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Algebra

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and letters and symbols called variables. For example, the equation below

is used to show that the speed that something travels multiplied by the time

that it travels will result in the distance traveled.

y, and z tend to signify unknown variables. Also note that a common

algebraic shortcut is to eliminate the multiplication sign. Two letters next to

each other indicate that they are multiplied together.

Algebraic properties

There are several standard algebraic properties. The first property is the

commutative property. It is important to note that this property only applies

to multiplication and addition and not division and subtraction. This property

also is only valid if all the terms are multiplied or if all the terms are added.

It does not apply to a mix of addition and multiplication. This property states

that order does not matter. Reversing the terms does not affect the

outcome.

The second property is the associative property. This property also only

considers multiplication and addition and only applies if all the terms are

multiplied or if all the terms are added. This property deals with when more

than two terms are present and states that it does not matter which terms

are multiplied or added first.

The next property is the distributive property and deals with parentheses. It

is important that unless parentheses are involved, multiplication is always

performed first. If there are parentheses, the terms inside the parentheses

are dealt with first. If a term is multiplied by some terms inside parentheses,

that term is multiplied by each of the terms inside. If two sets of

parentheses are multiplied together, each term inside the first set of

parentheses are multiplied by each term inside the second set of

parentheses. If there is a plus sign in front of the parentheses, all of the

terms inside stay the same sign. If there is a negative sign in front of the

parentheses, all of the terms switch signs.

Units

When using measurements, units are very important. It is important that all

of your units are in the same standard whether they are English

measurements or Metric units. If speed is measured in miles per hour, time

should be in hours and distance should be in miles.

Equations

long as the same thing is done to each side of the equation, each side will

remain equal. For instance, it is possible to add, subtract, multiply or divide

terms to each side of the equation. This makes it possible to solve for

unknown variables.

1. Clear any fractions by multiplying all the terms on both sides of the

equation by the denominators

2. Remove all parentheses

3. Transpose all of the terms containing the unknown variable to one

side of the equation and all known numbers or variables on the other

side of the equation

4. Combine like terms on each side of the equation

5. Divide both sides by whatever coefficient is in front of the unknown

variable.

Clear fractions by multiplying both sides by 4b

Transpose by moving all terms with x to the left side and all terms without x

to the right side

Problem Solving

"A man is 3 times as old as his son, but ten years ago he was 5 times the

age of his son. What are their ages now?"

There is only one unknown variable because once the age of one is found,

it can be used to calculate the age of the other. So let the son's age be x

making the man's age 3x. Ten years ago, the man's age was (3x-10) and

the son's age was (x-10). Since the man's age ten years ago was five times

that of his son's age, the following equation is obtained.

Using the steps for solving equations, the equation created from the word

problem can be solved

This gives the son's age as 20 years and the man's age as 60 years.

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