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NEW INTERCHANGE

English for international communication


Jack C. Richards with Jonathan Hull and Susan Proctor
Student Book 3
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 1998

INTRODUCTION
THE NEW EDITION
New Interchange is a revision of Interchange, one of the world's most successful and
popular English courses. New Interchange incorporates many improvements suggested
by teachers and students from around the world. Some major changes include many new
Conversations, Snapshots, and Readings; more extensive Grammar Focus models and
activities; a greater variety and amount of listening materials; extensive changes to the
Teacher's Edition and Workbook; and additions to the earlier Videos.
New Interchange is a multi-level course in English as a second or foreign language for
young adults and adults. The course covers the four skills of listening, speaking,
reading, and writing, as well as improving pronunciation and building vocabulary.
Particular emphasis is placed on listening and speaking. The primary goal of the course
is to teach the ability to communicate according to the situation, purpose, and roles of
the participants. The language used in New Interchange is American English; however,
the course reflects the fact that English is the major language of international
communication and is not limited to any one country, region, or culture. This level takes
students from the intermediate level up to the high-intermediate level.
This level builds on the foundations for accurate and fluent communication already
established in the previous levels by extending grammatical, lexical, and functional
skills. Through the use of a wide variety of stimulating and challenging activities,
students are able to consolidate and develop their communicative competence in
English. A range of higher-level comprehension skills is also developed. Listening
activities involve listening to narratives, commercials, discussions, and interviews.
Reading activities are derived from authentic sources and often reflect cross-cultural
themes, exploring life-styles and values in different countries. Because the syllabus
covered in this Student's Book reviews language features taught at the prior level,
students who have not previously used New Interchange can successfully study at this
level.
COURSE LENGTH
Each full level of New Interchange contains between 70 and 120 hours of class
instruction time. For classes where more time is available, the Teacher's Edition gives
detailed suggestions for Optional Activities to extend each unit. Where less time is
available, the amount of time spent on Interchange Activities, Reading, Writing, Optional
Activities, and the Workbook can be reduced.
Each split edition contains approximately 35 to 60 hours of classroom material. The
Student's Book, Workbook, and Student's Audio Cassettes or CDs are available in split
editions.
COURSE COMPONENTS
The Student's Book contains 16 six-page units, each divided into two
topical/functional "cycles," as well as four review units. At the back of the book are 16
communication tasks, called "Interchange Activities," and summaries of grammar and
vocabulary taught in each unit. The full-color Teacher's Edition features detailed
teaching instructions directly across from the Student's Book pages, along with audio
scripts, cultural notes, answer keys, and optional activities. At the back of the
Teacher's Edition are instructions for Interchange Activities, an Optional Activities
Index, a Workbook Answer Key, and four photocopiable Achievement Tests with audio
scripts and answer keys. The Workbook provides a variety of reading, writing, and
spelling exercises to reinforce the grammar and vocabulary taught in the Student's
Book. Each six-page unit follows the same teaching sequence as the Student's Book;
some exercises recycle teaching points from previous units in the context of the new
topic. The Workbook can be used for classwork or homework.
The Class Audio Program, available on cassette or CD, is intended for classroom use.
The Conversations, Grammar Focus models, Pronunciation exercises, and Listening
activities in the Student's Book are all recorded naturally with a variety of native and
some nonnative accents. Recorded exercises are indicated with the symbol.
The Student's Audio Program provides opportunities for self-study. It contains
recordings of all Student's Book exercises marked with the symbol, except for the
Listening tasks, which are intended only for classroom use. These tasks appear
exclusively on the Class Audio Program and are indicated by the symbol The Video
offers entertaining dramatic or documentary sequences that review and extend
language learned in each unit of the Student's Book. The Video Activity Book contains
comprehension, conversation, and language practice activities, and the Video Teacher's
Guide provides instructional support, answer keys, and photocopiable transcripts of the
video sequences.
The Placement Test helps determine the most appropriate level of New Interchange
for incoming students. A booklet contains the four-skills test on photocopiable pages,
as well as instructions for test administration and scoring. A cassette accompanies the
listening section of the test.
The Lab Cassettes provide self-study activities in the areas of grammar, vocabulary,
pronunciation, listening, and functional use of English. The Lab Guide contains
photocopiable pages that guide students through the activities. The Teacher-Training
Video offers clear guidance for teaching each section of the Student's Book and
professional development activities appropriate for individual or group use.
APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY
New Interchange teaches students how to use English for everyday situations and
purposes related to school, social life, work, and leisure. The underlying philosophy is
that learning a second or foreign language is more rewarding, meaningful, and effective
when the language is used for authentic communication. Throughout New Interchange,
students are presented with natural and useful language. In addition, students have the
opportunity to personalize the language they learn, make use of their own knowledge
and experiences, and express their ideas and opinions.
KEY FEATURES
Adult and International Content New Interchange deals with contemporary topics that
are of high interest and relevant to both students and teachers. The topics have been
selected for their interest to both homogeneous and heterogeneous classes.
Integrated Syllabus New Interchange has an integrated, multi-skills syllabus that links
topics, communicative functions, and grammar. Grammar-seen as an essential
component of second and foreign language proficiency and competence-is always
presented communicatively, with controlled accuracy-based activities leading to
fluency-based communicative practice. In this way, there is a link between grammatical
form and communicative function. The syllabus is carefully graded, with a gradual
progression of teaching items.
Enjoyable and Useful Learning Activities A variety of interesting and enjoyable
activities provides thorough individual student practice and enables learners to apply
the language they learn. The course also makes extensive use of information-gap
tasks; role plays; and pair, group, and whole class activities. Task-based and
information-sharing activities provide a maximum amount of student-generated
communication.
WHAT EACH UNIT CONTAINS
Snapshot The Snapshots graphically present interesting real-world information that
introduces the topic of a unit or cycle, and also develop vocabulary. Follow-up
questions encourage discussion of the Snapshot material and personalize the topic.
Conversation The Conversations introduce the new grammar of each cycle in a
communicative context and present functional and conversational expressions.
Grammar Focus The new grammar of each unit is presented in color boxes and is
followed by controlled and freer communicative practice activities. These freer
activities often have students use the grammar in a personal context.
Fluency Exercise These pair, group, whole class, or role-play activities provide more
personal practice of the new teaching points and increase the opportunity for individual
student practice.
Pronunciation These exercises focus on important features of spoken English,
including stress, rhythm, intonation, reductions, and blending.
Listening The Listening activities develop a wide variety of listening skills, including
listening for gist, listening for details, and inferring meaning from context. Charts or
graphics often accompany these task-based exercises to lend support to students.
Word Power The Word Power activities develop students' vocabulary through a
variety of interesting tasks, such as word maps and collocation exercises. Word Power
activities are usually followed by oral or written practice that helps students understand
how to use the vocabulary in context.
Writing The Writing exercises include practical writing tasks that extend and reinforce
the teaching points in the unit and help develop student's compositional skills. The
Teacher's Edition demonstrates how to use the models and exercises to focus on the
process of writing.
Reading The reading passages use various types of texts adapted from authentic
sources. The Readings develop a variety of reading skills, including reading for details,
skimming, scanning, and making inferences. Also included are pre-reading and post-
reading questions that use the topic of the reading as a springboard to discussion.
Interchange Activities The Interchange Activities are pair work, group work, or whole
class activities involving information sharing and role playing to encourage real
communication. These exercises are a central part of the course and allow students to
extend and personalize what they have practiced and learned in each unit.
Unit Summaries Unit Summaries are located at the back of the Student's Book. They
contain lists of the key vocabulary and functional expressions, as well as grammar
extensions for each unit.
FROM THE AUTHORS
We hope that you will like using New Interchange and find it useful, interesting, and
fun. Our goal has been to provide teachers and students with activities that make the
English class a time to look forward to and, at the same time, provide students with the
skills they need to use English outside the classroom. Please let us know how you enjoy
it and good luck!
Jack C. Richards Jonathan Hull Susan Proctor

Authors' Acknowledgments
A great number of people contributed to the development of New Interchange.
Particular thanks are owed to the following:
The reviewers using the first edition of Interchange in the following schools and
institutes-the insights and suggestions of these teachers and their students have helped
define the content and format of the new edition: Jorge Haber Resque, Centro Cultural
Brasil-Estados Unidos (CCBEU), Bel6m, Brazil; Lynne Roecklein, Gifu University,
Japan; Mary Oliveira and Montserrat M. Djmal, Instituto Brasil-Estados Unidos (IBEU),
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Liliana Baltra, Instituto Chileno NorteAmericano, Santiago de
Chile; Blanca Arazi and the teachers at Instituto Cultural Argentino Norteamericano
(ICANA), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Mike Millin and Kelley Seymour, James English
School, Japan; Matilde Legorreta and Manuel Hidalgo, Kratos, SA. de CN., Mexico D.F.;
Peg Donner, Ricia Doren, and Andrew Sachar, Rancho Santiago College Centennial
Education Center, Santa Ana, California, USA; James Hale, Sundai ELS, Japan;
Christopher Lynch, Sunshine College, Tokyo, Japan; Valerie Benson, Suzugamine
Women's College, Hiroshima, Japan; Michael Barnes, Tokyu Be Seminar, Japan; Claude
Arnaud and Paul Chris McVay, Toyo, Women's College, Tokyo, Japan; Maria Emilia Rey
Silva, UCBEU, Sdo Paulo, Brazil; Lilia Ortega Sepulveda, Unidad Lomoa Hermosa,
Mexico D.F.; Eric Bray, Kyoto YMCA English School, Kyoto, Japan; John Pak, Yokohama
YMCA English School, Yokohama, Japan; and the many teachers around the world who
responded to the Interchange questionnaire. The editorial and production team: Suzette
Andr6, Sylvia P. Bloch, Mary Carson, Karen Davy, Randee Falk, Andrew Gitzy, Christa
Hansen, Pauline Ireland, Stephanie Karras, Penny Laporte, Kathy Niemczyk, Rosie
Stamp, and Mary Vaughn. And Cambridge University Press staff and advisors: Carlos
Barbisan, Kathleen Corley, Kate Cory-Wright, Riitta da Costa, Peter Davison, Peter
Donovan, Robert Gallo, Cecilia G6mez, Colin Hayes, Thares Keeree, Jinsook Kim, Koen
Van Landeghem, Alex Martinez, Carine Mitchell, Chuanpit Phalavadhana, Sabina Sahni,
Helen Sandiford, Dan Schulte, Ian Sutherland, Chris White, Janaka Williams, and Ellen
Zlotnick.
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Plan of the book
UNIT 1 (PAGES 2-7) That's what friends are for!
Personality types and qualities; relationships; "turn ons and turn offs"
Functions: Describing personalities; expressing likes and dislikes; expressing
agreement and disagreement; complaining
Grammar: Relative pronouns as subjects and objects; clauses containing it with
adverbial clauses
Listening/Pronunciation: Listening for opinions; listening to descriptions of people;
making inferences Emphatic stress
Writing/Reading: Writing about a best friend "Friends Again-Forever!": Reading a
narrative about friendship
Interchange Activity: PAGE IC-2 (UNIT 1)
"Personality types": Interviewing a classmate to find out about personality
UNIT 2 (PAGES 8-13) Career moves
Unusual and exceptional jobs; job skills; summer jobs
Functions: Giving opinions about jobs; describing and comparing jobs
Grammar: Gerund phrases as subjects and objects; comparisons with -er /more/less
than and as ... as
Listening/ Pronunciation: Listening to descriptions of jobs; listening for likes and
dislikes Sentence stress
Writing/Reading: Writing about career advantages and disadvantages "Strategies for
Keeping Your Job": Reading advice about behavior in the workplace
Interchange Activity: PAGE IC-3 (UNIT2)
"The best and the worst": Finding out about classmates' summer or part-time jobs
UNIT 3 (PAGES 14-19) Could you do me a favor?
Favors; informal and formal requests; messages
Functions: Making requests; accepting and declining requests; leaving messages
Grammar: Requests with modals and if clauses; indirect requests
Listening/Pronunciation: Listening to requests; listening to someone talk about plans
Blended consonants
Writing/Reading: Writing a note asking for a favor "Yes or No?": Reading about cultural
misunderstandings
Interchange Activity: PAGE IC-4 (UNIT 3)
"Borrowers and lenders": Playing a game about borrowing and lending
UNIT 4 (PAGES 20-25) What a story!
The media; news stories; exceptional events
Functions: Describing past events; narrating a story
Grammar: Past continuous and simple past; past perfect
Listening/Pronunciation: Listening to news broadcasts; listening to a narrative about a
past event; making up stories Intonation in complex sentences
Writing/Reading: Writing a newspaper story :Strange but True": Reading tabloid news
stories
Interchange Activity: PAGES IC-5 and IC-6 (UNIT 4)
"A double ending": Completing a story with two different endings
REVIEW OF UNITS 1-4 (PAGES 26-27)
UNIT 5 (PAGES 28-33) Crossing cultures
Cultural comparisons and culture shock; customs; tourism and travel abroad
Functions: Expressing emotions; describing expectations; talking about customs;
giving advice
Grammar: Noun phrases containing relative clauses; expectations; (not) supposed to,
expected to, the custom to, (not) acceptable to
Listening/Pronunciation: Listening for information about living abroad ; listening to
descriptions of and opinions about customs Stress with key words
Writing/Reading: Writing advice for a visitor to your country "Culture Check": Reading
and completing a questionnaire
Interchange Activity: PAGE IC-7 (UNIT 5)
"Culture clash": Comparing customs in different countries
UNIT 6 (PAGES 34-39) What's wrong with it?
Consumer complaints; everyday problems; household appliances; repairs
Functions: Describing problems; making complaints; explaining something that needs
to be done
Grammar: Describing problems with past participles as adjectives, verbs, and nouns;
need with passive infinitives and gerunds
Listening/Pronunciation: Listening to people exchanging things in a store; listening to
complaints; listening to repair people describing their jobs Contrastive stress
Writing/Reading: Writing a letter of complaint "Consumer Affairs": Reading about how
to complain to a business
Interchange Activity: PAGES IC-8 and IC-9 (UNIT 6)
"Fixer-upper": Comparing problems in two pictures of a home
UNIT 7 (PAGES 40-45) The world we live in
The environment and world issues
Functions: Identifying and describing problems; offering solutions
Grammar: Passive in the present continuous and present perfect; prepositions of
cause; infinitive clauses and phrases
Listening/Pronunciation: Listening to people talk about problems, solutions, and
accomplishments Reduction of auxiliary verbs
Writing/Reading: Writing about local issues and offering solutions
"The Threat to Kiribati": Reading about an island that is sinking into the sea
Interchange Activity: PAGE IC-10 (UNIT 7)
"Community planner": Solving some small-scale environmental problems
UNIT 8 (PAGES 46-51)
Learning to learn: Education; learner choices; ways to improve learning; personal
qualities
Functions: Asking about preferences; talking about learning methods; talking about
personal qualities
Grammar: Would rather and would prefer; by + gerund for manner
Listening/Pronunciation: Listening to descriptions of school courses; listening to
advice; listening for and comparing ways of learning Intonation in questions of choice
Writing/Reading: Writing a how-to paper
"Learning Styles": Reading about different modes of learning
Interchange Activity: PAGE IC-11 (UNIT 8)
"Learning curves": Finding out what your classmates want to learn about
REVIEW OF UNITS 5-8 (PAGES 52-53)
UNIT 9 (PAGE 54-59) Self-improvement
Unusual services; recommendations; self-improvement
Functions: Talking about things you need to have done ; asking for and giving advice
or suggestions
Grammar: Have or get something done(active and passive); suggestions with gerunds,
infinitives, base-from verbs, and negative questions
Listening/Pronunciation: Listening to predictions about the future; making inferences;
listening for reasons; choosing the best suggestions Sentence stress in active and
passive Wh-questions
Writing/Reading: Writing a letter of advice
"How to Improve Your Memory": Reading about techniques to improve your memory
Interchange Activity: PAGE IC-12 (UNIT 9)
"Keeping up appearances": Giving advice about teenage problems
UNIT 10 (PAGES 60-65) The past and the future
Historic events and people; biography; the future
Functions: Talking about historical events ; giving opinions about the future
Grammar: Referring to time in the past with adverbs and prepositions: during, in, ago,
from ... to, for, since; describing future time with will, be going to, future continuous,
and future perfect
Listening/Pronunciation: Listening to historical facts; listening for opinions about
public figures ; listening to predictions Syllable stress
Writing/Reading: Writing a biography
"The Global Village": Reading about political and technological changes
Interchange Activity: PAGES IC-13 and IC-14 (UNIT 10)
"History buff": Taking a history quiz
UNIT 11 (PAGES 66-71) Life's little lessons
Milestones and turning points; behavior; regrets
Functions: Describing yourself in the past; describing regrets about the past;
describing hypothetical situations
Grammar: Time clauses: after, as soon as, before, by the time, once, the moment,
until; describing regrets about the past with should have + past participle and if clauses
+ past perfect
Listening/Pronunciation: Listening to descriptions of important events; listening to
regrets and explanations Reduced forms of have and been
Writing/Reading: Writing about turning points
"If you Could Do it all again": Reading about three people's life choices
Interchange Activity: PAGE IC-15 (UNIT 11)
"If only ...": Imagining different possibilities for yourself
UNIT 12 (PAGES 72-77) The right stuff
Success; business; advertising
Functions: Describing the purpose of something; describing qualities for success;
describing features; giving reasons; talking about ads
Grammar: Infinitive clauses and phrases of purpose: in order to, in order for;
describing features with noun phrases; giving reasons with because, because of, the
reason
Listening/Pronunciation: Listening to a description of a business; listening for reasons;
listening to radio commercials Reduced forms of small words
Writing/Reading: Writing about how to successfully sell something
"The Wrong Stuff": Reading about advertising failures
Interchange Activity: PAGES IC-16 and IC-17 (UNIT 12)
"A picture's worth ...": Talking about how advertisements work
REVIEW OF UNITS 9-12 (PAGES 78-79)
UNIT 13 (PAGES 80-85) That's a possibility.
Common mysteries and unexplained events ; points of view; predicaments
Functions: Offering explanations ; drawing conclusions; describing hypothetical events
Grammar: Past modals for degrees of certainty: must have, may have, could have,
might have; past modals for opinions and advice: should have, would have, could have
Listening/Pronunciation: Listening to explanations ; choosing the best suggestions
Reduced forms in past modals
Writing/Reading: Writing about an awkward situation
"The Blue Lights of Silver Cliff": Reading a ghost story
Interchange Activity: PAGE IC-18 (UNIT 13)
"Photo plays": Drawing conclusions about unexplained events
UNIT 14 (PAGES 86-91) Behind the scenes
How a movie is made; processes; the media and entertainment industries
Functions: Describing how something is done, used, or made ; describing careers in
the media and entertainment industries
Grammar: The passive to describe process with be and modals ; defining and non-
defining relative clauses
Listening/Pronunciation: Listening to someone describe working in the movies;
listening to an interview Stress in compound nouns
Writing/Reading: Writing about how something is done
"Coming soon to a Theater Near you!": Reading about special effects in the movies
Interchange Activity: "Who makes it happen?": Figuring out who makes different
businesses work
UNIT 15 (PAGES 92-97) There should be a law!
Opinions; problems; social and controversial issues
Functions: Making a recommendation; giving and acknowledging opinions; asking for
giving reasons; agreeing and disagreeing
Grammar: Recommendations with passive modals: ought to be, should be, has got to
be, must be; tag questions
Listening/Pronunciation: Listening for solutions to everyday annoyances ; listening for
issues and opinions Intonation in tag questions
Writing/Reading: Writing an opinion paper
"Habitat for Humanity": Reading about a socially responsible organization
Interchange Activity: PAGE IC-20 (UNIT 15)
"Setting the rules": Making up your own rules
UNIT 16 (PAGES 98-103) Challenges and accomplishments
Challenges; accomplishments; assessing your life
Functions: Describing challenges, frustrations, and rewards ; talking about the past
and the future
Grammar: Complex noun phrases with gerunds ; tense review; present perfect, simple
past, future perfect and would like to have + past participle
Listening/Pronunciation: Listening to descriptions of challenges and rewards ; listening
to future plans Consonant blends
Writing/Reading: Writing about accomplishments and goals
"Adam Ezra Cohen: Westinghouse Winner": Reading about a young prize-winning
scientist
Interchange Activity: PAGES IC-21 (UNIT 16)
"Viewpoints": Taking a survey about volunteering
REVIEW OF UNITS 13-16 (Pages 104-105)
UNIT SUMMARIES (PAGES S-2~S-17)
APPENDIX
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@t:UNIT 1@e
UNIT 1. That's what friends are for!
1. SNAPSHOT
Love and Marriage in North America
* What women look for in a partner
a record of achievement
leadership qualities
job skills
earning potential
a sense of humor
intelligence
* What men look for in a partner
Physical attractiveness
warmth and affection
social skills
homemaking ability
fashion sense
sensitivity
Talk about these questions.
What do you think are the five most important things to look for in a partner?
Which of the five important aspects of a relationship are most important to you?
Do people in your country or culture date? How else do people meet their partners?
2. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Chris: Do you have a date for the party yet?
Kim: Actually, I don't ... Do you think you could help me find one?
Chris: Hmm. What kind of guys do you like?
Kim: Oh, I like guys who aren't too serious and who have a good sense of humor. You
know ... like you.
Chris: OK. What else?
Kim: Well, I'd prefer someone I have something in common with--who I can talk to
easily.
Chris: I think I know just the guy for you. Bob Branson. Do you know him?
Kim: No, I don't think so.
Chris: Let me arrange for you to meet him, and you can tell me what you think.
B. Listen to Chris and Kim discussing Bob after Kim met him. How did Kim like him?
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3. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Relative pronouns
* Relative pronouns as subjects
I like people. They aren't too serious. -> I like people who aren't too serious.
I like people. They have a good sense of humor. -> I like people that have a good
sense of humor.
* Relative pronouns as objects
I'd prefer someone. I can talk to him easily. -> I'd prefer someone (who) I can talk to
easily.
I'd prefer someone. I have something in common with. -> I'd prefer someone (that) I
have something in common with.
A. Match the clauses in column A with appropriate information from column B. (More
than one answer is possible.) Then compare with a partner.
A.
1. It would be fun to go out with a person ---
2. For me, the ideal spouse is someone ---
3. I'd really like to find a friend ---
4. I hope I never have a boss ---
5. I don't want to be friends with anyone ---
6. the perfect English teacher is someone ---
B.
a. who doesn't mind doing housework.
b. I have nothing in common with.
c. that I can trust completely.
d. that doesn't criticize me all the time.
e. I can't talk to about my problems.
f. who is a really good conversationalist.
B. Complete the clauses in column A with your own information. Then compare with a
partner. Do you and your partner have similar opinions?
4. WORD POWER Personalities
A. Match the words with the kinds of people they describe. Then decide which words
are positive and which are negative. Write P or N next to each word.
1. easygoing
2. independent
3. modest
4. moody
5. opinionated
6. sociable
7. stingy
8. unreliable
a. a person who doesn't usually ask other people for help
b. someone who doesn't like giving things to other people
c. someone who expresses very strong beliefs about things
d. people who don't do what they say they will
e. a person who enjoys being with other people
f. someone who is often in a bad mood or depressed
g. a person who doesn't worry much or get angry easily
h. people who don't make a big deal about their accomplishments
B. Give definitions for these words: ambitious, egotistical, patient, high-strung.
C. Pair work
Think of at least three adjectives to describe two people you know.
Then tell a partner about those people.
"My brother is pretty cool and easygoing, but sometimes he can be unreliable. He
always ..."
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5. LISTENING
What are they like?
A. What do you think these people are like? Use adjectives from Exercise 4 or your
own ideas to describe them.
B. Listen to conversations about what the people above are like.
Write down two adjectives for each person. How similar were your guesses?
1. Andrea
2. James
3. Mr. Johnson
6. IDEAL PEOPLE
A. What is the ideal parent, friend, or partner like? What are two qualities each should
have and two qualities each should not have? Complete the chart.
The ideal parent
This person should be ...
This person should not be ...
The ideal friend
This person should be ...
This person should not be ...
The ideal partner
This person should be ...
This person should not be ...
B. Group work
Take turns describing your "ideal people" and compare your ideas.
A: I think the ideal parent is someone who is easygoing.
B: I agree. The ideal parent is someone who doesn't get upset or mad easily.
C: Oh, I'm not sure I agree ...
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7. WRITING
Best friend
A. Pair work
Take turns talking about your best friends. Ask each other these questions and take
notes of your own answers. Then write a composition about your best friend.
Who is your best friend? where did you meet? How did you meet?
What is your friend like? What are your friend's best qualities?
How is your friend similar to or different from you?
What do you like most about your friend?
My best friend is Mei Lin. She lives in my apartment building. We met one day while
she was ... Mei Lin is someone I like because she is very generous. She is the kind of
person who always ...
B. Pair work
Exchange compositions and follow these steps;
1. First, read each other's compositions for content. Ask follow-up questions for
further information.
2. Next, give suggestions about how the composition could be improved.
Does your partner need to revise anything?
3. Rewrite your composition to include your partner's suggestions.
4. Finally, check your partner's composition for spelling, punctuation, and grammar.
8. CONVERSATION
Roommates
A. Listen and practice.
Dave: Hello?
Jim: Hi. My name's Jim Hunt. I'm calling about the ad for a roommate.
Dave: Oh, right.
Jim ; Are you still looking for someone?
Dave: Yes, we are.
Jim: Oh, good. I'm really interested.
Dave: Well, there are four of us, and it's a fairly small house, so we want someone
who's easy to get along with.
Jim: I'm pretty easygoing
Dave: Great! So can I ask you a few fairly straightforward questions about yourself?
Jim: No problem. I like it when people are direct.
B. Think of three questions that Dave might ask Jim. Then listen to the rest of the
conversation. What questions did Dave ask?
C. Role play
Act out a conversation like the one between Dave and Jim. Use your own questions
and information.
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9. PRONUNCIATION
A. Listen and practice. Words that show you feel strongly about something have higher
pitch and additional stress.
I love it when a friend takes me out to dinner.
I can't stand it when someone talks during a movie.
I think it's disgusting when people steal things from restaurants.
B. Mark the emphatic stress in these sentences. Then listen and check.
It bothers me when I get a phone call before 8:00 A.M.
I hate it when people are rude to me on the subway.
10. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Clauses containing it with adverbial clauses
I like it when people are direct.
I don't mind it when people are straightforward with me.
I can't stand it when people aren't honest with me.
It bothers me when people aren't reliable.
It really upsets me when people arrive late for appointments.
A. How do you feel about these situations? Complete the sentences with appropriate
expressions from the list. Then take turns reading your sentences with a partner.
I can't stand it
It embarrasses me
It doesn't bother me
It makes me happy
It really upsets me
I don't mind it
1. --- when people are direct and say exactly what's on their mind.
2. --- when someone gives me a compliment on my hair or clothes.
3. --- when a person corrects my English in front os others.
4. --- when people chew gum while they're talking
5. --- when a friend treats me to dinner or a drink.
6. --- when I get phone calls on my birthday.
B. Group work
Do you ever get annoyed by a certain type of person or situation? Write down your
five most annoying "pet peeves." Then compare in groups.
A: I really can't stand it when people start arguments.
B: I feel the same way - especially when they do it during dinner.
C: It's even more irritating when they don't listen to other people's views!
(Interchange1)
Personality types: Interview a classmate to find out about his or her personality. Turn
to page IC-2.
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11. READING
Friends Again--Forever!
Do you have any friends that you have known almost all your life?
Mary Allen was my best friend--like the sister I never had. We did everything
together; piano lessons, movies, swimming, horseback riding.
When I was 13, my family moved away. Mary and I kept in touch through letters, and
we saw each other on special occasions--like my wedding and Mary's. Soon we were
busy with children and moving to new homes, and we wrote less often. One day a card
that I sent came back stamped "Address Unknown." I had no idea how to find Mary.
Over the years, I thought of Mary often. I wanted to share stories of my children and
then grandchildren. And I needed to share my sorrow when my brother and then mother
died. There was an empty place in my heart that only a friend like Mary could fill.

One day I was reading the newspaper when I noticed a photo of a young woman who
looked a lot like Mary and whose last name was Wagman--Mary's married name.
"There must be thousands of wagmans," I thought, but I wrote to her anyway.
She called as soon as she got my letter. "Mrs. Tobin!" she said excitedly. "Mary Allen
Wagman is my mother." Minutes later I heard a voice that I recognized instantly, even
after 40 years. We laughed and cried and caught up on each other's lives.
Now the empty place in my heart is filled. And there's one thing that Mary and I know
for sure; Mary and I know for sure: We won't lose each other again!
A. Read the article. Complete these sentences with information from the story about
Elinor, the woman who tells the story. (Some sentences can be completed in more than
one way.)
1. As a child, Elinor liked it when ...
2. As a 13-year-old, Elinor didn't like it when ...
3. Later, it upset Elinor when ...
4. Elinor was excited when ...
5. Elinor was very happy when ...
B. Group work
Talk about these questions.
1. Can a best friend make a big difference in a person's life--filling a gap that can't be
filled by anyone else? Why or why not?
2. Have you (or someone you know) lost contact with a friend and then been reunited?
Tell what happened.
@ff
@p8
@t:UNIT 2@e
UNIT 2. Career moves
1. SNAPSHOT
UNIQUE JOBS
personal shopper: Does people's shopping for them
gossip columnist: Writes about famous people's lives
chocolate taster: Eats candy and gives opinions
menu writer: Chooses the right words to describe a restaurant's food
toy tester: Decides if new toys are fun and safe
Source: The New York Times
Complete the task and talk about the questions.
Put the jobs in order: from the most interesting (1) to the least interesting (5).
Which job did you rank number 1? Why?
What are three jobs in your culture that might seem unusual to a person from another
culture?
2. CONVERSATION Job fair
A. Listen and practice.
Tim: Wow! There are so many jobs to choose from! What do you think?
Diane: Working in the media could be fun there's TV, newspapers, the Internet ...
Tim: Well, let's look. Hmm. How about this? You could be a TV news director.
Diane: Are you kidding? Directing the news would be nerve-racking!
Tim: Well, writing for a magazine must be exciting. How about that?
Diane: No. I'm really more interested in working with computers. Hey, look. Designing
interactive media. I'd like that!
Tim: Designing interactive media? It sounds interesting, but what is it?
B. Listen to the rest of the conversation. What does an interactive media designer do?
Does it sound interesting to you? Why or why not?
@p9
3. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Gerund phrases
* Gerund phrases as subjects
Working In the media could be fun.
Directing the news would be nerve-racking.
Designing Interactive media seems challenging.
Working with computers sounds interesting.
* Gerund phrases as objects
I'd love working In the media.
I would hate directing the news.
I wouldn't like designing Interactive media.
I'm interested in working with computers.
A. Would you like doing any of the jobs in column A? First, check(V) the jobs you
would like. Then write your opinion of each job by choosing information from columns
A, B, and C.
A.
1. doing medical research
2. working as an archaeologist
3. writing for a newspaper
4. teaching physically challenged children
5. working on a movie set
6. being a politician
7. conducting an orchestra
8. being wealthy and not having to work
B.
1. seems
2. sounds
3. must be
4. could be
5. would be
C.
1. pretty difficult
2. fascinating
3. nerve-racking
4. kind of boring
5. fantastic
6. pretty awful
7. really rewarding
8. very challenging
(ex) 1. Doing medical research would be really rewarding.
B. Pair work Give your opinions about the jobs in part A.
A: For me, doing medical research would be really rewarding because it would help
save people's lives.
B: I agree! I'd like doing medical research, too. It would be very challenging.
or
B: Really? I wouldn't like doing medical research. I think it sounds pretty difficult.
Useful expressions: For me, ...
As far as I'm concerned, ...
In my opinion, ...
@p10
4. WORD POWER Collocation
A. Find three phrases in the list that are usually paired with each verb. Then think of
one more phrase for each verb.
with animals a secret agent freelance writing a criminal lawyer as an artist an
astronaut public speaking on a cruise ship interviews with famous people
being:
working:
doing:
B. Put the occupations in order: from the most interesting to the least interesting.
5. UNUSUAL CAREERS
Group work
Describe three unusual careers you would like to have. Use information from
Exercises 1-4 and your own ideas. Other students ask follow-up questions.
A: I'd like doing interviews with famous people on TV.
B: Why is that?
A: Talking to people about their lives would be fascinating.
C: Who would you interview?
B: Anybody famous--politicians, movie stars, authors.
6. WRITING What a Job!
A. Choose one of the jobs you talked about in Exercise 5. Make a list of the
advantages and disadvantages of the job. Then write two paragraphs about the job. In
the first paragraph, describe the advantages. In the second, describe the disadvantages.
(ex) Working as a TV journalist would be a fascinating job. You would get to travel all
over the world to cover important events. In addition, you would meet many famous
people, and ...
On the other hand, being a TV journalist could be difficult. You could be in dangerous
situations. For example, ...
Useful expressions: In addition, ...
Further, ...
On the other hand, ...
For example, ...
B. Pair work
Take turns reading your papers. Then briefly summarize your partner's topic and
ideas. Could you remember all the major points?
@p11
7. CONVERSATION Summer jobs
A. Listen and practice.
Tracy: Good news! I've found a summer job!
Mark: That's great! Anything interesting?
Tracy: Yes, working at an amusement park. Doesn't that sound fantastic?
Mark: Sure, it does.
Tracy: So, have you found anything?
Mark: Nothing yet, but I've got a couple of leads. One is working as an intern for a
record company - mostly answering phones. Or I can get a landscaping job again.
Tracy: Being an intern sounds more interesting than landscaping. And it's probably not
as hard!
Mark: Yeah, but a landscaper earns more money than an intern. And you get a great
tan!
B. Listen to the rest of the conversation.
What is Tracy going to do at the amusement park?
8. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Comparisons
A landscaper earns more than an intern.
An intern has boner hours than a landscaper.
A landscaper is better paid than an intern.
Being an intern is more Interesting than landscaping.
Landscaping is harder than being an intern.
An intern doesn't earn as much as a landscaper.
A landscaper has worse hours than an intern.
An intern is not as well paid as a landscaper.
Landscaping is loss interesting than being an intern.
Being an intern is not as hard as landscaping.
A. Match the information to make sentences. Then compare with a partner.
A.
1. A counselor at a summer camp has worse hours ...
2. Selling popcorn in a movie theater is not as rewarding ...
3. A part-time tutor doesn't earn ...
4. Working on a construction site is more dangerous ...
5. A tour guide is not as well paid ...
B.
a. as a lifeguard.
b. than working on a cruise ship.
c. as working with the elderly.
d. than a dog walker.
e. as much as a housepainter.
B. Rewrite each sentence from part A in a different way.
1. A dog walker has better hours than a counselor at a summer camp.
C. Add your own information to the clauses in column A of part A. Then compare with
a partner.
@p12
9. PRONUNCIATION sentence stress
A. Listen and practice. Notice the stress in these sentences.
Working at an amusement park is more fun than being a baby-sitter.
Baby-sitting is not as well paid as tutoring.
Being a tutor is just as hard as working as a counselor.
B. Listen again to the sentences from the grammar box in Exercise 8.
Mark the stressed words and then practice the sentences.
10. LISTENING
A. Listen to Carlos, Paul, and Julia talking about their summer jobs.
Where does each person work? Write the correct name under each picture.
1.
2.
3.
B. Listen again. Do Carlos, Paul, and Julia like their jobs? Why or why not? Take notes.
(Interchange2) The best and the worst; What kinds of summer or part-time jobs have
you had? Turn to page IC-3.
11. PROS AND CONS
A. Group work
Choose two summer jobs from the list. Then use the questions to compare the jobs.
Summer jobs
a baby-sifter
a dance instructor
a hiking trail guide
an assistant in a museum
a chef's assistant
a park ranger
a dog walker
a telephone operator
Which job do you think pays more?
Which one has better hours?
Which one is more interesting? harder? more challenging? more rewarding? Why?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of each job?
B. Class activity
Which job does your group prefer? Tell the class why.
@p13
12. READING
Strategies for Keeping Your Job
In some countries, unemployment because of worker cutbacks is a big problem. Is this
a problem in your country?
After six years with the company, Bob Congers lost his job. Bob hadn't done anything
wrong. On the contrary, he was a good worker, but his company was cutting its
workforce. Workforce cutbacks were a common occurrence in the early 1990s. In
response, career experts developed strategies for holding on to a job:
* Make sure everyone knows you. Being a good worker is sometimes less important
than making sure that people know you're a good worker. Volunteer for new
responsibilities, push your ideas, and generally make yourself visible.
* Learn everything that could help you do your job better. If the company buys new
computers, learn how to use them. If learning more about marketing could help you,
take a short course in marketing.
* Make sure you know everything about the company. And use this knowledge. If you
find out that sales is becoming the most important department, try making a move to
sales.
* Be positive. People who find things to complain about are a lot less popular than
people who find things to praise
* Improve your speaking and writing skills. Having good ideas isn't enough. You need
to be able to communicate your ideas.
* Impress your boss. You can often impress a boss by arriving early and working late
and by dressing in a businesslike way even if others dress casually. In the end, it all
comes down to one basic strategy- Make yourself so valuable that the company won't
want to lose you.
A. Read the article. According to the article, which employee fits each .description?
Check (V) the correct name. What information helped you determine this? Underline the
information in the article.
1. The employee whose job is least likely to be cut:
Alice, who is always bringing problems in her department to her boss's attention
Betty, who is always finding something good to say about her department
Carol, who always keeps her opinions about the department to herself
2. The employee whose job is most likely to be cut:
Albert, who puts his extra time into doing his job well
Bill, who puts his extra time into training in new areas
Carl, who puts his extra time into taking on different responsibilities
B. Group work Talk about these questions.
1. Are the strategies given in the article useful for places where you've worked or
places you've heard about? Would you follow these strategies?
2. Which of the strategies seem most important? Which seem least important?
3. What other strategies can you think of for keeping a job?
@ff
@p15
@t:UNIT 3@e
UNIT 3. Could you do me a favor?
1. SNAPSHOT
FAVORS PEOPLE DISLIKE BEING ASKED
Could you ...?
lend me some money
let me see your class notes
lend me your hairbrush
drive me to the airport.
let me use your car
help me move into a new apartment
take care of my pet while I'm away
let me stay at your home for a while
Talk about these questions.
Which of these favors bothers you the most? Which bothers you the least?
What are three other favors that you dislike being asked?
Imagine that a close friend asked you each of these favors. What would you say in
each situation?
2. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Jack: Hi, Rod. This is Jack.
Rod: Oh, hi, Jack. What's up?
Jack: I'm going to my best friend's wedding this weekend. I'd love to videotape it.
Would you mind if I borrowed your video camera?
Rod: Um, yeah. That's OK, I guess. I don't think I'll need it for anything.
Jack: Thanks a million.
Rod: Sure. Have you used a video camera before? It's pretty easy.
Jack: Yeah, a couple of times. Would it be OK if I picked it up on Friday night?
Rod: Fine. No problem.
B. Listen to two more telephone calls Jack makes. What else does he want to borrow
from friends? Do they agree to lend them to him?
@p15
3. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Requests with modals and if clauses
Less formal requests are more direct than more formal requests. The past tense is
used in an if clause when "would" is used in the main clause. "Would you mind" can be
followed by an if clause or a gerund.
Less formal
Can I borrow your pencil?
Could you please lend me a suit?
Is it OK if I use your phone?
Do you mind if I use your CD player?
Would It be OK if I used your fax machine?
Would you mind if I borrowed your video camera?
Would you mind letting me borrow your laptop?
I wonder if I could borrow $100.
More formal
I was wondering if you'd mind lending me your car.
A. Make requests using these cues. Then practice with a partner.
1. You want to borrow someone's underwater camera for a diving trip to Florida.
A: Would you mind ...?
B: Sure, that's fine. But please be careful with it.
2. You want to use someone's desk.
A: Is it OK ...?
B: Of course. Go right ahead!
3. You need a ride to the airport tomorrow.
A: ...
B: I'd be glad to. What time?
4. You need help moving on Saturday.
A: ...
B: Gee, I'm sorry. I'm busy this whole weekend.
5. You want to borrow someone's mountain bike.
A: ...
B: I'm sorry. I'd like to, but the tire is flat.
B. Rewrite these requests more formally. Then practice making your requests with a
partner. Accept or decline each request.
1. Lend me a couple of dollars for an espresso.
2. Take this book back to the library for me.
3. Lend me your black jacket for my date.
4. I'd like to borrow your Elton John CD.
5. Can I look at that newspaper when you've finished reading it?
(ex) Would you mind lending me a couple of dollars for an espresso?
or would you mind if I borrowed a couple of dollars for an espresso?
@p16
4. PRONUNCIATION Blended consonants
A. Listen and practice. When the sounds /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/, /p/, and /b/ come at the end of
a word and the next word begins with a consonant, the ending consonant is blended
with the beginning consonant.
Ask Bob to sit behind me.
Do you want that newspaper?
I don't like to ask people for money.
Could you take this book back to Jack?
B. Group work Write five requests like the ones in Exercise 3. Then practice making
them and responding to them. Pay attention to the blending of consonants.
5. LISTENING
A. Listen to three telephone conversations. Write down what each caller requests.
Does the other person agree to the request? Check(V) Yes or No.
Request
1. Tina
2. Mike
3. Phil
B. Role play Use the chart to act out each conversation.
6. WRITING Would you mind ...?
A. Write a note to a friend or classmate asking for several favors. Explain why you
need help.
I'm Taking my boss out to dinner on Saturday, and I want to make a good impression.
Would you mind if I borrowed your car? I promise to drive very carefully. I also wonder
if you'd mind lending me your red bow tie. Let me know. Thanks!
B. Pair work Exchange notes and write a reply accepting or declining the requests.
Of course you can borrow my car on Saturday. You can pick it up at ... About my red
bow tie, I'd like to lend it to you, but ...
(Interchange 3) Borrowers and lenders: Find out just how generous you are. Turn to
page IC-4
@p17
7. WORD POWER Collocation
A. Find three words or phrases that are usually paired with each verb. (More than one
answer is possible.) Then compare with a partner.
an accusation an excuse a gift permission a reason an apology an explanation an
invitation a phone call a request a compliment a favor an offer a problem yourself
deny:
offer:
receive:
refuse:
return:
B. Which of the words or phrases in part A can be paired with reject, accept, or
decline?
C. Pair work
Choose five of the collocations from parts A and B and take turns asking questions
with them.
A: Do you usually return a compliment?
B: Oh, sure. If someone compliments me on my hair, I try to make a nice comment
about her hair, too.
8. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Amy: Hello?
Jeff: Hello. May I speak to Sophia, please?
Amy: I'm sorry, she's not in right now. Would you like to leave a message?
Jeff: Yes, please. This is Jeff. Would you tell her that Tony is having a party on
Saturday?
Amy: Uh-huh.
Jeff: And Would you ask her if she'd like to go with me?
Amy: All right, Peter. I'll give her the message.
Jeff: No, this is Jeff, not Peter.
Amy: Oh, I'm sorry.
Jeff: By the way, who's Peter?
B. Listen to Amy talking to Sophia. Who is Peter? Is Sophia going to go to the party
with Jeff?
C. Role play Act out the conversation in part A. Make up your own messages.
@p18
9. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Indirect requests
Statements
Sophia, Tony is having a party.
Imperatives
Sophia, call me at five. Jeff, don't be late.
Yes/NO questions
Sophia, are you free on Friday?
Sophia, do you have my number?
Amy, will you be at the party?
Wh-questions
Jeff, when does the party start?
Sophia, when should I pick you up?
Tony, what should we bring?
Indirect requests introduced by that
Could you tell Sophia (that) Tony is having a party?
Indirect requests using infinitives
Would you ask Sophia to call me at five?
Can you tell Jeff not to be late?
Indirect requests introduced by whether or if with statement word order
Can you ask Sophia if she's free on Friday?
Could you ask her whether she has my number?
Please ask Amy whether she'll be at the party.
Indirect requests introduced by a question word with statement word order
Can you ask Jeff when the party starts?
Could you ask Sophia when I should pick her up?
Would you ask Tony what we should bring?
Rewrite these sentences as indirect requests. In other words, ask a friend to deliver
the message for you. Then compare with a partner.
1. Jeff, can you drive us to Tony's party?
2. Sophia, are you going to the party with Peter or with Jeff?
3. Tony, how many of my friends can I bring to your party?
4. Amy, when is Sophia going to get home tonight?
5. Anne, please return the book I lent you.
6. Dan, don't call me before 8:00 A.M.
7. Vera, Anne is at the library.
8. Jennifer, what time do you want us to meet you?
(ex) 1. Could you ask Jeff if he can drive us to Tony's party?
10. PASS IT ON
A. Write five indirect requests for your partner to pass on to classmates.
(ex) Would you ask Jin-Sook if she could lend me $100?
B. Class activity Ask your partner to pass on your requests. Go around the class and
make your partner's requests. Then go back and tell your partner how the person
responded.
A: Would you ask Jin Sook if she could lend me $100?
B: No problem ... Jin Sook, could you lend Isam $100?
C: I'm sorry, but I can't! Could you tell Isam I'm broke?
B: Isam, Jin Sook says that she's broke.
@p19
11. READING
Yes or NO?
How can you say "yes" and "no" without using words?
A group of Americans who taught English in other countries were discussing their
experiences. They decided miscommunications were always possible, even over
something as simple as "yes" and "no."
On her first day in Micronesia, Lisa said she thought people were ignoring her
requests. The day was hot, and she needed a cold drink. She went into a store and
asked, 'Do you have cold drinks?" The woman there didn't say anything. Lisa rephrased
the question. Still the woman said nothing. At this point, Lisa gave up and left the store.
She soon learned that the woman had answered her: She had lifted her eyebrows, which
in Micronesia can mean "yes."
This reminded Jan of an experience in Bulgaria, she told the others. She had gone into
a restaurant that was famous for its stuffed cabbage. 'Do you have stuffed cabbage
today?" she asked the waiter. He nodded his head. Jan eagerly waited. The cabbage
never arrived. In Bulgaria, a nod means "no."
In China, David said he had had a different kind of problem. When David asked his
students, 'Can we meet at 8:00 next week instead of at our usual time?' they
immediately answered 'yes." So David was greatly surprised when the students never
come to class. His colleagues explained that the students couldn't come at 8:00 but said
they could: In China, it's disrespectful to disappoint someone--especially a superior--
by saying "no."
A. Read the article. Where did Lisa, Jan, and David have the experiences they tell
about? Describe each person's experience. Complete the chart.
1. Lisa
Place:
Experience:
2. Jan
Place:
Experience:
3. David
Place:
Experience:
B. Group Work Talk about these questions.
1. Have you ever heard of these different ways of saying "yes" and "no"?
Which do you find the most surprising?.
2. The misunderstandings in Micronesia and Bulgaria involved differences in nonverbal
communication. Do you know of other gestures that have different meanings in different
cultures?
3. Do you ever say "yes" when you would prefer to say "no"? In what situations do you
do this?
@p20
UNIT 4. What a story!
1. SNAPSHOT
WHAT'S NEWS?
Percent of U. S. adults who want to ]mow about each type of news,
The Top 7 Types of News
crime 95%
local news 94%
the environment 92%
the national government 88%
news from around the world 87%
the arts 67%
sports 63%
Source: Parade magazine
Talk about these questions.
Which of these types of news are most important to you? least important to you? What
are three other types of news that you like to know about? Where do you get most of
your news: from newspapers? television and radio? the Internet?
2. CONVERSATION storytelling
A. Listen and practice.
Jake: What an awful story! A couple was sailing their yacht from Hawaii to Mexico.
While they were crossing the Pacific, their boat hit a whale and sank!
Anne: Is that true? What happened to the whale?
Jake: It doesn't say. Oh, and here's another one. A guy in Los Angeles was robbing a
bank. But as he was escaping, he got caught in the revolving door
Anne: I guess it was his first bank robbery!
Jake: Yeah. Oh, and listen to this. Some guy got, locked out of his house, so he tried to
get in through the chimney.
Anne: Don't tell me! He got stuck in the chimney!
Jake: Exactly. And he was still trying to get out two days later when the police
rescued him.
B. Pair work Close your book. Take turns telling the stories in part A.
@p21
3. PRONUNCIATION Intonation in complex sentences
Listen and practice. Each clause in a complex sentence has its own intonation pattern.
While they were crossing the Pacific, their boat hit a whale and sank.
As he was escaping from the bank, the robber got caught in the revolving door.
He was trying to get out of the chimney when the police rescued him.
4. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Past continuous and simple past
Use the past continuous for an ongoing action in the past.
Use the simple post for an event that interrupts that action.
While they were crossing the Pacific (past continuous), Their boat hit a whale and
sank. (Simple past)
As he was escaping from the bank (past continuous), the robber got caught in the
revolving door. (Simple past)
He was trying to get out of the chimney (Past continuous), when the police rescued
him.(Simple Past)
A. Complete these news stories using the past continuous or the simple past of the
verbs given. Then compare with a partner.
1. Flight 2001 --- (fly) from London to New York when it suddenly --- (encounter)
turbulence and --- (drop) 15,000 feet. The plane --- (carry) over 300 passengers and
a crew of 17.
2. While divers --- (work) off the coast of Florida, they --- (discover) a 100-year-
old shipwreck. The shipwreck --- (contain) gold bars worth $2 million. The divers ---
(film) life on a coral reef when they --- (find) the gold.
3. A man was fined $4,000 for stealing an ambulance. The ambulance driver ---
(make) a phone call when the thief --- (start up) the ambulance. He --- (speed) away
when the driver --- (see) him and --- (call) the police.
4. Police got a shock when they --- (stop) a motorist as she --- (speed) on the
highway. While they --- (search) the trunk of her car, the --- (find) three snakes. The
driver said she --- (take) them to a pet fair.
B. Pair work Practice the stories in part A. Pay attention to the intonation in the
complex sentences.
@p22
5. LISTENING News broadcasts
A. Listen to news broadcasts about three events. Take notes about each event.
Where did it happen?
1.
2.
3.
When did it happen?
1.
2.
3.
What happened?
1.
2.
3.
B. Group Work Take turns describing each event in your own words.
6. THAT'S INCREDIBLE!
A. Group Work Match each headline with the beginning of one of the news stories.
Then choose one of the stories and make up more information about it. One student
starts the story. Then another student tells what happened next and so on.
1. ---
ILLUSTION OR ALIENS?
2. ---
Ideal Twins Reunited After 45 Years Apart
3. ---
Man Receives Letter Mailed 50 Years Ago
4. Job Applicant's Life Saved by Being 5 Minutes Late for Interview.
a. Paul Jones got a surprise when he opened his mailbox last week.
b. A strange light lit up the sky as three students were driving home last night.
c. Lisa Miller is lucky. She missed her bus while she was on her way to a job
interview.
d. Ellen and Mary could hardly believe their eyes when they saw each other.
B. Class activity Take turns telling the groups' stories. Other students ask questions.
Which group has the best story?
(Interchange 4) A double ending: Solve a mystery! Students A and B turn to page IC-5.
Students C and D turn to page IC-6
7. WRITING Newspaper stories
A. Write a composition based on one of the stories in Exercise 6. First, take notes
based on these questions. Then expand your notes into a creative story
Who was involved?
Where did it happen?
How did it happen?
When did it happen?
What exactly happened?
Why did it happen?
B. Pair work Find a partner who wrote a different story Read your partner's story and
ask questions about it to get more information.
C. Revise your story. Add new ideas or details to improve it.
@P23
8. CONVERSATION
A. Wife Listen and practice.
Brian: Someone stole my wallet last night!
Kate: Oh no! What happened?
Brian: Well, I was working out, and I had put my stuff in my locker, just like I always
do. When I came back, someone had stolen my wallet. I guess I'd forgotten to lock the
locker.
Kate: I'm sorry. That's terrible! Did you lose much money?
Brian: Only about $20. But I lost my credit card and my driver's license. What a pain!
B. Listen to the rest of the conversation. What did Kate have stolen once? Where was
she? What happened?
9. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Past perfect
Use the post perfect for an event that occurred before another event or time period in
the past.
I was working out (Past event), and I had put my wallet in my locker.(Past perfect
event)
When I come back (Past event), someone had stolen my wallet. (Past perfect event)
They were able to steal it (Past event) because I had forgotten to lock the locker.
(Past perfect event)
A. Complete these sentences. Use the simple past or past continuous with the verbs in
column A, and the simple past or the past perfect with the verbs in column B.
A.
1. A thief --- (break into) our house last night while my sister and I --- (pick up) a
pizza for dinner.
2. I --- (shop) with some friends yesterday, and I --- (lose) my keys.
3. I --- (drive) around with friends all day on Sunday, and I --- (run out) of gas on
the freeway.
4. I --- (try) to go and visit my parents last night when I --- (get) stuck in the
elevator in their apartment building.
B.
a. Luckily, I --- (give) a friend a copy of them, and she --- (come) over and let me
in.
b. It --- (reach) the fifth floor when it --- (stop). After I --- (be) stuck for about half
an hour, someone finally --- (start) it again.
c. I guess we --- (leave) the door unlocked because that's how the thief --- (get)
into the house.
d. Luckily, I --- (bring) my Car Association card with me, so I --- (call) them for
help.
B. Match columns A and B to make complete stories. Then add one more sentence to
each story. Take turns reading your stories with a partner.
@p24
10. WORD POWER Events
A. Match the words in column A with the definitions from column B.
A.
1. coincidence ...
2. disaster ...
3. emergency ...
4. lucky break ...
5. misfortune ...
6. mystery ...
7. predicament ...
8. triumph ...
B.
a. an event that causes something good
b. a somewhat difficult and puzzling situation
c. something unexplained or not understood
d. an event that causes a lot of trouble or destruction
e. a great success or achievement
f. random events that seem to be connected
g. a sudden event requiring quick action
h. an event that causes something bad or unfavorable
B. Pair work Choose three of the words from part A. Write situations for each word.
(ex) Two people, traveling separately, met while they were on vacation in China. Even
though they had both lived in the same town their whole lives, they had never met
before(coincidence)
C. Group work Read your situations in groups. Can others guess which word each
situation describes?
11. TELL ME MORE
A. Pair work Complete these stories. Then join another pair and compare stories.
What a lucky break! I was on a plane headed for Europe last week. The plane had just
taken off. I was settling down to watch the movie when the pilot made an announcement
...
What a mystery! It was around 11:30 last night. The news on TV had just ended when
someone rang the doorbell ...
B. Group work Have you ever ...?
found yourself in a predicament
been in a mysterious situation
been in an emergency
had a lucky break
Tell the group about it and answer their questions.
A: I found myself in quite a predicament last week.
B: What happened?
A: I had invited my brother to visit me over the weekend. Then my girlfriend told me
her parents were visiting and wanted to meet me.
C: What did you do?
@p25
12. READING
STRANGE (from the hottest tabloids in town)
But True
Read the first two sentences below. Do you know of any newspapers that are tabloids?
Tabloids are newspapers that specialize in news about people. Tabloid stories are
often sensational and leave the reader wondering, "Could this be true?" BRASILIA,
Brazil - After Emilio Gonzalez, a million-dollar lottery winner, told reporters that his
luck had come from a particular fish in a pond in a park, over 200 other Brazilians spoke
up with similar stories: They had rubbed this fish and soon after had won a prize!
Although this "magic fish" is now under study and off-limits to the public, many people
have won lots of money just by rubbing its picture.
CLEVELAND, Ohio--Bruce Zalmer, 32, is literally fireproof. His skin can withstand
flames without pain or damage. And his lungs can draw oxygen from smoky air. Medical
scientists are amazed that a human could have either, let alone both, of these qualities.
Although Zalmer sees himself as "just a regular guy" he once rescued a family of four
from a burninig building after firefighters had given up hope.
NAKURU, Kenya--As tourists looked on in amazement, a spaceship kidnapped 11
elephants from a game preserve. The tour bus had stopped at a watering hole and the
tourists were watching the elephants when suddenly a gigantic spaceship appeared. The
ship shot down a powerful beam of orange light that sucked up the elephants and then
flew off. Park officials confirmed that 11 full-grown elephants had in fact disappeared.
MONTERREY, Mexico--Astounded doctors say that hundreds of people who had been
old and sick became young and healthy again by drinking from a water fountain in a
public park. Park officials removed the fountain because crowds were becoming a
danger. Yet the people who had drunk its water remained young and healthy - and made
others young and healthy, too, simply by hugging them!
A. Read the article. Then make true statements by matching the clauses in columns A
and B. Compare with a partner and take turns retelling the stories.
A.
1.After people had rubbed the fish, ...
2. After the fire fighters had given up hope, ...
3. After the bus had made a stop, ...
4. After people had drunk water from the fountain in the park, ...
B.
a. they became young and happy again.
b. the elephants were kidnapped.
c. Zalmer was able to save the family.
d. they won money in the lottery.
B. Group work Talk about these questions.
1. Do you think these stories could be true? Why or why not?
2. Which of the stories do you find the most interesting? Why?
3. Tell about an amazing story that you have heard.
@ff
@p26
@t:Review 1-4@e
Review of Units 1-4
1. PEOPLE PREFERENCES
Pair work Take turns describing the kind of person you would like to be with and not
like to be with in these situations.
to go on vacation with
to share an apartment with
to go on a blind date with
to have as a boss
"I'd prefer to go on vacation with someone who is fairly independent. I wouldn't want
to travel with someone who wanted me to make all of the decisions."
2. LISTENING Favorite gripes
A. Listen to two people discussing these topics. Complete the chart.
1. taxi drivers
First person's biggest complaint:
Second person's biggest complaint:
2. people with dogs
3. TV commercials
4. store clerks
B. Pair work What is your biggest complaint about each person or thing on the chart?
A: I can't stand it when taxi drivers claim they don't have change.
B: Well, it bothers me when ...
3. THE RAT RACE
A. Group work Choose two of these jobs or use your own ideas. Compare the jobs and
suggest as many differences as you can.
being a TV anchorperson
making TV documentaries
writing software programs
designing web pages
coaching a team sport
practicing sports medicine
B. Class activity Which job does your group prefer? Tell the class why.
Things to compare
salary
hours
education
skills
job satisfaction
@p27
4. LISTENING Asking favors
Listen and check(V) the best response.
1. Sure! I'd be glad to.
Yes, I'll tell her.
Sorry, I'm not free then.
2. Gee, I'm sorry.
OK. What time?
OK. I'll give him the message.
3. Well, actually, I'd like it back. Some friends are coming over tonight.
Sorry, it's in the repair shop.
Sure, I'll ask her.
4. Sorry, I'm still using it.
Yes, please.
Sure. Would a check be OK?
5. ROLE PLAY I wonder if you'd...
Student A
You are planning a class party at your house. Think of three things you need a
classmate to help you with (for example, bring music/food/games; give someone a ride).
Call a classmate and ask for help:
"Hi, Dave. I'm calling about the party. I wonder if you'd mind ..."
Finish the conversation like this:
"Well, thanks for your help. See you on Saturday!"
Student B
A classmate is planning a party and calls you for help. Agree to help with some of the
things, but not everything.
Change partners and roles and try the role play again.
6. THE GOOD AND THE BAD
Group work Read these questions and take turns talking about them.
1. During the last few weeks, did anyone do something that made you feel good? What
was it? What happened?
2. Has anything happened lately that made you feel bad? What was it? What happened?
3. Have you done anything in the last few weeks that made someone else feel good?
What did you do?
"I was feeling quite depressed last week because I had broken up with my boyfriend.
So a couple of friends decided to cheer me up by taking me out. First, they took me out
to dinner after class. While we were there ...
@ff
@p28
@t:UNIT 5@e
UNIT5. Crossing cultures
1. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Fred: I hear Maggie is going to work in India.
Pam: India! Wow! I hear it's a beautiful place, but I don't think I could ever live there.
Fred: Why not?
Pam: Well, it's too far from home. I'd miss my family.
Fred: I don1 think I'd mind moving to a foreign country. The language is the only thing
that Id be worried about.
Pam: Yeah, but wouldn't you miss your friends?
Fred: Sure, for a while, but I'd make new ones.
Pam: You certainly sound very confident.
Fred: You know, actually, there is one thing I'd miss.
Pam: What's that?
Fred: My dog!
B. Pair work What are the three things you miss (or would miss the most if you moved
to another country)?
2. WORD POWER Culture shock
A. These words are used to describe how people sometimes feel when they live in a
foreign country. Which are positive (P)? Which are negative (N)?
anxious
calm
comfortable
confident
curious
depressed
embarrassed
enthusiastic
fascinated
nervous
secure
sure of oneself
suspicious
uncertain
uncomfortable
worried
B. Group Work Do you live (or would you like to live) in a foreign country? How did
you feel (or would you feel) about moving there?
A: I think I'd be nervous and feel a little uncertain, but I'd be enthusiastic, too!
B: Yeah, me, too. And I'm sure that I ...
@p29
3. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Noun phrases
These noun phrases contain a relative clause.
The language is one thing (that) I'd be worried about.
My dog is the thing (that) I'd miss the most
My mom's cooking is something (that) I'd really miss.
One thing (that) I'd be worried about is the language.
The thing (that) I'd miss the most is my dog.
Something (that) I'd really miss is my mom's cooking.
A. Imagine you are going to live in a foreign country. Write sentences using these
noun phrases and your own information. Then write three more sentences.
1. the thing that I'd be most worried about
2. something I'd feel confident about
3. the person that I'd miss the most
4. someone I'd never miss
5. something I might be uncomfortable about
6. the thing that I'd find most exciting
B. Group work Compare. Do others feel the same way?
4. PRONUNCIATION Key words
A. Listen and practice. The words that carry the most important information in a
sentence are usually stressed.
Argentina is a country that I'd like to live in.
The thing I'd be most worried about is the food.
The person that I'd miss the most is my father.
B. Pair work Mark the stress in the sentences you wrote in Exercise 3. Then practice
the sentences. Pay attention to the stressed words.
5. LISTENING
A. Pair work Think of three things that make life easy and three things that make life
difficult for a person living in a foreign country.
B. Listen to a radio broadcast by journalist James Fallows, who talks about some of his
experiences in Japan.
1. What is the most difficult thing about learning a foreign language?
2. Why is he able to read more books in Japan?
3. What other advantages does he mention?
@p30
6. GOING ABROAD
Group Work Read these questions. Think of two more questions to add to the list.
Then take turns asking and answering the questions in groups.
If you could live in a foreign country, what country would you like to live in? Why?
What country wouldn't you like to live in? Why?
If you could go abroad with someone, who would it be?
What is something you would never travel without?
Who would you write to first after arriving?
What would be your two greatest concerns about living abroad?
What do you think, you would enjoy the most about living abroad?
A: What country would you like to live in?
B: The country I'd like to live in is Peru.
C: Why is that?
B: Well, I've always wanted to learn how to cook Peruvian food ...
7. SNAPSHOT
Different Customs
Canada and the U. S.: Don't arrive early if you're invited to someone's home.
Indonesia: Never point to anything with your foot.
Korea: Don't pass something to an older person or superior with only one hand.
Muslim countries: Don't eat with your left hand.
Samoa: Don't eat when you're walking in public.
Thailand: Never touch anyone except a child on the head.
Talk about these questions.
Does your culture follow any of these customs?
Why do you think people have these customs?
What other interesting customs do you know?
What customs should a visitor to your country know about?
@p31
8. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Marta: Guess what! I just got invited to my teacher's house for dinner!
Karen: Oh, how nice.
Marta: Yes, but what do you do when you're invited to someone's house here?
Karen: Well, it's the custom to bring a small gift
Marta: Really? Like what?
Karen: Oh, maybe some flowers or dessert.
Marta: And is it all right to bring a friend along?
Karen: Well, if you want to bring someone, you're expected to call first and ask if it's
OK.
B. Class activity Are any of these customs the same in your country?
9. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Expectations
When you visit someone, you're supposed to bring a small gift.
When you visit someone, you aren't supposed to arrive early.
If you want to bring someone, you're expected to call first and ask.
If you want to bring someone, it's the custom to check with the host.
If you want to bring someone, it's not acceptable to arrive without calling first.
A. Match information in columns A and B to make sentences about customs in the
United States and Canada. Then compare with a partner.
A
1. If the service in a restaurant is very bad, ...
2. If you've been to a friend's home for dinner, ...
3. When you want to smoke in public, ...
4. When you go out on a date, ...
5. If you plan to visit someone at home, ...
6. When you meet someone for the first time, ...
B
a. you're supposed to call first.
b. you aren't expected to leave a tip.
c. you aren't supposed to hug or kiss them.
d. you're expected to ask the people near you.
e. it's the custom to call and thank them.
f. it's acceptable to share the expenses.
B. Group Work How are the customs in part A different in your country?
C. Complete these sentences with information about your country or a country you
know well. Then compare with a partner.
1. In ..., if people invite you to their home, ...
2. When you go out with friends for dinner, ...
3. If a friend gets engaged to be married, ...
4. When a relative has a birthday, ...
5. If a friend is in the hospital, ...
6. When someone is going to have a baby, ...
@p32
10. LISTENING Unique customs
Listen to three people describing unique customs they observed while traveling.
Complete the chart.
1. Alice
Where was this person?
What was the custom?
How did this person feel about it?
2. Mark
3. Susan
11. THINGS TO REMEMBER
A. Pair work What should a visitor to your country know about local customs? Make a
list of "dos and don'ts" for foreign visitors. Think about these points and other points.
dressing appropriately
staying as a houseguest or in a hotel
traveling by bus or train
giving and receiving gifts
taking photographs
meeting people
eating out
shopping
B. Class activity Compare your lists around the class. Do any of your classmates'
customs surprise you?
useful expressions
One of the most important things to remember is ...
Another thing to keep in mind is ...
One thing visitors don't often realize is ...
12. WRITING Before you go
A. Choose five points from the list you made in Exercise 11. Use them to write a
composition.
(ex) When You visit my country, there are some important things you should know.
For example, if you are visiting a temple or shrine, it's not acceptable to take
photographs. Also, you are supposed to ...
B. Pair work Take turns reading your compositions. Can you suggest any
improvements to the content or grammar of your partner's composition?
(Interchange 5)
Culture clash Compare customs in different countries Turn to page IC-7.
@p33
13. READING
Culture Check
What kinds of behavior are acceptable in some cultures but not in others?
Check(V) the statements about cultural behavior that are true in your country.
Socializing
1. People often kiss friends on the cheek when they meet.
2. It's OK to ask people how much money they earn.
3. It's all right to ask someone what his or her religion is.
4. It's common to introduce yourself to new neighbors and give them a small gift.
5. People always arrive on time when they're invited to someone's home.
6. It's OK to bring a friend or family member when you're invited to a party at
someone's home.
7. It's OK to ask for a second helping when eating at a friend's house.
8. It's OK to drop by a friend's house without calling first.
9. When friends have dinner out together, each person pays his or her share of the
check.
Out in Public
10. It's OK to blow your nose in public.
11. It's all right to chew gum while talking to someone.
12. It's common to bargain when you buy things in stores,
13. If you want to smoke around other people, you should always ask if ifs OK.
At Work and School
14. In an office, people usually prefer to be called by their first name.
15. In high schools, it's common to call a teacher by his or her first name.
16. Students always stand up when the teacher enters the classroom.
Dating and Marriage
17. Parents often decide who their children will marry.
18. Teenagers go out on dates a lot.
19. A man usually gives a woman a gift when they go out on a date.
20. Young people usually live with their parents after they get married.
Group work Compare answers. How many are the same? How many are different? (To
see how an American or Canadian would usually respond to this culture cheek, see the
appendix at the back of the book.)
@ff
@p34
@t:UNIT 6@e
UNIT 6. What's wrong with it?
1. SNAPSHOT
#1 Mail-Order Companies
#2 Long-Distance Phone Companies
#3 Car Dealers
#4 Landlords
#5 Home Improvement Services
#6 Banks and Insurance Companies
#7 Car-Repair Garages
#8 Travel Services
Talk about these questions.
Have you ever complained about any of these types of businesses?
What are three other businesses or things people often complain about?
Have you ever wanted to complain about something, but didn't? What was it?
2. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Clerk: Can I help you?
Helen: Yes, I'd like to return this jacket.
Clerk: Is there something the matter with it?
Helen: Yes. I didn't notice when I bought it, but there are a few problems. First, it has
a tear in the lining.
Clerk: Hmm. Actually, it's torn in several places.
Helen: And some of the buttons are very loose. This one came off, in fact. And there's
a stain on the collar.
Clerk: I'm really sorry about this. Would you like to exchange it for another one?
Helen: Well, to be honest, I don't think this jacket is very well made. I'd rather get a
refund.
Clerk: I understand. Do you have the receipt?
B. Class activity Have you ever returned anything to a store? Why? How did the store
respond?
@p35
3. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Describing problems
With post participles as adjectives.
The locket lining is torn.
The collar of the jacket is stained.
The car is damaged in the back.
The furniture is scratched.
The glass is cracked.
The pipe is looking. *
With nouns
It has a fear in it./There's a hole in it.
It has a stain on the collar.
It has some damage in the back.
There are a lot of scratches on it.
There's a crack in it.
It has a leak in it.
This is an exception: is leaking is a present continuous form.
For a list of irregular post participles, see the appendix at the back of the book.
A. Here are some comments made by customers in a restaurant. Write sentences in
two different ways using forms of the word in parentheses. Then compare with a
partner.
1. This tablecloth isn't very clean. Look, it ... (stain)
2. Let's ask for another water pitcher. This one ... (leak)
3. The chairs look pretty worn. The wood ... too. (scratch)
4. The waiter needs a new shirt. The one he's wearing ... (tear)
5. I'm sorry. Could you bring me another glass? This one ... (chip)
B. Pair work Describe two problems with each thing, using past participle, verb, or
noun forms of the words below or other words of your own.
A: The vase is chipped.
B: Yes. And it has a crack on the side.
break burn chip crack dent leak loose scratch stain tear
1. a vase
2. a fountain pen
3. a CD
4. a pair of sunglasses
5. a pair of jeans
6. a shirt
C. Group Work Look around your classroom. How many problems can you describe?
A: The carpet is a little worn.
B: Yes. And the windows are a bit dirty.
C: Look over there. The curtains ...
@p36
4. LISTENING Fair exchange?
Listen to three customers returning items they purchased. Complete the chart.
1. Item:
Problem:
Will the store exchange it?: Yes, No
2. Item:
Problem:
Will the store exchange it?: Yes, No
3. Item:
Problem:
Will the store exchange it?: Yes, No
5. ROLE PLAY What's the problem?
Student A: You are returning an item to a store. Decide what the item is and explain
why you are returning it.
Student B: You are a salesperson. A customer is returning an item to the store. Ask
these questions:
What exactly is the problem? Can you show it to me?
When did you buy the item? Was it like this when you bought it?
Do you have the receipt? Would you like a refund or a store credit?
6. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Ms. Lock: Hello?
Mr. Burr: Hello, Ms. Lock. This is Jack Burr.
Ms. Lock: Uh, Mr. Burr ... in Apartment 205?
Mr. Burr: No, in Apartment 305.
Ms. Lock: Oh, yes. What can I do for you? Does your refrigerator need fixing again?
Mr. Burr: No, it's the oven this time.
Ms. Lock: Oh, so what's wrong with it?
Mr. Burr: Well, I think the temperature control needs to be checked. Everything I try
to cook gets burned.
Ms. Lock: Really? OK, I'll have someone look at it right away.
Mr. Burr: Thanks a lot, Ms. Lock.
Ms. Lock: Uh, by the way, Mr. Burr, are you sure it's the oven and not your cooking?
B. Listen to another tenant calling Ms. Lock. What's the tenant's problem?
@p37
7. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Need with passive infinitives and gerunds
Need + passive Infinitive
The refrigerator needs to be fixed.
The temperature control needs to be checked.
Need + gerund
It needs fixing.
It needs checking.
A. What needs to be done in this apartment? Write statements about these items using
need with passive infinitives or gerunds.
1. the walls (paint)
2. the carpet (shampoo)
3. the windows (wash)
4. the door (repair)
5. the lamp shade (replace)
6. the wastebasket (empty)
The walls need to be painted. OR The walls need painting.
B. Pair work Think of five improvements you would like to make in your home. Which
improvements will you most likely make? Which won't you make?
"First of all, the carpet in the living room needs to be replaced. I can't afford it right
now, though, so I'll probably do that next year. ..."
8. WORD POWER Appliances
A. Find a suitable sentence in column B to describe a problem with each appliance in
column A. Then compare with a partner.
A
1. air conditioner ...
2. central heating ...
3. electric blanket ...
4. food processor ...
5. iron ...
6. stove ...
7. telephone ...
8. washing machine ...
B
a. The water won't drain, and my clothes are left soaking.
b. I put it on high, but it doesn't cool down the room.
c .I sometimes smell gas even when I'm not cooking.
d. I turn it on, but it doesn't heat up.
e. I can't get a dial tone.
f. It gets too hot and burns my clothes.
g. My apartment is freezing cold in the morning.
h. The blades are dull, so it doesn't chop vegetables very well.
B. Pair work Describe other things that can go wrong with some of the appliances in
part A.
@p38
9. PRONUNCIATION Contrastive stress
A. Listen and practice. Notice how the second speaker stresses the words he is
contrasting.
A: Are you calling about the bedroom fan?
B: No, I'm calling about the kitchen fan.
A: Are you calling about the bedroom window?
B: No, the bedroom door.
B. Mark the words that have contrastive stress in these conversations. Listen and
check. Then practice the sentences.
1. A: Did you need two lightbulbs?
B: No, I asked for three lightbulbs.
2. A: Does your television need to be repaired?
B: No, my telephone needs to be repaired.
10. LISTENING Repair jobs
Listen to three repair people talking about their jobs. Complete the chart.
1. Joe: What does this person repair?
What is the typical problem?
2. Louise
3. Sam
11. WRITING Letters of complaint
A. Choose one of these situations and write a letter describing the problem and what
needs to be done.
There are several things that need fixing in your apartment.
(ex) Dear Mrs. Anderson,
I'm a tenant in Apartment ... I'd like to point out a few things that need fixing. First, in
the kitchen ...
You bought an appliance that doesn't work. You took it back, but the clerk refused to
exchange it.
(ex) To Whom it May Concern:
Several weeks ago, I bought a hair dryer in your store. After using it just two times, it
started to ...
B. Class activity Pass your letters around the class. Who has the most unusual
problem?
@p39
12. READING
Consumer Affairs
How to Complain to--and About--a Business
Do you know how to complain to a business?
Dear Annabelle,
My new car has a problem: Every few hundred miles, more oil needs to be added. I
think this means something is broken. Each time I take the car into the dealer, though,
the service people insist that nothing needs fixing. What can I do?
- Broken Down in Detroit
Dear Broken Down,
I don't know much about cars, but I can diagnose your problem: You're dealing with an
unresponsive business. Fortunately, there are many things you can do:
1. For starters, complain to the business, in person or by phone. Explain the problem
in a way that is firm but not rude. If you don't seem to be getting anywhere, give up--
for the moment. Find out who you're taking to and who you should talk to next. Make
notes of what's been said.
2. Next, complain in writing to the person whose name you were given or to someone
in the business's customer-service department. To make your written complaint
effective, type it, state the facts fully but briefly, and enclose copies of relevant
documents like receipts and warranties. If you still don't get a satisfactory response,
send your letter to the business's legal department or president.
3. If no one within the company has helped you, it's time to take your complaint to
people outside the company Check your phone book for the numbers of the Better
Business Bureau and local consumer groups. Find out whether your local newspaper or
radio station has a consumer hotline.
This might sound like a lot of work, but it's worth it. As a consumer, you have certain
rights. Stand up for them! - Annabelle
A. Read the column. Based on the advice in the letter, explain what each of these
consumers did wrong. Then say what each should have done.
1. When Mira's new TV didn't work, she went back to the store to complain.
The salesperson she spoke to didn't seem to care, so Mira began yelling at him. She
kept yelling, even when he turned to help another customer.
2. Ed couldn't get his new computer to work. Feeling angry and frustrated, he
immediately began looking for consumer groups to complain to.
3. When Alex couldn't get any help by complaining on the phone, he sent the
customer-service department a ten-page handwritten letter that explained his problem
fully.
B. Group work Talk about these questions.
1. Which of this advice have you used or would you use? Why?
2. What else can you do when you have a complaint about a business?
3. Are there organizations in your country that help people when they have
complaints? What are they?
(Interchange 6) Fixer-upper: Do you have an eye for details? Student A turns to page
IC-8. Student B turns to page IC-9.
@ff
@p40
@t:UNIT 7@e
UNIT 7. The world we live in
1. SNAPSHOT
THE ENVIRONMENT some alarming fads
DID YOU KNOW?
One-third of the world's people don't have enough clean water.
Two-thirds of the world's ocean coastlines are polluted.
Chemicals have destroyed ton percent of the ozone layer over Europe and North
America.
Each year, people burn or cut down nearly 143,000 square kilometers (55,000 square
miles) of forest.
Every day, Americans and Canadians create about 1.8 kilograms (4.0 lbs.) of garbage
per person.
Source: The United N
Talk about these questions.
Which of these facts worries you the most?
In what other ways is life on earth being threatened?
2. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Andy: Excuse me. Would you like to make a contribution to Greener World?
Carla: Sure. What are you working on right now?
Andy: Well, we're developing educational programs for schools. We want to show
children how the oceans are being polluted by industrial waste. And we want to tell
them about how fish supplies have been depleted through overfishing.
Carla: I think what you're doing is terrific. I wish I could do more to help.
Andy: So, have you ever thought about becoming a member of Greener World?
Carla: No, but tell me a little more about it.
B. Listen to the rest of the conversation. What else has Greener World accomplished
in their city?
C. Class activity Are you a member of an organization like Greener World? If not,
would you like to join one?
@p41
3. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Passive; prepositions of cause
Present continuous Passive
The oceans are being polluted by industrial waste.
Drinking water is being contaminated because of/due to river pollution.
Present perfect passive
Fish supplies have been depleted through overfishing.
Underground water has been contaminated as a mull of agricultural waste.
A. Pair work Look at these pictures of environmental problems. Then read the
sentences in part B and find one way to describe each problem.
B. Rewrite these sentences from the active to the passive. Use the prepositions in
parentheses to indicate the cause. Then compare with a partner.
1. Automobile pollution has lowered the air quality in most major cities. (as a result of)
2. Air pollution is threatening the health of older people and children. (by)
3. Livestock farms have contaminated soil and underground water. (because of)
4. The burning of gas, oil, and coal has created acid rain. (as a result of)
5. Acid rain is damaging forests and life in rivers and lakes. (due to)
6. The cutting down of rain forests is destroying rare plants and wildlife. (through)
7. The growth of cities has eaten up huge amounts of farmland. (due to)
8. Poverty and overcrowding are ruining the lives of people in many cities. (because
of)
9. The use of CFCs in products like hair spray has created a hole in the ozone layer.
(through)
10. The reduction of the protective ozone layer has caused many more cases of skin
cancer. (by)
(ex) 1. The air quality in most major cities has been lowered as a result of automobile
pollution.
C. Class activity Do any of the problems above exist in your country or another
country you know? How do you know?
@p42
4. PRONUNCIATION Reduction of auxiliary verbs
A. Listen and practice. Notice how the auxiliary verb forms has, have, is, and are
reduced in conversation.
Farmland has been lost.
The oceans have been polluted.
The ozone layer is being destroyed.
Rain forests are being cut down.
B. Pair work Practice the sentences you wrote in part B of Exercise 3. Pay attention
to the reduction of has, have, is, and are.
5. LISTENING Environmental solutions
A. Listen to three people describing how some serious environmental problems are
being solved. Write down the problem each one talks about.
1. Jenny: Problem
What can be done to solve the problem?
2. Adam
3. Kate
B. Listen again. What can be done to solve each problem?
6. WORD POWER World problems
A. Pair work Discuss the meaning of each world problem. How concerned are you
about each problem? Check (V) the appropriate box.
drug trafficking: #1 I worry about it a lot. #2 I sometimes worry about it. #3 I don't
worry about it at all.
famine: #1 #2 #3
global worming: #1 #2 #3
government corruption: #1 #2 #3
the homeless: #1 #2 #3
incurable diseases: #1 #2 #3
inflation: #1 #2 #3
political unrest: #1 #2 #3
poverty: #1 #2 #3
B. Group work Join another pair of students. Which three problems concern
your group the most? What will happen if the problem isn't solved?
"We need to stop drug trafficking. If we don't, crime will continue to increase."
@p43
7. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Andy: You know, there's a factory outside town that's pumping chemicals into the
river.
Carla: How can they do that? Isn't that against the law?
Andy: Yes, it is. But a lot of companies ignore those laws.
Carla: That's terrible! What can Greener World do?
Andy: Well, one thing to do about it is to talk to the management.
Carla: What if that doesn't work?
Andy: Well, then another way to stop them is to get a TV station to run a story on it.
Carla: Yes! Companies hate bad publicity. By the way, what's the name of this
company?
Andy: It's called Apex Industries.
Carla: Oh no! My uncle is one of their top executives!
B. Class activity What else could Andy and Carla do to get the factory to stop
polluting the river?
C. Listen to the rest of the conversation. What do Andy and Carla decide to do?
8. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Infinitive clauses and phrases
One thing to do about it is to talk to the management.
Another way to Stop them is to get a TV station to run a story.
The best way to help is to report them to the government.
A. Match the phrases in column A with appropriate solutions from column B. (More
than one answer is possible.) Then compare with a partner.
A
1. One way to stop drug trafficking is ...
2. The best way to reduce crime is ...
3. One way to reduce trash in the city is ...
4. One thing to improve air quality is ...
5. The best way to lessen poverty is ...
6. One thing to help the homeless is ...
B.
a. to build more public housing.
b. to start a recycling program.
c. to provide free job training.
d. to have more police on the streets.
e. to create more jobs for the unemployed.
f. to develop clean public transportation.
B. Pair work Do you and your partner agree with the solutions in part A? Can you
think of two more solutions for each problem?
@p44
9. PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
A. Pair work Describe the problems shown in these photos. Then make suggestions
about how to solve these problems.
What can be done ...?
1. to clean up the beaches
2. to reduce the number of drunk-driving accidents
3. to control the cutting down of forests
4. to reduce unemployment
A: The beaches are being polluted by illegal dumping.
B: So what can be done to clean them up?
A: Well, one thing to do is ...
B: Another way to help is ...
B. Class activity Share your solutions with the rest of the class. Which solutions are
the most innovative?
(Interchange 7) Community planner: Brainstorm solutions to some local problems.
Turn to page IC - 10.
10. WRITING
A. Write a composition about one of the problems from Exercise 9 or another
problem. In the first paragraph, describe the problem and its consequences. In the
second paragraph, offer several ways to help solve the problem.
One of the biggest problems in my city is how to dispose of all the garbage that is
being produced. The city landfills are nearly full, and ...
The best way to solve this problem is to recycle more garbage. We should set up
centers to collect papers, bottles, and other thing that can be recycled. Another way ...
B. Pair work Exchange compositions and respond to these questions.
1. Does the first paragraph describe the problem and the second describe the solution?
2. What do you think of your partner's solutions? Can you suggest other solutions?
@p45
11. READING
The Threat to Kiribati
Look at the picture. What do you think the threat to Kiribati might be?
The people of Kiribati are afraid that one day in the not-too-distant future, their
country will disappear from the face of the earth--literally. Several times this year, the
Pacific island nation has been flooded by a sudden high tide. These tides, which swept
across the island and destroyed houses, came when there was neither wind nor rain.
"This never happened before," say the older citizens of Kiribati.
What is causing these mysterious high tides? The answer may well be global warming.
When fuels like oil and coal are being burned, pollutants are released; these pollutants
trap heat in the earth's atmosphere. Warmer temperatures cause water to expand and
also create more water by melting glaciers and polar ice caps.
If the trend continues, scientists say, many countries will suffer. Bangladesh, for
example, might lose one-fifth of its land. The coral island nations of the Pacific, like
Kiribati and the Marshall Islands, however, would face an even worse fate - they would
be swallowed by the sea. The loss of these coral islands would be everyone's loss.
Coral formations are home to more species than any other place on earth.
The people of these nations feel frustrated. The sea, on which their economies have
always been based, is suddenly threatening their existence. They don't have the money
for expensive technological solutions like seawalls. And they have no control over the
pollutants, which are being released mainly by activities in large industrialized
countries. All they can do is to hope that industrialized countries will take steps to
reduce pollution.
Group work Read the article. Then talk about these questions.
1. How is the action of industrialized countries making islands like Kiribati disappear
from the face of. the earth?
2. Scientists are still not sure how serious the effects of global warming will be. Some
industries don't want to make changes until there is definite evidence that the effects
are serious. What is. your opinion?
3. If you lived on an island like Kiribati, what would you like to see done?
@ff
@p46
@t:UNIT 8@e
UNIT 8. Learning to learn
1. SNAPSHOT
Continuing Education
Some popular evening classes in the United States
Ballroom Dancing
Dealing with Difficult People
Overcoming Stage Fright in Everyday Life
Starting Your Own Business
Make Anyone Fall in Lover with you
Change Your Voice, Change Your Life
See the World for Free
Success Without Stress
Source: The Learning Annex, New York City
Talk about these questions.
Which of these classes sound interesting to you? Why?
What other evening classes would you be interested in taking?
2. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Paula: Do you want to take a class with me at the community college?
Jason: Maybe. What are they offering?
Paula: Well, here's the course catalog. Take a look.
Jason: Hmm. They've got a lot of language classes Chinese, German, Japanese. Would
you rather learn an Asian language or a European one?
Paula: Um, actually, I think I'd rather take an art class. They have one on landscape
photography and another on making videos.
Jason: That sounds OK. But I think I'd prefer studying video to learning about
photography.
Paula: Oh, wait. It says here that you need to provide your own video equipment.
Jason: Oh, I'd rather not spend a lot of money. Let's see what else they're offering.
B. Listen to the rest of the conversation. What course do they decide to take? Why?
@p47
3. PRONUNCIATION intonation in questions of choice
Listen to the intonation in questions where there is a choice.
Then practice the questions.
Would you rather take auto repair or carpentry?
Would you prefer to learn the guitar or violin?
Would you rather study German or Chinese?
Do you prefer to study in the day or at night?
4. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Would rather and would prefer
"Would rather" is followed by the base form of the verb. "Would prefer" is followed by
a gerund or an infinitive. Both are followed by "not" in the negative.
Would you rather loom an Asian language or a European one?
Actually, I'd rather lake an art class than study a foreign language.
Would you prefer to take a Video or a photography class?
I'd prefer studying video to learning about photography.
I'd prefer to study video.
Do you want to take an evening course?
I'd rather not./I'd prefer not to.
A. Complete these conversations with appropriate forms of the verbs in parentheses.
Then practice with a partner.
1. A: Would you rather ... a course in literature or science? (take)
B: I'd prefer ... for a science course because it's more useful for me. (register)
2. A: Would you rather ... English in Australia or Canada? (learn)
B: I think I'd prefer ... in Australia because it's warmer there. (study)
3. A: If you needed to learn a new job skill, would you prefer ... a class or ... a private
tutor? (attend/have)
B: I'd rather ... for a class than ... a tutor. Private tutors are too expensive! (sign
up/hire)
4. A: Would you rather ... a choir or an orchestra? (join)
B: I'd prefer ... in a choir to ... in an orchestra. (sing/play)
5. A: Would you prefer ... a craft or ... a new sport? (learn/attempt)
B: To tell you the truth, I'd rather not ... either. I'd prefer ... TV. (do/watch)
B. Pair work Take turns asking the questions in part A. Pay attention to intonation.
Give your own information when responding.
@p48
5. LISTENING
A. Listen to three people talking about the part-time courses they took recently.
Complete the chart.
1. Linda: What course each person took
What each person learned
2. Rich
3. Gwen
B. Pair work Which of the courses in part A would you prefer to take? Why?
6. LEARNING PREFERENCES
Pair work Ask about your partner's learning preferences. Use these questions and
your own ideas. Give reasons for your preferences when answering.
Would you rather attend a daytime or an evening class?
Would you rather study an Asian or a European language?
Would you rather learn a new sport or some type of art or craft?
Would you prefer to study in a class or with a private tutor?
Would you prefer to listening to a tape or watching a video in class?
Would you prefer to take a course on literature or music appreciation?
A: Would you rather attend a daytime or an evening class?
B: I'd rather attend an evening class. I'm busy during the day.
(Interchange 8) Learning curves: What would your classmates like to learn how to do?
Take a survey. Turn to page IC-11.
7. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Won Gyu: So how's your French class going?
Jan: Not bad, but I'm finding the pronunciation difficult.
Won Gyu: Well, it takes a while to get it right. You could improve your accent by
listening to tapes.
Jan: That's a good idea. But how do you learn new vocabulary? I always seem to
forget new words.
Won Gyu: I learn new words by writing them on pieces of paper and sticking them on
my bedroom wall. I look at them every night before I go to sleep.
Jan: Maybe I should try something like that!
B. Listen to two other people explain how they learn new words in a foreign language.
What techniques do they use?
C. Class activity How do you learn new words in a foreign language?
@p49
8. GRAMMAR FOCUS
By + gerund for manner
You could improve your accent by listening to tapes.
I learn new words best by writing them on pieces of paper and sticking them on the
wall.
A good way to become fluent is by living in a country where the language is spoken.
A. Complete the phrases in column A with appropriate information from column B.
(More than one answer is possible.) Then compare with a partner.
A
1. You can improve your English accent ...
2. A good way to learn idioms is ...
3. You can improve your writing skills ...
4. A good way to learn new vocabulary is ...
5. You can learn to read faster ...
6. One way of practicing conversation is ...
7. You can learn to use grammar correctly ...
8. You can develop self-confidence in speaking English ...
B
a. by doing translation exercises.
b. by talking to native English speakers.
c. by reading magazines in English.
d. by studying a "learner's dictionary."
e. by practicing dialogs with a partner.
f. by watching American movies.
g. by having a private tutor.
h. by talking to yourself in the shower.
B. Group work Complete the statements in column A with your own ideas. Then
compare. What's the best suggestion for each item?
9. WAYS OF LEARNING
A. First, discuss how you would learn to do the things in the chart. Then listen to two
people describe how they developed these skills. How did they learn?
1. become, a good cook
First person:
Second person:
2. become a good conversationalist
B. Group work Talk about the best ways to learn these things. Then try to agree on
the most effective method.
What's the best way to learn to ...?
dance better
ride a motorcycle
write a short story
use a new software program
play a musical instrument
be a good public speaker
A: I think the best way to learn to dance better is by joining a dance class with a good
instructor.
B: If you're shy, you can learn by practicing with a friend who's a good dancer.
@p50
10. WORD POWER Personal qualities
A. Pair work How do we learn each of these qualities? Talk with a partner and
check(V) your answers. Then think of three other things we learn from our parents,
from our school, and by ourselves.
artistic appreciation: #1 From our parents #2 From school #3 By ourselves
communication skills: #1 #2 #3
competitiveness: #1 #2 #3
concern for others: #1 #2 #3
cooperation: #1 #2 #3
courtesy: #1 #2 #3
creativity: #1 #2 #3
perseverance: #1 #2 #3
self-confidence: #1 #2 #3
tolerance: #1 #2 #3
B. Group work What skills or knowledge can you gain from doing the activities listed
in the box?
A: By studying world religions, you can learn tolerance.
B: And you can learn to understand different cultures.
C. Class activity Which of the things on the list would you be interested in doing?
Which wouldn't interest you? Why?
Some activities
studying world religions
volunteering in a hospital
taking a course in poetry
performing in a play
11. WRITING
A. Write about a skill, hobby, or craft you have learned in recent years. First, read
these questions and make notes. Then use your notes to write a composition.
What is required to be successful at it?
What are some ways people learn to do it?
How did you learn it?
What was difficult about learning it?
(ex) I enjoy cooking, and many people say I am a very good cook. To be a good cook,
you need both knowledge and practice. You need to learn how to choose fresh
ingredients ...
I first learned how to cook by watching my mother and by helping her in the kitchen.
Then I bought a cookbook and started practicing by trying different recipes ...
B. Group Work Take turns reading your compositions aloud. What did you like best
about your classmates' compositions? Can you suggest any ways to improve them?
@p51
12. READING
Learning Styles
Have you ever had trouble learning something? Were you able to overcome the
problem? How?
Have you ever sat in class thinking that you would never understand what the teacher
was trying to teach? Maybe the presentation didn't fit your learning style.
Traditionally, schools present information in two ways--through language and through
formulas involving numbers and logic. Psychologists, however, now say there's a
problem with this. People have different strengths and different learning styles to match
these strengths. For example, one person might struggle with information in a
paragraph but understand it immediately in a diagram. Another person will struggle with
the diagram but not with the paragraph.
Psychologist Howard Gardner of Harvard University has said there are at least seven
learning styles:
Linguistic: These people learn by using language--listening, reading, speaking, and
writing.
Logical: These people learn by applying mathematical formulas and scientific
principles. Visual These people learn by seeing what they are learning.
Musical: Instead of finding music a distraction, these people learn well when
information is presented through music.
Kinesthetic: Movement and physical activities help these people to learn.
Intrapersonal: These people have a good understanding of themselves and can learn
best if they can relate what they are learning directly to themselves.
Interpersonal: These people have a good understanding of others and learn well by
working with others. If schools present information in all these ways, psychologists say,
all students will benefit. Students who have a linguistic or a logical learning style will be
able to develop new strengths. Students with other learning styles win learn more and
have more success in school--and possibly in life.
A. Read the article. Then talk about these questions.
1. For which learning styles are traditional teaching methods most appropriate?
2. What learning style do you think each of these students has?
Todd: When he looks at countries on a map, he's able to remember facts about history
better.
Alex: He always feels he learns a lot from group research projects.
Diane: She really enjoyed English when she was in second grade because the teacher
used a ball game to teach vocabulary.
3. Which learning styles do you think are best for you?
B. Group work Think about a recent classroom lesson that worked well for you. Why
did it work well? Which learning styles did it use? Tell the group about it.
@ff
@p52
@t:Review 5-8@e
Review of Units 5-8
1. AROUND TOWN
A. Group work
Choose a city or town you all know well. What do you like about it? What don't you like
about it? Talk about it and make a list. Use these phrases or others of your own:
One thing I really enjoy about this city is ...
Something that visitors like to do here is ...
Something that's good to do on a rainy day is ...
The thing I hate most about this city is ...
One thing to avoid doing here is ...
Something I can never get used to is ...
B. Class activity Tell the class the best and worst things in the city you talked about.
2. LISTENING Tenant complaints
Listen to three tenants complaining to their building manager. Complete the chart.
1. Tenant's complaint
Manager's response
2. Tenant's complaint
Manager's response
3. Tenant's complaint
Manager's response
3. WHAT'S CUSTOMARY?
A. Pair work Match an example of a custom to each cultural aspect in the list.
Cultural aspect
1. dating ...
2. diet ...
3. family relationships ...
4. raising children ...
5. schooling ...
6. visiting people ...
Custom
a. It's acceptable to give a child to a relative to raise.
b. It's the custom to take off your shoes before entering a home.
c. It's the custom to go out in groups before you are married.
d. Boys and girls go to different schools.
e. People eat meat only on special occasions.
f. It's acceptable to call your parents by their first names.
B. Group work How many customs in part A are true in your culture? For those that
are not true in your culture, where do you think they are true?
@p53
4. WHAT A PIECE OF JUNK!
Pair work
Look at this car. How many problems can you describe?
What needs to be done to it?
Make a list. Then compare with the class.
rearview mirror windshield body radiator door handle seat tire
(ex) The rearview mirror needs to be replaced.
5. SOCIAL DISASTERS!
A. Pair work Read these problems that friends sometimes have with one another.
Suggest solutions to solve each problem.
1. Your boyfriend or girlfriend has been spending more time with his or her friends
than with you.
2. Your best friend keeps pressuring you to go on vacation with him or her, but you
don't want to.
3. You have a friend who always keeps you on the phone too long.
4. A co-worker in your office keeps trying to invite you on a date, but you don't really
like this person.
B. Group work Share your solutions for each problem.
Useful expressions: One thing to do about it is to ...
Another way to help is to ...
The best thing to do is to ...
6. WHAT WORKS?
A. Pair work
What do you do to help you improve your English? Interview a partner and circle his
or her preferences.
1. When you make a mistake in English, do you prefer someone to
(a) correct you immediately or (b) just ignore it?
2. When you hear a new word in English, do you prefer
(a) writing it down or (b) trying to remember it?
3. If you don't understand what someone says, would you rather
(a) ask the person to repeat it or (b) just pretend you understand?
4. Do you prefer speaking English with
(a) a native speaker or (b) a nonnative speaker?
5. When you meet a native English speaker,
(a) do you usually try to talk to the person or (b) are you too shy to say anything?
6. When you use English and make mistakes, does it bother you
(a) a lot or (b) only a little?
B. Class activity What are the five most useful things you can do to improve your
English? Talk about the things above and other ideas of your own.
@ff
@p54
@t:UNIT 9@e
UNIT 9. Self-improvement
1. WORD POWER
Unusual services
A. Match the occupations with the definitions. Then compare with a partner.
What's ...?
1. a hypnotherapist ...
2. a fortune-teller...
3. a genealogist ...
4. a headhunter ...
5. a car detailer ...
6. a party planner ...
7. a personal shopper ...
8. an interior designer ...
It's someone who ...
a. organizes events and celebrations
b. plans the decorations for a home
c. makes purchases such as gifts for you
d. traces or studies a family's history
e. finds jobs for people
f. cleans and polishes automobiles
g. predicts future events
h. uses hypnosis to treat psychological problems and bad habits
B. Pair work
Would you ever go to any of the people in part A? In what situations?
A: Would you ever go to a hypnotherapist?
B: Well, maybe. I want to quit smoking.
2. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Ken: You know, I've always wanted to have my fortune told.
Lisa: Really? Do you know where you can get it done?
Ken: I'm not sure. But maybe there are some fortunetellers listed in the phone book.
Let's take a look.
Lisa: Hmm. Here's one. You could have your palm read by Madame Zara for $70.
Ken: That's really expensive.
Lisa: What about this one? You can get your fortune told over the phone for only $3.75
a minute.
Ken: That's reasonable. Come on. Try it with me!
B. Listen to the phone conversation. What does the fortune-teller say about Ken's
future?
C. Class activity Do you believe in fortune-telling?
@p55
3. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Have or get something done
Use "have" or "get" to describe a service performed for you by someone else.
Active
Do you know where I can have someone tell my fortune?
You can have Madame Zara read your palm.
You can get someone to tell your fortune over the phone.
Passive
Do you know where I can have my fortune told?
You can have your palm read by Madame Zara.
You can get your fortune told over the phone.
A. Imagine you want to have these things done. Write questions using the passive with
get or have. Then write possible answers.
I want to ...
1. have someone read my horoscope
2. get a professional photographer to take my photo
3. have someone trace my family history
4. get someone to check my fitness level
5. have someone train my dog
(ex) 1. Do You know where I can have my horoscope read?
You could have it read by my mother. She's an astrologer.
B. Pair work Take turns asking and answering the questions.
4. PRONUNCIATION sentence stress
A. Listen and practice. Notice the sentence stress in these active and passive
sentences.
Active
A: Where can I have someone fix my watch?
B: You can have someone fix it at the Time Shop.
Passive
A: Where can I have my watch fixed?
B: You can have it fixed at the Time Shop.
B. Group work Ask questions about three things you want to have done. Pay attention
to the sentence stress. Other students give answers.
5. LISTENING
Listen to people talk about things they want to have done. Check(V) the correct
information about each person and complete the chart.
have some shopping done
1. Anne
2. Eric
3. Dawn
Why does he or she need to have this done?
get a party planned
1. Anne
2. Eric
3. Dawn
Why does he or she need to have this done?
have a swimming pool built
1. Anne
2. Eric
3. Dawn
Why does he or she need to have this done?
@p56
6. DIFFERENT PLACES, DIFFERENT WAYS!
Group work
Are these services available in your country? For those that aren't, do you think they
would be a good idea?
Can you ...?
have a meal served on a commuter bus
get a suit or dress made on the street
get free medical advice over the telephone
do grocery shopping by television
get your dog walked by a professional dog walker
have a medical checkup in a shopping mall
buy clothing from a vending machine
have library books delivered to your home
buy groceries at a gas station
have a marriage ceremony performed in your home
A: Can you have a meal served on a commuter bus?
B: I don't think so, but it sounds like a good idea. What do you think they would serve?
C: Probably just sandwiches and sodas.
7. SNAPSHOT
Best-Selling Self-improvement Books
SELF-HELP
Confidence: Finding it and living it
Finding the Champion Within: A Step-by-Step plan for reaching your full potential
I could Do anything I wanted if I only knew what it was: How to discover what you
really want and how to get it
Positive plus: The practical plan for liking yourself better
DIET AND EXERCISE
A New You in 21 Days
Eat Smart, Think Smart: How to Use Nutrients and Supplements to Achieve Maximum
Mental and Physical Performance
Eight Weeks to Optimum Health: A Proven Program for Taking Full Advantage of Your
Body's Natural Healing Power
Healthy for Life: The Scientific Breakthrough Program for Looking, Feeling, and
Staying Healthy Without Deprivation (Source: Publishers weekly)
Talk about these questions.
Are self-improvement books popular in your country?
Why do you think people read books like these?
Which of these books would you like to read? Why?
@p57
8. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
James: This has got to stop! Another Friday night without a date! What can I do?
Mike: What about looking through the personal ads in the newspaper? Thats how I met
Stephanie.
James: Actually, I've tried that. But the people you meet are always different from
what you expect.
Mike: Well, why don't you join a dating service? A friend of mine met his wife that
way.
James: That's not a bad idea.
Mike: Also, it might be a good idea to check out singles' night at the bookstore.
James: Yeah. If I don't find a date, at least I might find a good book!
B. Class activity What are some other good ways to meet people?
9. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Suggestions
With gerunds
What about looking through the personal ads in the newspaper?
Have you thought about ...?
With infinitives
It might be a good idea to check out singles' night at the bookstore.
One thing you could do is (to) ...
With base form verbs
Maybe you could go to a chat room on the Internet.
With negative questions
Why don't you join a dating service?
A. Match each problem with the best suggestion. (More than one answer is possible.)
Problems
1. How can you build self-confidence ...
2. What can help improve your memory? ...
3. How can you stop overeating? ...
4. What can help you sleep better? ...
5. How can you be happier? ...
6. What can help you relax? ...
Suggestions
a. be more socially active
b. see a hypnotherapist
c. try meditation
d. take a class
e. play concentration games
f. exercise more
B. Group work Take turns asking and answering the questions in part A. What other
suggestions can you think of for each problem?
A: How can you build self-confidence?
B: Well, what about taking a class in self-improvement?
A: That's a good idea. What else?
C: Well, another thing you could do is ...
@p58
10. LISTENING
Listen to three different suggestions for each of the problems in the chart.
Write down the suggestion you think is best. Then compare in groups.
Best suggestion
1. how to overcome shyness: Best suggetion
2. how to stop biting your fingernails
3. how to get in shape for summer
11. PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
A. Group work Give three suggestions for each of these problems.
How can you ...?
develop tighter stomach muscles
remember people's names more easily
learn to control your temper
B. Class activity Share your solutions with the class. Which solutions are the most
creative?
12. WRITING Advice column
A. Pair work Read these letters that teenagers wrote to an advice columnist. Choose
one of the letters and discuss suggestions for the problem. Then write your own reply.
A friend of mine seems anxious a lot. She pushes herself really hard and looks tired all
the time. How can I help her? Worried
I argue with my family all the time, but I'd liked to get along with them better. It's hard
for me to see all my friends getting along so well with their families. What can I do?
Frustratea
B. Group work Take turns reading your advice. Whose advice is best? Why?
@p59
13. READING
How to improve Your memory
Have you ever had a problem remembering names, phone numbers, or other facts?
Mark began to introduce the guest speaker to the audience, but then paused in horror.
He had forgotten her name. Barbara hid her jewelry when she went on vacation. When
she came back, she couldn't remember where she'd put it.
Perhaps you've had experiences like these. Most people have. And, what's worse,
most people have resigned themselves to a life of forgetting. They're unaware of a
simple but important fact: Memory can be improved. If you'll just accept that fact, this
book will show you how.
First, relax. If you're overanxious about remembering something, you'll forget it. And
avoid being negative. If you keep telling yourself that your memory is bad, your mind
will come to believe it and you won't remember things.
When you forget something, don't follow up with a remark like "Gee, I need to have my
brain rewired." jokes like this are negative and will have a negative effect on you and
your memory.
But relaxing isn't enough. To improve your memory, you'll need to take an active role.
Like your body, your memory can be strengthened through exercise. Look for
opportunities to exercise your memory. For example, if you 're learning a language, try
to actively remember irregular verbs.
If you aren't actively aware of things, you won't remember them. So, go through your
day being actively aware. For example, make mental pictures of what you see. Don't
just put your keys down! If you want to find them again, make a mental picture of the
place where you're putting them ...
A. Read the text excerpt (a short part of a longer book). Then talk about these
questions.
1. According to the text, what are some of the reasons people have problems
remembering things?
2. What are some things people can do to improve their memory?
B. Group work Talk about these questions.
1. Have you ever been embarrassed because you forgot something important?
2. What kinds of things do you have the most trouble remembering?
3. Which of the suggestions do you find the most useful? Why?
4. What other tips can you think of for improving memory?
(Interchange 9) Keeping up appearances: What do teenagers worry about? Turn to
page IC-12
@ff
@p60
@t:UNIT 10@e
UNIT 10. The past and the future
1. SNAPSHOT
THE 20th Century
1919 First nonstop transatlantic flight
1928 Discovery of penicillin, the first antibiotic
1930 First World Cup soccer tournament
1955 Martin Luther King, Jr.'s first boycott for U.S. racial integration
1969 First landing of humans on the moon
1984 Researchers identify HIV, the virus that causes AIDS
1989 The Berlin Wall come down
1994 Apartheid ends in South Africa
1997 Pathfinder spacecraft lands on Mars
(Source: The Twentieth Century and The Random House Encyclopedia)
Talk about these questions.
What were some of the consequences of these events?
Have any of these events affected you personally? If so, explain how.
What are three important dates in the twentieth-century history of your country?
2. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Emma: Look. Here's a quiz on events of the twentieth century.
Steve: Oh, let me give it a try. I'm good at history.
Emma: All right. First question: When did World War I begin?
Steve: I think it began in 1917.
Emma: OK. And how long has the United Nations been in existence?
Steve: Uh, since Kennedy became president in 1961.
Emma: Hmm. Next question: How long was the Berlin Wall up?
Steve: Well, they built it right after World War 11, and it came down in 1989, so it was
up for 44 years. Uh, how am I doing so far?
Emma: Not very well. None of your answers is correct!
B. Do you know the correct answers to the three questions in part A? Listen to the
rest of the conversation. What are the correct answers?
@p61
3. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Referring to time in the past
* Referring to a point of time in the paost
When did World War II take place?
During the 1940s. In the 1940s. Over 50 years ago.
* Referring to a period of time lit the post
How long was the Berlin Wall up?
From 1961 to 1989. For 28 years.
* Referring to a period of time in the post that continues into the present
How long has the United Nations been in existence?
Since 1945. Since World War II ended.
For about the last 55 years. For over 50 years.
A. Complete these statements with words from the grammar box. Then compare with a
partner.
1. Rock 'n' roll led to the transformation of popular music ... the 1950s. Rock music has
been popular around the world ... more than 40 years.
2. The Beatles were a well-known English band ... the 1960s. They sang together ...
1960 ... 1970. They were together ... ten years.
3. One of the Beatles, singer and composer Paul McCartney, was knighted by Queen
Elizabeth ... 1997.
4. The exploration of outer space began ... 1957 with the launch of the satellite
Sputnik by the Soviet Union.
5. The Apollo project in the U.S. sent astronauts to the moon ... more than three years.
... 1969 ... 1972.
6. No human has landed on the moon ... the Apollo project ended ... 1972.
B. Group work
Write three true and two false statements about world events. Then take turns reading
your statements. Others give correct information for the false statements.
A: Rock music has been popular since the 1940s.
B: That's false. It became popular during the 1950s.
4. PRONUNCIATION Syllable stress
A. Listen and practice. Notice which syllable has the main stress in these words.
segregation
discrimination
population
invention
B. Mark the main stress in these words. Then listen and check.
assassination demonstration discovery expedition exploration explosion revolution
vaccination
@p62
5. WORD POWER Historic events
A. Match each event with the best example. Then compare with a partner.
Event
1. achievement ...
2. assassination ...
3. catastrophe ...
4. discovery ...
5. invention ...
6. mystery ...
Example
a. The cellular telephone was developed in Sweden in 1979.
b. A huge unexplained explosion occurred above Siberia in 1908.
c. Sir Hillary and Sherpa Norgay climbed Mount Everest in 1953.
d. Martin Luther King, Jr. was shot and killed in 1968.
e. A vaccine was found to prevent polio in 1954.
f. The space shuttle Challenger exploded after takeoff in 1986.
B. Pair work Choose four of the words in part A and give an example for each one.
"The creation of the space shuttle was an amazing achievement."
6. LISTENING
A. Listen to two people explain who they feel has been the most important public
figure in the last 30 years. Complete the chart.
1. Andrew: Public figure's name
Reason for importance
2. Stephanie:
B. Group work Who do you think has been the most important public figure in the last
30 years? Why?
7. WRITING a biography
A. Research information about a person who has had a major influence on the world or
your country. Answer these questions in your composition.
What is this person famous for? How did he or she become famous?
What are his or her most important achievements?
(ex) Martin Luther King, Jr. was born in 1929 in Atlanta. Georgia. He became a
minister, a powerful public speaker, and the most respected leader of African
Americans in the United States ...
King participated in many peaceful demonstrations and went to jail more than 16
times. He was assassinated in 1968 After his assassination, ...
(Interchange 10) History buff: Find out how good you are at history. Student A turns to
page IC-13. Student B turns to page IC-14.
@p63
8. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Kathy: Have you heard about the new computer they're coming out with? It'll be able
to recognize any voice command, so you won't ever need to use the keyboard.
John: Yeah, and soon everyone will be using computers that fit into the palm of your
hand.
Kathy: Within 20 years, I bet all our news and information will be coming through
computers.
John: By then, maybe even newspapers will have disappeared
Kathy: Wow! Computers are going to take over our lives one of these days.
John: Yeah! Isn't it great!
B. Listen to the rest of the conversation.
Write down two other ways the world might be affected by computers.
9. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Describing the future
* Use present continuous, "will", or "be going to" for future events or situations.
They're coming out with a new computer.
It'll be able to recognize any voice command. You won't need to use a keyboard.
Computers are going to take over our lives one of these days.
* Use future continuous for ongoing actions in the future.
Soon everyone will be using computers that fit into the palm of your hand.
All our news will be coming through computers.
* Use future perfect for actions that will be completed by a certain time in the future
Within 20 years, they will have found a way for us to get all our news through
computers.
By then, maybe even newspapers will have disappeared.
Complete these statements with the correct verb forms. (More than one answer may
be possible.) Then compare with a partner.
1. Soon they ... computers that can translate perfectly from one language to another.
(sell)
2. In ten years, flights from New York to Tokyo ... more than two hours. (not take)
3. Within 50 years, many people ... on the moon. (live)
4. In less than a century, global warming ... most of the polar ice caps and many
coastal cities ... (melt/disappear)
5. By the middle of the twenty-first century, scientists ... a way to prevent aging.
(discover)
6. Maybe in the future, scientists ... a way for us to transmit our thoughts to one
another. (find)
@p64
10. WHAT DO YOU THINK?
A Group work Take turns reading the statements in Exercise 9. Do you agree with
them? Why? If you don't, what do you think will happen?
A: I don't believe they will soon be selling computers that can translate perfectly.
B: I don't either. The technology is just too advanced.
C: Yes, but they already have computers that can translate fairly well ...
B. Class activity Talk about these questions.
1. What three recently developed pieces of technology will have the greatest effect on
our lives in the next 20 years?
2. What three jobs do you think people won't be doing in 50 years? Why?
3. What do you think are the three most important changes that will have occurred on
earth by 2050?
11. LISTENING A perfect future?
A. Listen to people discussing changes that will affect these ONLY areas in the next
50 years. Write down two changes for each topic.
1. work: Future changes
2. transportation:
3. education:
4. health:
B. Group work Can you suggest one more possible change for each area?
12. THINGS WILL BE DIFFERENT!
Group work Talk about these questions.
What do you think you'll be doing a year from now?
five years from now?
Do you think you'll still be living in the same town or city?
What are three things you think you'll have accomplished within the next five years?
What are three things you won't have done in that time?
In what ways do you think you'll have changed by the time you retire?
@p65
13. READING
The Global Village
What do you think the term global village means?
More and more often, the term global village is used to describe the world and its
people. In a typical village, however, everyone knows everyone else and the people
face the same kinds of problems. How can the world be a village, when it is home to
almost 6 billion people? Political and technological changes in the past century have
made the global village possible.
Political changes: The years following World War Il seemed to promise peace and
more equality among people. For example, the United Nations was founded in 1945 to
help countries resolve disputes peacefully. This promise was soon shattered, however,
by the Cold War--tension between the United States and the Soviet Union. These two
superpowers engaged in an arms race, spending huge sums of money on weapons. The
other nations of the world were split into two "sides," and the world was frozen in a
perpetual state of hostility, seemingly on the brink of destruction.
It was not until the collapse of communist governments in the Soviet Union and
Eastern Europe between 1989 and 1991 that the Cold War ended and the political
climate changed. The end of Cold War tension made the global village more politically
possible by opening new channels of communication between nations.
Technological changes: Technologically, the greatest contributor to the global village
is the microchip--an electronic circuit on a tiny chip. The microchip has made satellites
and computers possible. These forms of high-tech communications allow news and
ideas to travel quickly from country to country, making people aware of their neighbors
around the globe in dramatic new ways. Through the Internet, we can get information
from computers anywhere and carry on electronic conversations with people
everywhere. Through television programs transmitted by satellite, we are exposed to
many cultures.
What will happen as we move into the twenty first century and beyond? Almost
certainly the development of the global village will continue. Not only is this possible,
but the challenges that the world faces--for example, pollution, population growth, and
conflicts among peoples--will make it necessary.
A. Read the article. Then use the information to explain the following terms in your
own words.
1. What is the United Nations?
2. What was the Cold War?
3. Who were the superpowers?
4. What was the arms race?
5. What is a microchip?
6. What is a global village?
B Pair work Talk about these questions.
1. What do you think are some of the advantages of a global village--for individuals
and for nations?
2. Some people say that there are disadvantages to a global village--that we are
becoming too much alike. Do you agree? Why or why not?
3. What other challenges do you think the world will face in the twenty-first century?
Which do you consider the most serious?
@ff
@p66
@t:UNIT 11@e
UNIT 11. Life's little lessons
1. SNAPSHOT
RITES OF PASSAGE some important, life events
First birthday (or first 100 days, as in Korea)
First haircut/losing your first tooth
First day of school
Confirmation or bar/bat mitzvah
Sweet 16 (or Sweet 15, as in Latin America)
First job
High school graduation
18th birthday(or 21st birthday, as in the U.S. and Canada)
Marriage
Becoming a parent (Source: Peace Corps Handbook for RPCV Speakers)
Talk about these questions.
Which of these rites of passage, or life events, are important in your country?
Which are not? What are three other rites of passage for people in your country?
2. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Alan: So what were you like as a kid?
Carol: When I was a kid, I was kind of rebellious.
Alan: You? Really? What was the turning point?
Carol: When I graduated from high school.
Alan: What do you mean?
Carol: Until you graduate, you don't understand that life is just beginning. After I
finished high school, I realized that I still had a lot to learn.
Alan: I know what you mean. I was really immature when I was a kid.
Carol: What changed?
Alan: I think I became more mature after I got my first job. Once you have a job, you
learn to be more independent.
Carol: That's true. Where did you work? Alan: In my father's bank.
B. Listen to the rest of the conversation. What was another turning point for Carol? for
Alan?
@p67
3. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Time clauses
By the time I was in high school, I had gotten my first job.
The moment I got my first job, I felt like a different person.
Before I had my first job, I was really immature.
Once you have a job, you learn to be more independent.
After I finished high school, I realized that I still had a lot to learn.
As soon as I graduated, I started to be more sensible.
Until you graduate, you don't understand that life is just beginning.
A. Match the clauses in column A with appropriate information from column B. Then
compare with a partner.
A
1. By the time I was 15, ...
2. Until I started working part time, ...
3. The moment I got my first paycheck, ...
4. As soon as I left home, ...
5. Once I started sharing an apartment, ...
6. After I began a relationship, ...
7. Before I traveled abroad, ...
8. Until I got really sick, ...
B.
a. I didn't appreciate my own country.
b. I began to understand the value of money.
c. I learned how to communicate better.
d. I realized that I wasn't a child anymore.
e. I didn't understand the importance of good health.
f. I had learned how to take care of myself.
g. I learned how to get along better with people.
h. I never saved any money.
B. Which of the clauses in column A can you relate to your life?
Add your own information to those clauses. Then compare with a partner.
C. Group work What do you think people learn from these events? Write sentences
using time clauses in the present. Then take turns reading and talking about them.
1. you get your driver's license
2. you go out on your first date
3. you get your first pet
4. you get a credit card
5. you buy your first car
6. you have your own bank account
(ex) 1. After you get your driver's license, you find out that all your friends want
rides.
@p68
4. LISTENING important events
Listen to three people describing important events in Complete the chart.
1. Sally: What was the event?
How did it affect him or her?
2. Henry
3. Debbie
5. DECADES APART
A. Group work What are two important events for these age groups?
Why is each event important? Talk about the events.
children
teenagers
people in their twenties
people in their forties
A: Starting school is an important event for children.
B: That's true. Once they start school, they learn to get along with other kids.
C: I think another important event is ...
B. Class activity What is the most important event for each age group?
6. WORD POWER Behavior
Pair work At what age do you think people tend to behavior. Talk with a partner and
check (V) one or more ages for each behavior.
ambitious: In their teens
In their 20s
In their 30s
In their 40s
In their 60s
argumentative
carefree
generous
immature
naive
selfish
sensible
sophisticated
tolerant
A: I think people in their twenties and thirties tend to be more ambitious.
B: Yes, but I think people in their teens can be ambitious, too, because ...
@p69
7. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Peter: I'm thinking of going back to school to get another degree. It's so hard to find a
job with a degree in literature. Kay: Yeah, I know what you mean.
Peter: I should have studied something more practical. If I'd been more sensible, I
would have majored in economics.
Kay: Why did you major in literature?
Peter: I don't know! I should have listened to my mother. She wanted me to major in
business.
Kay: Oh? What does she do?
Peter: Mom? She's a literature professor.
B. Listen to the rest of the conversation. What does Kay regret about the choices she
made in college?
8. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Describing regrets about the past
* With should have + past participle
I should have studied something more practical.
* With if clauses in the past perfect
If I'd been more sensible, I would have majored in economics.
If I'd listened to my mother, I wouldn't be working at this job now.
A. Pair work Write a response using should have for each statement. Then talk with a
partner about which statements are true for you.
1. I was very selfish when I was younger.
2. I didn't pay attention to what I ate as a kid.
3. I never read very often before I went to college.
4. I didn't make a lot of friends when I was in high school.
5. I argued a lot with my parents when I was a teenager.
(ex) 1. I should have been more generous when I was younger.
B. Match the clauses in column A with information from column B. Then compare with
a partner.
A
1. If I'd listened to my parents, ...
2. If I'd been more active, ...
3. If I'd been more ambitious, ...
4. If I'd studied harder in school, ...
5. If I'd saved my money, ...
B
a. I could have gotten a promotion.
b. I wouldn't be as broke as I am now.
c. I could have learned a lot more.
d. I would have made some better decisions.
e. I wouldn't be overweight.
C. Add your own information to the clauses in column A. Then compare in groups.
@p70
9. PRONUNCIATION Reduced forms of have and been
A. Listen and practice. Notice how have and been are reduced to /^26^v/ and /bin/ in
these sentences.
I should have been less selfish when I was younger. If I'd been more ambitious, I could
have gotten a promotion.
B. Pair work Complete these sentences and practice them. Pay attention to the
reduced forms of have and been.
I should have been ... when I was younger.
If I'd been more ... I could have.
I should have been ... in high school.
If I'd ... I would have ...
10. LISTENING
Listen to these people describing a regret they each have. Complete the chart.
What does he or she regret?
1. Barbara
2. Alex
3. Sonia
Why does he or she regret it?
1. Barbara
2. Alex
3. Sonia
11. WRITING Turning points
A. Think about a turning point in your life. Make notes about the event .When was it?
Why was it important? Did it change your life for the better or worse?
B. Write two paragraphs about the event. In the first paragraph, describe the event. In
the second, describe how it changed your life.
(ex) A turning point for me was learning to speak Spanish. I'd always wanted to learn a
foreign language. When I was 16, I lived in Mexico for a summer. Until then, I didn't
think that I could learn a foreign language ...
Once I learned Spanish, I realized that it wasn't an impossible goal. It even helped me
to learn English ... I should have learned a foreign language sooner.
@p71
12. READING
If you could do it all again
Do you have any regrets about things you've done or haven't done?
What if you could live your life over again? Everyone has some things they would do
differently and some they would do exactly the same.
Laura
Evan
Rachel
After I finished high school, I just wasn't ready to go on to college. I really needed
some time to figure out what I wanted to do. I had saved up a lot of money, so I used it
to travel through Eastern Europe for six months. It was an amazing experience, and I
learned a lot about myself. Once I got home, I was ready to start college. Now the only
trouble is, I don't have enough money to pay for it! I should have thought more about my
finances before I took such an expensive trip.
By the time I was 22, I was the head of the public relations department in a major
telecommunications company. Now I'm a vice president. I love the excitement, the
status, the security, and the money. But sometimes I wake up in the middle of the night
and wonder, "What am I doing? Who am I?" When I was growing up, I always thought I
would become a teacher or maybe an artist. Sometimes it seems like I've got
everything, and yet I've got nothing.
Soon after Brad and I got married, his company transferred him to San Francisco. I had
a very successful career, but I quit my job and we moved. Brad has been transferred
twice since then. Now I work as an office temp. Sometimes I think if I had been a little
more selfish, maybe I could have done more with my career, too. But Brad really means
a lot to me. As soon as I met him, I knew I would spend the rest of my life with him.
A. Read the article. Then write the correct name to answer these questions.
1. Whose success could be described as ...?
a. a financial success ...
b. the courage to explore new things ...
c. happiness in a relationship ...
2. Whose regrets might be explained in terms of ...?
a. being shortsighted ...
b. sacrificing what one wants for someone else ...
c. losing oneself to achieve what others see as success ...
(Interchange 11) If only ...: Imagine a whole other life for yourself. Turn to page IC-15
B. Pair work Talk about these questions.
1. In your life, what would you do differently? What would you do the same?
2. Which of the three people seems the happiest? Who seems the least happy?
3. Some psychologists say that people today have more regrets because they have so
many choices and more pressure. What do you think these psychologists mean? Do you
agree?
@ff
@p72
@t:UNIT 12@e
UNIT 12. The right stuff
1. SNAPSHOT
SUCCESS Stories
Five of the world's most successful businesses
#1 Founded #2 Main product(s) #3 Fact
American Express: #1 1850 #2 travel services #3 began as a delivery service
Coca-Cola: #1 1886 #2 saft drinks and juice #3 Coca-Cola is the most famous word
in the world, after OK
Hard Rock Cafe: #1 1971 #2 restaurants with a rock 'n' roll theme #3 American
owner opened first Cafe in London because he hated the hamburgers in England
Levi Strauss: #1 1873 #2 jeans and casual clothing #3 the first jeans were made for
men looking for gold in California
Nike: #1 1968 #2 athletic shoes and sports clothing #3 named for the Greek goddess
of victory
Talk about these questions.
Which of these companies of their products exist in your country? Are they very
successful?
What else do you know about these companies?
Can you think of three other successful companies?
2. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Kelly: I hear you're going to open your own restaurant.
Joe: Yeah, I've always wanted my own place.
Kelly: But isn't it a little risky?
Joe: Sure, but in order to succeed in business, you need to take a few risks--
calculated risks, of course. That's what they taught me in business school, anyway!
Kelly: So what do you have to do in order for a restaurant to succeed in this town? I
mean, don't you need some sort of gimmick?
Joe: Well, I've come up with a concept that I think will work very well.
B. Listen to the rest of the conversation. What will be special about Joe's restaurant?
Do you think it will be successful? Why or why not?
@p73
3. PRONUNCIATION Reduced forms
Listen and practice. Notice how these words are reduced in conversation.
"for" = (f^26^r)
"a" = (^26^)
"an" = (^26^n)
"to" = (t^26^)
"and" = (^26^nd) or (^26^n)
In order for a restaurant to succeed, it needs to have great food and good service.
For an airline to be successful, it has to maintain a good safety record.
4. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Infinitive clauses and phrases of purpose
In order to succeed in business, you need to take a few risks.
To loom about business, its a good idea to go to business school.
In order for a restaurant to succeed, it has to have a good concept.
For a restaurant to be profitable, it has to have loyal customers.
A. Match the information in columns A and B. (More than one answer is possible.)
Then practice the sentences with a partner. Pay attention to the reduced forms.
A
1. For a health club to attract new people, ...
2. In order to run a profitable restaurant, ...
3. In order for a dance club to succeed, ...
4. For a coffee bar to succeed, ...
5. In order for a magazine to succeed, ...
6. To run a successful clothing boutique, ...
B
a. you need to get a talented chef.
b. it's a good idea to offer desserts, too.
c. you need to keep up with the latest styles.
d. it needs to have great music and lighting.
e. it has to offer the latest types of equipment.
f. it has to provide useful information.
B. Pair work What other things can the businesses in part A do to ensure success?
Think of two more suggestions for each situation in column A.
5. LISTENING Big business
Listen to three successful entrepreneurs talk about their businesses. What are the two
most important reasons for each person's success?
1. Elena
2. Richard
3. Bill
@p74
6. WORD POWER Qualities for success
A. Pair work What qualities are important for the following.? Add two more adjectives
to each list. Then rank them from 1 to 7.
A successful magazine
... cheap
... entertaining
... informative
... useful
... well written
A successful salesperson
... clever
... dynamic
... friendly
... persuasive
... tough
A successful model
... athletic
... good-looking
... hard-working
... intelligent
... patient
B. Group work Tell the group the three qualities you feel are most important for each.
"For a magazine to be successful, it needs to be ..."
7. ENTREPRENEURS
A. Group work Your group has decided to open a business together.
1. Decide on an interesting business to open-for example, a dance club, a health club,
a music store, or a hair salon.
2. What do you have to do in order to succeed in that business? Use these questions to
identify at least five different factors.
What are the most important things you need in order to run the business?
How important is the name of the business?
Do you think the location of the business is important?
How important is advertising or a gimmick?
3. Now design a plan for the business. Determine these factors:
name location product or service decor special features type of advertising slogan
other considerations
B. Class activity Present your plans to the class. Who has the best concept?
@p75
8. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Alice: What's your favorite club, Eric?
Eric: The Downtown Club. They have great music, and one nice thing is that it's never
crowded.
Alice: That's funny. There's always a long wait outside my favorite club. And I like it
because it's absolutely packed most nights.
Eric: Why do you think it's so popular?
Alice: Well, it just opened a couple of months ago, everything is brand new and
modern, and there are lots of "hip" people who go there. It's called The Casablanca.
Eric: Oh, right. It's the newest "in" place. I hear the reason people go there is just to
be seen.
Alice: Exactly! Do you want to go some night?
Eric: I thought you'd never ask!
B. Class activity What are the "in" places in your city? Do you ever go to any of these
places? Why or why not?
9. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Describing features and giving reasons
* Describing features
A nice thing about The Downtown Club Is the great music.
Another nice thing Is that its never crowded.
* Giving reasons
I like The Casablanca because firs absolutely pocked most nights.
It's so popular bemuse of the hip people.
The reason people go there Is just to be seen.
A. What feature or reason in column B explains the success of each thing in column A?
(More than one answer may be possible.) Compare ideas with a partner.
A
1. The reason people eat so much fast food is ...
2. One thing people like about Levi's jeans is ...
3. Coca-Cola is popular worldwide ...
4. An important feature of supermarkets is ...
5. The thing people like about megastores is ...
6. American Express cards are popular ...
B
a. because of excellent advertising.
b. the huge choice of products.
c. that prices are generally low.
d. to save time
e. that they last for a long time.
f. because you can use them almost anywhere.
B. Pair work Suggest two more reasons for each success in part A.
@p76
10. LISTENING Radio commercials
A. US Listen to three radio commercials advertising these places. What are two
special features of each place?
1. Restaurant
2. Sporting goods store
3. Discount clothing store
B Listen again. What slogan is used to advertise each place?
11. CATCHY SLOGANS
A. Pair work Look at these slogans from advertisements. What products do you think
they are advertising?
It's the Real Thing.
"All the News That's Fit to Print"
Where's Your Mustache?
Where do you want to go today?
Useful expressions: I think it might be used to advertise ...
This could be from an ad for ...
This is used in ... ads.
B. Class activity Compare your suggestions. Then check your answers in the
appendix.
12. WRITING
A. Choose one of the products discussed in this unit. Make notes about the best way to
sell the product. Then write a composition, using these phrases to help you.
(ex) In order to sell ..., there are three important things to consider ... First of all, ...
Next, ... Finally, ...
B. Group work Read one another's compositions. What is good about each one? Can
you give any suggestions to improve them?
(Interchange 12) A picture's worth a thousand words: How effective is advertising?
Turn to pages IC-16 and IC-17
@p77
13. READING
The Wrong Stuff
Look at the picture and the first sentence of the article. Why is market research
important to companies that want to sell their products internationally?
Here's a great car-The nova!
It doesn't run?
If a business wants to sell its products internationally, it had better do some market
research first. This is a lesson that many companies--including some large American
corporations--have learned the hard way.
Sometimes the problem is in the name. When General Motors introduced its Chevy
Nova into Latin America, it overlooked the fact that Nova in Spanish means "It doesn't
go" Sure enough, the Chevy Nova never went anywhere in Latin America.
Sometimes it's the slogan that doesn't work. No company knows this better than
Pepsi-Cola, with its "Come alive with Pepsi!" campaign. The campaign was highly
successful in the United States, and Pepsi translated its slogan literally for its
international campaign. As it turned out, Pepsi was pleading with Germans to "Come out
of the grave" and telling Chinese that "Pepsi brings your ancestors back from the
grave."
Other times, the problem involves pictures and packaging. A smiling, round-cheeked
baby has helped sell countless jars of Gerber baby food. So when Gerber marketed its
products in Africa, it kept the picture of the baby on the jar. What Gerber didn't realize
was that in many African countries, the picture on the jar shows what the jar has in it.
Even cultural and religious factors--and pure coincidence--can also be involved.
Thom McAn shoes have a Thom McAn "signature" inside. To people in Bangladesh, this
signature looked like Arabic script for the word Allah. In Bangladesh, feet are
considered unclean and Muslims felt the company was insulting God's name by having
people walk on it.
A. Read the article. Then look at these statements and check (V) the correct answer.
1. The Ford Fiera didn't sell well in Spain, where fiera means "ugly old woman." Ford's
problem was similar to that faced by:
General Motors. Gerber. Pepsi. Thom McAn.
2. Braniff Airline's "Fly in leather," intended to promote its comfortable seats, came
out in Spanish as "Fly with no clothes on." This problem was similar to that of:
General Motors. Gerber. Pepsi. Thom McAn.
B. Group work Talk about these questions.
1. What kinds of information should a company have before it advertises and sells its
products in a foreign country?
2. Think of two products from your country: one that would sell well around the world,
and one that might not sell well around the world. Why would one sell well, but not the
other? What changes would make the second product sell better?
@ff
@p78
@t:Review 9-12@e
REVIEW OF UNITS 9-12
1. ONCE IN A WHILE
Group Work Has anyone in your group ever had any of these things done? Ask when
and why.
Have you ever ...?
had money sent to someone abroad
had your blood pressure checked
gotten something translated
had your handwriting analyzed
gotten some legal advice
been hypnotized
A: Has anyone ever sent money to someone abroad?
B: I have. I had money sent to my brother in Chile ...
2. LISTENING How good is your history?
A. Try to answer these questions. Then listen to people discussing the questions and
write the correct answers. How many did you know?
1. What pop music group was George Michael in during the early 1980s?
2. Who developed the theory of relativity?
3. When did India gain its independence from Great Britain?
4. Who was Jacqueline Onassis's first husband?
5. What was Sigmund Freud famous for?
B. Group work Think of five more questions. (Make sure you know the answers.) Then
take turns asking your questions in groups. Who has the most correct answers?
3. KNOW-IT-ALLS
Group Work Think of a problem you need advice about. Then take turns. One student
asks for advice about the problem. Other students give suggestions for the problem.
A: I have to find a new apartment by next week! What can I do?
B: Have you thought about putting an ad in the school newspaper?
C: Or maybe you could call a realtor ...
@p79
4. THE HOME OF THE FUTURE
A. How do you think homes in the next 100 years will change from the ones we live in
today? Imagine five changes you think will be possible.
(ex) Home will be made of Plastic instead of wood, stone, or brick.
They'll have found a way to instantly recycle bottles and cans in the kitchen.
B. Group Work Take turns reading your statements. Other students say if they agree
or not. If you don't agree, offer an alternative.
5. LISTENING Success story
A. Listen to a business consultant discussing some of the factors necessary for a
successful restaurant. Check the factors in the chart she mentions as important.
... is important.
Advertising
Concept
Decor
Food
Name
Location
B. Pair work Think of a successful restaurant in your town or city. What are the
reasons for its success?
C. Group work Share your ideas.
6. WAY BACK WHEN
A. Complete these statements with information about yourself
1. I didn't know how to ... until I was ... years old.
2. By the time I was ... I already knew how to ...
3. If I'd known five years ago what I know now, ...
4. After I turned 15, I became ...
5. The most important thing I learned from my ... was ...
6. A turning point in my teenage years was ...
B. Pair work Take turns reading your statements with a partner. Respond to each
statement your partner makes by saying if the statement is true for you.
A: I didn't know how to swim until I was 16 years old.
B: Really? Neither did I!/You're kidding! I did!
@ff
@p80
@t:UNIT 13@e
UNIT 13. That's a possibility.
1. SNAPSHOT
Pet Peeves
Common mysteries among friends and acquaintances
Why is it that some people ...?
are always late
never return phone calls
never listen carefully when you talk to them
act differently in front of people they want to impress
always look messy
never remember to return things
are always short of money
never know when to go home
(Source: Interviews with people between the ages of 16 and 45)
Talk about these questions.
Do you know people who do these things?
Are you ever guilty of doing these things? When and why?
What other "pet peeves" do you have about friends and acquaintances?
2. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Jackie: You asked Beth to be here around seven o'clock, didn't you?
Bill: Yes. What time is it now?
Jackie: It's nearly a quarter to eight. I wonder what happened.
Bill: Hmm. She might have forgotten the time. Why don't I call and see if she's on her
way?
A few minutes later
Bill: I got her answering machine, so I guess she must have left already.
Jackie: I hope she didn't have a problem on the! road. Her car could have broken down
or something.
Bill: Of course she may have simply forgotten our invitation and done something else
today.
Jackie: No, she couldn't have forgotten. I talked to her only yesterday. Let's just start
without her.
B. Listen to the rest of the conversation. What happened?
@p81
3. PRONUNCIATION Reduced forms in past modals
A. Listen and practice. Notice how have is reduced in these sentences.
He may have forgotten the appointment.
She must have had a problem on the road.
B. Listen and practice. In sentences like these, not is usually not reduced.
He may not have remembered.
She must not have caught her bus.
4. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Past modals for degrees of certainty
Probability: She must have left already.
She must not have wanted to come.
She couldn't have forgotten the party.
Possibility: She may have forgotten our invitation.
She might have forgotten the time.
Her car could have broken down.
She may not have wonted to come.
She might not have remembered the time.
A. Read each situation and choose the best explanation. Then practice the situations
and explanations with a partner. (Pay attention to the reduced forms in past modals.)
Situation
1. Jane wasn't in a very good mood today. ...
2. Brian got a call and looked very worried. ...
3. The teacher looked very pleased today. ...
4. Jack couldn't keep his eyes open. ...
5. Jeff was fired from his job. ...
6. David seems to be broke. ...
Explanation
a. She could have gotten a raise.
b. He must not have slept enough.
c. He may have been to the casino again.
d. He couldn't have heard good news.
e. She may have fought with her boyfriend.
f. He might not have done his work.
B. Pair work Suggest different explanations for each situation in part A.
5. LISTENING Jumping to conclusions
A. Group Work What do you think happened? Offer an explanation for each event.
B. Listen to the explanations for the two events in part A and take notes. What did
happen? How similar were your explanations?
@p82
6. WHAT'S YOUR EXPLANATION?
A. Pair work What do you think were the reasons for these events? Suggest two
different explanations for each.
1. Two people were having dinner in a restaurant. One suddenly got up and rushed out
of the restaurant.
2. A woman living alone returned home and found the TV and radio turned on. They
had not been left on when she went out.
3. Two friends met again after not seeing each other for many years. One looked at
the other and burst into laughter.
B. Class activity Share your explanations. Which ones are the best?
C. Group work Each student thinks of two situations like the ones in part A. Then take
turns reading your ideas to the group. Others suggest explanations.
A: OK. Here's one. A man was found in a field in his pajamas late at night. He was
carrying a broken leash in his hand.
B: I have an explanation. Maybe the man was sleepwalking, and he might have taken
his dog out for a walk.
C: Yes. And then the dog might have seen a rabbit, run after it, and broken his leash.
That probably woke the man up.
7. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Brent: How was your dinner party?
Adam: I think it went pretty well. People really seemed to enjoy themselves.
Brent: That's good.
Adam: Yeah, but we shouldn't have invited my wife's boss again. We can never get him
to leave!
Brent: Really? How late did he stay this time?
Adam: Until two o'clock in the morning! And we both had to get up early the next day.
Brent: Oh, he shouldn't have stayed so late. That was really inconsiderate. You should
have asked him to leave earlier.
Adam: Well, it's pretty difficult to do that to your wife's boss!
(Interchange 13) Photo plays: What's your best explanation for some unusual events?
Turn to page IC-18.
B. Class activity What would you have done in this situation?
@p83
8. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Past modals for opinions and advice
He should have left earlier.
He shouldn't have stayed so late.
I would have asked him to leave.
I wouldn't have stayed so late.
He could have been more considerate.
You could have reminded him of the time.
Read these situations. Think of suggestions or comments using past modals. Then
compare with a partner.
1. John's friend borrowed his car and dented it. When he returned it, he didn't say
anything to John about it. What would you have done if you were John? What should his
friend have done?
2. Jill and Alex gave a party for some close friends. Two of the people they invited
never showed up and never called to explain. Jill and Alex never invited them over
again. What else could they have done?
3. Rob and Kate had planned to get married. At a party, their friends gave them a lot of
gifts. Later, Rob and Kate broke off their engagement; however, they kept the gifts. Do
you think they should have kept them? What would you have advised them to do?
(ex) 1. I would have asked him to pay the repair bill.
9. WORD POWER Points of view
A. Match each point of view with an example. (More than one answer may be
possible.) Then compare with a partner.
Chris forgot his girlfriend's birthday.
Point of view
1. an assumption
2. a conclusion ...
3. a criticism ...
4. an excuse ...
5. a prediction ...
6. a reason ...
7. a suggestion ...
8. a warning ...
Example
a. He was fired from his job that day.
b. He must feel really sorry!
c .He can be very inconsiderate.
d. He had something else on his mind.
e. He ought to buy her roses.
f. He'll probably forget their anniversary, too!
g. If he does it again, he'll need to find a new girlfriend.
h. He must have wanted to break up with her.
B. Group work Choose one of the situations from Exercise 8. Give an example of each
point of view in the list above (an assumption, a conclusion, etc.) for that situation.
@p84
10 LISTENING
A. Listen to descriptions of three situations. What would have been the best thing to
do in each situation? Check (V) the best suggestion.
1. Dennis should have called a locksmith.
He should have called a tow truck.
He did the right thing.
2. Diana should have turned up her radio to keep out the noise.
She should have called the neighbors to see what was happening.
She did the right thing.
3. Simon should have taken the ring and put an ad in the newspaper.
He should have taken the ring and called the police when he got home.
He did the right thing.
B. Pair work What would you have done in each situation in part A?
11. PREDICAMENTS
A. Pair work Work together to think of three interesting predicaments.
"We were at a friend's house for dinner last night. Our friend had worked all day to
cook a special meal for us, but the food was really awful! We didn't want to say
anything that might hurt her feelings, though."
B. Group work Pairs take turns stating their predicaments. First, others say what the
pair could, should, or might have done. Then others say what they would have done.
A: You could have told her you weren't feeling well, but that you'd take some food
home for later.
B: Or you could have eaten it really slowly so that she wouldn't offer you any more.
C: I would have told her the food looked great, but that I was on a diet.
12. WRITING
A. Choose one of the situations you talked about in Exercise 11. Write two paragraphs
about it. In the first, describe the situation. In the second, say what should or could have
been done.
B. Pair work Exchange compositions. Does the first paragraph describe the situation
and the second offer suggestions? What do you think of the suggestions? Do you have
others to offer?
@p85
13. READING
The Blue Lights of silver cliff
Do you believe in ghosts?
Today, the town of Silver Cliff, Colorado, has a population of only 100 people. Once,
however, it was a prosperous mining town where thousands came with dreams of
finding silver and making their fortune.
Late one night in 1880, a group of miners were headed back to their camp after a good
time in town. They were still laughing and joking as they approached the graveyard on a
hill outside Silver Cliff. Then one of the men screamed and pointed toward the
graveyard. The others looked and fell suddenly silent. On top of each grave, they saw
flamelike blue lights. These eerie lights seemed to be dancing on the graves,
disappearing and then appearing again.
This was the first sighting of the blue lights of Silver Cliff. There have been many
other sightings over the years. In 1969, Edward Lineham from National Geographic
magazine visited the graveyard. Lineham's article tells of his experience: "I saw them ...
Dim, round spots of blue-white light glowed ethereally among the graves. I ... stepped
forward for a better look. They vanished. I aimed my flashlight at one eerie glow and
switched it on. It revealed only a tombstone."
Lineham and others have suggested various explanations for the blue lights of Silver
Cliff The lights might have been reflections of lights from the town, but Silver Cliffs
lights seemed too dim to have this effect. The lights could have been caused by
radioactive ore, but there's no evidence of radioactivity. They could have been caused
by the burning of gases from rotting matter, but this usually happens in swamps, and the
area around Silver Cliff is dry, Or, perhaps, the lights are lights on the helmets of dead
miners wandering the hills in search of the fortune they had come for.
A. Read the article. Then answer these questions.
1. How has Silver Cliff changed over the years?
2. When, where, and by whom were the blue lights first seen?
3. What do the blue lights look like?
4. What are some of the explanations that people have proposed?
B. Group work Talk about these questions.
1. Which of the explanations for the blue lights do you think is the most satisfactory?
Why?
2. Can you think of any other explanations for the blue lights?
3. Do you know of any other unexplainable things or events?
@ff
@p86
@t:UNIT 14@e
UNIT 14. Behind the scenes
1. Movie Firsts
The First ...
1889 Motion-Picture camera
1903 Slient narrative film--The Great train robbery
1914 Luxury movie theater
1928 Talking film--The jazz singer
1928 Mickey Mouse cartoon
1933 Drive-in movie theater
1939 Color epic--gone with the wind
1953 Full-length three-dimensional(3-D) feature film--House of wax
1982 Film with computer-created special effects--Tron
1991 Advanced computer technology--Terminator2
(Source: The New York Public Library Book of Chronologies)
Talk about these questions.
Have you seen any of the movies mentioned? Did you enjoy them?
Have you ever seen a silent film? a 3-D movie? a movie at a drive-in? What was it
called?
Are there many movies made in your country? Name a few of your favorites.
2. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Ryan: Working on movies must be really exciting.
Nina: Oh, yeah, but it's also very hard work. A one-minute scene in a film can take
days to shoot.
Ryan: Why is that?
Nina: Well, each scene isn't filmed just once. Lots of different shots have to be done.
Only the best ones are used in the film.
Ryan: So, how many shots are taken?
Nina: It depends, but sometimes as many as 20. One scene may be shot from five or
six different angles.
Ryan: Wow! I didn't realize that.
Nina: Why don't you come visit the studio? You can see how the special effects are
done.
Ryan: Great, I'd love to!
B. Listen to the rest of the conversation. What else makes working on movies difficult?
@p87
3. GRAMMAR FOCUS
The passive to describe process
* Be + post participle
Each scene isn't filmed just once.
Only the best shots are used.
* Modal + be + past participle
One scene may be shot from five or six different angles.
Lots of different shots have to be done.
For a list of irregular past participles, see the appendix at the back of the book.
A. These sentences describe how a movie is made. First, complete the sentences
using the passive form of the verbs. Then compare with a partner.
(__) The final film you see on the screen --- (create) by the director and editor out of
thousands of different shots.
(__) In the full script, the story --- (divide) into scenes--the action and filming details
--- (write out).
(1) First, the outline or "treatment" of the film script has to --- (prepare).
(__) Once the film is put together, music --- (compose) and sound effects may ---
(add).
(__) Different shots or "takes" --- (film) separately. Only the best "takes" --- (select)
by the director.
(__) Next, the actors --- (chose), locations --- (pick), and costumes --- (design).
Filming can then begin.
(__) After the filming --- (complete), the different "takes" --- (put) together by the
editor and director.
(__) Then the treatment --- (expand) into a full script.
(__) Once filming begins, scenes may --- (not shoot) in the order that they will appear
in the movie.
(__) After the script --- (finish), a director has to --- (hire).
B. Pair work Number the sentences in part A from 1 to 10 to describe the sequence in
which the events occur.
4. LISTENING
Listen to a TV producer describe what he does. Write down two things you learned.
Two new things I learned:
@p88
5. STEP BY STEP
A. Pair work Choose one of these events. Put the pictures in order and describe the
steps in the process. You may use the vocabulary given.
A theater performance: actors, costumes, play, sets, build, design, rehearse, perform
The making of a newspaper: articles, reporters, research, interviews, print, distribute
B. Group work Choose another event: a fashion show, a rock concert, or a TV sitcom.
Write down as many steps as you can think of to prepare for the event.
C. Class activity Compare your information from part B. Which group has the most
steps?
6. WRITING
A. Write about one of the events from Exercise 5 or another topic of your own.
Describe the event and the different steps in the process.
(ex) Sawing someone in half is a common illusion in a magic show. The magician's
assistant gets into a box, with her head and feet sticking out of each end, and the
magician saws the box in half. This illusion is really quite simple. First, a special box is
prepared. It contains a mechanical pair of feet that look like the assistant's feet. As
soon as the assistant gets into the box, ...
B. Pair work Take turns reading your compositions. Can you suggest any additional
steps to add to your partner's paper?
@p89
7. WORD POWER Multimedia
A. Where do people with these occupations work? Complete the chart.
camera operator computer programmer film editor foreign correspondent gossip
columnist graphic designer movie producer on-call technician photo editor
sportswriter stunt person webpage designer
Film industry:
Newspaper publishing:
Computer industry:
B. Group work What job or jobs do you think each person in part A does?
"A camera operator handles the camera during a movie shoot."
8. PRONUNCIATION Stress in compound nouns
A. In compound nouns (noun + noun or adjective + noun), the first word usually
receives greater stress. Which compound nouns in Exercise 7 follow this rule? Which
do not? Listen and practice.
B. Pair work Think of and practice four more compound nouns describing occupations.
9. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Liz: Where are you working now, Bob?
Bob: The Daily Advertiser. I have two jobs, actually. My main job is working as an
assistant editor.
Liz: What does an assistant editor do?
Bob: Well, an assistant editor, who is often relatively new to journalism, gets the
stories ready for the editor.
Liz: That sounds kind of interesting.
Bob: It's OK. But my other job is more interesting.
Liz: And what's that?
Bob: I'm the movie critic, too. It's terrific. And I get to see all the latest movies for
free.
Liz: So you're the one who writes those sarcastic reviews. You don't like anything!
Bob: That's me!
B. Class activity Which job in newspaper publishing most interests you?
@p90
10. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Relative clauses
* Defining relative clauses explain or identify the person that you are talking about.
An assistant editor is the person.
-> An assistant editor is the person that gets the stories ready for the editor.
He gets the stories ready for the editor.
-> A movie critic is the person who writes movie reviews.
* Non-defining relative clauses give further information about someone.
An assistant editor gets the stories ready for the editor.
-> An assistant editor, who is often relatively now to journalism, gets the stories
ready for the editor.
An assistant editor is often relatively new to journalism.
-> A movie critic, who gets to see the movies for free, often sees several in a day.
A. Do these sentences contain defining (D) or non-defining (ND) clauses? Add commas
to the non-defining clauses. Then compare with a partner.
1. A movie producer who controls the budget decides how money will be spent. ...
2. A stunt person who has the most physically difficult job in a movie "stands in" for an
actor during dangerous scenes. ...
3. A media specialist is the person who studies all aspects of communication. ...
4. A special-effects designer who needs advanced computer knowledge often spends
millions of dollars on computer graphics. ...
5. A stagehand is the person who moves the sets on stage in a theater production. ...
B. Class activity Which of the jobs in part A would you like to do? Which wouldn't you
like to do? Why?
11. PROFESSIONAL PREFERENCES
A. Pair work Write about these professions. Use defining and non-defining relative
clauses.
set designer
gossip columnist
sportswriter
talk show host
B. Group Work Form a group with another pair and compare information. Then tell the
group which job you think is the most interesting. What does the job involve? Why does
it interest you?
"I think one of the most interesting jobs in the entertainment industry is the set
designer. The set designer is the person who ... Also, he or she gets to ... Being a set
designer is interesting because ...
(Interchange 14) Who makes it happen?: What kinds of people does it take to make a
business run? Turn to page 1C-19.
@p91
12. READING
Coming soon to a Theater Near You!
What are special effects? Do you enjoy movies that use a lot of special effects?
Dinosaurs from the distant past! Space battles from the distant future! There has been
a revolution in special effects, and it has transformed the movies we see.
The revolution began in the mid-1970s with George Lucas's Star Wars, a film that
stunned audiences; that revolution continues to the present, with dramatic changes in
special-effects technology. The company behind these changes is Lucas's Industrial
Light & Magic (ILM). And the man behind the company is Dennis Muren, who has
worked with Lucas since Star Wars.
Muren's interest in special effects began very early: At age 6, he was photographing
toy dinosaurs and spaceships. By 10, he had an 8-millimeter movie camera and was
making these things move through stop-motion. (Stop-motion is a process in which
objects are shot with a camera, moved slightly, shot again, and so on; when the shots
are put together, the objects appear to move.)
Talk to Muren and you'll understand what ILM is all about: taking on new challenges.
By 1989, Muren decided he had pushed the old technology as far as it would go.
He saw computer graphics (CG) technology as the wave of the future and took a year
off to master it.
With CG technology, images can be scanned into a computer for processing, for
example, and many separate shots can be combined into a single image. CG technology
has now reached the point, Muren says, where special effects can be used to do just
about anything--so that movies can tell stories better than ever before. The huge
success of Jurassic Park and its sequel, The Lost World--the stars of which were
computer-generated dinosaurs--suggests that this may very well be true.
A. Read the article. Check(V) True or False. For the false statements, give the correct
information.
1. The special-effects revolution began in the mid-1 980s with Star Wars. (True,
False)
2. ILM is the company responsible for many of the changes in special effects. (True,
False)
3. By age 10, Dennis Muren was able to use computer graphics to make things seem to
move. (True, False)
4. With the stop-motion process, many separate shots can be combined into a single
image. (True, False)
5. Muren feels that with stop-motion technology, just about any special effect can be
achieved. (True, False)
B. Group work Talk about these questions.
1. What movie's special effects impressed you the most? Describe the effects.
2. Critics say that movies are emphasizing special effects at the expense of the story.
Others argue that special effects make the stories better. What do you think?
@ff
@p92
@t:UNIT 15@e
UNIT 15 There should be a low!
1. SNAPSHOT
IT'S AGAINST THE LAW!
* In the United States
It's against the law to hunt camels in Arizona.
In Kentucky, the law requires people to take. a bath once a year.
In New York City, horses must be given a 15-minute "coffee break" for each two
hours of work.
In the state of Washington, it is illegal to pretend your parents are rich.
* In other countries
In Turkey in the sixteenth century, coffee houses were closed and declared against
the law.
It is illegal to own a dog--except a Seeing Eye dog--in Reykjavik, Iceland.
It is against the law not to flush a public toilet in Singapore.
In Finland, people must know how to read in order to get married.
(Source: It Is Illegal to Quack Like a Duck, The Book of Lists, and All About Coffee.)
Talk about these questions.
Can you think of reasons for any of these laws?
Do you know of any other strange laws?
2. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
April: Rich, you look exhausted!
Rich: I know. I didn't get much sleep last night.
April: What happened?
Rich: Remember those guys I told you about?
April: The ones that just moved in next door?
Rich: Yeah. They had another party, and the noise kept me awake all night.
April: Well, something has got to be done. This has happened every weekend since
they moved in!
Rich: Yeah. Tell me about it. I finally had to call the police.
April: I would have done the same thing. They shouldn't be allowed to disturb people
like that. And anyway, they should have at least invited you to the party!
B. Class activity What would you have done in Rich's situation?
@p93
3. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Recommendations with passive modals
* When you think something is a good idea
People ought to be required to end parties at midnight.
They shouldn't be allowed to disturb people like that.
They should be required to invite their neighbors.
* When you think something is absolutely necessary
Something has got to be done to stop late-night parties.
A rule has to be made to stop these disturbances.
Laws must be passed to control the noise.
People mustn't be permitted to have all-night parties.
A. How do you feel about these issues? Complete the sentences positively or
negatively. Choose a modal that shows how strongly you feel.
1. People ... to smoke on airplanes. (allow)
2. Young people ... to get married at age 15. (permit)
3. People ... to recycle all disposable products. (require)
4. Laws ... to control people's consumption of sugar. (make)
5. People ... to have pets in high-rise apartments. (allow)
6. Scientists ... to use animals for research. (permit)
7. Laws ... to ban the sale of handguns. (pass)
8. The sale of fur products ... (permit)
B. Pair work Compare your statements with a partner. Do you agree with your
partner? If not, why not?
4. GIVING OPINIONS
People give opinions and respond to them in different ways.
* Giving an opinion
I feel that ...
I don't think that ...
In my opinion ...
* Asking for reasons
Do you? Why?/Don't you? Why not?
Why do you say that?
* Acknowledging an opinion and offering a different one
That sounds interesting. But I think ...
That's not a bad idea. On the other hand, I feel that ...
You may have a point. Nevertheless, I think ...
* Giving reasons
Well, because ... And another thing ...
Because I think that ...
A. Give opinions about how these people should be treated or should behave. Write
down two opinions for each.
parents students teachers employers
(ex) In my opinion, parents should be given a day off from their children
B. Group work Compare your opinions.
A: In my opinion, parents should be given a day off from their children.
B: Really? Why?
A: Because they need free time, too.
C: That's not a bad idea. On the other hand, ...
@p94
5. LISTENING
A. Listen to people discussing these problems. What solution do they suggest for each
problem?
1. people using cellular phones in restaurants
2. car security alarms going off at night
3. telemarketing salespeople calling too often
Solution
1.
2.
3.
B. Group work Do you agree or disagree with the solutions? What do you think should
be done about each problem?
6. WORD POWER Social issues
A. Pair work Talk with a partner about the meaning of each word or expression. Which
do you think are issues in your community? Check (V) the appropriate boxes.
... is an issue in my community.
Affordable child care:
AIDS:
Alcohol abuse:
Company downsizing:
Ethnic conflict:
Gun control:
Health care:
Homelessness:
Illiteracy:
Street crime:
B. Group work Join another pair of students. Which three problems concern your
group the most? What should or can be done about them?
@p95
7. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Sarah: Health insurance bills, child-care bills, rent! Now that I'm going to school and
only working part time, I have a hard time making ends meet.
Todd: Health insurance is so expensive, isn't it?
Sarah: Yeah! My company used to pay for it when I was working full time.
Todd: And child care isn't cheap either, is it?
Sarah: No, it's not. After I pay for rent and groceries, almost all my money goes to pay
for my son's day care.
Todd: Your college should provide free day care for students with children.
Sarah: I think so, too. But they don't have any services like that.
B. Listen to the rest of the conversation. What is Todd concerned about?
8. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Tag questions
* Affirmative statement + negative tag
Health insurance is so expensive, Isn't it?
There are lots of criminals in the city, aren't there?
They should provide free day care, shouldn't they?
* Negative statement + affirmative tag
Child care isn't cheap either, is it?
There aren't enough police, are there?
You can't find affordable child care, can you?
Add tag questions to these statements. Then compare with a partner.
1. You can't escape advertising these days ...?
2. There aren't enough days in the week ...?
3. AIDS is a major medical threat ...?
4. It isn't easy to save money anymore, ...?
5. Sales tax should be abolished, ...?
6. Too many people are unemployed, ...?
9. PRONUNCIATION Intonation in tag questions
A. Listen and practice. Use falling intonation in tag questions when you are giving an
opinion and want to know if the other person agrees.
Homelessness is a terrible problem, isn't it? They should make gambling illegal,
shouldn't they?
B. Pair work Take turns reading the statements with tag questions from Exercise 8.
Give your own opinions when responding.
@p96
10. IT REALLY BUGS ME!
A. What are some things you feel strongly about in your school or city? Write six
statements with tag questions.
B. Group work Take turns reading your statements. Other students respond by giving
their opinions.
A: The food in the cafeteria is terrible, isn't it?
B: Yes, it is. They should get a new cook.
C: On the other hand, I like the hamburgers because ...
11. LISTENING
A. Listen to people giving their opinions about current issues in the news. What issues
are they talking about? Then listen again. What opinions do you hear for and against
each issue?
1. Issue
Opinions for
Opinions against
2. Issue
Opinions for
Opinions against
B. Group work What do you think about the issues in part A?
12. WRITING
A. Write two paragraphs about one of the topics in this unit that you feel strongly
about. In the first, give your opinion and two or three reasons to support it. In the
second, say what you think needs to be done.
(ex) I think a lot could be done to make our public schools more interesting for
students. Right now, there are not many after-school activities, and many of the school
buildings are run-down ...
I have a few improvements to suggest. I think a video room ought to be provided for
students to use when they have free time. This room could include both entertaining
video games and educational CD-ROMS ...
(Interchange 15) Setting the rules: What if you could make the rules? Turn to page IC-
20
B. Pair work Exchange compositions. Does the first paragraph give reasons to support
the opinion? Does the second paragraph say what needs to be done? Do you agree with
your partner's opinion and suggestions? Why or why not?
@p97
13. READING
Habitat for humanity
Part of the solution
Look at the pictures. What social problem do you think Habitat for Humanity is helping
to solve?
Over 1 billion people lack adequate housing. These people are found in every country
of the world and, indeed, in almost every community. They live in huts made of sticks,
mud, cardboard, or metal; in some cases, they don't even have a roof over their heads.
The problem is huge. Does this mean there is nothing that can be done?
According to the people at Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI), there's plenty
that can be done. HFHI was founded in 1976 by Millard and Linda Fuller, millionaires
who decided their money could best be spent helping people. Since then, HFHI has
helped fix and build homes for tens of thousands of people in the United States and over
30 other countries.
A look at who builds these homes reveals a lot about HFHI Jimmy Carter, former U.S.
president, and his wife, Rosalynn, spend a week each year helping to build houses.
Evinor Mira, a 16-year-old high school student, recently helped to build houses for his
family and others in his community in Tepetitan, El Salvador.
HFHI believes that the homes should not be given as charity; instead, the organization
follows a system known as partnership housing: The people who will live in the homes,
like Evinor work together with volunteers on the construction and then gradually pay off
the basic cost of the homes. These payments, together with contributions, enable HFHI
to help other people.
By tackling the problem of inadequate housing, HFHI tackles other important social
problems as well. People who have decent homes are better able to manage in life and
to be productive members of society. And when homes are improved, neighborhoods
and communities can be improved, too.
A. Read the article. Check (V) True or False. For the false statements, give the
correct information.
1. There are some countries without housing problems.
2. Habitat for Humanity was founded in 1976.
3. Habitat for Humanity was founded by Jimmy and Rosolynn Carter.
4. HFHl has helped people in over 30 countries.
5. Partnership housing means that HFHI works with a government agency.
B. Group work Talk about these questions.
1. Why is housing such an important social issue?
2. In what other ways could the issue of inadequate housing be dealt with?
3. Do you think that individuals can make important contributions to solving social
problems? Why or why not?
@ff
@p98
@t:UNIT 16@e
UNIT 16. Challenges and accomplishments
1. SNAPSHOT
Three women who made a Difference
"The Saint of the Gutters"
Born: Agnes Gonxha Bojoxhiu in 1910
Died: Mother Teresa in 1997
Major contributions: set up projects around the world to give care and comfort to the
very poor and sick, and to children without parents
"Our Fair Lady"
Born: Edda van Heemstra Hepburn-Ruston in 1929
Died: Audrey Hepburn in 1993
Major contributions: worked as goodwill ambassador for UNICEF, calling attention to
starving children and raising money to help them
"The People's Princess"
Born: Lady Diana Spencer in 1961
Died: Diana, Princess of Wales, in 1997
Major contributions: used her fame to focus attention on worldwide problems such as
AIDS, drug addiction, and land mines (Source: People magazine)
Talk about these questions. What special qualities do you think these women had that
allowed them to make such far-reaching contributions? Who are three other people
whose lives made a difference? What did they do?
2. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Kurt: So, how long have you been in the Peace Corps?
Brenda: For about a year now.
Kurt: Do you enjoy it?
Brenda: Most of the time. The work can be extremely difficult, but it has its rewards.
Kurt: What's the most challenging thing about being in the Peace Corps?
Brenda: For me, it's finding a way to fit into a community that's very different from my
own. It can be frustrating!
Kurt: And what's the most rewarding thing?
Brenda: That's easy. The most rewarding thing about being in the Peace Corps is
learning about another culture.
B. Listen to the rest of the conversation. What else does Brenda find challenging about
her work? What else is rewarding?
@p99
3. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Complex noun phrases with gerunds
Notice how the complex noun phrases in these sentences function as subjects.
The most challenging thing about being In the Peace Corps is finding a way to fit into
the community.
The most rewarding thing about being in the Peace Corps is learning about another
culture.
A. Match the questions and responses.
Questions
1. What's one of the rewards of being a teacher? ...
2. What's one of the most difficult things about being a paramedic? ...
3. What's one of the best things about being a police officer? ...
4. What's one of the most interesting aspects of working abroad? ...
5. What's one of the most difficult aspects of doing volunteer work? ...
Responses
a. Dealing with life-or-death emergency situations every day.
b. Finding enough time to do it on a regular basis.
c. Learning how people in other cultures live and think.
d. Getting to know people from all parts of society.
e. Helping people learn things that they couldn't learn on their own.
B. Group work Write another response to each question in part A. Then take turns
asking and answering the questions in groups.
A: What's one of the rewards of being a teacher?
B: One of the rewards of being a teacher is helping people learn things that they
couldn't learn on their own.
C: I agree. Another reward of being a teacher is helping people improve their lives.
4. WORD POWER Antonyms
A. Find six pairs of opposites in this list. Complete the chart. Then compare with a
partner.
(interchage 16) Viewpoints: Take a survey about volunteering. Turn to page IC-21.
anxiety criticism failure joy praise punishment relaxation relief reward sadness
stress success
B. Pair work Think of three kinds of volunteer work in your community. What positive
and negative words come to mind when you think of each kind of work? Choose nouns
from the list above or use your own words.
@p100
5. LISTENING Challenges and rewards
Listen to these people talking about their work. What is the biggest challenge of each
person's job? the greatest reward?
1. psychologist: Biggest challenge
Greatest reward
2. camp counselor
3. firefighter
6. SPECIAL CHALLENGES
Group work What are the special challenges and rewards of working in these
situations? Would you ever consider working in one of these areas?
working with animals
teaching gifted children
volunteering in a home for the elderly
working for a nonprofit charity
A: I suppose the most challenging thing about working with animals is ...
B: But one of the rewards of working with animals must be ...
7. CONVERSATION
A. Listen and practice.
Grandfather: Happy birthday, Alison. So how does it feel to be 21?
Alison: Kind of strange. I suddenly feel a little anxious, like I'm not moving ahead fast
enough.
Grandfather: But don't you think you've accomplished quite a bit in the last few years?
Alison: Oh, I've managed to get good grades in all my courses, but I still haven't been
able to decide on a career.
Grandfather: Well, what do you hope you'll have achieved by the time you're 30?
Alison: For one thing, I hope I'll have seen more of the world. But more important than
that, I'd like to have made a good start on my career by then.
B. Class activity How similar are you to Alison? Are you satisfied with your
accomplishments so far? What do you want to accomplish next?
@p101
8 GRAMMAR FOCUS
Accomplishments
* In the past with the present ported or simple past
I've managed to get good grades in all my courses.
(I managed to ...)
I've been able to accomplish a lot in college.
(I was able to ...)
* In the future with the future ported or "would like to have" + post participle
What do you hope you'll have achieved?
I hope I'll have seen more of the world. I'd like to have made a good start on my
career.
A. What are some of your accomplishments from the last five years? What do you
hope to have accomplished in the next five years? Check (V) the statements that are
true for you. Then think of four more statements about yourself.
1 .I've learned some important life skills.
2. I've met the person who's right for me.
3. I was able to complete a milestone in my education.
4. I've made an important career move.
5. I'd like to have finished school.
6. I hope I'll have moved abroad.
7. I'd like to have bought my own home.
8. I expect to have paid off all my debts.
B. Group Work How many accomplishments do you have in common with other
members of your group? How many goals?
9. PRONUNCIATION Consonant blends
A. Listen and practice. Notice how the final t is blended in these expressions.
the last few years
the best thing
the next five years
the most difficult thing
B. Listen to these sentences and practice them. Pay attention to the blending of the
final t.
The best thing that happened to me in the last few years was meeting my partner.
The most difficult thing for me in the next five years will be deciding where to live.
C. Pair work Complete these sentences with information about yourself. Then practice
reading your statements with a partner.
The best thing that happened to me in the last few years was ...
The most difficult thing for me in the next few years will be ...
@p102
10. LISTENING
A. Listen to three young people discussing their plans for the future. What do they
hope to have achieved by the time they are 30?
1. Justin:
2. Sophia:
3. Rachel:
B. Pair Work Who do you think has the most realistic expectations?
11. WRITING
A. Write a composition about yourself. In the first paragraph, describe something
you've accomplished recently. In the second paragraph, describe something you hope
you will have accomplished within five years.
(ex) One thing I've managed to do in the last few years is to buy my own car. I used to
have to borrow my brother's car ... Finally, I decided to ...
Within five years, I hope I'll have gotten a big promotion at work. I've been working at
the same company for over two years now, and the boss likes my work. I plan to ...
B. Group work Exchange your compositions and compare.
Do you and your classmates have any similar accomplishments?
Do you think your classmates' expectations for the future are realistic?
@p103
12. READING
ADAM EZRA COHEN
Westinghouse Winner
Read the first paragraph. What do you think Adam is like? What do you think his plans
for the future might be?
Each year, the top high-school science students in the United States enter the
Westinghouse Science Talent Search. This contest is the most prestigious of its kind,
and it offers a $40,000 college scholarship as its top prize. Last year, with 1,652
students entering, the top prize was won by Adam Ezra Cohen, a 17-year-old senior
from New York City Adam won for his invention of an electrochemical paintbrush. This
-paintbrush" is an electronic circuit that prints tiny patterns on silicon surfaces-
patterns so tiny that 50 words would fit within the width of a human hair. If further
developed, the invention could be used to make powerful microchips for computers.
Impressive as this invention sounds, it's only one among many for Adam. He already
has 152 to his credit, including a computer cursor that users can move with their eyes.
Some people may have the idea that being a serious science student means being a
serious person with no interests other than science. If so, they haven't met Adam. He's
an outgoing young man who, on winning the prize, jumped in the air and hugged a judge.
And he's got a multitude of other interests, including hiking, ice-skating, soccer,
reading, and List but not least, collecting wild mushrooms. "H&s a delight," his father
"The only thing we says. have to watch is what he puts in our refrigerator - bottles
filled with blue A stuff and dried-up rats.
Yet science is obviously very important to Adam, and someday he may be important to
it. He's using his scholarship to study physics at Harvard and speaks of plans of
continuing on to a career as an inventor and researcher. Five Westinghouse winners
have gone on to win Nobel prizes. Perhaps one day Adam will, too.
A. Read the article. Then correct the paragraph below. Some sentences have more
than one mistake, and some can be corrected in more than one way.
(1) Ezra Adam Cohen is a 71-year-old who recently won the Nobel prize. (2) He also
plays soccer and collects baseball cards. (3) He used the $40,000 scholarship to study
biochemistry at New York University. (4) The invention for which he won was
impressive: a computer cursor that users can move with their toes. (5) But that's
nothing: He's already come up with 1,652 other inventions. (6) When he left home for
college, his family missed those live rats he was always putting in the refrigerator!
B. Group work Talk about these questions.
1. What personal characteristics and other factors make it possible for someone as
young as Adam to achieve so much?
2. Had you heard of the stereotype of "serious science students" discussed in the
article? Why do you think people have such fixed ideas?
@ff
@p104
@t:Review 13-16@e
REVIEW OF UNITS 13-16
1. I'VE OFTEN WONDERED
A. Group work Discuss these questions. How many different possibilities can you think
of? Then compare suggestions around the class.
How do you think ...? people paid for things before coins were used as money sailors in
ancient times knew where they were going people had fun before radio and TV were
invented people communicated before there was the telephone
B. Class activity As a group, make up a question like the ones in part A. What
suggestions can your classmates give?
Useful expressions: I guess they must have ...
Do you think they could have ...?
They might have ...
People may have ...
2. LISTENING Little events
A. Listen to four conversations about things that have happened. Complete the chart.
1. Where does the conversation take place?
What do you think might have happened?
2.
3.
4.
B. Pair work Talk about each event in part A. Use expressions like these:
It probably took place ...
They might have ...
She must have ...
He could have ...
3. FROM FIRST TO LAST
A. Group work Look at these topics. How many steps can you think of between the
first and last parts in each process?
Sending a letter
First, the letter is written ...
Finally, the letter is delivered to the person's mailbox.
Making a cup of tea
First, some water is boiled ...
Finally, the tea is poured from the teapot into the cup.
B. Class activity Compare your answers. Who has the most steps?
@p105
4. PROS AND CONS
A. Group work Think of three reasons for these ideas, and three reasons against each
idea. Then talk in groups. As a group, form an opinion for or against each idea.
paying teachers more when their students get high test scores putting warning labels
on rock albums that have violent lyrics imposing strict dress codes for students
A: What do you think about paying teachers more when their students get high test
scores?
B: Oh, I think it's a good idea. Teachers ought to be rewarded for good work.
C: I disagree. Teachers shouldn't be allowed ...
B. Class activity Share your group's opinions and reasons. Who has the most
persuasive reasons for or against each position?
5. LISTENING
Listen to people giving opinions and check (V) the correct responses.
1. Yes, it is. Yes, it was. Yes, you can.
2. Yes, they do. Yes, it does. Yes, they should.
3. Yes, it is. Yes, we do. Yes, it does.
4. Yes, it does. Yes, they are. Yes, you can.
5. No, you can't. No, they aren't. No, they don't.
6. No, they don't. No, it isn't. No, you can't.
6. BEST INTENTIONS
A. Group work Think of something you hope to accomplish in the future. What do you
think would be the most challenging thing about doing it? the most rewarding thing?
Take turns telling the group. Others ask follow-up questions.
A: I think the most challenging thing about hiking around the world would be finding
people you could trust.
B: How would you find people you could trust?
A: Well ...
B. Class activity Choose one of the things you hope to accomplish. Imagine you are
going to do that thing. Tell the class what you will hope to have learned by the time you
are done.
"By the time I finish hiking around the world, I hope I'll have learned ...
@ff
@pIC-2
@t:Activites@e
Interchange Activities
Interchange 1. PERSONALITY TYPES
A. Pair work What is your personality type? Take turns using this quiz to interview
each other. Then score your answers and find out which category best describes each
of you.
Personality Quiz
1. When you work on a big project, do you:
a. try to finish it as quickly as possible?
b. work at it over a long period of time?
c. put off finishing it as long as possible?
2. When you do something, do you:
a. try to do a first-class job so people Will notice?
b. do it as well as you can without worrying too much about it?
c. do only what you must to get it done?
3. When faced With a difficult challenge, do you:
a. look forward to facing it?
b. worry about whether you can deal with it?
c. avoid it, if at all possible?
4. Do you think the best way to get the most out of a day is to:
a. do as many things cis possible?
b. take your time to gel things done?
c. do only those things you really have to?
5. When something needs to be done, do you:
a. decide to do it yourself?
b. work with others to get it done?
c. offer to do it only if no one else will?
6. When something doesn't work out the way you want it to, do you:
a. get angry with yourself and others?
b. think calmly about what to do?
c. give up because it wasn't important anyway?
7. When people take a long time to get something done, do you:
a. get impotent and take over?
b. gently encourage them to get it done?
c. let them take their time?
8. If you compare your goals With your friends' goals, do you:
a. set out to do much better than they might?
b. hope that you and they can achieve similar things in life?
c. not care if they set higher goals for themselves than you do?
9. When people are late for appointments, do you:
a. get angry and stressed out?
b. remember that you are sometimes late, too?
c. not worry, because you are usually late, too?
10. When people are talking to you, do you:
a. not listen and think about other things?
b. listen and enter into the conversation?
c. Let them fake over and agree with everything they say?
11. When people are expressing their ideas and opinions, do you:
a. step in and give your own opinions?
b. listen and sometimes share your own ideas?
c. listen but not add your own opinions?
Scoring
Count up how many A, B and C answer your partner has. If there are ...
more A answer: This person is a superachiever.
more B answer: This person is the cool and steady type.
more C answer: This person is the easygoing or carefree type.
B. Group Work
Compare your scores. Then suggest four basic characteristics of each personality
type.
"The superachiever is the kind of person who ... He or she can't stand it when ..."
@pIC-3
Interchange 2. THE BEST AND THE WORST
A. Class activity
Go around the class and ask five people about their summer or part-time jobs. What
summer or part-time jobs have they had? What were they like? Complete the survey.
Name:
Job:
Job duties:
Good points:
Bad points:
A: What jobs have you had?
B: Well, I once had a job on a cruise ship.
A: What did you have to do?
B: I organized activities for the passengers.
A: What did you like about it?
B: Well, working on a cruise ship was terrific. I really enjoyed ...
A: Were there any bad points?
B: Oh, sure. Every job has its bad points. I didn't like ...
B. Group Work
Compare your surveys. Which classmate do you think had the most unusual job? the
best job? the worst job?
@pIC-4
Interchange 3. BORROWERS AND LENDERS
A. Look at these items. If you owned these items, which ones would you be willing to
lend to a friend? Which ones wouldn't you lend? Check V) a response for each item.
Make sure you check at least three items you "would rather not lend."
* motorcycle
wouldn't mind lending
would rather not lend
* surfboard
wouldn't mind lending
would rather not lend
* luggage
wouldn't mind lending
would rather not lend
* tent
wouldn't mind lending
would rather not lend
* beach house
wouldn't mind lending
would rather not lend
* ice-cream maker
wouldn't mind lending
would rather not lend
* electric guitar
wouldn't mind lending
would rather not lend
* umbrella
wouldn't mind lending
would rather not lend
* leather coat
wouldn't mind lending
would rather not lend
B. Class activity
Go around the class and take turns asking to borrow the things in part A. Say why you
need each item. Try to borrow everything. When responding, say if you are willing to
lend the item or not. If you won't lend something, give an excuse.
A: Would you mind lending me your beach house for the weekend? I have some friends
visiting me.
B: Um, sorry, I can't. I'm having the house painted. OR B: Sure. Just come over tonight
and get the key.
C. Class activity Who was able to borrow everything on the list?
@pIC-5
Interchange 4. A DOUBLE ENDING
Students A and B
A. Pair work Read the beginning and end of this story. What do you think happened
during the middle part of it? Complete the story.
Ken Passell was born in Columbus Ohio. He came from a large, working-class family.
His father worked in a flour mill, and his mother was a factory worker. When Ken was a
child, he was very good with his hands.
The Wedding was held in the biggest church in Los Angeles. Then Ken and Cindy left
on their private yacht for a honeymoon cruise to Baja, Mexico. When they return, they
will live in their 20-room mansion in Beverly Hills.
B. Group work
Tell your story to Students C and D and answer any questions they have. Then listen
to their story.
@pIC-6
Interchange 4. A DOUBLE ENDING
Students C and D
A. Pair work Read the beginning and end of this story. What do you think happened
during the middle part of it? Complete the story.
Ken Passell was born in Columbus, Ohio. He came from a large, working-class family.
His father worked in a flour mill, and his mother was a factory worker. When Ken was a
child, he was very good with his hands.
Ken and his wife, Cindy, were arrested last week in London. They had over $250,000
in cash in a suitcase, and Cindy was wearing over $100,000 in jewelry. Inspector Quinn
said, "This is one of the most bizarre cases I have ever been involved with."
B. Group Work Listen to Students A and B tell their story. Ask any questions you
want. Then tell them your story.
@pIC-7
Interchange 5. CULTURE CLASH
A. Pair work Look at these photos and the information about the United States and
Canada. Are the customs the same or different in your country? Give one or two pieces
of information about each event in your country.
You're supposed to kiss a friend at midnight on New Year's Eve.
When a child is born, the parents often give cigars to friends.
When you come back from a vacation, you're expected to bring small gifts for your
friend.
When a couple has an important anniversary(like the 50th), they sometimes renew
their wedding vows.
When a couple gets married, the bride's family usually pays for the reception.
When someone moves into moves into a new home, it's the custom to give a
"housewarming" gift.
B. Group work
Compare your information. Are your group's customs the same or different?
@pIC-8
Interchange 6. FIXER-UPPER
Student A
A. Look at this apartment. What's wrong with it? First, make a list of as many
problems as you can find with each room.
B. Pair work
Compare your lists. What are the similarities and differences in the problems
between your picture here and your partner's picture? Ask questions to find the
differences.
A: What's wrong in the living room?
B: Well, in my picture, the sofa has a hole in it. And the carpet.
A: Oh, really. In my picture, the sofa has a hole in it, but the carpet ... and the
wallpaper ...
@pIC-9
Interchange 6. FIXER-UPPER
Student B
A. Look at this apartment. What's wrong with it? First, make a list of as many
problems as you can find with each room.
B. Pair work Compare your lists. What are the similarities and differences in the
problems between your picture here and your partner's picture? Ask questions to find
the differences.
A: What's wrong in the living room?
B: Well, in my picture, the sofa has a hole in it. And the carpet.
A: Oh, really. In my picture, the sofa has a hole in it, but the carpet ... and the
wallpaper ...
@pIC-10
Interchange 7. COMMUNITY PLANNER
A. Group work
Imagine you are a member of an environmental protection committee in your local
town. You have to decide what to do about the following problems. Talk about each
problem and think of solutions for each one.
Many parks and sidewalks are littered with empty soda cans and bottles, especially
after the weekend.
Often, cats that end up in shelters have been abused or abandoned.
Many buildings downtown are being ruined by graffiti.
Car-repair shops have a lot of old car tires that need to be gotten rid of.
Buses, trucks, and other large vehicles are causing horrible traffic problems on the
highways during commuting hours.
Useful expressions: One thing to do about it is ...
Another way to help is ...
The best thing to do is ...
Why don't we ...?
B. Class activity Share your group's solutions for each problem.
@pIC-11
Interchange 8. LEARNING CURVES
A. Complete this chart with information about yourself.
two foreign languages I'd like to learn:
two musical instruments I'd like to learn to play:
two dances I'd like to learn:
two types of cuisine I'd like to learn how to cook:
two evening courses I'd like to take:
two sports I'd like to learn or start playing:
two skills that I'd like to improve:
B. Class Activity
Take a survey. Ask three classmates to choose between the things you wrote down in
part A. Ask for reasons.
foreign language:
musical instrument:
dance:
cuisine:
evening course:
sport:
skill:
A: Would you rather learn Portuguese or Turkish?
B: Hmm. I guess I'd rather learn Portuguese.
A: Why Portuguese?
B: Well, I visited Portugal last summer. I'd love to go back and be able to speak the
language.
C. Pair work Compare with a partner. Which of your choices got the most responses?
Why?
@pIC-12
Interchange 9 KEEPING UP APPEARANCES
A. Group Work
Look at these problems that teenagers sometimes have. Think of three more problems
that teenagers are often concerned about.
How can you ...?
get rid of pimples
make a good impression on a first date
make your allowance go further
save money on clothes
get better grades in school
Three more problems
B. Group work
Take turns making suggestions for the problems in the pictures and on your list.
A: How can you get rid of pimples?
B: Maybe you could ...
C: Or it might be a good idea to ...
D: Have you thought about ... ?
C. Class activity Share your group's suggestions for each problem.
@pIC-13
Interchange 10. HISTORY BUFF
Student A
A. Pair work
Ask your partner these questions. Put a check (V) if your partner gives the correct
answer. (The correct answers are in bold.)
the 1992 Barcelona Olympics
Michelangelo's David
Marilyn Monroe
Test your Knowledge
1. Was Julius Caesar emperor of Athens, Rome, or Constantinople?
2. What did Thomas Edison invent in 1879: the television, the telephone, or the
lightbulb?
3. In which year did Mexico gain its independence? Was it in 1721, 1821, or 1921 ?
4. Where were the 1992 Olympics held? Were they in Los Angeles, Barcelona, or
Tokyo?
5. When did World War I take place? Was it from 1898 to 1903, or from 1911 to 1915,
or from 1914 to 1918?
6. Who sculpted the famous statue of David? Was it Leonardo da Vinci, Auguste
Bartholdi, or Michelangelo?
7. What was the name of the first space shuttle launched by the United States? Was it
Columbia, Voyager, or Challenger?
8. When were the first CDs put on the market? Was it in 1963, 1973, or 1983?
9. What was the actress Marilyn Monroe's real name? Was it Norma Jean Baker, Mary
Lou Dreyer, or Billy Jean Monkton?
10. Was Cleopatra the queen of Rome, Egypt, or Greece?
B. Pair work
Answer the questions your partner asks you. Then compare quizzes. Who has more
correct answers?
C. Class activity Think of three more questions of your own. Can the rest of the class
answer them?
@pIC-14
Interchange l0. HISTORY BUFF
Student B
A. Pair work
Answer the questions your partner asks you.
B. Pair work Ask your partner these questions. Put a check (V) if your partner gives
the correct answer. (The correct answers are in bold.) Then compare quizzes. Who has
the most correct answers?
Sally Ride
Volkswagen Bug
Albert Einstein
Test your knowledge
1. When did the Wright brothers make their first airplane flight? Was it in 1903, 1923,
or 1933?
2. Who was the first American woman in space? Was it Stella Quinn, Sally Ride, or
Sylvia Warren?
3. When did Walt Disney make his first cartoon movie? Was it in 1920, 1938, or 1947?
4. In which century did the composer Mozart live? Was it the seventeenth, eighteenth,
or nineteenth century?
5. Who was the novel Frankenstein written by? Was it Jane Austen, John Keats, or
Mary Shelley?
6. Who discovered penicillin? Was it Alexander Fleming, Marie Curie, or Albert
Einstein?
7. When was the first Volkswagen Bug car built? Was it during the 1920s, the 1930s,
or the 1940s?
8. Who used the first magnetic compass? Was it the Americans, the Chinese, or the
Dutch?
9. When did the British return Hong Kong to China? Was it in 1995, 1996, or 1997?
10. Was the theory of relativity created by Albert Einstein, Charles Darwin, or Isaac
Newton?
C. Class activity Think of three more questions of your own. Can the rest of the class
answer them?
@pIC-15
Interchange 11. IF ONLY ...
A. Complete this survey with information about yourself Think of reasons for your
answers.
1. If you had been born as a famous person, who would you be?
2. If you had been born in a different century, what century would you choose?
3. If you could have chosen your own name, what would it be?
4. If you had been born in a different country, what country would you choose?
5. If you could change one thing about your appearance, what would you change?
6. If you had been born as a famous musician, who would you like to be?
7. If you were an animal, What animal would you choose to be?
8. If you had had the chance to be in a movie, what movie would you have been in?
B. Class activity
Go around the class and compare your surveys. Ask follow-up questions of your own.
A: If you had been born as a famous person, who would you be?
B: I'd be Whoopi Goldberg.
A: Really? Why?
B: Because she's really funny. She always makes me laugh.
@pIC-16
Interchange12. A PICTURE'S WORTH A THOUSAND WORDS
A. Group work Look at these pictures from advertisements. What do you think of each
photo? Talk about how you think each photo affects you and the kind of message it
gives.
A: The reason I like the first photo is that it's a powerful image.
B: Yes. It makes you stop and look closer. What do you think?
C: Well, actually, I ...
@p IC-17
B. Group work What do you think each photo is advertising? Give reasons for your
answers. (The answers are in the appendix at the back of the book.)
Useful expressions: This is probably advertising ...
It could be from an ad for ...
I wonder if it's an ad for ...
I bet it's used in ... ads.
@pIC-18
Interchange 13. PHOTO PLAYS
A. Pair work Look at these pictures. What do you think happened in each situation?
First, talk about possibilities for each picture. Then prepare a short description of each
event.
Useful expressions: Maybe he/she was ... When ...
Or perhaps he/she was ...
He/She may have ... When ...
He/She might have ...
(ex) The groom may have been on his way to the church when he realized that he had
forgotten the ring. While he was driving book home to get it, he could have been
stopped for speeding. Perhaps he didn't have his wallet or driver's license with him, so
the police arrested him, and that's why he bride is waiting at the altar.
B. Group work Share your stories and interpretations. Do you agree or disagree with
your classmates? Choose the best story for each picture and read it to the class.
@pIC-19
Interchange 14. WHO MAKES IT HAPPEN?
A. Pair work Choose one of these businesses. What kinds of people does it take to run
that place? Make a list of as many different jobs as you can for the business you chose.
a restaurant
a dance club
a clothing store
B. Pair work
Describe what each person you identified in part A does. What kinds of responsibilities
does each person have?
A: OK, first, let's talk about the chef.
B: So, the chef is the person who sets the menus.
A: Yes. And he's also the person who prepares the meals ...
C. Class activity Compare your information. Which pair thought of the most people for
the business they chose?
@pIC-20
Interchange 15. SETTING THE RULES
A. Pair work
What kinds of rules do you think should be made about each of these things? (Have
fun! Don't make your rules too serious.)
apartment buildings: When someone moves into an apartment, they should be required
to introduce themselves to everyone in the building.
pets
school
restaurants
shopping malls
B. Class activity Go around the class and compare your rules. Who has ideas for the
most unusual rules? What does the rest of the class think of them?
A: I think when someone moves into an apartment, they should be required to
introduce themselves to everyone in the building.
B: Why?
A: That way everyone in the building would know everyone else. You'd feel safer. And
you could say hello to people when you pass them in the hall.
@pIC-21
Interchange 16. VIEWPOINTS
A. Complete this survey with information about yourself.
What do you think?
1. Do You support charities?
regularly
from time to time
not right now
other:
2. Would you like to spend time working In a developing country?
Yes. It would be an interesting experience.
Maybe when I'm a lot older.
No. That's definitely not for me.
other:
3. What's the best way of raising money to support charities?
through donations
through taxes
through special fund-raising activities
other:
4. Who do you think has the greatest responsibility to help the poor?
the government
all citizens
the poor themselves
other:
5. What is the best way of reducing poverty?
through education
by creating more jobs
through population control
other:
6. Which 'of these things are you most concerned about?
the environment
crime and safety
unemployment
other:
7. Which of these kinds of volunteer work would you prefer!
helping the elderly
helping the poor
helping the sick
other:
8. What advice would you give to someone who wanted to do volunteer work?
Go for it! It's one of the most rewarding things you can do.
Be selective about w ho you decide to work for
Don't do it. It's a waste of time.
other:
B. Pair work
Compare your responses. Do you and your partner have similar viewpoints?
C. Class activity
Take a class poll. What choice was the most popular for each question? Talk about any
"other" responses people added.
@ff
@pS-2
@t:Summaries@e
Unit Summaries
Unit Summaries contain lists of key vocabulary and functional expressions, as well as
grammar extensions for each unit. For Grammar Focus models, please refer to the
appropriate unit page.
1. THAT'S WHAT FRIENDS ARE FOR!
KEY VOCABULARY
Nouns
People: boss (best) friend guy parent partner person roommate spouse
Other: accomplishment ad appointment argument belief compliment
conversationalist date gum housework mind party problem quality sense of humor
view(= opinion)
Pronouns
all anyone nothing one others someone something yourself
Adjectives
Personalities: ambitious cool direct easygoing egotistical generous high-strung
honest independent modes moody opinionated patient (un)reliable rude serious
sociable stingy
Other: depressed different (from) disgusting easy fun ideal interested irritating
mad other perfect similar (to) straightforward strong upset
Verbs
Modals: can/could will/would
Other: arrange arrive chew criticize embarrass enjoy express find get (along
[with]/angry/annoyed) go out (with) have (a sense of humor/in common) hope look
for make (a big deal) steal take out treat trust upset worry
Adverbs
actually completely easily especially even (more) fairly just (= exactly) pretty
still yet
Prepositions
during (a movie) like
Conjunctions
when while
Interjection
right
EXPRESSIONS
* Expressing likes and dislikes
What kind of ... do you like?
I like people who/that ...
I'd prefer someone who/that ...
I like/love (it when) ...
I'd really like to ...
I don't mind it when ...
* Asking for more information
What else?
* Complaining
I can't stand it when ...
I think it's disgusting when ...
It bothers me when ...
I hate it when ...
* Making an offer
Let me ...
* Expressing agreement and disagreement
For me, .../I think ...
I agree./I'm not sure I agree.
I feel the same way.
* Expressing approval
Oh, good.
Great!
GRAMMAR EXTENSION Someone/somebody and anyone/anybody
* Someone/Somebody are usually used in affirmative sentences, and anyone/anybody
are usually used in negative sentences.
I want to go out with someone who has a good sense of humor.
I don't want to go out with anyone who doesn't have a good sense of humor.
* In questions, anyone/anybody are usually used.
Have you been out with anybody nice lately?
* Someone/Somebody are sometimes used when the answer is expected to be "yes."
Would you like to go out with somebody nice?
@pS-3
2. CAREER MOVES
KEY VOCABULARY
Nouns
Jobs/Occupations/Careers: (secret) agent archaeologist artist assistant astronaut
author baby-sitter chef counselor director dog walker (hiking trail) guide (dance)
instructor intern journalist landscaper (criminal) lawyer lifeguard movie star
(telephone) operator (house) painter park ranger politician tour guide tutor
Places: amusement park (summer) camp company construction site museum
(movie) set (cruise) ship (movie) theater
Other: (dis)advantage animal children computer couple (of) (the) elderly event
hour Internet interview landscaping (job) lead life magazine media money news
newspaper orchestra popcorn (medical) research situation (public) speaking
summer tan TV world
Pronouns
anybody anything nothing
Adjectives
awful boring challenging dangerous difficult exciting famous fantastic fascinating
freelance great hard important interactive interesting nerve-racking part-time
physically challenged rewarding wealthy
Verbs
Modals: have to must
Other: choose conduct cover design direct earn get to have got pay save seem
sell sound travel
Adverbs
again kind of many more (all) over probably
Conjunctions
as but
EXPRESSIONS
* Asking for and giving an opinion
What do you think?
As far as I'm concerned ...
How about this/that?
In my opinion, .../It seems/sounds ...
Doesn't that sound ...?
It sure does.
* Adding information
In addition, ...
Further, ...
On the other hand, ...
For example, ...
* Expressing surprise
Really?
Are you kidding?
* Expressing enthusiasm
Wow!
God news!
That's great!
* Making a suggestion
Let's ...
GRAMMAR EXTENSION Parallel structures
* Structures joined by and, but, or or must have the same grammatical forms.
I like to work (infinitive) with people and to solve (infinitive) problems.
I like working (gerund) with people and solving (gerund) problems.
He can't decide if he should study law (noun) or medicine.(noun)
He can't decide if he should go (base-form verb) to college or find (base-form verb) a
job.
* Comparative structures must also have the same grammatical forms.
A landscaper (singular noun) earns more than a lifeguard(singular noun).
Lifeguards (plural noun) don't earn as much as landscapers.(plural noun)
Landscaping (gerund) is better paid than lifeguarding.(gerund)
@pS-4
3. COULD YOU DO ME A FAVOR?
KEY VOCABULARY
Nouns
airport (mountain) bike (video) camera CD (player) desk dollar espresso fax
machine laptop library jacket (phone) number pencil ride suit (bow) tie tire trip
wedding weekend
Adjectives
broke busy careful flat free(= not busy) late nice underwater whole
Verbs
accept borrow bring compliment decline deny(an accusation/permission/a
problem/yourself) dive drive finish get(home) give have(a party) lend look at
make (an impression/ a comment) need offer(an apology/an explanation/a gift/a
reason) pick up promise read receive (an apology/a compliment/a gift/ an
invitation/permission/a phone call/a request) refuse (a favor/a gift/an invitation/an
offer/a phone call) reject return(a compliment/a favor/a gift/a phone call) sit take
back try (to) use videotape
Adverbs
before out tomorrow tonight
Prepositions
at (five) behind (me) on (Saturday)
Interjections
all right by the way gee of course uh-huh um yeah
EXPRESSIONS
* Talking on the telephone
Hi, ... This is ...
Oh, hi, ... What's up?
* Leaving telephone messages
Hello?
Hello. May I speak to ..., please?
I'm sorry, ...'s not in right now.
Would you like to leave a message?
Yes, please.
* Making, accepting, and declining requests
Could you please ...?
I'd like to, but .../I'd be glad to.
Is it OK if I ...?
Of course.
Do you mind if I ...?
Go right ahead!/I'm sorry, but ...
Would it be OK if I ...?
Fine. No problem.
Would you mind if I ...?
That's OK, I guess.
I wonder if ...
Sure, that's fine.
I was wondering if you'd mind ...
Not at all.
* Thanking someone
Thanks a million./Thanks!
Sure.
* Making indirect requests
Could you tell ... (that) ...?
Would you ask ... to ...?
Can you tell ... (not) to ...?
Can/Could you ask ... if/whether ...?
Please ask ... if/whether ...
Can/Could you ask ... what/when ...?
* Apologizing
Oh, I'm sorry.
GRAMMAR EXTENSION Possessives to modify gerunds
* A possessive noun or pronoun is used to modify a gerund(verb + ~ing used as a
noun).
Would you mind my borrowing your car?
I was wondering if you'd mind our using your swimming pool while you're gone.
Most teachers don't like their students' using classmates' notes.
Dan got angry at Mary's asking to borrow his comb.
@pS-5
4. WHAT STORY!
KEY VOCABULARY
Nouns
Events: coincidence disaster emergency lucky break misfortune mystery
predicament triumph
Other: achievement alien ambulance (job) Applicant bank boat bus card chimney
coast copy couple crew destruction diver (revolving) door doorbell driver
elevator eye (pet) fair foot flight floor freeway gas girl friend gold(bar) help
highway illusion key letter (driver's) license light locker mailbox man million
motorist pain passenger pilot pizza plane police (coral) reef robbery shipwreck
shock sky snake story stuff success surprise thief town trouble trunk turbulence
twin wallet whale yacht
Pronoun
each other
Adjectives
all another apart bad connected first half identical lucky puzzling quick random
same strange sudden true understood unfavorable unexplained year-old
Verbs
modal: be able to
Other: believe break into carry come back contain cross discover drop encounter
end escape film fine fly forget get(caught/locked out/stuck) get in/out guess head
for hi involve leave let light up (un) lock lose mail make(a phone call/an
announcement) miss open pick up put reach require rescue reunite ring rob run
out (of) sail settle down shop sink speed start up stop take off work out
Adverbs
about after ago around away finally hardly just luckily only quite separately
somewhat suddenly
Prepositions
off through
Conjunction
even though
EXPRESSIONS
* Reacting to a story
What happened?
Is that true?
Don't tell me!
* Expressing concern
Oh no!
* Sympathizing
I'm sorry. That's terrible!
* Exclaiming
What a (pain/...)!
* Agreeing
Exactly.
GRAMMAR EXTENSION Past perfect
* Use the past perfect to express an activity that was finished before another activity
or time in the past.
The plane had already taken off when the pilot realized there was a problem. = First,
the plane took off. Then the pilot realized there was a problem.
* When before or after appears in the sentence, the simple past can often be used
instead of the past perfect.
The plane took off(or had taken off) before the pilot realized there was a problem.
After the plane took off(or had taken off), the pilot realized there was a problem.
@pS-6
5. CROSSING CULTURES
KEY VOCABULARY
Nouns
birthday cooking concern country custom dessert dog expense family father
flower food gift hospital host hotel houseguest language mom relative service
shrine temple tip while
Pronouns
ones oneself
Adjectives
Feelings anxious calm (un)comfortable confident curious embarrassed
enthusiastic fascinated nervous secure sure(of oneself) suspicious uncertain
worried
Other: all right far (from) foreign new OK only
Verbs
Modal: might
Other: check(with) dress eat out expect feel get(engaged) have (a baby) hug
keep(in mind) kiss marry mention move plan realize remember share smoke stay
take(photographs) thank
Adverbs
a little abroad along also appropriately certainly early ever maybe (the) most
never there
Prepositions
by (bus/train) for (a while /example) in (public) near without
Interjection
wow
EXPRESSIONS
* Expressing emotions
I don't think I could ever ...
I don't think I'd mind ...
* Asking for permission
Is it all right to ...?
* Describing expectations
You're supposed to ...
You aren't supposed to ...
You're expected to ...
It's the custom to ...
It's not acceptable to ...
* Giving advice/Emphasizing a point
One of the most important things to remember is ...
Another thing to keep in mind is ...
One thing people don't often realize is ...
* Telling someone something surprising
Guess what!
* Expressing an opinion/a feeling
Oh, how (nice/awful/...)
GRAMMAR EXTENSION Noun phrases with where
* Where can be used in a relative clause referring to a place. If where is used, the
preposition (in, to, ect.) is dropped.
Argentina is a country where I'd like to live. = Argentina is a country that I'd like to
live in.
Argentina is a country where I'd like to go. = Argentina is a country that I'd like to go
to.
@pS-7
6. WHAT'S WRONG WITH IT?
KEY VOCABULARY
Nouns
Appliances: air conditioner central heating electric blanket fan food processor hair
dryer iron oven refrigerator stove telephone television washing machine
Other: apartment back bedroom blade burn button carpet CD chip clothes collar
control crack credit curtain damage dent dial tone fountain pen gas hole jacket
jeans kitchen lamp shade leak lightbulb (jacket) lining living room pair (of) pitcher
place receipt refund scratch shirt stain sunglasses tablecloth tear temperature
tenant vase vegetable wall wastebasket water window wood
Pronoun
everything
Adjectives
Past participles: chipped cracked damaged dented (well) made scratched stained
torn worn
Other: clean dull freezing (cold) high next loose
Verbs
afford burn buy chop come off cook cool down drain empty exchange fix heat
up leak notice paint point out repair replace return shampoo show smell soak
turn on understand wash work (= function)
Adverbs
even (when) over right away/now
Conjunction
though
EXPRESSIONS
* Offering help
Can I help you?/What can I do for you?
I'd like ...
* Describing problems
Is there something the matter with it?/What's wrong with it?
It's torn/stained/damaged/scratched/cracked/chipped/worn.
What exactly is the problem?
It has a tear/a hole/a stain/some damage.
There are a lot of scratches.
There's a crack.
It's leaking./It has a leak.
* Speaking truthfully about a problem
Well, to be honest, ...
* Expressing a preference
I'd rather ...
* Beginning a series of things
First of all, ...
* Adding information
In fact, .../..., in fact.
GRAMMAR EXTENSION Compound adjectives
* Past participles are often made into compound adjectives by adding well, badly, or
half. Sometimes these compounds are written with a hyphen, and sometimes they are
two separate words.
With well
* Use a hyphen when the adjective comes before the noun, but not when it follows the
noun.
This well-made chair comes from the Philippines.
Most chairs from the Philippines are very well made.
With badly
* Never use a hyphen with an adverb ending in -ly +adjective.
Why are they selling such badly scratched furniture?
This furniture is badly scratched.
With half
* Always use a hyphen with half-compounds.
These half-chopped vegetables came out of the food processor.
The vegetables came out of the food processor only half-chopped.
@pS-8
7. THE WORLD WE LIVE IN
KEY VOCABULARY
Nouns
world problems: acid rain (skin) cancer crime drug trafficking drunk driving
dumping famine global warming government corruption (the) homeless incurable
disease inflation overcrowding overfishing political unrest pollution poverty
unemployment
The earth: air coal farm(land) fish (rain) forest lake ocean oil ozone layer plant
river soil wildlife
Other: accident amount automobile bottle case center CFC chemical city
company contribution executive factory garbage government growth hair spray
health housing landfill law livestock management member paper product program
publicity quality reduction run (a story) school (TV) station supply training
transportation trash uncle use waste way
Adjectives
agricultural educational free huge illegal industrial major old protective public
rare terrific top underground unemployed
Verbs
become build clean up contaminate control create cut down deplete develop
dispose (of) eat up ignore improve increase lessen lower pollute pump recycle
reduce ruin think about threaten work on
Adverb
outside
Prepositions
against (the law) as a result of because of due to into on(the street)
EXPRESSIONS
* Describing problems
The ... are being ... by ...
(The) ... is being ... because of/due to ...
The have been...through ...
(The) ... has been...as a result of ...
* Offering solutions
One thing to do about it is to ...
Another way to stop them is to ...
The best way to help is to ...
* Talking about what will happen
What if ...?
Well, then ...
* Identifying something
What's the name of ...?
It's called ...
* Getting someone's attention
Excuse me.
* Expressing approval/disapproval
I think what you're doing is ...
* Expressing a regret
I wish I could ...
GRAMMAR EXTENSION Present continuous of be
* The continuous is used mainly for deliberate actions, so the verb be is rarely used in
the continuous. Here are some exceptions.
In passive sentences
The ozone layer is being depleted.
With certain adjectives to imply that the subject is acting in this way
Companies are being irresponsible when they dump dangerous wastes into our water.
(=They're acting irresponsibly.)
That country is being careless with its forests and rivers. (= It's acting carelessly.)
@pS-9
8. LEARNING TO LEARN
KEY VOCABULARY
Nouns
Community college courses: art auto repair carpentry literature music appreciation
(landscape) photography poetry religion science video
Language learning: accent dialog grammar idiom pronunciation translation
vocabulary writing(skills)
Personal qualities: artistic appreciation communication skills competitiveness
concern for others cooperation courtesy creativity perseverance self-confidence
tolerance
Other: catalog choir cookbook craft dancer equipment guitar hobby ingredient
(musical) instrument knowledge mother motorcycle piece (of paper) play recipe
short story shower (job) skill software (program) sport tape tutor type (of) violin
word
Pronouns
either ourselves
Adjectives
daytime evening expensive fresh native private right(= correct) shy useful warm
Verbs
attempt attend dance have got hire join learn (about) perform play provide
register (for) ride sign up (for) sing sleep spend (money) stick study take (a
class/a course [on]) volunteer
Adverbs
correctly fast
Prepositions
at (night) in (class/the day) on (= about)
EXPRESSIONS
* Asking about preferences
Would you rather ... or ...?
I'd rather (not) ...
Would you prefer to ... or ...?
(I think) I'd prefer ... to ...
I'd prefer(to) ...
Do you want to ...?
I'd rather not .../I'd prefer not to.
* Asking for personal information
How's (your French class/...) going?
Not bad.
* Talking about learning methods
You could ... by ...
That's a good idea.
I ... by ...
Maybe I should try that!
A good way to ... is by ...
* Admitting something
To tell you the truth, ...
GRAMMAR EXTENSION Would rather
* When you talk about what you want to do, the structure is would rather + base form
of the verb.
I'd rather study at home than go to the library.
* When you talk about what you want someone else to do, use would rather + simple
past.
Note that the meaning is still present or future.
Would you rather your daughter went to college or found a job?
I'd rather she went to college, but I'd rather that she didn't go too far away.
Do you mind if I open the window?
I'd rather you didn't
@pS-10
9. SELF-IMPROVEMENT
KEY VOCABULARY
Nouns
Occupations: car detailer fortune-teller genealogist headhunter hypnotherapist
interior designer party planner personal shopper photographer
Other: advice bookstore celebration ceremony chat room checkup clothing
commuter concentration dating service decoration dress fingernail fitness fortune
gas station grocery habit history horoscope hypnosis level (shopping) mall
marriage meal meditation memory muscle night palm personal ad phone book
photo sandwich shyness smoke soda stomach swimming pool temper vending
machine watch wife
Pronoun
mine
Adjectives
Feelings: frustrated happy tired
Other: active future medical professional psychological reasonable single
Verbs: argue check (out) clean control deliver exercise get (in shape) list
organize overcome overeat polish predict push(oneself) quit relax serve trace
train treat
Adverb
socially
Prepositions
a (minute) by (television) for ($3.75) over (the [tele]phone)
EXPRESSIONS
* Talking about things you need to have done
Do you know where I can have someone ...?
You can have .../You can get ... to ...
Do you know where I can have ...?
You can have/get ...
* Asking for and giving advice
What can I do?
What about ...?
Have you thought about ...?
Why don't you ...?
Maybe you could ...
One thing you could do is (to) ...
It might be a good idea to ...
* Replying to advice
That/s not a bad idea.
Actually, I've tried that.
* Urging someone to do something
Come on.
* Expressing frustration
This has got to stop!
GRAMMAR EXTENSION Word order in passive causatives
* When we talk about things we want someone else to do for us, we use the structure
have something done. Notice that the past participle comes after the object.
You can have(have) your car(object) fixed(past participle) at Joe's Garage.
Do you think I should have(have) my(object) hair cut(past participle)?
@pS-11
10. THE PAST AND THE FUTURE
KEY VOCABULARY
Nouns
Events: assassination catastrophe demonstration discovery expedition exploration
explosion invention revolution transformation
Space travel/exploration: launch moon satellite shuttle takeoff
Other: answer band century composer creation discrimination existence (public)
figure hand human ice cap jail keyboard leader minister music polio population
president quiz rock('n' roll) segregation singer thought vaccination vaccine voice
command
Pronouns
everyone none
Adjectives
advanced amazing cellular coastal correct false peaceful polar popular powerful
respected together
Verbs
age be born begin climb come down come out (with) fit hear about kill knight
land lead melt occur participate (in) prevent recognize shoot take (time) take over
translate transmit
Adverbs
fairly not ever perfectly recently so far together up
Prepositions
above around (the world) for (44 years) in (existence/1989) to (jail) within (20
years)
EXPRESSIONS
* Talking about historical events
When did ... begin?
During the ...s./In the ...s/About ... years ago.
How long was the ...?
From ... to .../For ... years.
How long has the ... been in existence?
Since .../For about the last ... years./For over ... years.
* Talking about the future
They're coming out with ...
It will be able to ... You won't need to ...
* Saying you do something well
I'm good at ...
* Offering to solve a problem
Let me give it a try.
* Making a prediction
Computers are going to take over our lives one of these days.
Soon everyone will be using ...
Within ... years, they will have found a way for us to ...
By then, maybe even ... will have disappeared.
I bet ...
* Expressing an opinion
Isn't it(great/...)!
* Expressing and agreeing with an opinion
I don't believe ...
I don't either.
GRAMMAR EXTENSION Future continuous
* Use the future continuous to say someone will be in the middle of doing something at
a certain time in the future.
Next year I'll be in college. I'll probably be studying night and day.
* Also use the future continuous to talk about things that are already planned.
I haven't seen you in years. How will I recognize you?
I'll be wearing a big orange hat.
I'll be going to the mall later. Do you need anything?
Will you be having dinner with us tonight?
No, I'll be working until late.
@pS-12
11. LIFE'S LITTLE LESSONS
KEY VOCABULARY
Nouns
bank account business child decision degree economics goal high school
importance kid paycheck pet promotion regret relationship teenager turning point
value
Pronoun
myself
Adjectives
Behavior: ambitious argumentative carefree immature naive rebellious selfish
sensible sophisticated tolerant
Other: hard overweight own practical young
Verbs
appreciate change find out get (sick) go back graduate major (in) make (friends)
save (money) take care (of) tend (to) think of
Adverbs
not ... anymore part time
Preposition
at (this job)
EXPRESSIONS
* Describing yourself in the past
By the time I was in high school, ...
The moment I got my first job, ...
Before I had my first job, ...
Once you have a job, ...
After I finished high school, ...
As soon as I graduated, ...
Until you graduate, ...
* Describing regrets about the past
I should have .../I shouldn't have ...
* Describing hypothetical situations
If I had ..., I would have ...
If I had ..., I wouldn't be ...
* Asking for clarification
What do you mean?
* Asking about someone
What does ... do?
He's/She's a(n) ...
GRAMMAR EXTENSION Wish to express regrets about the past
* Wish is often used with could have + past participle or the past perfect (had + past
participle) to say that you regret something that happened or didn't happen in the past
(would have is not usually used after wish.)
I wish (that) I could have traveled more.
Do you ever wish (that) you had learned to play a musical instrument?
I wish (that) we hadn't had to spent so much time in school.
@pS-13
12. THE RIGHT STUFF
KEY VOCABULARY
Nouns
Businesses: (clothing) boutique coffee bar dance club discount clothing store hair
salon health club megastore music store sporting goods store supermarket
Other: advertising airline chef choice concept decor entrepreneur fast food
feature gimmick lighting location mustache price reason record (calculated) risk
safety sort (of) style wait
Adjectives
Qualities for success: athletic cheap clever dynamic entertaining excellent friendly
hard-working informative intelligent patient persuasive tough
Other: brand new crowded favorite fit funny(= strange) "hip" "in" latest low
modern packed profitable risky special talented
Verbs
attract come up (with) keep up (with) last maintain print save (time) succeed
teach
Adverbs
absolutely anyway anywhere generally worldwide
EXPRESSIONS
* Describing the purpose of something
In order to ..., you need to ...
(In order) for a/an ... to ..., it has to ...
To ..., it's a good idea to ...
* Describing features
A nice thing about ... is the ...
Another nice thing is that ...
* Giving reasons
I like ... because ...
It's so popular because of the ...
The reason people ... is to ...
* Hypothesizing
I think it might ...
This could be ...
* Enumerating considerations
There are three things to consider: First of all, ...
Next, ... Finally ...
* Accepting an invitation
I thought you'd never ask!
GRAMMAR EXTENSION Expressing opposition
* Words like because express cause or reason; other words show opposition or
contrast.
With adverb clauses
Even though he's worked very hard, his restaurant is a failure.
Although the prices are reasonable, people don't like the place.
Though it's in a great location, the restaurant has very few customers.
With prepositions
His restaurant is a failure despite his hard work.
People don't like the place in spite of the reasonable prices.
The restaurant has very few customers regardless of the great location.
@pS-14
13. THAT'S A POSSIBILITY.
KEY VOCABULARY
Nouns
Points of view: assumption conclusion criticism excuse prediction suggestion
warning
Other: anniversary answering machine boyfriend casino diet engagement field
invitation laughter leash locksmith pajamas rabbit radio raise ring road rose tow
truck walk
Pronouns
both themselves
Adjectives
close inconsiderate open pleased
Verbs
advise break down break off break up burst(into laughter) carry catch (a bus)
dent explain fight fire get married have (on one's mind) invite run after rush show
up sleepwalk turn up wake up
Adverbs
alone only simply slowly today yesterday
Preposition
on(a diet/the road)
Conjunction
however
EXPRESSIONS
* Expressing curiosity
I wonder what happened.
* Asking for and telling time
What time is it now?
It's ...
* Offering to do something
Why don't I ...?
* Saying you can't be exact
... or something.
* Expressing approval of someone's action
... did the right thing.
GRAMMAR EXTENSION Past modals
* Past modals (modal + have + past participle) can be used to express many different
ideas.
Advisability
I'm exhausted. I shouldn't have watched that movie on TV. I should have gone to bed
after the news.
Impossibility
Where's my umbrella? I didn't take it to work today, so I couldn't have left it there.
Uncertainty (less than 50% certainty)
Where could Joe be? do you think he could have/might have/may have forgotten all
about our date?
Expectation (90 certainty)
She studied really hard, so she should have/ought go have done well on her exams.
Assumption(95% certainty)
It's cold in here. Someone must have forgotten to close the window.
@pS-15
14. BEHIND THE SCENES
KEY VOCABULARY
Nouns
Movies: action actor angle costume critic director angle costume critic detail
director editor film location outline review scene screen script set shot special
effect studio take treatment
Multimedia: camera operator computer programmer foreign correspondent gossip
columnist graphic designer media specialist on-call technician photo editor
sportswriter stunt person webpage designer
Other: aspect assistant box budget (rock) concert fashion show foot (talk show)
host industry journalism knowledge magic show millions (of) order publishing
stage stagehand talent scout thousands (of) tycoon (TV) show (TV) sitcom (=
situational comedy)
Pronoun
several
Adjectives
common final full live main mechanical ready sarcastic
Verbs
add appear complete compose distribute divide expand get to handle interview
pick prepare rehearse research saw (in half) select shoot (a [movie] scene) stand
in (for) stick out write out
Adverbs
as soon as once physically relatively separately sometimes
Prepositions
for (free) in (order) on (stage)
EXPRESSIONS
* Explaining or identifying someone
... is the person who/that ...
* Asking for an explanation
Why is that?
* Saying you haven't decided yet
It depends.
* Talking about an opportunity
I get to ...
GRAMMAR EXTENSION Non-defining relative clauses
* A non-defining relative clause adds more information to a noun. Unlike defining
relative clauses, they can be omitted in a sentence without causing confusion. Non-
defining clauses are used more often in writing than in speaking. Never use that with
non-defining clauses.
For people (with who or whose)
My favorite talk show host, who is very funny, just made a new movie.
I like that talk show host, who is very funny.
My favorite talk show host, whose program is on every afternoon, just made a new
movie.
For things (with which)
Special effects, which often cost millions of dollars, help movies tell stories.
Most people love movies with lots of special effects, which often cost millions of
dollars.
@pS-16
15. THERE SHOULD BE A LAW!
KEY VOCABULARY
Nouns
Social issues: AIDS alcohol abuse child/day care downsizing ethnic conflict gun
control health care homelessness illiteracy street crime
Other: bill cafeteria CD-ROM consumption criminal employer fur gambling
hamburger handgun (health) insurance rent sale security alarm son sugar (sales)
tax telemarketing threat
Adjectives
affordable disposable entertaining exhausted fur handgun high-rise off (= free)
run-down
Verbs
abolish allow disturb go off make (ends meet) pass permit
Adverbs
anymore next door
EXPRESSIONS
* Making a recommendation
People ought to/should be required to ...
People shouldn't be allowed to ...
Something has to be done to ...
A rule has to be made to ...
Laws must be passed to ...
People mustn't be permitted to ...
* Giving an opinion
I feel that ...
I don't think that ...
In my opinion, ...
* Saying you already know something
Tell me about it.
* Acknowledging an opinion and offering a different one
That sounds interesting, but I think ...
That's not a bad idea. On the other hand, I feel that ...
You may have a point. Nevertheless, I think ...
* Asking for and giving reasons
Do you? Why?/Don't you? Why not?
Well, because ... And another thing ...
Why do you say that?
Because I think that ...
Talking about the past
GRAMMAR EXTENSION Tag questions
* In tag questions, the pronoun for this/that is it; the pronoun for these/those is they.
This has to be solved soon, doesn't it?
Those aren't serious problems, are they?
* The pronoun for indefinite pronouns everything, something, anything, and nothing is
it; the pronoun for everyone/everybody, someone/somebody, anyone/anybody, and no
one/nobody is they.
Everything that can be done has been done, hasn't it?
Nothing is easy, is it?
Everyone should have health insurance, shouldn't they?
No one can ignore the problem of homelessness, can they?
* Notice that we use aren't I ? in spoken English; am I not? is the tag used in very
formal English.
I'm invited to your party, aren't I?
@pS-17
16. CHALLENGES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
KEY VOCABULARY
Nouns
anxiety charity death debt education failure grade joy milestone paramedic part
partner praise punishment relaxation relief reward sadness society stress
Pronoun
own
Adjectives
challenging frustrating gifted nonprofit realistic regular rewarding strange
Verbs
accomplish achieve deal with manage (to) pay off
Adverbs
ahead extremely
Preposition
on (a regular basis)
EXPRESSIONS
* Describing challenges, frustrations, and rewards
The most challenging/frustration/rewarding thing about ... is ...
* Describing past accomplishments
I've managed to/I managed to ...
I've been able to/I was able to ...
* Talking about future accomplishments
What do you hope you'll have achieved?
I hope I'll have ...
I'd like to have ...
* Expressing birthday wishes
Happy birthday.
GRAMMAR EXTENSION Hope
* Use hope followed by an infinitive(to + base verb), a continuous infinitive(to +
be+present participle), or a perfect infinitive(to + have + past participle) to talk about
something that you want to do in the future.
I hope to travel around Europe next year. (= I hope I'll do that.)
I hope to be traveling around Europe next year. (= I hope I'll be doing that.)
I hope to have traveled around Europe by next year. ( = I hope I'll have done that.)
* Use have followed by a noun clause to talk about what you or someone else hopes is
happening, will happen, will have happened, happened, has happened, etc
We hope (that) you're learning a lot today.
We hope you'll learn a lot next year.
We hope you'll have learned a lot by the time you're 21.
We hope you learned a lot yesterday.
We hope you've learned a lot so far this year.