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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Having a college degree can be critical when looking to land a job and for

career advancement. Because obtaining a college education is becoming the

new norm, there are now hundreds of colleges and universities nationwide that

offer a plethora of degree programs. Since the job market is highly competitive,

students nationwide are looking for a high quality education that will help them

obtain the skills and degree they need to succeed in the workplace. However,

determining what a quality college education means for students today can be

particularly difficult (Wood, 2014).

A renewal of higher education is essential for the whole society to


be able to face up to the challenges of the twenty-first century and
to ensure its intellectual independence. Quality higher education
needs to be restored to create and advance knowledge, educate
and train responsible, enlightened citizens and qualified specialists,
without whom no nation can progress economically, socially,
culturally or politically. - UNESCO (2001)

The public and private universities are responsible to provide higher

education but due to profit-making motive of private universities and lack of

awareness of public universities, it is quite impossible to ensure quality education

(Uddin, et al, 2011). In terms of quality in education, the World Bank (1995: 46)

puts forth the following concept: Quality in education is difficult to define and

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measure. An adequate definition must include student outcomes. Most educators

would also include in the definition the nature of the educational experiences that

help to produce thus outcomes.

K.H. Rezwanul et al., (2009) mentioned students are considered as the

customer of a university especially in a private university. Every customers in

the world focus on quality products. As students are customer, their perception

towards the university is to get quality education. So university should ensure the

quality higher education. Numerous studies should have been conducted on

quality higher education and students perception. Higher education, the

important parts of education system is provided through public and private

universities. The significant purposes of higher education are to generate the

new knowledge, explore research works on different social and development

issues, anticipate the needs of the economy and prepare highly skilled workers

(Rahman, 2012).

As is the case in most countries, the Philippines is experiencing the

phenomenon of mass higher education with the concomitant rise of universities

and colleges (public and private) offering a greater diversity of programs, and

with varying capacity to deliver teaching and learning services. Unfortunately, as

several studies on Philippine education have revealed, the expansion of

educational opportunities is inversely matched by a deteriorating quality of

education in the country. This situation has led to an increasing interest in the

assessment of the academic program offerings, the manpower and financial

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capability of educational institutions, and the efficiency of their delivery systems -

through a system of accreditation (Corpus, 2003).

The North Central Mindanao College is an educational institution found

in Maranding, Lala, Lanao del Norte. It is an institution committed to provide its

students with quality education. It strongly adheres to what it seeks to develop in

its students. It has catered to students of different orientations in its desire to truly

serve the community where it is situated.

The present paper intends to analyze the students perception toward

quality higher education in North Central Mindanao College, Maranding, Lala,

Lanao del Norte for the year 2015-2016.

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

Theory of social functions in the institutions of higher education

Social functions of institutions of higher education mean that the more

advanced social development, the more close relationship between society and

universities. Generally speaking, the service provided by the colleges and

universities to the society is mainly in the following three ways: to cultivate high-

level expertise, to develop science and to serve the community. Based on the

Wisconsin Idea, the service provided by the institutions of higher education for

the society and economic development becomes the main function of colleges

and universities. During the process of formation of the functions in higher

education, training highly qualified specialists is a top priority, which is a basic

function, and then the second step is to develop science and serve society. The

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order of the importance of the three functions is the same with their chronological

order. If the function of serving society is put in the first place, institutions of

higher education will become service trades. And if the function of doing scientific

research is put in the first place, colleges and universities will become disguised

research institutions. Therefore, colleges and universities will not change their

nature if the function of training talents is in priority. For this reason, study on the

quality of the local postgraduate education should focus on the quality of talents.

Though scientific research and community service are two important functions of

institutions of higher education, the function in the quality of personnel training is

the most fundamental. The theory functions of higher education tell us that there

are varieties of quality standards in the quality of graduate education, but the

quality of personnel training is undoubtedly the most important. The guarantee of

quality in local postgraduate education is selected for study, which mainly refers

to the guarantee of quality of personnel training and the quality of developing

science and serving society (Salahuddin, 2011).

Theory of all-round educational quality:

The implementation of all-round quality management began in western

development countries since the early 90s, and now it is developing quickly. The

all-round quality education is the application of all-round quality management in

the area of education. After experiencing the traditional after test-based quality

management and statistical prevention first quality management, the third stage

of development is formed, whose core concept is the continuing emphasis on

quality improvement. It means that an organization, which is based on full

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participation, treats quality as its centre. All members will benefit from this

organization, and thus the organization will achieve long-term success. All-round

quality management places emphasis on the transition of the forms of

management, which is shifting from the traditional one-dimensional view of

performance to the full range of view on quality. As the continued expansion on

the concept of education quality, the quality of education is not only to train

students to possess knowledge, but also to help them have other various

qualities, such as working attitude, sense of cooperation and competition,

professionalism, moral cultivation, environmental adaptability and mental

endurance capabilities. Therefore, all-round quality management is not only a

philosophy, but a method (Salahuddin, 2011).

After all-round quality management is applied in the field of education, it

emphasizes education as a service which is provided to meet students and their

parents needs, who are considered to be consumers and customers. The

internal and external work in the universities should be evaluated from the

perspective of service. All-round quality management involves all activities in the

school and it is related to everyone. To guarantee the quality of graduate

education is to implement a comprehensive management (Salahuddin, 2011).

Situated learning theory and community of practice

Situated learning theory and community of practice draw many of the

ideas of the learning theories considered above. They are developed by Jean

Lave and Etienne Wenger. Situated learning theory recognizes that there is no

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learning which is not situated, and emphasizes the relational and negotiated

character of knowledge and learning as well as the engaged nature of learning

activity for the individuals involved. According to the theory, it is within

communities that learning occurs most effectively. Interactions taking place within

a community of practice e.g. cooperation, problem solving, building trust,

understanding and relations have the potential to foster community social

capital that enhances the community members wellbeing. Thomas Sergiovanni

reinforces the idea that learning is most effective when it takes place in

communities. He argues that academic and social outcomes will improve only

when classrooms become learning communities, and teaching becomes learner-

centered. Communities of practice are of course not confined to schools but

cover other settings such as workplace and organizations (Salahuddin, 2011).

In this study, the researchers tried to investigate the perception of the

college students towards quality education in North Central Mindanao College,

Maranding, Lala, Lanao del Norte for the year 2015-2016. Figure 1 shows the

research paradigm of this study.

Figure 1. Research Paradigm of the Study

1. Reliability
2. Responsiveness Quality
Perceptions
3. Competence Higher
of the College
4. Security Education
Students
5. Tangible
6. Cost and Price

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The figure above shows the research paradigm of this study. The

reliability, responsiveness, competence, security, tangible, goodwill and image,

cost and price were the independent variables of this study. Reliability is the

consistency of performance and dependability. Responsiveness is the willing and

readiness of staff to provide service. Competence was the required skills and

knowledge to perform the service. Security was the freedom from danger, risk or

doubt. Tangible refers to physical evidence of the service. Cost and price were

the fees to be paid in order to receive the service. The perceptions of the

respondents were considered as the moderating variables of this study while the

quality of higher education was the dependent variable of this study.

Statement of the Problem

This study seeks to find out college students perception on quality

education in North Central Mindanao College, Maranding Lala Lanao del Norte

for the year 2015-2016. Specifically, it aims to answer the following questions.

1. What is the socio-economic profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 Gender

1.2 Current Course

1.3 Year Level

2. What are the college students perceptions on quality education in North

Central Mindanao College?

3. Is there a significant difference on the perceptions on quality education

among the college students when group according to year level?

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Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study is focused on the college students perception on quality

education in North Central Mindanao College located in Maranding, Lala, Lanao

del Norte for the year 2015-2016. It also investigates the significant difference on

the college students perceptions on quality education when group according to

year level. The cause and effect relationship of the phenomenon were not

included in this study. The study was limited to 80 respondents divided into

different levels and degree courses. The respondents were selected through

convenience sampling. Questionnaires were used to gather data through survey

interview. Likert Scale and other statistical tools were also used to interpret the

data.

Significance of the Study

This study would be beneficial to the following:

Students- This is to let them know the perception level of the students

pertaining on quality education perceived on North Central Mindanao College.

School Administrators The results of this study would be a basis in

improving the education system towards quality of the higher education on the

current institution.

Imminent Researchers This would be a basis for future related studies

pertaining to the quality education.

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Definition of Terms

The following terms were defined conceptually and operationally:

AQAN - ASEAN Quality Assurance Network

CHED Commission on Higher Education

DepEd Department of Education

Education - the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction,

especially at a school or university.

NCMC- North Central Mindanao College

Perception - impression: an attitude or understanding based on what is

observed or thought

Quality standard: the general standard or grade of something

Quality Education - one that provides all learners with capabilities they

require to become economically productive, develop sustainable

livelihoods, contribute to peaceful and democratic societies and enhance

individual well-being.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

As Huffington Post notes (2014), defining what quality education means

becomes even more difficult when looking at different degree types. Some

degrees from liberal arts schools will equip students with long-lasting skills in

communication, writing, critical thinking, analyzing and similar abilities, but these

schools do not focus as much on content or on teaching students skills for a

particular trade. On the other hand, some schools do focus on content and

prepare individuals for a specific field. For example, medical programs train

individuals in the sciences such as biology and anatomy. Other examples include

colleges that have programs in areas such as computer science or foreign

languages. Quality programs have a healthy balance of both skills and content

based upon the goal of the program. Additionally, high quality programs can be

detected by looking at student performance and completion.

Assessing quality of higher educational institutions has always been a

challenge. Haug (2009) discusses limitations in evaluation of higher education

institutions by external expert panel in countries from European Higher Education

Area (EHEA) wherein a self-evaluation by the institution is followed by a short

visit from the panel to gauge performance on pre-agreed criteria. During their

short visit experts often find it difficult to see beyond the data, precise sample

elements providing the data may not be truly representative of the population,

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critical staff members may not be permitted to interact with panel members

and/or those meeting panel members may be tutored making a panel visit an

inadequate activity.

Alexander (2008) examined the conception of educational quality in the

class room as well as its measurement. The study points out limitations of

defining quality through proxy indicators and need for increased focus on

pedagogy. The list of indicators includes those that carry a subjective element

that could be understood and measured differently depending upon who is doing

so an example of such measure being The Learning Environment. While focus

on pedagogy could be a useful value addition, it is not clear if educationists have

agreed upon objective criteria for measuring education quality. Thus the problem

appears to be three fold: (a) Defining objective criteria or parameters to measure

education quality to reduce dependence on proxies; (b) Assessing these over an

extended period of time since education impacts ones complete lifespan; and (c)

Agreeing upon the appropriate weightage to subjective parameters that are an

inevitable part of service quality measurement.

Materu (2007) brings out concerns relating to quality assurance in higher

education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa faces problems similar to

those in India though to differing degree with the challenges including low gross

enrollment ration, rapid increasing in number of privately owned institutions of

higher education, declining budgets for higher education, and change in labour

markets and poor governance. The challenges to effective quality assurance

include: (a) lack of quality assurance policy framework; (b) insufficient

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communication among institutions about external QA processes; and (c)

inadequate competent teachers and qualified professionals in QA agencies.

Heslop (2014) lists four challenges faced by Indian higher education as

including: (a) Huge unmet demand for higher education on account of lower

enrollment in higher education in India at 18% as compared to 26% in China and

36% in Brazil. An enrollment of 30% by 2020 boils down to an increase of 14

million university places within 6 years (2014 to 2020) through 800 additional

universities and 40000 colleges in an eight year period; (b) Poor quality of

teaching and learning on account of a host of issues including shortage of

faculty, lack of accountability and quality assurance besides other reasons; (c)

Low quality of research weak ecosystem for innovation and industry association

in research; and (d) Unequal enrollment across population groups and

geographies. Zaki and Rashidi (2013) list the following factors as being

instrumental in quality assurance in academia: (a) Policies and Practices; (b)

Learners Profile; (c) Faculty KSA (knowledge, skills and abilities); (d) Institutional

leadership; (e) Open system thinking; (f) Institutional design; (g) Curriculum; and

(h) Resources.

According to Montalyo (2004), the level of education of population of the

Philippines is much higher than the one that corresponds to its level of

development. Not only would that but score high even in comparison with many

developed countries. It is interesting to notice that the enrolment rate in tertiary

education is very high in Philippines. Obviously the good educational indicators of

Philippines are supported, are least partially, by an important effort in public

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expenditure in educationAt first it seems difficult to make compatible the high

level of educational achievement of Philippines workers with their low level of

income per capita and productivity. However in the case of Philippines there is at

most a very slow recovery path. In addition the comparison of the levels shows

Philippines lacking behind other Asian countries.

Cororaton (2002) finds that the contribution of labor quality to total factor

productivity in the period 1967-72 was 2.11%, while in the period 1991-93 was

only 0.16% rising to 0.52% in 1998-2000. The reasons for the decline in the

contribution of labor quality to total factor productivity are diverse and complex.

Therefore there are several reason why the high educational achievement of

Philippines laborers has not been translated into high productivity and a large

impact on total factor productivity being the quality of the educational system in

general and, in particular, the university sector, one of the most prominent.

In the study of Montalyo (2004), Education, Poverty and Development in

the Philippines: From Quantity To Quality And Beyond, another indicator of the

quality of education is the performance of students in international comparison

tests. Although Philippines ranks number 1 in terms of data availability in support

of the Millenium Development Goals among the 11 countries of South-East Asia

the participation of the country in different international studies to measure the

performance of students is disappointing. The Philippines students did not

participate in the Reading Literacy Study 2001 not in the Second Information

Technology in Education Study (1999-2002). The results in Montalyos study

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show that the level of science and mathematics of the 8th degree students of

Philippines is disappointing. Not only they are below the international average but

the Philippines stand at the last position in the ranking of countries of Asia. In fact

Philippines are ranked in the position previous to the last among all the countries

that participated in this international survey. Only Morocco and South Africa

were below, although only the second country had a score significantly smaller

than the one of the students of Philippines. This is obviously a bad sign of the

quality of the educational system.

Ilagan, a former university professor, made the statement when asked to

comment on the recent report that only five Philippine schools, down from 14,

were included in this years list of top 300 universities in Asia, as ranked by

Quacquarelli Symonds (QS), a British company specializing in education. The

ranking is based on several criteria, including reputation and research citations.

She said one of the reasons behind the inadequacy is the schools focus on

getting as many enrollees as possible on top of the provision of quality education

(Salaverria, 2013).

[They make do] with the quality of students they get. So even if the

performance is mediocre, they make the students pass. There are only very few

colleges that insist on high standards. Its not common to all, Ilagan said in a

phone interview.

According to Josef Yap (2012), regulatory reform is needed to ensure that

the quality of education received at home is high enough to give domestic Filipino

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students access to education and work abroad. This reform process must start

by establishing a credible accreditation system, because under the current

system of voluntary self-regulation, less than 20 percent of higher education

institutions in the Philippines are accredited. Forms of international cooperation

other than through trade in education services would allow the Philippines to

improve the quality of domestic education by following the example set by

Malaysia, which has linked its own accreditation system to international ones.

Malaysia has also been active in promoting the development of a regional quality

assurance framework, the ASEAN Quality Assurance Network (AQAN). The

AQAN was organized in 2008 in order to promote collaboration among quality

assurance agencies in individual ASEAN countries. Though the Philippines has

not yet fully acceded to the AQAN, negotiations are underway to formalize an

agreement to adopt common standards in the education sector. The Philippines

can also pursue bilateral mutual recognition agreements. Such agreements

should include quality assurance on the part of both countries. In this way, even if

the standards are not at the same level as in higher-income countries, there will

be pressure on some of the higher education institutions in the Philippines to

improve their programs and facilities in order to gain accreditation. Such

agreements, whether bilateral or as part of the AQAN, might make it easier for

Filipino policy makers to argue for domestic reform on the basis that it is

necessary to meet international agreements. With a higher-quality higher

education system, the Philippines would then be better placed to reap the well-

documented economic benefits of an educated population.

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CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the research methodology of the study. It includes

discussion on the research design and research methods covering the research

environment, research subjects, sampling techniques, instrumentation, data

gathering techniques, and statistical treatment.

Research Design

This study focused on the college students perception on a quality

education at North Central Mindanao College in Maranding, Lala, Lanao del

Norte for the year 2015-2016. Descriptive or survey research design was used in

this study. The cause and effect relationship of the phenomenon were not

included in this study.

The disadvantage of survey research design is in questionnaire, and in

letting the respondent to answer his own, checking on the accuracy or honesty,

which they cannot emphasize his own. The advantage of survey research design

is their common types of instrument to be used. Questionnaire is the basic way of

collecting data.

Sampling Technique

Convenience sampling was used in this study. The respondents were

obtained based on the availability or preference of the researchers. Respondents

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that were easily accessible are usually considered. In a survey, only those who

were available to the researchers were chosen.

Research Environment

North Central Mindanao College (NCMC) is an institution of higher

learning located in region X or Northern Mindanao region. It started as a

Technical Vocational School. The School was established in 1989. Its exact

address is in Prk. Lemon Tree, Maranding, Lala, Lanao Del Norte 9211.

It is committed to provide its students with quality education. It strongly

adheres to what it seeks to develop in its students. It has catered to students of

different orientations in its desire to truly serve the community where it is

situated.

It has six (6) buildings, serving the preschool, elementary, secondary, and

college learners. These buildings also contain the different offices serving the

school. It has also a sufficient ground which can accommodate its pupils/students

during flag ceremonies. The school structure provides its students with

convenience since most its buildings are just adjacent to each other. When

students move from one building to another, they do not have to walk far.

Maranding is one of the barangays which are in the outlying area of

Municipality Lala. This is highly urbanized barangay of Lala, the largest

Municipality of the second district Lanao del Norte. This place is a business

center serving not only the populace of Lala but even the people of Salvador and

Kapatagan. There are many commercial establishments and tertiary schools

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offerings the poor farmers children from neighboring places. Maranding has a

total land area of 429.889square/ metre distributed into its different puroks. It is

located Southwest of Lanao del Norte and southern part of Lala. It is bounded by

Baroy, Lanao del Norte going to the North and by Kapatagan, Lanao del Norte to

the South.

Location Map

Research Subjects/Respondents

The research subjects/respondents of this study were the college students

of North Central Mindanao College in Maranding, Lala, Lanao del Norte for the

year 2015-2016. The table 1 shows the summary list of the research

subjects/respondents.

Table 1 Research Subjects/Respondents

1st 2nd 3rd 4'th


No. Respondents
Year Year Year Year Total
Bachelor of Science in Elementary
1 2 2 2 2
Education Students 8

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Bachelor of Science in Secondary
2 2 2 2 2
Education Students 8
Bachelor of Science in Computer
3 2 2 2 2
Science Students 8
Bachelor of Science in Hotel and
4 2 2 2 2
Restaurant Management Students 8
Bachelor of Science in Social Work
5 2 2 2 2
Students 8
6 Bachelor of Science in Criminology 2 2 2 2 8
7 Bachelor of Arts in Political Science 2 2 2 2 8
8 Bachelor Science in Nutrition 2 2 2 2 8
Bachelor of Science in Radio
9 2 2 2 2
Technology 8
10 Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy 2 2 2 2 8
Total No. of Respondents 20 20 20 20 80

Instrumentation

The researchers used questionnaire in gathering data. An informed

consent was given to the respondents prior to the distribution of the

questionnaires. The researchers asked advised from their research advisers to

check the paper grammar and construction of the questionnaire for its validity.

The personal profile of the respondents was not included to maintain

confidentiality between the researchers (interviewer) and the respondents

(interviewee). This is to add confidence on the part of the respondents to answer

the researchers questions. Statistical tools were used to analyze and interpret

the data gathered.

Measures of variables to be used in the study are the following:

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1- Strongly Disagree (SD) 4- Agree (A)

2- Disagree (D) 5- Strongly Agree (SA)

3- Neither Agree nor Disagree

(NAD)

Data Gathering Techniques

The researchers prepared the informed consent and the questionnaires

prior to the survey interview. The researchers used convenience sampling in

selecting the participants/respondents of the study. The respondents totaled

eighty (80) college students from different levels and degree courses. They

conducted pre-interview before conducting the survey to clarify the objectives of

the study and to let the respondents fully understand the concepts being ask in

the survey questionnaires. They personally distributed the questionnaires to the

respondents upon the survey interview. After gathering the data, the researchers

personally retrieved the questionnaires to analyze and interpret the data.

Statistical Treatment

In order to analyze and interpret the data, the following statistical

treatments were used:

T-test for independent samples- to determine the relationship of the

perceptions of the respondents when group according to gender

Weighted Mean- to know the average of the responds pertaining to the

perceptions of the respondents on the quality education of North Central

Mindanao College using the likert scale.

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ANOVA to determine if there is no significant difference on the

perceptions on quality education among the college students when group

according to year level.

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CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the results of the analysis and interpretation of data.

Table 2 shows the socio-economic profile of the respondents in terms of gender,

current course in college and their year level. Table 3 shows mean of the college

students perceptions on quality education in North Central Mindanao College.

Table 4 shows variance between the college students perception on quality

education when group according to year level.

Problem 1: What is the socio-economic profile of the respondents in terms

of Gender, Current Course, and Year Level?

Socio-Economic Profile

A total of eighty (80) respondents were used as participants of the study

survey. In order the survey data to be more valid despite the non-random

selection, the researchers selected through convenience sampling1 male and 1

female on each year level and college course. A total of 10 courses were listed

with 4 year levels coming from different College Departments such as the

Bachelor of science in Criminology from Department of Criminology, Bachelor of

science in Hotel and Restaurant Management from the HRM Department,

Bachelor of Science in Computer Science from the COMSCI Department,

Bachelor of Science in Elementary and Secondary Education from the

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Department of Education; etc. Table 2 shows the summary of the respondents

socio-economic profile .in terms of gender, college current course and year level.

Table 2 Socio-economic Profile in terms of Gender, Course and Year Level

Gender: N %
Male 40 50.00%
Female 40 50.00%
Total 80 100.00%
1st 2nd 3rd 4'th
College Courses
Year Year Year Year Total %
Bachelor of Science in
2 2 2 2
Elementary Education 8 10.00%
Bachelor of Science in
2 2 2 2
Secondary Education 8 10.00%
Bachelor of Science in
2 2 2 2
Computer Science 8 10.00%
Bachelor of Science in Hotel
2 2 2 2
and Restaurant Management 8 10.00%
Bachelor of Science in Social
2 2 2 2
Work 8 10.00%
Bachelor of Science in
2 2 2 2
Criminology 8 10.00%
Bachelor of Arts in Political
2 2 2 2
Science 8 10.00%
Bachelor Science in Nutrition 2 2 2 2 8 10.00%
Bachelor of Science in Radio
2 2 2 2
Technology 8 10.00%
Bachelor of Science in
2 2 2 2
Pharmacy 8 10.00%

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Total No. of Respondents 20 20 20 20 80 100.00%

Problem 2: What are the college students perceptions on quality education

in North Central Mindanao College?

On Quality Education

The Philippines has the highest number of college graduates among

developing Asian countries, but that isnt a substitute for quality, writes Josef Yap

of the Philippine Institute for Development Studies (Yap, 2012).

Since the business subject has grown rapidly with a doubling of students

in the past 10 years more resources are required to manage the education

(Enequist & Holmvall, 2006:12-13). Obviously, an expansion like this increases

the demand for teachers. One of the challenges that Hejzlar (2002:35) found was

that the post-graduate education within business has not attracted as many

students as necessary to cover the teaching need of the undergraduate

education which in turn has led to the universities not having enough authorized

teachers. Hejzlar (2002:8-10, 20-23) continues to say that due to this lack of

teachers it often is the case that students take courses not only with students

from their own program but different programs are scheduled together. This is

positive in the way that students are able to interact with new people, who can

enrich the learning experience however, it also increases the study group sizes.

Another challenge is that different study groups have different levels of previous

knowledge. Moreover, it happens that problems in scheduling cause the order of

the courses not to be ideal in relation to previous knowledge of the students

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meaning that the students may have to take a course that would have fit better at

another stage in the study program.

What are the college students perceptions on quality education in North

Central Mindanao College? In order to answer this question, the respondents

used the likert scale to answer the item indicators on quality education in such a

way that 1- Strongly Disagree (SD), 2-Disagree (D), 3 neither Agree nor Disagree

(NAD), 4-Agree (A) and 5-Strongly Agree (SA).

As shown in table 3, the statements Teachers at my college are highly

qualified (3.48), College provides me excellent global exposure (2.82), and

College provides excellent e-learning & library facilities (2.88) were neither

agreed nor disagreed by the respondents. Some teachers/instructors or even

administrators were not qualified for their position. Thus, the researchers could

not conclude that the school has provided quality teachers for the students. In

addition, the students of the school were not totally exposed to global

information. Teachings in college has focused on their environment and

sometimes dont expand their knowledge to global problems and solutions. Even

on research for undergraduate students were not totally developed. As per

observed by the respondents who were also a students in North Central

Mindanao College, the library may have an internet connections when there is an

inspection from Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the connection

will eventually cut off when there is no inspections. Furthermore, the library has a

minimum collection for updated books. With this the library may or may not meet

the demand for information needed by the students in the college. Thus, it is

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recommended that the library should have a continuing and effective program to

evaluate its collections, resources, and online databases, both quantitatively and

qualitatively (Verzosa, 2010).

On the other hand, the statement Teachers at my college are highly

competent to teach (4.53), were strongly agreed by the respondents. This shows

that the teachers/instructors in North Central Mindanao College are competent

when it comes to teaching. Teachers in North Central Mindanao College were

considered as competent instructors since they are innovative on their own ways.

Though, we could not consider all of them but majority shows greater impact to

the learners learning process.

Each state uses its own standards and procedures to determine whether

those who teach within that state are highly qualified. Just as each state

determines when and on what basis to provide full certification or licensure to

teachers already certified in other states, each state determines when and on

what basis to accept the determination of another state that a particular teacher

is highly qualified. As stated by Commission on Higher Education or CHED

(2008), qualifications of the institution personnel varies with its descriptive job

position. Excerpts from the provision of CHED were as follows:

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As stated above, qualifications of the deans and faculty members must at

least have a master degree. In North Central Mindanao College (NCMC), as per

observed by the students including the researchers of this study, only few of the

instructors were master graduate. Thus, not all instructors in NCMC are

considered qualified. Though the results show that the instructors were

competitive in comes of facilitating learning to students, they are not still

considered as qualified teachers for quality education.

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The safety of the students and staffs in North Central Mindanao College

needs improvement. As of National Building Code, each floor of the building must

have a fire extinguisher and fire exit that in case of fire emergency, the students

could be safe.

As per observed by the researchers and students of North Central

Mindanao College, the institution has lacking of updated books. Even the library

collections were not updated. It does not have an internet connection for e-library

purposes nor have an air-conditioned room. Thus, the school library is not

conducive for learning.

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Table 3 College Students Perception on Quality Education

1st 2nd 3rd 4th MEA


No. Indicators Year I Year I Year I Year I N I
Course curriculum at my college is well
1 designed & contemporary 4.27 A 3.67 A 3.67 A 3.93 A 3.88 A
Teachers at my college are highly NA
2 qualified 3.40 NAD 3.47 NAD 3.07 NAD 4.00 A 3.48 D
Teachers at my college are highly
3 competent to teach 4.67 SA 4.47 A 4.33 A 4.67 SA 4.53 SA
My college has an examination system
that is very fair & measures performance
4 accurately 4.13 A 4.40 A 3.93 A 4.53 SA 4.25 A
College has excellent infrastructure for
5 education & development 3.27 NAD 3.07 NAD 3.80 A 4.47 A 3.65 A
Course provides excellent practical
6 knowledge of my subject 3.53 A 4.40 A 3.87 A 4.73 SA 4.13 A
Course provides excellent industry
7 experience 3.80 A 3.80 A 4.27 A 4.53 SA 4.10 A
NCMC College provides excellent e- NA NA
8 learning & library facilities 2.33 D 2.67 NAD 3.07 NAD 3.47 D 2.88 D
NCMC College provides excellent
9 placement support 3.47 NAD 3.40 NAD 4.40 A 4.33 A 3.90 A
NCMC College provides excellent
10 facilities for sports related activities 3.07 NAD 3.27 NAD 4.33 A 4.00 A 3.67 A
NCMC College provides excellent
11 opportunities for co-curricular activities 4.27 A 4.07 A 3.93 A 4.13 A 4.10 A
NCMC College provides excellent
12 medical facilities for emergencies 3.47 NAD 4.13 A 4.33 A 3.93 A 3.97 A

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NCMC College provides a highly safe &
13 secure environment to students 4.00 A 3.73 A 3.47 NAD 4.07 A 3.82 A
My overall experience at college is
14 excellent 4.33 A 4.00 A 3.73 A 4.27 A 4.08 A
Will unhesitatingly recommend my college
15 to my relations/friends 4.20 A 3.93 A 4.00 A 4.53 SA 4.17 A
56.4 58.2 63.6
Total Mean 56.20 7 0 0 58.62
Mean 3.75 A 3.76 A 3.88 A 4.24 A 7.33 A
Likert Scale
1- Strongly Disagree (SD)
2- Disagree (D)
3- Neither Agree nor Disagree (NAD)
4- Agree (A)
5- Strongly Agree (SA)

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Problem 3: Is there a significant difference on the perceptions on quality

education among the college students when group according to year level?

Variance between the College Students Perceptions

Higher education represents an investment in human resources and high

quality education is important for a countrys cultural, social and economic

development. In fact, higher education is considered as one of the most

important institutions for training a skilled human workforce that leads to a

countrys economic, social, political and cultural development. So, development

of a community can be dependent on the level of its higher education, the

qualitative and quantitative development of an educational system

(AkhavanKazemi, 2005). The quality of a higher education system is related to

how it meets its targets and the means by which those targets are met and

validated (Pazagadi et al., 2005).

So, attention to the quality of higher education is necessary to maximize

the potential of human assets, available materials and financial resources and to

coordinate between the development of an educational system and its

effectiveness (NavehEbrahim and Karami, 2006).

Quality is a relative concept, specially a debatable issue. It is not so easy

to define quality education, what is the basic standard of quality education?

There is no ending of this debate, because there is no last stage of education.

Every nation continues experimental study, research to flourish civilization.

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Education and civilization is complementary to each other, if one is lost another is

lost.

As shown in table 4, the f-ratio shows 3.388 which are greater than the

tabulated value for f-distribution 2.78 considering the level of significance 5%.

This shows that the null hypothesis of this study should be rejected. Hence,

contrary to the research hypothesis, there is a significant difference on the

perceptions of the college students when group by year level.

Table 4. Analysis of Variance between the College Students Perception on

Quality Education when Group According to Year Level

Computation

No. Indicators x1 x2 x3 x4 x1^2 x2^2 X3^2 x4^2


Course curriculum at my
college is well designed & 18.2 13.4
1 contemporary 4.27 3.67 3.67 3.93 0 13.44 4 15.47
Teachers at my college 11.5
2 are highly qualified 3.40 3.47 3.07 4.00 6 12.02 9.40 16.00
Teachers at my college
are highly competent to 21.7 18.7
3 teach 4.67 4.47 4.33 4.67 8 19.95 8 21.78
My college has an
examination system that is
very fair & measures
meritorious performance 17.0 15.4
4 accurately 4.13 4.40 3.93 4.53 8 19.36 7 20.55
College has excellent
infrastructure for 10.6 14.4
5 education & development 3.27 3.07 3.80 4.47 7 9.40 4 19.95
Course provides excellent
practical knowledge of my 12.4 14.9
6 subject 3.53 4.40 3.87 4.73 8 19.36 5 22.40
Course provides excellent 14.4 18.2
7 industry experience 3.80 3.80 4.27 4.53 4 14.44 0 20.55
8 College provides excellent 2.33 2.67 3.07 3.47 5.44 7.11 9.40 12.02

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e-learning & library
facilities
College provides excellent 12.0 19.3
9 placement support 3.47 3.40 4.40 4.33 2 11.56 6 18.78
College provides excellent
facilities for sports related 18.7
10 activities 3.07 3.27 4.33 4.00 9.40 10.67 8 16.00
College provides excellent
opportunities for co- 18.2 15.4
11 curricular activities 4.27 4.07 3.93 4.13 0 16.54 7 17.08
College provides excellent
medical facilities for 12.0 18.7
12 emergencies 3.47 4.13 4.33 3.93 2 17.08 8 15.47
College provides a highly
safe & secure 16.0 12.0
13 environment to students 4.00 3.73 3.47 4.07 0 13.94 2 16.54
My overall experience at 18.7 13.9
14 college is excellent 4.33 4.00 3.73 4.27 8 16.00 4 18.20
Will unhesitatingly
recommend my college to 17.6 16.0
15 my relations/friends 4.20 3.93 4.00 4.53 4 15.47 0 20.55
56.2 56.4 58.2 63.6 215. 216.3 228. 271.3
Total 0 7 0 0 73 5 44 5
1. Summation of total of X = 234.47

2. Summation of total of squared of X = 931.87

3. Sum of Squares = X2 (Xt)/Nt =15.63

4. Between Sum of Squares = 2.36

5. Within Sum of Squares = SST SSB = 13.26

6. Degrees of Freedom

Between= K-1 = 3

Within = N-K = 57

7. Level of Significance = 5%

8. Mean of Sum of Squares (Between) = ssb/dfb = 0.7882

9. Mean of Sum of Squares (Within) = ssw/dfw = 0.2327

10. F-ratio = MSSb/MSSw = 3.388

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Square of Sum of Degrees of Mean

Variations Squares Freedom Squares F-ratio

Between 2.36 3 0.7882 rc=3.388

Within 13.26 57 0.2327 rT=2.78

Total 15.62

34
CHAPTER V

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary of Findings

The study had dealt with the assessment on the perception of the college

students on quality education in North Central Mindanao College, Maranding,

Lala, Lanao del Norte for the year 2015-2016. Specifically it aims to answer the

following questions: What is the socio-economic profile of the respondents in

terms of: Gender, Current Course; Year Level? What are the college students

perceptions on quality education in North Central Mindanao College? Is there a

significant difference on the perceptions on quality education among the college

students when group according to year level?

In order to answer the problems in this study, the researchers had

conducted a survey to gather data. Questionnaires and an informed consent

were used in this study. The research respondents of this study were the college

students of North Central Mindanao College for the year 2015-2016. A total of

eighty (80) respondents were selected through convenience sampling; 1 male

and 1 female on each year level and college course. A total of 10 courses were

listed with 4 year levels coming from different College Departments such as the

Bachelor of science in Criminology from Department of Criminology, Bachelor of

science in Hotel and Restaurant Management from the HRM Department,

Bachelor of Science in Computer Science from the COMSCI Department,

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Bachelor of Science in Elementary and Secondary Education from the

Department of Education; etc. Statistical tools such as t-test for independent

samples, weighted mean, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to

analyze and interpret the data. As shown in table 3, third year level students

perceptions have the greater mean of 4.24. Using the likert scale, it was

interpreted as Agreed by the respondents. First year level has a mean of 3.75

(Agree), 2nd year level mean of 3.88 (Agreed) and 4th year level mean of 3.91

(Agreed). Course curriculum, safety and security of students on campuses, rigor

in the examination system, infrastructure and library facilities emerge as relative

strengths as perceived by students undergoing college education. As shown in

table 4, the f-ratio shows 3.388 which are greater than the tabulated value for f-

distribution 2.78 considering the level of significance 5%. This shows that the null

hypothesis of this study should be rejected. Hence, contrary to the research

hypothesis, there is a significant difference on the perceptions of the college

students when group by year level.

36
Conclusions

The following were the conclusions formulated by the researchers based

on the results of their study.

. A total of 10 courses were listed with 4 year levels coming from different

College Departments with 1 male and 1 female on each year level and

college course were used as sample subjects.

The key concern areas for college students are: (a) Facilities to deal with

medical emergencies; (b) Industry exposure; (c) Placement support; (d) All

round development of students; (e) Opportunities for co-curricular

activities; and (f) Facilities for sports related activities. Besides these

areas, the following areas also require attention on priority: (a) teachers

qualification; (b) global exposure, and (c) e-library facilities.

There is a significant difference on the perceptions of the college students

when group by year level.

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Recommendation

The following would be the recommendations of the researchers for the

future researchers and the school administrators of this study.

Future Researchers:

The sample size must be randomly selected in the populated to add more

validity on the research study.

It should take into account the interference of other political, social and

technological factors which otherwise may have an effect on

organizational effectiveness in the open environment.

The study was conducted in private sector, it could be better to study also

the public sector of higher education and compared to the private sector

quality education.

School Administrators:

The management must yield more fund for the improvement of the current

institution.

The library and collections must be updated as well as the ventilation of

such area.

The fire emergency plan must be improved to add more security to the

area. CCTV must be placed in the area.

Qualified teachers must be hired.

38