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Brass Clinic

Programming Horn Concertos

With Bands and Orchestras
by David Hoover

D irectors who have an out-

standing horn player and
want to schedule a horn con-
certo for an upcoming performance
parts of the fourth concerto are written
in various gaudy colors of ink. The
playfully insulting commentary in the
first concerto is unsuitable for polite
more abundant than in the other con-
certos, and there are a few trills.
The orchestra uses the usual strings
with pairs of oboes and bassoons.
have a choice of more than three company. Because D major is one of the easiest
dozen works with band or orchestral In Mozart's concertos the string keys for the strings, this first horn con-
accompaniments. The most widely parts are about grade 4, with the first certo presents few ensemble problems.
performed horn concertos are the four violin parts being the most difficult Mozart's Horn Concerto #3 in E?
by Mozart and the first concerto by while the others are mostly in first Major, K. 447, is probably the most
Richard Strauss (Op. 11). position. The third and fourth concer- popular of all horn concertos among
Mozart's Concertos tos have full cadenzas in the first players and listeners, and it is the most
movement, and the second and fourth frequently requested concerto for high
Besides those concertos Mozart
have spots for brief solo runs returning school honor group auditions and
wrote for the instruments he played
to the rondo theme; these will take competitions. This 14-minute work
(piano and violin), he wrote more for
practice for the ensemble to maneuver uses a horn range of just over two
horn than for any other instrument.
He completed the four widely known the ritardandos and synchronize octaves (B^-CS) and is scored for
entrances with the soloist. Musicality pairs of clarinets and bassoons with
is the biggest challenge with Mozart, strings in typical three-movement
and the orchestra should listen to pro- form. Students should understand that
fessional recordings. Players should the first notes the soloist plays are not
understand that a small note in front solo notes; Mozart thoughtfully in-
of an eighth note followed by two six- cluded a four-measure warm-up section
teenth notes is played as even six- in the first tutti. With piano accompa-
teenth notes with a slight stress on the niment this should be omitted. The
first note. first movement includes a cadenza.
Based on a solo movement for horn
by Michael Haydn, brother of the
Written Played famous Joseph, the dreamy Romanza
Mozart completed only the first invites emphasis on tone and phrasing.
movement of the Concerto # 1 in D
Major, K. 412, written in the last year
of his life. The sprightly | movement
that is traditionally coupled with it It helps to remind students that eighth
comes from a sketch that his student rests do not necessarily signal phrase
Franz Xavier Sussmayr completed. endings, and eighth notes separated by
Mozart apparently did not even begin rests are part of a longer phrase. The
to compose a slow movement, leaving shape of the phrase, not the highest
it in the unusual form of two fast move- pitch, should determine which notes
ments. About nine minutes in length, to bring out.
it is the shortest of the concertos. Horn in E-flat

concertos and began at least two oth-
ers. The traditional numbering of the From the graceful opening theme in Throughout the brisk third movement
four concertos is misleading and is the first violins to the closing tutti the two- or three-note hunting calls
used here only as a matter of accepted chords, this is the most elegant of
tradition, but they were actually writ- Mozart's horn concerto movements, a David Hoover has a D.M.A. in music
ten in the sequence of 2, 4, 3, 1. rare distinction. The rondo, though education from the University of South-
Mozart composed the horn concer- suggestive of the chase, maintains the ern California. He taught brass methods
tos for his godfather, Ignaz Leutgeb, mood. at U.S.C. and is currently the horn
who was 20 years older than Mozart, Every solo note in the concerto's instructor at California State University,
but that did not deter Mozart from first movement is in the best horn Northridge; chairman of the music
making Leutgeb the butt of his jokes. octave, from A3 to A4, except for a department at Mulholland Middle School
The second concerto bears the dedica- single eighth-note B4, and Sussmayr's in Van Nuys, California; and horn coach
tion, "Mozart has taken pity on that second movement stays in the same and faculty artist at the Idyllwild Arts
ass, ox, and fool, Ignaz Leutgeb," and range. Sixteenth-note passages are Festival Summer Session.
40 Tur.nr-,,...-
oboes and horns, with strings, (Urtext) versions to heavily over-
fourth concerto, edited examples with entire passages
rewritten or even deleted. An edition
lorn Concerto #4 in E^ Major,
that includes only a transposed solo
traverses the same range as the
part for horn in F is best avoided.
concerto but calls for more
je and agility. The full cadenza However, Urtexts can also mislead
minute length push it into a modern student performers because
difficulty. The taxing first composers of the Classical period sel-
mt dances at the top of the dom specified the exact articulations
ch of the time. More difficult they intended. A recent edition by the
ry of the other Mozart slow eminent soloist Barry Tuckwell sur-
nts, the crystalline Romanza mounts all of these problems in one
!ess affords some respite from package. In Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's
rs of the first movement, Concertos for Horn with piano accom-
ipport is the key to the con- paniment (G. Schirmer, Vol. 2004),
effort it takes to play the Tuckwell shows what was in the origi-
nelodic lines so they sound nal and suggests articulations and
The third movement, dynamics in brackets. All four of the
another jolly rondo in |, avoids the standard concertos and the completed
uppermost register so freely exploited concerto fragments are bound to-
^ so subsequent notes gether, ready for performance. Partic-
ier than drag. An oasis of in the first movement. Probably the
ularly useful is the fact that Mozart's
, the | Andante consists of lyric easiest rondo of them all, it comes as a own Rondo for the first concerto is
rases separated by ample rest peri- merciful favor at the close of a difficult
piece. Most editions of the fourth con- here, the nearly complete sketch fin-
ls. To some listeners, the galloping ished by Tuckwell, who includes
'"*last movement suggests running certo insert the first orchestral horn
part into the solo part whenever the Mozart's running commentary to his
horses. Although a good lip trill is
solo horn should have rests. The soloist, Ignaz Leutgeb. Sussmayr's
essential in all the Mozart concertos, a
uninitiated will often try to play every arrangement is given in an appendix.
smooth and instantaneous trill is most
important in this rollicking rondo. note and, soon exhausted, put the These concertos were originally
With a duration of 13 minutes, this is music on the shelf. intended for horn with orchestra.
the shortest of the complete three- Published editions of the Mozart Scores and parts, published by Kalmus
movement concertos. It is scored for concertos range from original notation and Breitkopf & Ha'rtel, are readily

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are imitations of available. The solo parts are not
horn signals included in the orchestral sets. Band
ences; playe arrangements of the first three Mozart
noisy. concertos, generally issued in separate
o String Quartet movements, are available from the
Robert King catalog.
the same camp Many editions of the Mozart horn
concertos copy the 19th-century piano
r 10 years! reductions that now seem thick, heavy,
and thoroughly un-Mozartian. They
rAmerica's premier are also difficult to play. The piano
performing and visual arts camp. accompaniments in the Tuckwell edi-
Imagine 70 studios and theaters on 250 tion have been rewritten to conform
to the lucid texture of Mozart's piano
magnificent woodland acres in Huntington, music. Considerably easier to play
Long Island, with daily concerts and classes than the 19th-century editions, these
with artists like: Jimmy Heath, Emanuel Ax, accompaniments also make it easier to
find a pianist capable of doing the job.
The Canadian Brass, Billy Taylor, Jaime The horn part is notated at actual
Laredo and Sharon Robinson! pitch for the pianist, a great help for
For a free catalog, call 212-772-6060. rehearsals.
Accompaniment recordings can
overcome the problem of limited prac-
USDAN CENTER tice time with an ensemble or pianist.
FOR THE CREATIVE AND Music Minus One, for example, offers
PERFORMING ARTS C.D.s of Mozart's second and third
concertos with orchestra, and the last
The official piano
is the Yamaha.
two movements of the fourth with
piano. Beware of the solo parts pro-
vided with these recordings because
they are full of errors. Vivace (Coda
Music Technology) is a marvelous tool
for performance preparation. This
amazing computer-based accompani-
ment will follow the soloist with either
Celebrating our Jfth yearf piano or simulated orchestral sound,
and there are various options in how it
can be programmed. All five horn
557 E. 140th S t . , Cleveland, OH 44110 1-800-851-1150 Fax: 216-851-1958 concertos discussed in this article are
E-mail: ludwig@cybergate.net available on Vivace cartridges.
Students should practice the Mozart
SERENADE NO. 11 IN E-FLAT--W.A. Mozart/Frederick Fennell concertos by reading the original nota-
This performance edition by Frederick Fennell is a must for advanced chamber tion, not the transposed part included
wind instrumentalists. Avail, on CD #KOCD-2712 (D) SWO-334 $95.00 in some editions because the original
version shows how Mozart crafted the
SERENADE NO. 12 IN C MINOR--W.A. Mozart/Frederick Fennell part around the tones available on the
A serious piece of music-the beautiful sonority of an ensemble of winds is natural horn. Play each movement as
difficult to imagine. Avail, on CD #KOCD-3567 (D) SWO-350 $95.00
if on the original instrument by hold-
SYMPHONY ON THEMES OF JOHN PHILIP SOUSA, Mvt. Ill-after ing down the correct valve (first for EK
"Fairest of the Fair"--lra Hearshen third for D), using only the lips and
This is the second of four movements to be published. "While attempting to right hand to change pitch. Hand posi-
explore Sousa's music on a technical and architectural level, I also examined tions for closed tones are explained in
the spiritual, emotional, and historic contexts of his music"-lra Hearshen. such standard works such as the Oscar
Available on CD #KOCD-3567 (M) SWO-362 in process Franz Complete Method for Horn (Carl
Fischer, p. 35) or Philip Parkas' The Art
THREE CHORALE PRELUDES, OP. 122-Brahms/arr. Boyd/ed. Fennell of French Horn Placing (Summy-
Taken from three of the Eleven Preludes for Organ by Brahms, this setting for Birchard, p. 14).
winds brings a sonority as if to create a living organ.
Available on CD #BOCD-7507 (M) SWO-375 $65.00 It comes as a revelation when play-
ers discover that many passages were
written for the veiled sound of half-
stopped notes (called echo horn), and
this indicates the dark tone to strive
for when preparing the same phrases
for performance on a modern instru-
ment. Hand muting is still desirable for
some passages, even when played on a
modern horn.
The soloist should prepare for a per-
Concerto, Opus 11, a grade 5 piece, is
the fifth major horn concerto. News to Us
formance by playing the complete
concerto several times with the Marching Mallets
ensemble. Some directors focus on / rtiergiai
Ludwig Industries introduced a new
individual movements to the exclu- line of marching bass drum and multi-
sion of full run-throughs, but the per- The opening call sets a bravura style torn mallets with silver powder coated
formance should be just another that characterizes both outer move- aircraft aluminum shafts. Bass drum
chance to play what the student has ments and part of the middle one as mallets are available in small (L5310),
done many times. A final word about well. There is also much singing in this medium (L5311), large (L5312), and
preparation is to listen to recordings, music. Stamina requirements are extra-large (L5313) ball sizes, and
including those done on period instru- greater in Strauss than in Mozart, but multi-torn mallets feature a disc-
ments. this concerto has no cadenza and no shaped cartwheel (L5300) a Delrin
trills. For players with a robust tone cartwheel (L5301), and a hard-felt
Cadenzas in Mozart cartwheel (L5302).
Only Mozart's third and fourth con- and solid technique, it is an excellent
certos of the five pieces in this article choice. The wide range has the same
have a place for a full-fledged cadenza ceiling as Mozart's second and fourth
near the end of the first movement. In concertos (En) and a floor slightly
the 18th century cadenzas were re- lower (G2). At 16 minutes, it ties
garded as ornamented cadences, and Mozart's fourth for length.
the proper length for a cadenza from a Scored for pairs of flutes, oboes, clar-
wind player was only one or two inets, bassoons, horns, trumpets, and
phrases. Short was good, which is wel- timpani along with the usual strings,
come news for student players who will the orchestra is larger than Mozart's
discover it is relatively easy to devise and the accompaniment more diffi-
and play their own cadenzas. Only the cult. Technical requirements are some-
notes that were part of the horn tech- what greater, but syncopated accompa-
nique in Mozart's day should be used, niments and interlocking eighth-note
which means a cadenza should be play- passages create even trickier ensemble
able on the natural horn (using the problems. The coda should sound as if
hand in the bell) even though students played with reckless abandon although
will be performing on a modem horn. there are many pitfalls in timing
With these two points in mind, stu- entrances after rests. Tuning Barrel for Clarinets
dents can use this three-part formula Hardly any differences exist among The Click Tuning Barrel by Musical
to make a cadenza for the first move- the editions of Strauss' first concerto, Innovations Corporation tunes in one-
ment of Mozart's third concerto. Start but I recommend the Canadian Brass millimeter increments, from 61 m.m.
with an easily recognizable melodic version edited by David Ohanian (Hal to 67 m.m., by rotating a small thumb
fragment and transform this into a scale Leonard) because it includes a cassette wheel. Mounting flush with the upper
or arpeggio passage, or both, in the tape. One side has the piano accompa- joint, the barrel has a millimeter scale
tonic key. niment for practice and the other side printed on the back so a player can
features a model performance by record settings. The barrel is available
Ohanian playing to the same accom- for $45 from major wholesale suppliers
paniment. or by contacting Musical Innovations,
Strauss composed the piano accom- 419 Davisville Road, Willow Grove,
paniment first and then orchestrated Pennsylvania; 888-254-2533.
the work. Because the piano part came
from the composer's pen, the editions Music Software
Lead this into a trill on the second are nearly identical. Although the Electronic Courseware Systems, Inc.
degree of the scale that resolves into accompaniment is not easy, it is pianis- announced the release of two new
the return of the accompaniment. tic and has none of those awkward fig- instructional programs. Ck/Notes uses
urations common in reductions. Com- drills, quizzes, and feedback at the end
pared with the Tuckwell edition of the of each session to teach note recogni-
Mozart concertos, however, it is still tion in the treble, alto, tenor, and bass
Most editions include a cadenza, more difficult. clefs. Music Flash Cards consists of
which may be used as is or as a starting The Mozart and Strauss horn con- lessons in note naming, rhythmic val-
point for developing a new one. certos are not obscure works and ues, rhythmic value equivalents, key
should pose no problem in availability, signatures, basic chords, and major,
Strauss' Concertos but be sure to use the composer's full minor and modal scales. The suggested
Richard Strauss composed two horn name when ordering music. 1 once retail price of Clef Notes is $39.95 and
concertos, the first in the mid-1880s ordered several copies of the Concerto Music Flash Cards is $99.95. Both are
and the second nearly 60 years later in in D by Mozart and received a stack of available for Power Macintosh, Win-
the early 1940s. The second concerto the first listing in the catalog - by dows, and PC-DOS. For more infor-
is feasible only for professional groups, Wolfgang's father, Leopold. Richard mation contact Electronic Courseware
and the orchestral parts are available Strauss' father, Franz, also wrote two Systems, Inc., 1210 Lancaster Drive,
only on rental. Strauss' First Horn horn concertos. LJ Champaign, Illinois; 800-832-4965.
British trumpeter and teacher, Harry Mortimer,
arranged a volume of old favorites like Arban's
"Carnival of Venice" and Sullivan's "The Lost
One of the finest publications of advanced h<
solos this year is Novello's edition of John
Cabe's three-movement The Goddess Tril 0s
Chord" in Harry Mortimer Souvenir Album, for B^ which includes "The Castle of Arianrh o(ji
cornet and piano. One of the more complex pieces "Floraison," and "Shapeshifter." All of these '
1 I w ^ p Q

is for A cornet (Boosey & Hawkes, grade II-V, no quire a two octave range to BP 5 with skills of l j '
price). flexibility and accuracy that will tax the finest
professional. The pieces range from grade V toVf
Horn Solos and the piano accompaniment is also demanding
Several easy horn solos have been published The total performance time is about 28 minut e s
this year. Charles Forsberg's arrangement of for the three; I takes eleven minutes, II nine
Robert Schumann's Romance, Op.138, No.5, edited minutes, HI eight minutes. Each movement couU
by Miles Johnson, adds to the lyrical materials be performed as a separate recital piece (1978, no
available (Belwin-Mills, 1978, $1.50, Grade II). But price indicated for these works printed in com
the publication has a notation error in the first poser's facsimile).
measure of the horn part; the eighth notes should
be sixteenths. There is also an EP horn part in- Barry Tuckwell has published a new version of
cluded. Forsberg's Hornpipe and Dance develops a Beethoven's Sonata for Horn and Piano Op.17, with
pleasant melodic idea with simple range and an excellent stylistic indications for tonguing and
easy piano accompaniment (Belwin-Mills, 1978, phrasing. The young student might not unders-
$1.50, Grade II-III). tand Tuckwell's markings in the slow movement;
A third easy horn solo completes Belwin-Mills' the notated thirty-seconds, sixteenths, and eighths
offerings for the young hornist. Charles Forsell have staccato dots. His purpose in this case seems
has arranged Minuet and Trio from Handel's to be to eliminate the usual dull and heavy inter-
"Water Music" in a simple style with an easy piano pretation common to a student performance.
accompaniment. This pleasant, G minor melody Those who have taught this sonata over the
lies in the treble clef for the hornist. All of these decades will welcome Tuckwell's edition (G.
Belwin-Mills publications include an E" horn part Schirmer, Grade V, 1978, $6).
(grade II, 1978, $1.50). An interesting new edition of Mozart's first
movement, Allegro from the Third Horn Concerto
Medium-level horn solos are few this year. M. in Eb (KV 447), is arranged by Robert J. Bardeen.
Bradford Anderson's Prelude and March in Canon Listed as grade V with a cadenza by Micah Levy,
for horn and piano requires an excellent low the piece will stimulate teacher commentaries
register as well as the player's skilled treble clef (Kendor, 1979, $4).
capacity. This piece features imitative motives Rossini's Prelude, Theme and Variation for
played by the piano and horn in clever canonic horn and piano, edited by Barry Tuckwell, provides
style (Boosey & Hawkes, grade IV, 1973, $3). a delightful treatment of this composer's style in
Universal Edition has submitted Franz Strauss' variation form. The most difficult sections have
Nocturno, Op.7, for horn and piano in a comfor- two parts; the easier is notated, "Variation for the 3
tably phrased edition. Strauss, father of Richard lazy." The difficult piano accompaniment requires^'
Strauss and Wagner's solo hornist in such a first-rate artist (G. Schirmer, grade V-VI, $6).
premieres as "Tristan," "Meistersinger," and "Par-
sifal," set the pattern for his son's romantic horn
concertos (grade IV, $5). Richard Fote has ar-
ranged Faure Melody for horn and piano, which I con- Horn Studies
sider a grade III. But because of its demanding Fifty First Exercises for Horn is designed for t
long phrasing and sophisticated interpretive con- beginner, and it guides him up and down the over-
cept, the work might be classified as more dif- tone series to build a fine embouchure. Intelligent-
ficult (Kendor, 1978, $1.50). ly paced, the youthful hornist should become
Jagdstiick ("Hunting Piece") for two horns with adept in slurring and tonguing a variety
piano by Alexander Zemlinsky, takes advantage of rhythms using this publication (Oxford, grade
the classic style horn skills of the old, natural in- I-III, 1978, $8.95, 44 pages).
strument, and with clever alternation between the Tuckwell's second volume, Playing the Horn,
two players, this duet provides a fine addition to contains many fine suggestions about horn skills.
the literature (Universal, grade IV, requires like "Posture," "Holding the Instrument," "The Em-
muting, 1977, $10). bouchure in Detail," "Breathing in Detail"(w!th
Advanced horn solos from contemporary com- well-marked musical examples), "Articulation,"
posers lead our list of new music submitted. Usko "Lip Trills," "Muting," and "Hand-stopping." HIS
Merilainen's Grandfather Bcnno's Night Music for useful suggestions for practicing difficult
solo horn, requires an imaginative interpreter technical exercises and solos benefit all who per'
who can play from the lowest bass clef range to an form or teach the instrument. He provides a coffl-
A 5 with lip flexibility and accurate pitch skills. plete fingering chart for the double horn. This
The piece has no meter signature, and it offers a volume is a fine addition to the many documents
great variety of tempo changes within its short on the skill of playing the horn, and it's one whi
duration (Edition Fazer, Helsinki, Finland Na- should be a part of every horn player's library (Ox'
tional Brass Competition piece, 1976, grade V, $2.75). ford, 1978, $10, 45 pages), (more on page 68)