness

Photosynthesis: process by which plants manufacture
carbohydrates from raw materials using energy from
light. 6.3 Carbon Dioxide is Necessary for
+ Photosynthesis
+ Take two destarched potted plants.
62 + 62 6 12 6 + 62
Cover both the plants with bell jars and label them as A
The carbon dioxide diffuses through the open stomata of
and B.
the leaf of a plant and water is taken up through roots.
Inside A, keep NaHCO3 (sodium bicarbonate). It produces
Chlorophyll is a dye, which traps light energy and
converts it into chemical energy for the formation of
Inside B, keep NaOH (Sodium hydroxide). It absorbs CO2.
carbohydrates and their subsequent storage.
Keep both the set-ups in the sunlight for at least 6 hours.
6.1 Chlorophyll Is Necessary for Perform the starch test on both plants.
Take a potted plant with variegated (green and white)
Destarch the plant by keeping it in complete darkness for
about 48 hours.
Expose the plant to the sunlight for a few days.
Leaf boiled in water for 2 minutes to break down cell The leaves of Plant A will turn black after the starch test
walls, denature enzymes and allow for easier The leaves of Plant B will remain orange/brown after
penetration by ethanol. starch test

PAGE 7 OF 35
6.4 Limiting Factors 6.6 Leaf Structure
Limiting factor: something present in the environment in
such short supply that it restricts life processes.
Light intensity
As the amount of light increases,
the rate of photosynthesis
increases (a-b) C
The limiting factor is light
Increasing the amount of light
after a certain point has no effect A
on the rate (c)
The limiting factor is now carbon
dioxide or temperature
Carbon dioxide concentration Cuticle: waxy layer that prevents water loss from top of
the leaf
As the amount of carbon dioxide
increases, the rate of Epidermis: transparent cell that allows sunlight to pass
photosynthesis increases (a-b) through to the palisade cell
The limiting factor is carbon C Palisade: found at the top of the cell and contains many
dioxide B chloroplasts which absorbs sunlight.
Increasing amount of carbon Spongy mesophyll layer: irregularly shaped cells which
A create air spaces to allow gaseous exchange to take
dioxide after a certain point has
not effect on rate (c) place; do not contain many chloroplasts
The limiting factor is now light or Vascular Bundle: made up of xylem and phloem
temperature (warmth) Xylem: vessel which transports water and dissolved
Temperature minerals and has lignified walls made of cellulose
Phloem: vessel which transports nutrients
As temperature increases, the rate
Stomata: little holes that opens and closes to allow
of photosynthesis increases until it
gaseous exchange to take place. The stomata close to
reaches optimum temperature
prevent water loss and open to let gases come in and
40c (a)
out. When guard cells lose water, the stoma close (at
The limiting factor is the
night), while the stoma open when guard cells gain
temperature A B water & swell (during the day).
Increasing the temperature above
40c will cause the enzymes to
denature (b)
This will decrease rate of

6.5 Glasshouse Systems

To increase the crop yield, farmers control the limiting
6.7 Xylem
CO2 enrichment: paraffin is burnt to increase CO2
concentration by three times the original amount and Unidirectional vessel which
doubling the yield transports water and dissolved
Optimum temperature: thermostatically controlled
heaters make the temperature right for enzymes to work Walls are made out of
waterproof lignin.
Optimum light: light has a high intensity for more
photosynthesis, the correct wavelengths (red and blue Water moves up due to
not green) and duration controls production of fruit transpiration and osmosis

PAGE 8 OF 35
6.8 Phloem 7.1 Malnutrition
Bidirectional vessel A condition caused by eating an unbalanced diet. Several
Contains sieve forms:
elements which allow o Overnutrition: balanced diet but eating too much of
sugars to pass from one everything
cell to next downwards o Undernutrition: having too little food
Contains companion cells o Eating foods in incorrect proportions
which provide energy for active
transport of sugars all over 7.2 Effects of Malnutrition
plant. Starvation: losing strength & finally dying because of
Translocation moves organic molecules (sugars, amino lack of food
acids) from source to sink. Coronary heart disease: eating too much fats which are
Phloem vessels still have cross walls called sieve plates rich in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, may lead to
that contain pores. heart attack
Companion cells actively load sucrose into the phloem. Constipation: lack of roughages in food causes
Water follows high solute in phloem by osmosis. A constipation because roughages are indigestible and
positive pressure potential develops moving mass of form bulks. Friction between bulks and walls of intestine
phloem sap forward. stimulate the peristalsis
Phloem still contains small amount of cytoplasm along Obesity: Eating too much fats and carbohydrates leads
the walls but the organelle content is greatly reduced. to their storage in storage in the body mainly in the
Companion cells actively unload (ATP used) the organic forms of fats and causing an increase in body weight.
molecules This can cause; heart attack, stroke, joint pain, mobility
impairment, high blood pressure
6.9 Mineral Requirements
Needed for protein Needed for chlorophyll NUTRIENT USES
synthesis synthesis CARBOHYD- Energy
Deficiency: small plant, Deficiency: plant lack RATES
slow growth, top leaves chlorphyll, leaves yellow FATS Source of energy, building materials,
pale, bottom leaves but normal roots energy store, insulation, buoyancy,
dead and roots slightly making hormones
affected PROTEINS Energy, building materials, enzymes,
Nitrogen fertilizers: provide nitrogen in the form of haemoglobin, structural material
nitrate ions, nitrite ions or ammonium ions. But using (muscle), hormones, antibodies
fertilisers can lead to eutrophication, which is when the VITAMIN C Protect cells from ageing, production of
fertiliser is transported by rain and leaches into stagnant fibres
water e.g. pond or river
VITAMIN D Absorption of calcium
CALCIUM Development and maintenance of
7. HUMAN NUTRITION strong bones and teeth
Balanced Diet: getting all the right nutrients in correct
IRON Making haemoglobin
FIBER Provides bulk for faeces, helps peristalsis
Diet related to age/sex/activity:
WATER Chemical reactions, solvent for transport
o Children Below 12: Require more calcium
o Teenagers: Highest calorie Intake
7.4 Deficiencies
o Adults: Balanced meal with less calories
o Pregnant Women: more iron, calcium and folic acid Vitamin C: Scurvy; loss of teeth, pale skin & sunken eyes
o Males: Generally, require more energy Vitamin D: Rickets; weak bones and teeth
Calcium: Rickets; weak bones and teeth, also poor
clotting of blood, spasms

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Iron: Anaemia: Fatigue (less iron less haemoglobin Large intestine: tube shaped organ composed of two
less oxygen transported less respiration less parts:
energy) o Colon: organ for absorption of minerals and vitamins,
and reabsorbing water from waste to maintain bodys
7.5 Human Alimentary Canal water levels
Ingestion: taking substances (e.g. food, drink) into the o Rectum: where faeces are temporarily stored
body through the mouth. Anus: ring of muscle which controls when faeces is
Egestion: passing out of food that has not been digested, released.
as faeces, through the anus.
Digestion: the break-down of large, insoluble food 7.6 Diarrhoea
molecules into small, water soluble molecules using Diarrhoea: when not enough water is absorbed from the
mechanical and chemical processes faeces
Mouth: contains teeth used for mechanical digestion, To cure this is to give oral rehydration therapy
area where food is mixed with salivary amylase & where One of these this infectious by a bacterium causing the
ingestion takes place diseases cholera (spreads rapidly)
Salivary glands: produce saliva The cholera bacterium produces a toxin that causes
which contains amylase
secretion of chloride ions into the small intestine,
and helps food slide
causing osmotic movement of water into the gut,
down oesophagus
Oesophagus: tube- causing diarrhoea, dehydration and loss of salts from the
shaped organ which uses blood
peristalsis to transport food
from mouth to stomach 7.7 Teeth
Stomach: has sphincters to INCISOR CANINE PREMOLAR MOLAR
control movement into and
also has pepsin (a protease) to
break down proteins into peptides, it also kills bacteria
with hydrochloric acid. They also have elastic walls.
Small intestine: tube shaped organ composed of two Rectangular Sharp- Blunt for Blunt
parts the: shape, sharp pointed for chewing and chewing and
o Duodenum: fats are emulsified by bile, and digested
for cutting holding and crushing crushing.
by pancreatic lipase to form fatty acids and glycerol.
and biting cutting Two roots
Pancreatic amylase and trypsin (a protease) break
down starch and peptides into maltose and amino
7.8 Structure of a Tooth
o Ileum: Maltase breaks down maltose to glucose. This Enamel: the strongest tissue in the body made from
is where absorption takes place; adapted by having calcium salts
villi and microvilli. Cement: helps to anchor tooth
Pancreas: produces pancreatic juice which contains Pulp cavity:
amylase, trypsin and lipase and hydrogencarbonate. contains tooth-
Liver: produces bile, stores glucose as glycogen, producing cells,
interconverting them to keep glucose concentration blood vessels, and
constant. Also carries out interconversion of amino acids nerve endings which
(transamination), deamination and removal of old red detect pain.
blood cells and storage of their iron. Also site of Dentine: calcium salts
breakdown of alcohol and other toxins. deposited on a framework
Gall bladder: stores bile from liver of collagen fibres
Bile: produced by liver and stored in gall bladder, its role Neck: in between crown and root, it is the gums
is to emulsify fats, to increase surface area for the action
of enzymes.
PAGE 10 OF 35
7.9 Tooth Decay Vein: delivers absorbed products to liver via hepatic
portal vein.
Gland: produces enzymes
Lacteal: absorbs fatty acid and glycerol
Epithelium: only one cell thick for faster transport. The
cells of the epithelium are folded to form microvilli.
Small intestine and colon absorb water
o The small intestine absorbs 510 dm3 per day
o The colon absorbs 0.30.5 dm3 per day

7.10 Prevention 8. TRANSPORT IN PLANTS

Eating food with low sugar content
8.1 Xylem and Phloem
Regular and effective teeth brushing to remove plaque
Functions of xylem and phloem
Finishing a meal with a crisp vegetable and a glass of
o To transport substances from source, where they are
taken in or made, to the sinks, where they are used
7.11 Chemical Digestion o To support the stem
Where enzymes are used to break down large insoluble
substances such as proteins into smaller soluble
substances like amino acids so that they can be
Amylase: breaks down starch into maltose, it is
produced in the pancreas (but also in the salivary gland)
Protease: breaks down proteins to peptides (done by Root Stem
pepsin) then into amino acids (done by trypsin). Pepsin
comes from the stomach and trypsin comes from the
Lipase: breaks down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol,
produced by the pancreas.
Hydrochloric acid in gastric juice:
o Denaturing enzymes in harmful microorganisms in Leaf
8.2 Root Hair Cell
o Giving the optimum pH for pepsin activity

7.12 Absorption
Movement of digested food molecules through wall of
the intestine into the blood or lymph.
The small intestine is the region for absorption of
digested food.
The small intestine is folded into many villi which
increase the surface area for absorption. One villus will
have tiny folds on the Function: to absorb water and minerals from the soil
cells on its outside called They have an elongated shape for more surface area
microvilli. which increases the rate of absorption of water by
More surface area osmosis and ions by active transport
means more absorption
can happen
Capillary: transports
glucose and amino acids
PAGE 11 OF 35
8.3 Pathway Taken By Water 8.7 Translocation
Water enters root Movement of sucrose and amino acids in phloem; from
hair cell from regions of production (sources) to regions of storage or
moist soil via to regions of utilization in respiration or growth (sinks).
osmosis because Translocation in different seasons:
water potential is o Spring: sucrose transported from stores in roots to
higher in soil than leaves
in cytoplasm. o Summer & early autumn: sucrose goes from
Water passes photosynthesizing leaves to root stores,
through the cortex
cells by osmosis 9. TRANSPORT IN ANIMALS
but mostly by Circulatory system: system of tubes (veins, capillaries,
suction. arteries) with a pump (heart) and valves (in heart and
Water and veins) to ensure one-way flow of blood.
minerals are forced to cross the endodermis.
Water enters xylem then leaves when it gets to 9.1 Transport Systems
mesophyll cells Single circulation system (fish):
o Two heart chambers
8.4 Transpiration o Blood absorbs oxygen in gills
Transpiration: evaporation of water at surfaces of the o Released in body cells then back to heart
mesophyll cells followed by loss of water vapour from
Double circulation system:
plant leaves, through stomata.
o Four heart chambers
Water leaves mesophyll cells, into air spaces created by
irregular shape of spongy mesophyll cells, then diffuses o Blood passes through heart twice
out of the stomata. o Oxygenated in lungs, to heart, to body, back to heart
Wilting: occurs if water loss is greater than water uptake o Advantage: delivers greater blood flow rate to tissues
cells become flaccid, tissues become limp and plant no around the body as the heart pumps the oxygenated
longer supported blood to it from the lungs

8.5 Uptake of Water 9.2 The Heart

Caused by water loss in leaves which lowers its water
Water moves from xylem to leaf tissues via osmosis
Water moves up the stem in the xylem due to tension
(because of cohesion of water molecules to each other)
caused by water loss from the leaves
Ends with the gain of water through roots
This upward flow of water is called the transpiration

8.6 Factors Affecting Rate of Transpiration

Temperature: higher temperatures increase water-
holding capacity of air and increases transpiration rate Septum

Humidity: low humidity increases water potential

gradient between leaf and atmosphere increasing
transpiration rate Right atrium: collect deoxygenated blood & pump it to
Light intensity: high light intensity causes stomata to right ventricle
open (to allow more photosynthesis) which causes Right ventricle: pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs
increase in transpiration

PAGE 12 OF 35
Pulmonary artery: carries deoxygenated blood from The heart muscle cells are deprived of oxygen & glucose,
right ventricle to lungs and poisonous wastes such as lactic acid build up.
Septum: separates left and right sides of the heart Part of the heart muscle stops contracting, causing a
Pulmonary vein: carry oxygenated blood from lungs to heart attack
left atrium Caused by stress, smoking, poor diet, poor lifestyle &
Left atrium: collect oxygenated blood and pump it to left genetically
ventricle Can be prevented by not smoking, avoiding fatty food
Left ventricle: pumps oxygenated blood to the body via and exercising regularly
the aorta Treated by aspirin and surgery (stents, angioplasty and
Aorta: carries oxygenated blood from left ventricle to by-pass)
rest of body
Tricuspid and bicuspid valves: prevent backflow of 9.6 Arteries, Veins and Capillaries
blood into the atria when ventricles contract (atria VESSEL FUNCTION STRUCTURE
ventricular valves) Elastic walls expand and
Pulmonary and aortic valves: prevent backflow of blood relax as blood is forced
from the arteries into the ventricles (semi-lunar valves) Transport out; causes pulse
high pressure Thick walls withstand
9.3 Cardiac Cycle blood away high pressure
from heart Rings of muscle narrow
or widen artery to
control blood flow.
Valves prevent backflow
of blood.
Blood is at low pressure,
but nearby muscles
Cardiac diastole: Atrial systole, Atrial diastole, low pressure
VEIN squeeze veins and help
all chambers are ventricular ventricular blood to the
push blood to the heart
relaxed, and blood diastole: atria systole: after atria Large diameter and thin
flows into the contract, pushing relax, ventricles walls reduce resistance
heart blood into the contract, pushing to flow of blood
ventricles blood out of heart One cell thick walls for
Physical activity makes the heart beat more quickly and Allow
easy diffusion
more deeply, for an increased circulation of blood so Highly branched; large
substances to
that more oxygen and glucose can get to the muscles. CAPILLARY surface area
diffuse into
Capillary beds constantly
9.4 ECG Trace supplied with fresh
The electrical activity of the heart can be monitored blood, so diffusion occurs
by the electrocardiogram, pulse rate and listening to Useful substances move out of plasma of capillaries into
tissue fluid (fluid in between cells in tissues)
the sounds of the valves closing
Cells need oxygen and nutrients, and produce waste
Physical activity makes the heart beat more quickly
products such as CO2 & useful products such as hormone
and more deeply, for an increased circulation of Capillaries are constantly supplied with new blood,
blood so that more oxygen and glucose can get to the otherwise diffusion could not occur
muscle Lungs heart Heart Lungs
= Pulmonary vein = Pulmonary artery
9.5 Coronary Heart Disease
Liver heart Heart Liver
Coronary artery becomes blocked, interrupting the
= Hepatic vein = Hepatic artery
supply of blood to the heart muscle.
Kidneys heart Heart Kidneys
= Renal vein = Renal artery
PAGE 13 OF 35
9.7 Lymphatic System The pathogen for a transmissible disease may be
Circulation of body fluids, and the production of transmitted either:
lymphocytes. o Direct contact e.g. through blood, body fluids
Lymph node contains many lymphocytes which filter o Indirectly e.g. from contaminated surfaces/food, from
lymph. animals, from air
Tissue fluid: made when plasma is squeezed out of
capillaries. 10.2 Body Defences
Substances diffuse between cells and tissue fluid. The human body has many natural defences against
Lymph vessels collect lymph and return it to the blood. pathogens.
Tissue fluid returns to the capillaries by osmosis. Mechanical barriers:
o Nostrils contain hairs that help trap dust
9.8 Blood o Skin has a thick outer layer of dead cells
Red blood cells: haemoglobin and oxygen transport
Chemical barriers:
White blood cells: phagocytosis and antibody formation
o Sticky mucus which can trap pathogens
Platelets: causing clotting
o In the stomach, hydrochloric acid is secreted which kills
Plasma: transport of blood cells, ions, soluble nutrients,
many of the bacteria in food
hormones, carbon dioxide, urea and plasma proteins
Cells: Pathogens that manage to get through all these
defences are usually destroyed by white blood cells:
o Some of these cells take in and digest the pathogens by
o Others produce antibodies that incapacitate or kill the
9.9 Immune system pathogen
PHAGOCYTE LYMPHOCYTE o Vaccination against disease helps antibodies to
Phagocyte has lobed Lymphocytes are found produce very quickly
nucleus and vesicles in blood and in lymph
containing digestive nodes 10.3 The Immune System
enzymes. Large nucleus and they An antibody is a protein molecule which fits into another
Phagocytosis: engulf produce antibodies, molecule
pathogen, vesicles fuse Antibodies: Y-shaped Pathogen molecules are called antigens.
with vacuole, enzymes protein, bind to label
To destroy a pathogen, antibody molecules must be
digest bacteria. pathogens.
Antigen: protein/ made which are exactly the right shape to fit into
Then either destroyed
carbohydrate on surface by being ingested by molecules (antigens) on the outside of the pathogen.
of pathogen which phagocytes, or the Antibodies lock onto antigens leading to destruction of
provokes immune system antibodies may do it. pathogen / marking of pathogens for destruction by
9.10 Blood Clotting If a pathogen enters the body, it meets a large number
Reduces blood loss and keeps pathogens out of lymphocytes. One of these will recognize the
Fibrinogen (inactive) turns to fibrin (activated), and pathogen and divide rapidly by mitosis
forms a mesh to trap red blood cells, which eventually These lymphocytes then secrete antibody, destroying
dries to form a scab. the pathogens
Active immunity: defence against a pathogen by
10. DISEASES AND IMMUNITY antibody production in the body.
Active immunity is gained after an infection by a
10.1 Pathogens
pathogen or by vaccination.
Pathogen: a disease-causing organism.
Vaccines immunise children against diseases caused by
Transmissible disease: a disease in which the pathogen
can be passed from one host to another.
PAGE 14 OF 35
Process of vaccination: 11.2 Structure
o Harmless pathogen given which has antigens
o Antigens trigger an immune response by lymphocytes
which produce antibodies
o Memory cells are produced that give long-term
In controlling the spread of disease, it is important to
consider hygienic food preparation, good personal
hygiene, waste disposal and sewage treatment
Passive immunity: short-term defence against a
pathogen by antibodies acquired from another
individual, e.g. mother to infant
Memory cells are not produced in passive immunity
Babies get passive immunity by breast feeding.
o Breast milk contains antibodies from the mother which
are passed on to her baby.
Cartilage (in trachea): prevents the trachea from
o Useful because a young babys immune system is not
collapsing during absence of air and also to protect it
well developed and so the mothers antibodies can
Ribs: to protect vital organs and blood vessels and
protect it against any diseases to which she is immune
expands and contracts (and efficient breathing)
for the first few months of its life
Intercostal (internal & external) muscles: situated
Some diseases are caused by the immune system
between the ribs that create and move the chest wall
targeting and destroying body cells (Type 1 diabetes)
Diaphragm: produces volume and pressure changes in
the thorax leading to the ventilation of the lungs
PROPERTY OF SURFACE REASON 21% oxygen 18% oxygen
THIN (ONE CELL THICK) Short distance to diffuse 0.04% carbon dioxide 3% carbon dioxide
Many molecules can diffuse 78% nitrogen 78% nitrogen
at once Water vapour varies to Saturated water vapour.
MOIST Cells die if not kept moist
Concentration gradients for
Test for CO2: Blow CO2 through limewater. +ve result =
oxygen and carbon dioxide
are kept up by regular fresh
supplies of air 11.3 Effect of Physical Activity on Breathing
Gases can be carried
CLOSE TO BLOOD Physical activity increases the breathing rate more
to/from the cells that breaths per minute, and the tidal volume more air per
need/produce them breath
This is measured with a spirometer to produce a
During exercise, tissues respire at a higher rate, the
change in breathing volume and rate helps to keep CO2
concentration and pH at safe levels.

PAGE 15 OF 35
11.4 Breathing 12.2 Anaerobic Respiration
BREATHING IN BREATHING OUT Release of a relatively small amount of energy by the
External intercostal External intercostal breakdown of food substances in the absence of oxygen.
muscles contract pulls muscles relax rib cage In muscles:
rib cage upwards and falls downwards and
Glucose lactic acid
outwards inwards
C6H12O6 2 C3H6O3
Diaphragm muscles Diaphragm muscles relax
contract diaphragm returns to dome shape In yeast (single-cell fungi):
moves upwards Lung volume decreases
Lung volume increases and pressure increases Glucose ethanol + carbon dioxide
and pressure falls Air is forced out C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + CO2
Air rushes in to equalise
Disadvantages of anaerobic respiration:
o Only produces 1/20 of the energy per glucose
molecule that aerobic respiration would
o Produces poisonous lactic acid
Lactic acid:
o Transported in blood to heart, liver and kidneys,
which oxidize it
o The heart, liver and kidneys need extra oxygen to do
this which causes you to continue breathing heavily
after exercise.
o The extra oxygen is called the oxygen debt.


Excretion: the removal from organisms of toxic
Internal intercostal muscles: are used in coughing and materials, the waste products of metabolism (chemical
sneezing. reactions in cells including respiration) and substances in
Mucus & cilia: goblet cells produce sticky mucus to trap excess of requirements.
and eliminate particulate matter and microorganisms. Substances should include carbon dioxide, urea and
Ciliated cells have cilia: little hairs which sweep back and salts.
forward in a coordinated way to brush mucus up the
lungs into the mouth
13.1 Function of Kidney
Removal of urea and excess water and the re-absorption
12. RESPIRATION of glucose and some salts
Urea is formed in the liver from excess amino acids
Chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules
Alcohol, drugs & hormones are broken down in the liver
in living cells to release energy.
Uses of energy in the body of humans: muscle
contraction, protein synthesis, cell division, active
transport, growth, the passage of nerve impulses and
the maintenance of a constant body temperature.
Respiration involves the action of enzymes in cells

12.1 Aerobic Respiration

Release of a relatively large amount of energy in cells by
the breakdown of food substances in the presence of Cortex: contains Bowmans capsules and coiled tubules
oxygen. Ureter: carries urine from kidney to bladder
Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water Medulla: contains loops of Henl and collecting ducts
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O Loop of Henl: selectively absorbs water/solutes

PAGE 16 OF 35
Collecting ducts: reabsorbs water into blood and store 5. Collecting duct: the remaining substances move
wastes until they are passed into ureter through the second coiled tubule (distal tubule), into
Urethra: carried urine from bladder to the outside. the collecting duct. The permeability of this part of the
Bladder: stores urine nephron to water is controlled
Renal capsule: filters from blood: water, glucose, urea
and salts. 13.3 Dialysis
Tubule: (yellow) reabsorbs 100% of glucose, most of the When a kidney machine takes a patients blood and
water and some salts back into the blood (red), leading cleans it, then returns the blood to circulation.
to concentration of urea in the urine as well as loss of This is how it works:
excess water and salts into the tubule. o Blood enters machine from patient
Renal artery: brings wastes and water from blood o The pump passes the blood passes the dialysis tubing
Renal vein: reabsorbs water and useful molecules and which is semi-permeable therefore acting as a filter
leaves wastes behind o The surrounding liquid contains some salts, glucose
but no urea so waste materials pass from blood by
13.2 Structure of the Kidney diffusion;
o The cleaned' blood returns to patient's
More expensive in the Less expensive in the
long run long run
Very disruptive (three 6- Not very disruptive (only
8 hrs sessions per week) have to take
Do not need to find medication)
kidney Need a kidney
Need a machine & must Can go anywhere,
live near one anytime
Risk of rejection


14.1 Nervous Control in Humans
1. Ultrafiltration: blood from renal artery enters the
The nervous system consists of two parts:
glomerulus. Water, urea, salts and glucose are forced
o Central nervous system (CNS) consisting of the brain
into the Bowmans capsule. Blood cells and large
and spinal cord, which are the areas of coordination
proteins cannot pass through.
o Peripheral nervous system (PNS) made up of nerves
2. Selective reabsorption: in the proximal tubule two
thirds of the salt and water and all the glucose moves and neurones, which coordinate and regulate bodily
out of the nephron, by active transport. These functions.
substances are reabsorbed back into the blood Involuntary actions: not under conscious control e.g.
capillary. reflex action
3. Loop of Henl: this part of the loop of Henl is Voluntary actions: are done if we decide to carry them
permeable to water but not salt. Water passively out
diffuses out of the nephron because of the low water
potential of the medulla tissue fluid. 14.2 Types of Neurons
4. Loop of Henl: this part is permeable to salt but not Nerve impulse: an electrical signal that passes along
water. The loss of water from the filtrate in the nerve cells called neurones
previous stage increases the salt concentration. Some
salt passively diffuses out of the loop here.

PAGE 17 OF 35
Motor Neurone:

Sensory Neurone: Reflex action: means of automatically and rapidly

integrating and coordinating stimuli with the responses
of effectors (muscles and glands)

14.4 Synapses
Synapse: a junction between two neurones, consisting of
a gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a
Synaptic cleft: small gap between each pair of neurones
Relay (connector) neurone: Inside the neurones axom, there are 100s of tiny
vacuoles (vessicles each contain a chemical called
When an impulse arrives, the vessicles move to the cell
membrane and empty their content into the synaptic
The neurotransmitter quickly diffuses across the tiny gap
and attaches to receptor molecules in the cell
membrane of the relay neurone
This can happen because the shape of the
neurotransmitter molecules is complimentary to the
14.3 Reflex Arc
shape of the receptor molecule
A reflex action is an involuntary, quick action to respond
to a stimulus, in order to protect the body from danger Many drugs e.g. heroin act upon synapses
E.g. quickly removing your hand from hot metal surface
14.5 Antagonistic Muscle
They involve three neurones: a sensory neurone, relay
neurone and motor neurone. A muscle that opposes the action of another; e.g. biceps
The gap between neurones is called a synapse. and triceps are antagonistic muscles or circular and
radial muscles in the eye
How the reflex arc works:
Agonist: a muscle that contracts while another relaxes;
o A stimulus affects a receptor (cell or organ that
e.g. when bending the elbow the biceps are the agonist
converts a stimulus into an electrical impulse)
o A sensory neurone carries impulse from the receptor Antagonist: a muscle that relaxes while another
to the CNS contracts; e.g. when bending the elbow the triceps are
o Connector/relay neurone carries impulse slowly the antagonist
(because it has no myelin sheath) across the spinal Sense organ: groups of receptor cells responding to
chord specific stimuli: light, sound, touch, temperature and
o Motor neurone carries impulse from the CNS to the chemicals.
o Effector (either a muscle or a gland) carries out the
PAGE 18 OF 35
14.6 The Eye 14.8 Pupil Reflex
The sense organ responsible for sight Adjusting for high and low light intensity
Radial muscles (straight Circular muscles
lines) contract and (circular lines) contract
become shorter to pull and become shorter to
the pupil (black dot) reduce the size of the
making it wider, to let pupil to protect retina
more light enter, to form from bleaching.
a clear image on retina

14.9 Rods and Cones

Provide low detail, black Provide detailed,
& white images, good for coloured images; they
Cornea: refracts light seeing in low intensity work in high light
Iris: controls how much light enters pupil light (at night). intensity.
Lens: focuses light onto retina Packed most tightly Most tightly packed at
Retina: contains light receptors, some sensitive to light around edge of retina so centre of retina, so
of different colours you can see things most objects are seen most
Optic nerve: carries impulses to the brain clearly when not looking clearly when being
directly at them. directly looked at.
14.7 Accomodation
Adjusting for near and distant objects.
o Part of the retina where the receptor cells are pushed
most closley together
o Where light is focused when you look straight at an

14.10 Hormones
A chemical substance, produced by a gland, carried by
the blood, which alters the activity of one or more
specific target organs and is then destroyed by the liver.

14.11 Adrenaline
A hormone secreted by the adrenal gland.
NEAR OBJECT DISTANT OBJECT It increases pulse rate, makes the glycogen in muscles
Ciliary muscles contract Ciliary muscles relax get converted to glucose, and released into blood,
Ligaments relax Ligaments are tight makes you breath deeper and more rapidly, airways
Lens becomes short and Lens becomes long and become wider, and makes skin become pale as blood is
fat thin diverted away.
Increases conc. of glucose in the blood for respiration.
Adrenaline is secreted for example: while bungee
jumping or riding a rollercoaster

PAGE 19 OF 35
GLAND HORMONE FUNCTION 14.15 Glucoregulation
Prepares body for vigorous Blood glucose levels are monitored and controlled by the
GLAND action pancreas
Reduces conc. of glucose in The pancreas produces and releases different hormones
blood depending on the blood glucose level
Testos- Causes development of Insulin is released when blood glucose levels are high
TESTIS the liver stores excess glucose as glycogen
terone male sexual characteristics
Causes development of Glucagon is released when blood glucose levels are low
OVARY Oestrogen female sexual the liver converts stored glycogen into glucose and
characteristics releases it into the blood

14.12 Nervous and Hormonal Systems

SPEED OF Very rapid Can be slow
NATURE OF Electrical Chemical
MESSAGE impulses, messenger
travelling along (hormones)
nerves travelling in When the control of blood glucose does not work, a
bloodstream person is said to have diabetes
DURATION OF Usually within May take years Type 1 diabetes is caused by the death of the cells that
RESPONSE seconds (puberty) secrete insulin
AREA OF Localized Widespread o Symptom: hyperglycaemia (feel unwell, dry mouth,
RESPONSE response (only response (in blurred vision and feel thirsty) or hypoglycaemia (tired,
one area usually) many organs) show confusion and irrational behaviour)
EXAMPLE OF Reflexes such as Development of o Treatment: eating little and often and avoiding large
PROCESS blinking reproductive amount of carbohydrates, injecting insulin to reduce
CONTROLLED system blood glucose concentration
Hormones are used in food production, for example
oestrogen is used to boost growth rate of chickens. 14.16 Thermoregulation
Advantage: chickens grow quickly meaning more profit. Constant body temperature is maintained by:
Disadvantages: this may cause human males to develop Insulation: provided by
feminine characteristics, and it is unnatural. fatty tissue retains heat.
Hairs become erect to
14.13 Homeostasis trap warm air by
The maintenance of a constant internal environment. contracting erector
muscles and vice versa.
Homeostasis is the control of internal conditions within
Vasodilatation: when it is
set limits
hot, arterioles, which
supply blood to the skin-
14.14 Negative Feedback
surface capillaries, dilate
Feedback controls the production of hormones the (become wider) to allow more blood near to skin surface
hormones regulate their own production. to increase heat loss (face redder)
A negative feedback control is when the change in Vasoconstriction: when it is cold, arterioles, which
hormone level acts as a signal to cancel out that change, supply blood to the skin-surface capillaries, constrict
so when blood hormone level is low, hormone (become smaller) to allow less blood near to skin surface
production is stimulated, when it is high, it is inhibited. to decrease heat loss
PAGE 20 OF 35
Sweating: the water evaporates giving a cooling effect Phototropism: a response in which a plant grows
Skin receptors: sense heat and sensory neurons send towards (positive) or away (negative) from the direction
impulses to the hypothalamus from which light is coming.
Shivering: muscular activity generates heat Auxins role in phototropism:
Thermoregulatory centre: in the hypothalamus, it o If sun shines on right side of a plants shoot, auxins
controls the use of corrective mechanisms (e.g. sweating will accumulate on dark opposite left side.
and shivering). o Auxins accumulating makes cells on left side grow
faster than cells on right side.
o When left side of shoot starts growing faster than
right side, shoot will start to bend to right side towards
Hormones can be used as weed killers: spraying with
high concentrations of hormone (2,4-D) upsets normal
growth patterns. It affects different species differently so
might only kill one species not the other (this is good).

14.17 Homeostatic Organs 15.1 Drugs
Cells: change composition of blood as they remove Any substance taken into the body that modifies or
nutrients and O2 and add wastes and CO2 affects chemical reactions in the body.
Heart: keeps blood pressure constant to deliver oxygen
and nutrients around body 15.2 Antibiotics
Skin: to maintain heat exchange with external Antibiotics work by stopping a metabolic practice
environment performed by the bacteria you are trying to get rid of,
Kidneys: regulate water and salt levels (osmoregulation) but not performed by human cells.
and the removal of wastes like urea (excretion) Some bacteria are resistant to antibiotics which reduces
Lungs: regulate gas exchange the effectiveness of antibiotics
Intestines: supply soluble nutrients and water to blood Development of resistant bacteria such as MRSA can be
Liver: regulates blood solutes and removes toxins minimised by limiting use of antibiotics only when
essential and ensuring treatment is completed
14.18 Tropic Responses Antibiotics dont work on viruses because they are not
Auxin: really living and they make the host cell perform the
o Plant hormones or growth substances tasks for them.
o Controls tropisms
o It is produced by cells at the tip of roots and shoots of 15.3 Heroin
plants Effects of the abuse of heroin: a powerful depressant
Gravitropism: a response in which a plant grows towards Problems of addiction
(positive) or away (negative) from gravity. Severe withdrawal symptoms (vomiting, restlessness)
Auxins role in gravitropism: Malnourishment as drug depresses appetite
o Tend to settle at the bottom end of the root. Financial problems stealing, loss of job
o However, this does not make the cells of the tip of Infection from sharing needles e.g. HIV/AIDS
the root grow longer; auxins prevent cells at bottom tip Heroin affects the nervous system by its effect on the
of root from growing, making cells at top of root grow function of synapses
o When cells of top of the root grow faster, they push
root deeper into soil and root gets longer.
o The root grows in direction of the gravitational pull.

PAGE 21 OF 35
15.4 Alcohol 16 REPRODUCTION
Effects of excessive consumption of alcohol a depressant:
Causes coronary heart diseases 16.1 Asexual Reporudction
Reduced self-control The process resulting in the production of genetically
Depression identical offspring from one parent.
Effect on reaction times Bacteria:
Damage to liver cirrhosis o Reproduce by binary fission, each bacterium divides
into two.
15.5 Smoking o The generation time is the time taken for a cell to
Some effects of tobacco smoke: divide into 2.
Drying effect and heat irritate lungs destroys cilia Fungi:
Nicotine is addictive, it is also a stimulant, it increases o Single-celled yeast reproduces by binary fission.
pulse rate and narrows blood vessels which can cause o All other fungi produce via spores.
damage o When the sporangium bursts it spreads the spores.
Tobacco smoking can cause chronic obstructive o Spores land and grow mycelium (roots) for example
pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and coronary mushrooms
heart disease Potatoes:
Tar causes cancer, and is an irritant so causes coughing. o The shoot from a potato goes back underground and
There are other irritants in tobacco smoke including: the stem swells to form a new genetically identical
smoke particles, ammonia, and sulphur dioxide potato.
Emphysema: walls between alveoli break making large o The swollen stem acts as a storage organ.
sacs, reducing surface area massively and making you ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
breathless after a couple of steps Fast: no need to find No variation
Loss of limbs due to poor circulation, CHD and lower mate, fertilise etc. Harmful genes
sperm-count Good characteristics are transferred
Carbon monoxide irreversibly bonds with haemoglobin kept Overcrowding- fighting
which can lead to oxygen starvation for food
Cancer of the stomach, pancreas and bladder etc.
Liver is the site of breakdown of alcohol and other toxins 16.2 Sexual Reproduction
Sexual reproduction: process involving the fusion of the
15.6 Hormones and Sports nuclei of two gametes (sex cells) to form a zygote and
Hormones: can be used to improve sporting the production of offspring that are genetically different
performance from each other
Testosterone Fertilisation: the fusion of gamete nuclei
o Improved hand- eye coordination Nuclei of gametes are haploid and that the nucleus of a
o Improved body-fat composition zygote is diploid
o Increased muscle mass
Anabolic Androgenic Steroids ADVANTAGES DISADAVNATGES
o Affects limbic system Produces genetically Takes lots of time and
Mood swings different offspring; dont energy
Impaired judgement all die from change in Good characteristics can
High blood pressure the environment be lost
Kidney failure
Energy on improving
o Increased risks of prostate cancer (male)
appearances or pollen
o Inconsistencies of menstrual cycle (female)
volume for pollination
o Changes in blood cholesterol

PAGE 22 OF 35
16.3 Sexual Reproduction in Plants Anther & stigma inside Anther & stigma hangs
Insect pollinated, dicotyledonous flowering plant: flower out
foxglove Stick stigma Stigma hairy
Flowers have stripes
which act as guide-lines
for insects

Pollen tube: pollen grain lands on stigma and creates a

tunnel down the style, through the micropyle, to the
Structure of non-endospermic seed:

Wind pollinated flower structure: grass

Formation of a seed: the zygote divides many times by

mitosis to form and embryo. The cotyledon is the food
store. The testa stops drying out of embryo.
Wind and animal dispersal are used by plants to colonise
16.4 Functions new areas; done because new areas have less
Sepal: protect the flower bud. competition for light, space and nutrients, so seeds are
Petal: brightly coloured and scented and may have more likely to develop.
nectarines which are all used to attract insects, petals in
wind pollinated flowers are tiny, and used for pushing
the bracts (leaf-like structures) apart to expose stamens
and stigma Dandelion Apple (internal)
Anther: has pollen sacs with pollen grains which contain
the male nucleus (male gamete).
Stigma: platform on which pollen grains land
Ovary: hollow chamber, ovules grow from the walls. Bur (external)
16.5 Pollination
Pollination: transfer of pollen grains from the male part
of the plant (anther of stamen) to the female part of the
plant (stigma).
Agents of pollination: insects, birds, mammals, water SELF POLLINATION CROSS POLLINATION
and wind Pollen is transferred Pollen transfer from
INSECT POLLINATED WIND POLLINATED from the anther to the anther to stigma of
Large colourful petals Dull petals stigma of the same another flower of the
attract No scent flower. same species.
Sweetly scented No nectaries Implications: Implications
Nectaries Huge amount of pollen O Very efficient o Risky: pollen might
Moderate amount of Pollen round and O No genetic variation
not reach other flower
smooth o Chance for genetic
Pollen is spiky/sticky

PAGE 23 OF 35
16.6 Germination o Ovary: contains follicles which develop into the ova
A process controlled by enzymes and produces progesterone and oestrogen
Water: activates enzymes to turn insoluble food stores o Oviduct (fallopian tube): carries the ovum to uterus
into soluble substances, and makes tissues swell so that o Uterus (womb): where the fetus develops.
the testa splits o Cervix: neck of uterus: a strong rigid muscle, moist by
Oxygen: enters through the gaps in the testa (along with mucus with a small opening
water), and is used in aerobic respiration. o Vagina: receives penis during intercourse, and way
Temperature: must be suitable for enzymes to work (at out for baby at birth. Moist tube of muscle, flexible and
optimum temperature). secretes mucus

16.7 Sexual Reproduction In Humans 16.8 Menstrual Cycle

Male reproductive system:

o Testes: have many coiled tubes which produce sperm,

and the cells between tubes produce testosterone.
o Scrotum: holds testicles
o Sperm duct: carries sperm from testicles to urethra.
o Prostate gland: makes seminal fluid
o Urethra: carries semen from sperm duct to tip of Day 1 to 5:
penis o In the ovary, FSH secreted by the Pituitary Gland to
o Penis: male sex organ, used to transfer semen to the stimulate the maturation of ONE follicle in the ovary.
female. o In the uterus: the endometrium breaks down;
Female reproductive system: menstruation
Day 5 to 12:
o In the ovary the follicle keeps maturing
o In the uterus, oestrogen is secreted by follicle and the
ovarian tissues to prepare the endometrium
Day 13/14/15:
o In the ovary, LH is also secreted by the Pituitary Gland
to trigger the release of the egg from follicle into the
fallopian tube
Day 15 to 28:
o In the ovary, LH triggers formation of Corpus Luteum
o In the uterus: progesterone is secreted by Corpus
Luteum to keep endometrium thick, waiting for
possible embryo implant.

PAGE 24 OF 35
Day 28 Scenario 1: Egg not fertilized Development of foetus: zygote is changed through
o No implantation takes place, the Corpus Luteum growth (mitosis) and development (organization of cells
degenerates, causing a lack of progesterone. into tissues and organs)
o This means that endometrium is no longer thick, back Umbilical cord: contains umbilical artery which carries
to Day 1 deoxygenated blood and waste products from foetus to
Day 28 Scenario 2: Egg is fertilized placenta and umbilical vein which carries oxygenated
o Implantation occurs. blood and soluble food from placenta to foetus.
o This makes the hormones to keep the Corpus Luteum (Contains foetus blood)
maintained which means that progesterone is high.
Placenta: organ for exchange of soluble materials such
o This keeps the Endometrium thick for pregnancy
as foods, wastes and oxygen between mother and
foetus; physical attachment between uterus and foetus.
16.9 Hormones in Menstrual Cycle (Contains mothers blood)
Oestrogen is secreted by the ovaries. It stops FSH being Amniotic sac: membrane which encloses amniotic fluid,
produced - so that only one egg matures in a cycle and it broken at birth.
stimulates the pituitary gland to release hormone LH.
Amniotic fluid: protects foetus against mechanical
Progesterone is a hormone secreted by ovaries. It
shock, drying out and temperature fluctuations
maintains the lining of the uterus during the middle part
of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy.
16.12 Antenatal Care:
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is secreted by the
Change in diet:
pituitary gland. It causes an egg to mature in an ovary
o More proteins growth of foetus
and it stimulates ovaries to release hormone oestrogen
o Slightly more fat the new cells cell membrane
Luteinizing hormone (LH): is also secreted by pituitary
o More vitamin C and D blood vessel walls and bones
gland and causes mature egg to be released from ovary. o Iron haemoglobin
o Calcium growth of bones and teeth
16.10 Sexual Intercourse Guidance on motherhood
Penis fills with blood and becomes erect Checks on foetus and mother including: weight check,
Vagina walls secrete a lubricant.
blood tests, urine tests, blood pressure checks,
Rubbing of the glans (end of penis) against the vagina
ultrasound scanning etc.
wall sets of a reflex action, causes sperm to be released
from the testes, and is transported by peristalsis along
16.13 Labour and Birth
sperm ducts and urethra, where seminal fluid is added to
Labour: The uterine muscular wall contract and cervix
make semen.
tries to relax, then contractions get more frequent.
The exit of semen from the penis is called ejaculation.
Contractions cause amniotic membrane to break and
Sperm then swim through the cervix and oviducts to the
release amniotic fluid.
first third of the oviduct (from the ovary) where one
Expulsion: Powerful Contraction pushes baby out.
combines with the egg. Afterbirth: Placenta is expulsed out. All contraction &
pain gone
16.11 Fertilization
The fusion of an ovum and a sperm to form a zygote.
SPERM Smaller Very Many more
Development of zygote:
o One sperm penetrates mobile (300,000,000)
o Ovum membrane alters to form barrier against sperm use its tail
o Head of sperm (male nucleus) approaches and then EGG Larger Immobile Fewer and
fuses with the nucleus of the ovum. moved by limited
o Zygote divides over and over, to make a ball of cells peristalsis
called an embryo.
o It implants itself in the wall of the nucleus
(implantation) which is followed by conception

PAGE 25 OF 35
BREAST FEEDING BOTTLED MILK o Diaphragm: used by woman, prevent sperm entering
Has antibodies no uterus, reliable, must stay in place 6 hours after sex,
bacteria needs a correct size
o Femidom: closed end, has a ring which gets pushed
Nutrients- correct
through cervix and open ends ring lies against the
proportion Less painful

Correct temp. Other people can feed
o IUD: plastic-coated copper coil, can be left inside for
No additives baby
months or even years, has a string which is used to
/preservatives May contain
remove it out of the vagina, reliable, it irritates uterus
Builds mother-child supplement vitamins
wall preventing implantation
bond and minerals
No cost/preparation
o Vasectomy: sperm ducts are cut and tied
Causes decline in o Female sterilization: oviducts are cut and tied
uterus size
16.16 Artificial Insemination

May be painful More likely to develop By donor: mans sperm has a problem, making
Mother must be illness impregnation impossible, so a donor gives his sperm.
present Risk of wrong mixture In vitro fertilization: an ovum is fertilized outside a
Damage beauty Expensive womans body. The fertilized ovum is implanted into the
Fertility drugs: drugs which enhance reproductive
fertility. For women, fertility medication is used to
16.14 Sex Hormones
stimulate follicle development of the ovary. The side
At puberty, the pituitary gland starts to stimulate the
effect is multiple pregnancies. They contain varying
primary sex organs; the testes in males and the ovaries
in females. amount of FSH and LH.
Sex hormones testosterone in males and oestrogen in
females are released into the bloodstream.
16.17 Gonorrhoea
They only affect the target organs which have receptors A bacterial infection caused by penetrative sex through
which can recognize them. the mouth, vagina or anus
Causes secondary sexual characteristics such as the Symptoms/signs:
o Pain or burning when passing urine
growth of pubic hair and maturation of sexual organs.
o Greenish/yellow discharge from the penis or vagina
o Inflammation of the testicles
16.15 Methods of Birth Control
o In men the urethra becomes infected, in woman it is
o Abstinence: dont have sex
the cervix.
o Rhythm method: dont have sex during the fertile
o If left untreated, the disease can travel through
period, only during the safe period reproductive tract causing sterility
Chemical: Treatment:
o Progesterone-only pill: pill which affects the uterus o Can be cured with penicillin however no immunity
and makes implantation difficult
o Spermicide: a chemical applied as a gel, cream or 16.18 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
foam which kills sperm. It is very unreliable on its own
Transmission: Intercourse, blood transfusion, organ
but makes barrier methods of contraception more
transplant or sharing needle with infected person
o Avoid intercourse with many partners
o Condom: thin rubber covering over penis, it protects
o Use a condom
from impregnation and STDs, used by man
o Dont come in contact with other peoples blood

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How it affects the immune system: 17.3 Mitosis
o Infects and destroys lymphocytes The nuclear division giving rise to genetically identical
o Decreases efficiency of immune system cells in which the chromosome number is maintained by
o Body becomes liable to infection by other pathogens the exact duplication of chromosomes.
Mitosis is needed for:
17. INHERITANCE o Growth: in animals each tissue provides its own new
The transmission of genetic information from generation cells when they are needed.
to generation o Repair of damaged tissues: for example when you cut
your skin, mitosis provides new cells to cover up cut.
17.1 Chromosome o Replacement of worn out cells
Chromosome: a thread of DNA, made up of a string of o Asexual reproduction: in plants
genes Stem cells: unspecialized cells that divide by mitosis to
Gene: a length of DNA that is the unit of heredity and produce daughter cells that can become specialized for
codes for a specific protein. A gene may be copied and specific functions
passed on to the next generation
Allele: any of two or more alternative forms of a gene 17.4 Meiosis
Haploid nucleus: a nucleus containing a single set of Reduction division in which the chromosome number is
unpaired chromosomes (e.g. sperm and egg) halved from diploid to haploid
Diploid nucleus: a nucleus containing two sets of Gametes are the result of meiosis
chromosomes (e.g. in body cells) Meiosis results in genetic variation so the cells produced
Inheritance of gender in humans: womans gamete can are not all genetically identical.
only carry an X chromosome, and a male gamete can
carry either an X or Y chromosome; females are XX 17.5 Monohybrid Inheritance
while males are XY. There is always a 50% chance of Genotype: genetic makeup of an organism in terms of
getting a boy and vice versa. the alleles present (e.g. Tt or GG)
Phenotype: physical or other features of an organism
17.2 DNA & Protein Synthesis due to both its genotype and its environment (e.g. tall
DNA: control cell functions by controlling production of plant or green seed)
proteins, antibodies and receptors for neurotransmitters genotype + environment + random variation phenotype
DNA has 2 long strands and 4 nucleotides, AT and CG Homozygous: having two identical alleles of a particular
How proteins are made: gene (e.g. TT or gg). Two identical homozygous
individuals that breed together will be pure-breeding
o Made from long chains of amino acids (20)
Heterozygous: having two different alleles of a particular
o DNA bases are read as triplets
gene (e.g. Tt or Gg), not pure-breeding
o DNA is found in the nucleus
Dominant: an allele that is expressed if it is present (e.g.
o Protein synthesis happens on ribosome in cytoplasm T or G)
o mRNA carries information from DNA to ribosome Recessive: an allele that is only expressed when there is
o When a protein is made, mRNA is made in the no dominant allele of the gene present (e.g. t or g)
nucleus, copying the base sequence Pedigree diagrams:
o mRNA moves out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm
and attaches to the ribosome
o ribosome assembles amino acids into protein
o the specific order of amino acids is determined by the
sequence of bases in the mRNA
All body cells in an organism contain the same genes, but
many genes in a particular cell are not expressed
because the cell only makes the specific proteins it needs

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Genetic diagrams: Discontinuous variation is caused by genes alone and
1:1 Monohybrid Crosses results in a limited number of distinct phenotypes (e.g.
you are either blood group O, A, B or AB, nothing else)
Mutation: genetic change
Gene mutation: a change in the base sequence of DNA
Mutation is the way in which new alleles are formed
Ionising radiation and some chemicals increase the rate
of mutation
Mutation is a source of variation e.g. in Downs
syndrome, where a parents chromosomes are unevenly
distributed in meiosis. In fertilisation, a zygote with a
number of chromosomes that is not 46 is created (e.g.
3:1 Monohybrid Crosses 23 + 24). Characteristics: broad forehead, short neck,
downward-sloping eyes, short nose and mental

18.2 Sickle Cell Anaemia

Disease in which the red blood cell has a sickle shape
instead of a round biconcave shape, controlled by a
recessive allele, which causes weakness, aching joints
and poor circulation.
The fact that it is recessive means that a heterozygous
person can be a carrier: they have the allele but it is not
Co-dominance: when neither of two alleles is dominant Being a carrier of sickle cell anaemia makes you resistant
to each other. to malaria
There are three alleles for blood group given by the In equatorial Africa, being sickle cell anaemic causes
symbols IA, IB and IO. death, malaria causes death, but the carriers have
IA and IB are co-dominant giving blood group AB or IAIB, immunity to malaria and have some symptoms of
and both dominant to IO. anaemia, in severe cases they are very weak.
Sex-linked characteristic: a characteristic in which the
gene responsible is located on a sex chromosome and 18.3 Adaptive Features
that this makes it more common in one sex than in the Adaptive feature:
other o inherited feature that helps an organism to survive and
o Colour blindness as an example of sex linkage reproduce in its environment
o the inherited functional features of an organism that
18. VARIATION & SELECTION increase its fitness
Fitness: the probability of an organism surviving and
18.1 Variation reproducing in the environment in which it is found
Variation: differences between individuals of the same Xerophytes: live in deserts where water is scarce and
species evaporation is rapid, or in windy habitats. Their features
Phenotypic variation is caused by both genetic and are:
environmental factors o Deep roots to reach water far underground
Continuous variation is influenced by genes and o Leaves reduced spines with minimum surface area for
environment, resulting in a range of phenotypes transpiration
between two extremes, e.g. height in humans o Shallow spreading roots to collect occasional rain
o Rolled leaves, leaf hairs and stomata sunk in pits to
trap moist air
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o Waxy leaf cuticle, impermeable water 18.6 Resistant Antibiotic
o Stomata opening at night and closed at midday when Strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are developing as
evaporation is highest the use of antibiotics is increasing.
o E.g. cactus and marram grass In a group of many bacteria, one might mutate to be
Hydrophytes: live in wholly or partly submerged in resistant to the antibiotic, as a result it reproduces and
water. Their features are: the others die making a new strain of bacteria, which is
o Leaves are highly divided to create large surface area resistant to antibiotics.
for absorption and photosynthesis The susceptible (weak) bacteria are killed first
o Very little cuticle formation Only resistant (strong) bacteria are left
o Lack of xylem tubes, no stomata underside of leaves
o Stomata is in the upper surface, has a thick waxy layer 19. ORGANISMS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT
to repel water and to keep the stomata open and clear
o Roots are often reduced and root hairs are often 19.1 Food Chains and Food Webs
absent The sun is the principal source of energy input to
biological systems.
18.4 Natural Selection Energy flow is not a cycle; it starts from the sun and then
The greater chance of passing on of genes by the best that energy is harnessed by plants which are eaten by
adapted organisms. animals which are eaten by other animals.
Variation is natural or random changes in all living At each step, energy is lost to the environment.
organisms. Food chain: a chart showing the flow of energy (food)
Variation leads to survival of the fittest since the from one organism to the next beginning with a
variations in certain organisms allow that organism to producer, for example:
have an advantage over the others in its species in that
area Mahogany tree caterpillar song bird hawk
The surviving organisms reproduce, since they dont get Food web: showing the transfer of energy from one
eaten up, so variation has caused the species to evolve. organism to the next, beginning with a producer
Evolution is caused by natural selection which is caused o Energy is transferred between organisms in a food
by a change in the environment chain by ingestion
Producer: an organism that makes its own organic
18.5 Artificial Selection nutrients, usually using energy from sunlight, through
Is breeding organisms with valued characteristics photosynthesis
together in order to try to produce offspring which Consumer: an organism that gets its energy by feeding
shares those useful characteristics (selective breeding). on other organisms
Can be used to produce organisms which are more Herbivore: an animal that gets its energy by eating
economically valued plants
For example: cows that produce more milk, wheat that is Carnivore: an animal that gets its energy by eating other
easier to separate from grain, dogs which have better animals
appearance Decomposer: an organism that gets its energy from dead
Selective breeding: or waste organic matter (i.e. a saprotroph)
o Selecting by humans of individuals with desirable Ecosystem: a unit containing all of the organisms and
their environment, interacting together, in a given area
e.g. decomposing log or a lake
o Crossing three individuals to produce the next
Trophic level: position of an organism in a food chain,
food web or pyramid of biomass, numbers or energy
o Primary consumer: eat vegetables
o Secondary consumer: eat meat/drink milk
o Tertiary consumer: eat a predatory fish, salmon

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Food chains usually have fewer than five trophic levels, 19.3 Nitrogen Cycle
because energy transfer is inefficient:
Sun produces light, less than 1% of the energy falls onto
Producers fix only about 5-8% of that energy, because
of: transmission, reflection and incorrect wavelength.
Primary consumer only gets between 5-10% because
some parts are indigestible (e.g. cellulose) and not eating
the whole plant.
Secondary consumer gets between 10-20% because
animal matter is more digestible & has higher energy
At each level heat is lost by respiration.
Humans eating plants is more efficient than humans
eating animals because
We need only a couple of vegetables to have one meal, Nitrogen-fixing bacteria provide usable nitrogen for
but to have meat we must feed the animal a lot of plant plants, these may exist in the root nodules where they
material in order to get far less meat. live in symbiosis with the plants (nitrogen fixation), or
In the process of raising an animal, plants lose energy to this can happen because of lightning, or microorganisms
environment, then animal loses energy to environment provide them through decomposition.
and does not use up all the plant material so it is very Nitrifying bacteria convert nitrogen-containing
inefficient. substances into better nitrogen-containing substances
PYRAMID OF NUMBERS PYRAMID OF BIOMASS for the plants (nitrification).
Plants absorb these substances and convert them into
Primary consumers eat the plants and can make their
own proteins, secondary consumers eat primary
consumers and so on.
Shows number of each Pyramid which shows Death and decay happens at each trophic level leading
organism in a food chain the biomass to stage one
When moving up (number of individuals Denitrifying bacteria carry out denitrification: they
pyramid, number of their individual mass) convert nitrogen-containing substances into atmospheric
individuals decreases nitrogen

19.2 Carbon Cycle 19.4 Water Cycle

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O2 CONC. IN CO2 CONC. WHY? Log phase: exponential growth occurs, the conditions
AIR IN AIR are ideal and maximum growth rate is reached. Limiting
factors do not limit growth much.

Stationary phase: limiting factors slow growth as


Burning uses up
Decreases Increases oxygen, and produces population has reached carrying capacity of its
carbon dioxide environment; mortality rate = birth rate; curve levels off
and fluctuates around this maximum population size.
Fewer trees means 19.8 Human Population Growth

less photosynthesis
Trees are usually
Decreases Increases burnt (combustion)
Lower infant mortality, Disease, famine, war
Decomposition of
tree trunks higher life expectancy,
(respiration) better nutrition, better
housing, better sanitation,
19.5 Population medicine, vaccination
Population: a group of organisms of one species, living in
the same area at the same time The human population is becoming stable (stagnation)
Community: all of the populations of different species in due to:
an ecosystem o better education (particularly for women), so they
work instead of getting married and having children
Ecosystem: a unit containing the community of
o better living conditions, fewer people die, fewer
organisms and their environment, interacting together,
births needed
e.g. a decomposing log, or a lake o cities, reduced need for physical labour on farms
o family planning
19.6 Factors Affecting Rate of Population but overall the population in still increasing.
Growth Social implications of human growth:
Food supply: quantity and quality, for example snails o demands for roads as there is an increases number of
need calcium to reproduce to make a shell (food quality). cars
Predation: if predator population falls, the prey o greater expectation for a variety of foods all year
population will rise round
Disease: causes organisms to die so a high death rate o smaller families increase demand for housing
partly cancels out birth rate meaning less population o greater demand for leisure and recreation space
growth, especially if the organism dies before giving
birth, or even population decline 20. BIOTECHNOLOGY & GENETIC ENGINEERING
Bacteria are useful in biotechnology and genetic
19.7 Sigmoid Curve engineering due to their rapid reproduction rate and
their ability to make complex molecules
Why are microorganisms used:
o Bacteria and fungi are small and easy to grow in a lab
o They reproduce quickly and dont take up much space
o No ethical issues involved
o Genetic code is the same for bacteria as it is for human
o Bacteria have loops of DNA called plasmids which are
easy to transfer from one cell to another

Lag phase: number of mature, reproducing individuals is

low and they may be widely dispersed
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20.1 Making Biofuel Lactase:
Use plants to make sugars which yeast then breaks Enzyme that breaks down lactose (sugar found in milk)
down to make ethanol People can stop making lactase naturally, therefore cant
Ethanol can then be used as a fuel digest lactose
o Maize is treated with amylase enzyme (starch to Milk can be treated with lactase to break down lactose
glucose) before a person drinks it
o Add yeast (glucose used in respiration) and make it Also produces glucose & galactose, used in sweets
respire anaerobically
o Ethanol that is produced is extracted by distillation 20.4 Making Penicillin
o Mixed with gasoline to increase energy and can be Penicillin: an antibiotic produced by a fungus called
used in cars penicillium.
Stainless steel fermentation vessel is filled with medium
20.2 Bread Making containing sugars and ammonium salts.
Flour, sugar, water and salt are mixed with yeast to Penicillium is added to produce penicillin. They use sugar
make the dough. for respiration and ammonium salts to make protein and
nucleic acids
Amylase breaks down some starch to make maltose and
The fermentation vessel
glucose. This is used by yeast in respiration
consists of PAWS
The dough is kept in a warm, moist environment (28c). o Probes monitor
Yeast ferments sugar making carbon dioxide which temperature and pH
creates bubbles, so bread rises o Air provides oxygen
Cooking (at 180c) kills yeast, evaporates alcohol and for aerobic
hardens outer surface. respiration in fungus
o Water-cooled jacket
20.3 Uses of Enzymes removes heat to
Pectinase: maintain temperature
Fruit juices are extracted using pectinase (breaks down of 24C.
pectin) o Stirrer keeps the
Pectin helps plant walls stick together
suspended (allowing
If pectin is broke down, its easier to squeeze juice from
access to nutrients and oxygen) while maintaining an
the fruit even temperature.
Extraction of juice from fruit, making juice clear not Filtered to remove fungus and then can be crystallized to
cloudy make capsules.

Washing powders: 20.5 Genetic Engineering

Biological washing powders and liquids contain enzyme Genetic engineering: changing the genetic material of an
that help remove stain organism by removing, changing or inserting individual
The enzymes are coated with a special wax that melts in genes
the wash releasing the enzyme Examples of genetic engineering:
Once the stains have been broken down, they are easier o the insertion of human genes into bacteria to produce
for detergents to remove human insulin
Proteases break down proteins in stains e.g. grass, blood o the insertion of genes into crop plants to confer
Lipases break down stains containing fats and oil resistance to herbicides
Carbohydrases break down carbohydrate-based stains, o the insertion of genes into crop plants to confer
such as starch resistance to insect pests
o the insertion of genes into crop plants to provide
additional vitamins

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Human Insulin in Bacteria Monoculture is the continuous production of one type
Isolation of the DNA making up a human gene using of crop that is often genetically uniform.
restriction enzymes, forming sticky ends Negative Impacts of Monoculture
Cutting of bacterial plasmid DNA with the same o If a natural disaster were to occur, the whole crop
restriction enzymes, forming complementary sticky ends could be wiped out.
Insertion of human DNA into bacterial plasmid DNA o If pests & disease attacked crop, it could harm it easily
using DNA ligase to form a recombinant plasmid o Using large fields and pesticides reduces the variety of
insertion of plasmid into bacteria species. This hinders biodiversity.
Replication of bacteria containing recombinant plasmids Negative Impacts of Intensive Livestock Production
which make human protein as they express the gene o Welfare issues for the livestock
o Diseases can spread easily among them
20.6 Genetically Modified Crops o Waste can pollute land and waterways nearby
Uniform in shape easy Natural species may die 21.2 Habitat Destruction
to transport/ appeal Tastse often not as good Reason for habitat destruction
consumers Lead to development of o Increased area for food crop growth, livestock
Growing season shorter super weeds stronger production and housing
Drought resistant less than GM o Extraction of natural resources
water No one knows long term o Marine pollution
Higher yields effect on humans Through altering food webs, and food chains, humans
can have a negative impact on habitats
21. HUMAN INFLUENCES ON ECOSYSTEMS Effects of deforestation
o Reduced biodiversity/destroys habitats/extinction
21.1 Food Supply
o Loss of CO2 fixation, thus increase in CO2, thus global
Food production has increased because:
Improved machinery means less labor is needed
o Soil erosion: tree roots cannot retain soil, goes into
Fertilizers help crops to grow better
rivers making the water dirty & causes blockages, soil
Insecticides: a type of pesticide that kills insects
becomes less fertile
Herbicides: a type of pesticide that kills weeds
Artificial selection and genetic modification means that o Flooding: usually 75% of water is absorbed by foliage,
yields are improved: cows produce more milk, cows are root systems or evaporates. After deforestation water,
more muscular giving more meat, plant crops can resist accumulates in valleys
insects and cold weather
World Food Supplies 21.3 Pollution
Not enough food available in a country to feed its people Water and air pollution:
because: Chemical waste and sewage in rivers results in water not
o Fast increase in population being drinkable and eutrophication can occur
o Increasing use of crops for fuel Sulphur dioxide dissolves in rain, causing acid rain which
o Decrease of farming = Climate change/Urbanization increases acidity of lakes and leaches aluminium out of
Famine: Wide spread scarcity of food the soil causing:
The main causes of famine: o The fishes gills are damaged, eventually killing them.
o The rapid rate of population increase This is fixed by adding calcium hydroxide (slaked lime)
o Long term climatic change o Destroys top of trees and aluminium damages tree
o Soil erosion and desertification roots = dead tree, important nutrients leached away
o Economic pressure o SO2 poses health hazards for humans (asthma
o Unequal distribution of food sufferers)
o Drought o Damages limestone buildings and sculptures
o Flood o Fewer crops can be grown on an acidic field (fixed by
adding lime)
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Pollution due to pesticides: Eutrophication: when water plants receive too many
Insecticides (kill insects): meant to kill insects which eat nutrients.
crops, but can kill other, useful insects such as bees Fertilisers put in soil by farmers
which are pollinators, or by bioaccumulation (the Fertilisers with nitrates / detergents with phosphates
increase in dose of toxin from one level of the food chain leach into rivers and lakes after rain
to the next) Water plants grow more than usual
Herbicides (kill weeds): can be harmful to animals which They block sunlight and kill plants underneath
eat the plants They die and sink to bottom
Nuclear fall-out: Bacteria/fungi decompose remains using the O2 and
decreasing the O2 concentration
Radioactive particles are sprayed into the atmosphere in
Fish and other creatures die from oxygen starvation
a nuclear accident or bombing;
These particle rain back to earth from clouds,
sometimes far from the accident site;
The radioactivity damages DNA and causes cancer and
radiation illness at every level of the food chain.
Non-biodegradable plastics:
Choke birds, fish and other animals
Fill up the animals stomachs so that they cant eat food
Collect in rivers, and get in the way of fish
21.4 Conservation
Acid rain: Sustainable resource: one which is produced as rapidly
Caused by sulphur dioxide (burning fossil fuels) and as it is removed from the environment so that it does
nitrogen oxides (nitrogen reacting hot engines), as they not run out
dissolve and cause acid rain Sustainable development: development providing for
Damages trees and plants, and kills fish and other river the needs of an increasing human population without
life harming the environment
Prevention: catalytic converters, in factories slaked lime Sustainable development requires:
neutralizes these acidic oxides and use of flue-gas
o Management of conflicting demands
o Planning and co-operation at local, national and
Global Warming: international levels
Increase in average temperature of the Earth Some resources can be maintained, limited to forests
Started at the same time as humans began burning fossil and fish stocks.
fuels They can be sustained using:
Scientists believe fossil fuels are causing this not o Education
proven yet o Legal quotas
Increase in carbon dioxide and methane concentrations o Re-stocking
in the atmosphere cause an enhanced greenhouse effect
the leads to climate change Natural resources:
Negative impact of female contraceptive hormones in Water: used to grow food, keep clean, provide power,
water courses: control fires and to drink. We get water constantly
Reduced sperm count in men and feminisation of through rainfall but we are using up planets fresh water
aquatic organisms faster than it can be replenished.
Fossil fuels: need to be conserved as they will soon run
out, they should be therefore replaced with green forms
of energy.

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Water: water from sewage can be returned to
environment for human use by sanitation and sewage
Paper: sent to special centres where it is pulped to make
raw materials for industry
Plastic: fossil fuels, bottles fleece clothing
Metal: mining takes a lot of energy so recycling saves

Species and habitats: need to be conserved because:

Organisms have value in themselves (ethical value)
Value to medicine (new molecules from exotic plants =
new drugs)
Genetic resources are useful to humans as well and are
lost when species disappear (DNA for genetic
Each species has its role in its ecosystem; if it is removed,
then the whole ecosystem could collapse
Endangered species:
How they become endangered: climate change, habitat
destruction, hunting, pollution and introduced species
If the population size drops, variation decreases
Endangered species can be conserved by: monitoring
and protecting species and habitats, education, captive
breeding programmes and seed banks
Conservation programmes include:
o reducing extinction
o protecting vulnerable environments
o maintaining ecosystem functions, by nutrient cycling
and resource provision, e.g. food, drugs, fuel and genes

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