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1. List and describe the four types of computer networks from largest to smallest.

Provide a wired and wireless example for each.

1) PAN personal area network, short-range network around a person; wired = headset
jack; wireless = Bluetooth
2) LAN local area network, limited geographical region; wired = computer connected to
printer or Ethernet cable; wireless = WiFi
3) MAN metropolitan area network; spans a city; wired = plain old telephone system;
wireless = IP systems
4) WAN wide area network; spans the globe; wired = fiber backbone; wireless = cell
phone network

Examples of broadband

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

Cable Modem.
Broadband over Powerlines (BPL)

The difference between the Internet, an intranet, and an extranet (p.172) Provide
an example of each

Internet = network of networks that everyone can access; Google, Facebook, e-
mail, FTP run on the internet
Intranet = a network that is internal to an organization and is not available to
everyone; university registration system or course management system
Extranet = a network that connects organizations an intranet with external
access; VPN

VPN (virtual private network)

A virtual private network extends a private network across a public network, and enables
users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing
devices were directly connected to the private network

IPv4 vs. IPv6 (p.176)

IPv6 is the sixth revision to the Internet Protocol and the successor to IPv4. It functions
similarly to IPv4 in that it provides the unique, numerical IP addresses necessary for
Internet-enabled devices to communicate. However, it does sport one major difference: it
utilizes 128-bit addresses

The largest-volume application running over the Internet What are domain
names? Why are they invented?

Email is the largest application running over the internet. Domain. DNS is like a phone book for
the Internet. If you know a persons name but dont know their telephone number, you can
simply look it up in a phone book. DNS provides this same service to the Internet.

What is telecommuting? (p.183) Discuss why you would and would not want to

A process whereby workers are able to work anywhere and anytime
Reduced stress
Improved family life
More opportunities if a single parent or have a disability
Increased productivity
Can work someplace that isnt nearby
Loss of fringe benefits
Lower pay
No workplace visibility
Slower promotions
Lack of socialization
Difficulty training family that at work
Lack of supervision (could be a positive if want to be lazy)

Six types of e-commerce


1) B2C businesses sell to consumers; Amazon.com

2) B2B businesses sell to other businesses; PenskeUsedTrucks.com

3) C2C consumers sell to other consumers; eBay.com

4) B2E businesses provide services to their employees; university registration system

5) E-government delivering information and services to citizens; filing annual taxes

6) Mobile commerce business in a mobile environment; cell phone to purchase on eBay

Cookies (one kind of computer code)? Why is it used?

Cookies are most commonly used to track website activity. When you visit some sites, the server
gives you a cookie that acts as your identification card. Upon each return visit to that site, your
browser passes that cookie back to the server

Degree of digitization. Brick-and-mortar, virtual and Clicks-and-mortar organizations

Degree of digitization = the extent to which the commerce has been transformed from physical to

Options = brick-and-mortar (physical only), virtual/pure-play (online only), and click-and-mortar

(physical and online)

Why (potential answers) = brick-and-mortar (niche products for a niche areayou want to get
people to come to the store), virtual (dont want the overhead of a physical store), click-and-
mortar (want to balance overhead costs of a store and letting people touch products)

What is disintermediation? How does the web facilitate disintermediation?

Disintermediation = getting rid of middle men

Facilitate = makes it easier for manufacturers to sell directly to consumers

Inevitable = no (this is NOT an opinionthe answer cannot be yes) because not all
manufacturers can deal directly with consumers; dealing with consumers is a business model by
itself: intermediaries provide information and provide value-added services like consulting

Issues in e-tailing Channel conflict & showrooming

E-tailing has certain disadvantages over catalog shopping:

Not all customers have access to the web, as they do to the postal system. This is a temporary
issue as the evolution of the web continues.

Ease of use is a problem, as the web design is still complex, or at least somewhat chaotic. E-tail
stores are not standardized in design in the way catalogs and retail stores have become. Therefore
different user bahaviors (navigation schemes) need to be learned for each e-tail store. This is a
temporary issue as the evolution of the web continues.

Trust, security and privacy concerns prevail. Consumers are concerned with the use of the data
they provide during transactions.

Graphic presentation is not as compelling for the web as it can be for catalogs. This is a
temporary issue as the evolution of the web continues.

B2B e-commerce volume

$ 900 billion

Sell-side vs. buy-side marketplaces. What types of auctions are relevant to these

Sell-side = just like B2C except for B2Bexpecting other businesses to come to them to make
purchases; forward auctions

Buy-side = getting suppliers to bid on products/services that buying businesses need, group
purchasing is often used here; reverse auctions

Definition of dematerialization

Dematerialization (DEMAT) is the move from physical certificates to electronic book keeping.
Actual stock certificates are slowly being removed and retired from circulation in exchange for
electronic recording.

Thinking about your life, how have wireless technologies positively and negatively affected
you? How do you think they will impact your future career?



Make productive use of time that was formerly wasted

Work locations must more flexible

Schedule work time around personal and professional obligations

Able to do lots of things on one device (web surfing, pictures, email, etc.)


Never get a break (Chapter 6 telecommuting issues)

Identity theft

Easy to lose

Distracting (driving, in class, etc.)

Type of satellites? Which type is the most expensive to build and launch?

Pupil Worksheet

Low Earth Orbits

Sun-Synchronous orbits

Geosynchronous satellites

Geostationary satellites

Ariane 5 Rocket: $7 Million and lost $500 Million in Cargo, Ariane 5 is a European heavy-lift
launch vehicle that is part of the Ariane rocket family, an expendable launch system used to
deliver payloads into geostationary transfer orbit or low Earth orbit.

Three types of wireless networks (based on the transmission range) (p.239)

1) Short-range small personal area networks

a. Bluetooth give to employees so they can safely work (e.g. talking on the phone with
customers) while driving

b. UWB locating employees

c. NFC accepting payments via mobile device

2) Medium-range setting up wireless local area networks

a. Wi-Fi wireless network in a building

b. Wi-Fi Direct allowing employees to directly share information between devices

c. MiFi giving your employees guaranteed access to the internet wherever they are

3) Wide-area spanning geographic distances

Why has mobile commerce become so popular? L-commerce is one application of mobile
commerce that is heavily used by some companies. What is L-commerce?

5 value-added attributes: ubiquity, convenience, instant connectivity, personalization,
OR 3 factors: widespread availability of mobile devices, declining prices, bandwidth
l-commerce = provide information that is specific to a given location
business example = locating taxis, tracking packages, finding local weather, getting ads/coupons
as walking past a store, automating airport check-ins

What is the Internet of Things (IoT)? What are the positive and negatives associated with
IoT? Which protocol is an important factor to develop IoT (p.251-254)


Any object has a unique identity (IP address) and is able to send and receive information over a
network with human interaction


Businesses can create a truly unique profile of consumer activities

Make life easier (e.g. automatic ordering, cars drive themselves)

Health improvements (e.g. heart monitors)


No privacy

Sci-fi rise up of the machines

We get lazy

Loss of control (cars driving themselves)

War Driving?
Wardriving is the act of searching for Wi-Fi wireless networks by a person in a moving vehicle,
using a laptop or smartphone. Software for wardriving is freely available on the Internet.
Warbiking or warcycling is similar to wardriving, but is done from a moving bicycle or
motorcycle. This practice is sometimes facilitated by mounting a Wi-Fi enabled device on the
vehicle. Warwalking, or warjogging, is similar to wardriving, but is done on foot rather than
from a moving vehicle. Warrailing, or wartraining, is similar to wardriving, but is done on a train
or tram. Wardroning is accomplished with a drone.

Social computing?
Social computing is an area of computer science that is concerned with the intersection of social
behavior and computational systems. It is based on creating or recreating social conventions and
social contexts through the use of software and technology. Thus, blogs, email, instant
messaging, social network services, wikis, social bookmarking and other instances of what is
often called social software illustrate ideas from social computing, but also other kinds of
software applications where people interact socially.

The benefits and risks of social computing. Positive and negative impact of social
computing (p.264)


Combining social behavior with IT to create value (e.g. networks, marketing,

creativity/innovation to move a company forward)

Improves collaboration

Improves interaction among people

Encourages user-generated content

Empowers ordinary people


Social information is no longer anonymous

Problems for governments and companies (e.g. social power to employees and customers
and potential for additional competition from former employees) they must be authentic, fair,
transparent, humble, etc. (these are all benefits to customers/employees)

Misuse and incorrect use can backfire (e.g. Kenneth Cole, American Apparel, CVS)


Positive = use of sites like LinkedIn to build networks, get positive reviews from
professors, and highlight key experiences (e.g. internships)

Negative = posting inappropriate pictures on Facebook or other social media sites

highlights unprofessional behavior that a company would not want associated with them (e.g.
illegal activity like underage drinking)

List and describe the five Web 2.0 information technology tools

1) Tagging keyword or term that describes a piece of information; examples (NOT IN

BOOK) using Google maps to help people find a business (e.g. having a picture of the
storefront on Google) or finding local interests (e.g. a hotel may highlight local attractions to
draw customers)

2) Really Simple Syndication (RSS) allows you to receive the information you want, when
you want it, without having to surf thousands of web sites; example CNN.com allowing
viewers to download the most current version of shows

3) Blogs personal web site, open to the public, in which the site creator expresses his or
her feelings or opinions via a series of chronological entries; example listening to consumers or
(NOT IN BOOK) encouraging consumers to self-help (e.g. customer experts help customer

4) Microblogs a form of blogging that allows users to write short messages and publish
them; example quickly share information with interested people, gather real-time market
intelligence and customer feedback

5) Wikis a website made up entirely of content posted by users; example central

repository for documents, tracking issues, resolving problems, maintaining project histories,
collaborate with business partners

Social bookmarking

A social media benchmark is a single metric that averages the performance of all brands in an
industry. It acts as a yardstick to gauge your own performance. The top line performance of a
brand's social media efforts can be measured through a social network's inbuilt analytics.


A mashup (computer industry jargon), in web development, is a web page, or web application,
that uses content from more than one source to create a single new service displayed in a single
graphical interface. For example, a user could combine the addresses and photographs of their
library branches with a Google map to create a map mashup.

One risk of social media

Something gets posted you don't want others to see.

Is it a corporate secret, comments of a disgruntled employee or an upset customer because of a

lack of customer service? If you don't already have one, a brief internal social media policy
should cover what can and can't be said along with how it could be said by those inside the

Discuss five benefits of social commerce to businesses with some real-world examples

Another avenue for selling products - Disney booking tickets on Facebook

Getting customers to purchase products PepsiCo coupons via Foursquare

Getting customers involved in creating products Mountain Dews contests

Advertising Levis shopping cart of what friends have bought on Facebook

Getting customers to respond to other customers Wendys on Facebook and Twitter

Customer voting Wall Street Journal on Digg

Responding to customers quickly Rosetta Stone Parature software

Getting customers to create advertising campaigns Doritos Super Bowl commercials

Group shopping

Group buying, also known as collective buying, offers products and services at significantly
reduced prices on the condition that a minimum number of buyers would make the purchase.
Origins of group buying can be traced to China where it is known as Tun Gu

Examples of peer-to-peer shopping models

BuzzCar, a Peer-to-Peer Car Rental business created by Robin Chase, the founder of Zipcar. A
peer-to-peer business is one where consumers can buy and sell products and services to one
another. OLX where people can sell and purchase goods directly.

Definition of viral marketing

a marketing technique that uses pre-existing social networking services and other technologies to
produce increases in brand awareness or to achieve other marketing objectives (such as product
sales or marketing buzz) through self-replicating viral processes, analogous to the spread of
viruses or computer viruses. It can be delivered by word of mouth or enhanced by the network
effects of the Internet and mobile networks

Transaction processing system definition and goals:

Transaction processing is a way of computing that divides work into individual, indivisible
operations, called transactions. They provide the inputs to other systems (they are the
foundational system)


Efficiently handle high volumes of data

Efficiently handle large variations in volumes (peak times like Black Friday)

Avoid errors and downtime

Record results accurately and securely

Maintain privacy and security


Bar code scanner to complete check-out process manage inventory

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems (p.305-307) How do ERP systems build
upon and/or improve TPSs and FAISs? Why do businesses want to implement ERP?
Why is it so difficult to implement ERP successfully? Major causes of ERP
implementation failure? Examples of core modules and extended modules.


TPS = provide data for the core database of ERP; basically, an advanced TPS

FAIS = address information silos by integrating and allow seamless flow of information
between them


First = Intraorganizational, back-office systems (POM)

Then = interorganizational, front-office systems (CRM, SCM)

ERP II = interorganizational, web-enabled


Organizational flexibility and agility

Decision support

Quality and efficiency


Changing existing business processes (time-consuming, resistance, could lose

competitive advantage)

Complex, expensive, and time consuming to implement

Failure to involve affected employees in the planning and development phases and in
change management processes

Trying to accomplish too much too fast in the conversion process

Insufficient training in the new work tasks required by the ERP system

The failure to perform proper data conversion and testing for the new system

Benefits and limitations of ERP systems (p. 308)

Advantages of ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) System:

1. Complete visibility into all the important processes, across various departments of an
organization (especially for senior management personnel).

2. Automatic and coherent workflow from one department/function to another, to ensure a

smooth transition and quicker completion of processes. This also ensures that all the inter-
departmental activities are properly tracked and none of them is missed out.

3. A unified and single reporting system to analyze the statistics/status etc. in real-time, across all

4. Since same (ERP) software is now used across all departments, individual departments having
to buy and maintain their own software systems is no longer necessary.

Disadvantages of ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) Systems:

1. The cost of ERP Software, planning, customization, configuration, testing, implementation,

etc. is too high.

2. ERP deployments are highly time-consuming projects may take 1-3 years (or more) to get
completed and fully functional.

3. Too little customization may not integrate the ERP system with the business process & too
much customization may slow down the project and make it difficult to upgrade.

4. The cost savings/payback may not be realized immediately after the ERP implementation & it
is quite difficult to measure the same.
The advantages and disadvantages of SaaS ERP implementation

Used from any location with internet access
Avoid the initial hardware and software expenses
Loss of control of strategic IT resources
Loss of control over slow or non-working systems
The benefits of cloud computing. What is the value of cloud computing to an entrepreneur
who is starting a business?

To a small organization, cloud computing could help the organization gain a customer base. For
example, if they utilized cloud computing to run PaaS, they could create an app that helped their
customers purchase goods and services. The small organization could save money by renting the
operating system, storage, database, and software technologies needed to accomplish it. They
would also increase the businesses capacity and network over the internet.

For an entrepreneur, cloud computing can really help get the ball rolling in business. Using cloud
can help that entrepreneur to conduct transactions, run software applications, ship products and
launch services all without coming out of pocket with a huge chunk of their startup capital.
Most people just starting their own businesses really dont have much of a cash flow to start
with, and cloud computing could benefit them immensely. IaaS, SaaS, and PaaS models all can
be accomplished by an entrepreneur quicker, and help their business to soar without all the
overhead of running a business and financing a big IT department to help the business survive

Cloud computing services are based on three models: infrastructure-as-a -service (IaaS),
platform-as-a-service (PaaS), and software-as-a-service (SaaS).

IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service)

IaaS is the lowest-level cloud service paradigm and arguably the most important. With IaaS, pre-
configured hardware resources are provided to users through a virtual interface. Unlike PaaS and
SaaS, IaaS doesnt include applications or even an operating system (implementing all of that is
left up to the customer), it simply enables access to the infrastructure needed to power or support
that software. IaaS can provide extra storage for corporate data backups, network bandwidth for
a company website server, or it can even enable access to high power computing which was
previously only accessible to those with supercomputers. Popular IaaS offerings like Amazon
EC2, IBM SoftLayer, and Googles Compute Engine (GCE) are silently powering a huge portion
of the backbone of the internet, whether users realize it or not.

PaaS (Platform as a Service)

Gartner defines PaaS as a cloud service model where the cloud is used to deliver a platform to
users from which they can develop, initialize and manage applications. PaaS offerings typically
include a base operating system and a suite of applications and development tools. PaaS
eliminates the need for organizations to build and maintain the infrastructure traditionally used to
develop applications. PaaS is sometimes called middleware, referring to how it conceptually
sits somewhere between SaaS and IaaS. Platforms like Googles App Engine, IBM BlueMix,
and Apaches Stratos are popular PaaS products which are helping to streamline and democratize
software development.

SaaS (Software as a Service)

Sometimes referred to as on-demand software, SaaS is a software licensing and delivery model
where a fully functional and complete software product is delivered to users over the web on a
subscription basis. SaaS offerings are typically accessed by end users through a web browser
(making the users operating system largely irrelevant) and can be billed based on consumption
or, more simply, with a flat monthly charge. SaaS offerings are the most widely visible of all the
cloud computing service models. In fact, many users might be using SaaS products without even
realizing it. Popular products like Office365 and Salesforce have thrust SaaS offerings to the
forefront of the workplace and are used by thousands of businesses every day.