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ENGLISH FOR INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

Английский язык для слушателей Института государственной службы специальности «Международные отношения»

В двух частях

Часть 1

Составитель: Козлова Любовь Константиновна

УДК 811.111 (078):339.9 ББК 81.2 Англ.я 73 Е 56

Рецензенты:

канд. филол. наук, доцент, профессор кафедры иностранных языков Института подготовки научных кадров Национальной Академии наук Беларуси С. В. Викулова канд. пед. наук, доцент, доцент кафедры лексикологии английского языка Минского государственного лингвистического университета Т. В. Кононенко доктор филол. наук, профессор, профессор кафедры иностранных языков Института государственного управления Академии управления при Президенте Республики Беларусь Л. М. Лещева

English for International Relations. Английский язык для Е 56 слушателей ИГС специальности «Международные отношения»: учеб.-методич. пособие: в 2 ч. Ч. 1. / cост.:

Л. К. Козлова. – Мн.: Акад. упр. при Президенте Респ. Беларусь, 2009. – 119 с.

ISBN 978-985-457-899-6

Цель пособия – формирование навыков изучающего и ознакомительного чтения, перевода текстов по специальности «Международные отношения» на родной язык, развитие навыков критического анализа информации и умений кратко излагать содержание прочитанного в виде резюме. Пособие направлено на расширение лексического запаса по изучаемым темам и может использоваться как для аудиторной, так и для самостоятельной работы слушателей ИГС Академии управления.

УДК 811.111 (078):339.9 ББК 81.2 Англ.я 73

© Козлова Л.К., составление, 2009

ISBN 978-985-457-899-6 (ч. 1) ©

ISBN 978-985-457-911-5

Академия управления

при Президенте Республики Беларусь, 2009

2

CONTENS

Unit 1. The Theory of International Relations

5

I.

Reading

1.International Relations

7

2.The Theory of International Relations

11

3.Concepts in International Relations

15

II.

Reading and Discussion

1.Belarus Will Be Improving National Security System

19

2.History of Diplomacy

21

Unit 2. International Organisations (1)

24

I.

Reading

1.International Organisations

25

2.The United Nations

29

3.The UNESCO

33

4.The Republic of Belarus in the United Nations

37

II.

Reading and Discussion

1.The United Nations General Assembly

41

2. Bilateral Meetings at UN Session

42

3.Belarus Supports New Security Architecture in Europe

43

Unit 3. International Organisations (2)

44

I.

Reading

1.The European Union

46

2.Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe

49

3.NATO

52

4.Association of Southeast Asian Nations

56

II.

Reading and Discussion

1.Terrorism

59

2.Terrorism and extremism

61

3

Unit 4. Foreign Policy

62

I.

Reading

1.Foreign Policy of the Republic of Belarus

63

2.Foreign Policy of China

68

3.Foreign Policy of France

71

II.

Reading and Discussion

1.Multidimensional Foreign Policy of Belarus in Current International Situation

74

2.Bush Diplomacy Critisized by Obama

76

3.History of Strained Relations between France and the United Kingdom

79

Unit 5. Negotiations

80

I.

Reading

1.Approaches to Negotiation

81

2.Diplomatic Strategy

84

3.Positive and Negative Affects in Negotiation

87

4.Studies of Emotion in Negotiation

91

II.

Reading and Discussion

1.Salami Tactics

95

2.The Eurasian Economic Community

97

Unit 6. Globalisation

98

I.

Reading

1.History of Globalisation

99

2.Effects of Globalisation

102

3.Globalisn and Anti-globalism

108

II.

Reading and Discussion

4.World Bank Figures on Globalisation Outcomes

112

5.Globalisation Critics’ Arguments

113

6.Anti-globalisation Protests

115

Sources

118

4

UNIT I

THE THEORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

STARTING-UP

International Relations (IR) is a branch of political science. It represents the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organisations (IGOs), non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). It is both an academic and public policy field, and can be either positive or normative as it both seeks to analyse as well as formulate the foreign policy of particular states. Apart from political science, IR draws upon such diverse fields as economics, history, law, philosophy, geography, sociology, anthropology, psychology, and cultural studies. It involves a diverse range of issues, from globalisation and its impacts on societies and state sovereignty to ecological sustainability, nuclear proliferation, nationalism, economic development, terrorism, organised crime, human security, and human rights.

A Classify the aspects of IR given below according to which branch of science they belong to:

foreign affairs

organised crime

culture

human rights

public policy

globalisation

economic policy

nuclear proliferation

state sovereignty

independence

human security

territorial conflicts

economic policy

international trade

philosophy

marketing

ecology

negotiations

terrorism

oil security

B Say which of the aspects mentioned above belong to the academic discipline you study.

5

VOCABULARY FOCUS

Relations between two states are called bilateral relations. Thus, relations between more than two states are multilateral relations.

Negotiations are talks and a treaty is an agreement usually arrived at as a result of the talks.

Proliferation suggests some multiplication, causing to increase in number. Nonproliferation is opposite in meaning and is usually associated with nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.

Sovereignty is a country’s independence. Sovereign states pursue/conduct both internal (home/domestic) policy and external (foreign) policy which is usually government concern in foreign affairs (relations).

Use the above words to complete the following sentences:

1. A state is considered to be recognized by other states.

if its

is

2. The

relations between Russia and Belarus are

extending.

3. In its

friendly

America.

policy the Republic of Belarus maintains relations in Europe, Asia and Latin

4. Sensible politicians are concerned about nuclear weapons.

5. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for the

of

outcome of

with other countries on political

issues.

6. on nonproliferation of nuclear weapons was

The

signed by the countries that possessed them.

6

READING

1

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

PRE-READING

A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of the following words:

development

sanction

diverse

equal

advancement

ultimate

involve

entity

encourage

research

impact

found

trace back

mobilize

notion

train

recognize

institute

failure

alter

stimulate

superior

resort

seek

establish

channel

shame

tool

devote to

enforce

range

B Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of the word from the list above:

rights in global

decision making. 2) They also want to enjoy nuclear security for development

1) Most countries want to have

and

of their countries.

3) For this purposes states establish international institutions in diverse range of activities. 4) A number of organisations define their functions which

5)

include

human contacts etc. Diplomacy is one of the of resorting to force.

research,

personnel,

to resolve issues instead

6) To alter a state’s unfair actions a world organisation can mobilize international

7)

to analyse and define

8) International Relations foreign policy.

The

of international shame can be effective.

READING

Read the text and remember four systemic tools of international relations mentioned in it.

7

International Relations

International Relations is the study of the relations of states with each other and with international organisations and certain subnational entities (e.g. political parties and interest groups). It studies the roles of states, inter-governmental organisations, non- governmental organisations, and multinational corporations. International relations involves a diverse range of issues, from globalisation and its impacts on societies and state sovereignty to ecological problems, nuclear proliferation, economic development, terrorism, organised crime, human security, and human rights. It seeks both to analyze as well as formulate foreign policy. It is related to a number of other academic disciplines, including political science, geography, history, economics, law, sociology, psychology, and philosophy. The history of international relations is often traced back to the Peace of Westfalia of 1648, where the modern state system was developed. Westfalia instituted the notion of sovereignty, which meant that rulers, or sovereigns, would recognize no internal equals within a defined territory, and no external superiors. Westfalia encouraged the rise of the nation-state and the institution of diplomacy and armies. Later, this European system was exported to America, Africa and Asia. The contemporary international system was finally established during the Cold War. In the 1920s, there came a strong impulse toward the development of international studies in universities. New centres, institutes, and schools devoted to teaching and research in International Relations were founded. Courses were organised and general textbooks on the subject began to appear. Private organisations were formed, and large grants were channeled to the advancement of citizens in world affairs through special training institutes, conferences, and seminars, and to the stimulation of university research. Systemic tools of international relations are:

Diplomacy which is the practice of conducting negotiating between representatives of states. All other tools of international relations can be considered the failure of diplomacy.

8

Sanctions are usually a first resort after the failure of diplomacy, and are one of the main tools used to enforce treaties. They can take the form of diplomatic or economic sanctions.

War, the use of force, is often thought of as the ultimate tool of international relations. A widely accepted definition is that “war is the continuation of politics by other means”.

The mobilization of international shame can also be thought of as a tool of international relations. This is attempting to alter states actions through ‘naming and shaming’ at the international level.

POST-READING

Give the Russian equivalents for the following:

tools of international relations; practice of conducting negotiations; the failure of diplomacy; a first resort; to alter states actions; to name and shame states at international level; economic sanctions; a widely accepted definition; the use of force; representatives of states; schools devoted to teaching and research; a strong impulse toward the development; the contemporary international system; to encourage the rise of diplomacy; to institute the notion of sovereignty; to trace back to; to seek to analyse foreign policy; to be related to a number of other academic disciplines; a diverse range of issues.

A Find

the

synonyms

combinations:

among

verbs

given

below

+

policy

conduct policy, form policy, consider policy, pursue policy, analyse policy, decide policy, make policy.

B There

is

a

set

of words

in

the table related to the

‘policy’. Explain their meanings.

word

Poli+

cy

tics

tical

ly

tician

9

C

Put the right word in the blanks in these sentences:

1) Mr. Blair and Mr. Brown are two famous people are studying the science of

call a person’s work his educated. 5) The

country is usually called democracy. 6) The government pursues a reasonable economic

2) Those 3) We sometimes

activity. 4) People should be regime of a democratic

D Translate into English:

1)

Политическая обстановка очень напряженная.

2) Экономическая политика правительства часто подвергается справедливой критике.

3)

Она много занимается политикой.

4)

Она политически хорошо подкована.

5) Политика является составной частью международных отношений.

6)

Страна проводит миролюбивую политику.

E Answer the following questions:

1)

What does International Relations as an academic discipline

2)

study? What other academic subjects is it related to?

3) What historic event is the establishment of international relations traced back to? 4) When was the contemporary international system actually established?

5) What is the first resort in settling issues in international relations?

6)

What is the tool usually resorted to in case of the failure of

7)

diplomacy? What definition would you give to ‘war’?

8) Is naming and shaming states at international level an effective means of international relations?

F Make a summary of the text.

10

2

THE THEORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

VOCABULARY FOCUS

Positivism is a philosophic system which considers that truth can be verified only by facts. A positivist is an adherent of positivism.

A positivist theory/ approach is the one that supports the ideas of positivism.

A norm means a standard, an average. Thus, normal is, something conforming to a standard, and normative is something establishing a norm. So, normative approach is the one based on personal values or judgements.

Explicitly means clearly and openly stated, while implicitly has the meaning of being understood though not stated.

PRE-READING

A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of the following words:

on the grounds

distinguish

security

power

phenomenon

dedicated

survival

reject

convergence

facilitate

distinct

argue

expectation

replicate

oppose

cite

experience

focus on

degree

aim

vindication

promote

ignore

B Find among the above words synonyms for the following:

devoted to, to seek, extent, to make distinction, on the basis, particular, goal, to deny, to oppose, to enhance, to concentrate on, confirmation, to dispute, authority.

READING

Read the text containing some of the theories on IR and then do the tasks that follow.

11

The Theory of International Relations

What is explicitly recognized as International Relations theory was not developed until after World War I. IR theory, however, has a long tradition of drawing on the work of other social sciences. The use of capitalizations of the ‘I’ and ‘R’ in International Relations aims to distinguish the academic discipline of International Relations from the phenomena of international relations. Initially, International Relations as a distinct field of study was almost entirely British-centered. In 1919, the Chair in International Politics was established at the University of Wales,

in the early 1920s, the London School of Economics‘ department of International Relations was founded on the advice of Nobel Peace Prize winner Philip Noel-Baker. In 1927 the first university institution entirely dedicated to the study of IR, was founded – the Graduate Institute of International Studies –, and offered one of the first Ph.D. degrees in international relations in the country.

IR theories can be roughly divided into one of two camps:

“positivist” and “post-positivist”. Positivist theories aim to

replicate the methods of the natural sciences by analysing the impact of material forces. They typically focus on features of international relations such as state interactions, size of military forces, balance of powers etc. Post-positivism rejects the idea that the social world can be studied in an objective and value-free way. It rejects the central ideas of neo-realism/liberalism, such as Rational Choice theory, on the grounds that the scientific method cannot be applied to the social world and that a ‘science’ of IR is impossible.

A key difference between the two positions is that while

positivist theories, such as neo-realism, offer causal explanations (such as why and how power is exercised) post-positivist theories focus instead on constitutive questions, for instance, what is meant by ‘power’; what makes it up, how it is experienced and how it is reproduced. Often, post-positivist theories explicitly promote a normative approach to IR by considering ethics. This is something which has often been ignored under ‘traditional’ IR as positivist theories make a distinction between ‘facts’ and normative judgements or ‘values’.

12

Realism focuses on state security and power above all else. Early realists argued that states are self-interested, power-seeking rational actors, who try to maximize their security and chances of survival. Any cooperation between states is explained as functional in order to maximize each individual state’s security (as opposed to more idealistic reasons). Many realists saw World War II as the vindication of their theory. It should be noted that

classical writers such as Thucydides, Machiavelli, and Hobbes

are often cited as the “founding fathers” of realism. Regime theory is derived from the liberal tradition that argues that international institutions or regimes affect the behaviour of states (or other international actors). It assumes that cooperation is possible in the anarchic system of states. Indeed, regimes are, by definition, instances of international cooperation. While realism predicts that conflict should be the norm in international relations, regime theorists say that there is cooperation and they cite cooperation in trade, human rights and collective security among other issues. These instances of cooperation are regimes. The most commonly cited definition of regimes comes from Stephen Krasner who defines regimes as “institutions possessing norms, decision rules, and procedures which facilitate a convergence of expectations.” International Society theory, also called the English School, focuses on the shared norms and values of states and how they regulate international relations. Examples of such norms include diplomacy, order, and international law.

POST-READING

A Translate the following word-combinations into Russian:

to be explicitly recognized; a distinct field of study; to be entirely dedicated to; Ph.D. degree; to be roughly divided into two camps; to replicate the methods; to focus on the features; state interactions: balance of powers; to reject the idea; to study in a value-free way; Rational Choice theory; on the grounds that; to apply a method to; to offer causal explanations; to exercise power; to promote an approach; normative judgements or values; above all else; to argue that; power-seeking actors; chances of

13

survival; the vindication of the theory; it should be noted; to be often cited; the founding fathers; to be derived from; to affect behaviour; instances of; collective security; to facilitate a convergence of expectations; the shared norms and values.

B Complete the following sentences:

1)

International Relations theory was not developed until after

2)

The use of capitalizations of the ‘I’ and ‘R’ in International

Relations aims to distinguish the academic discipline of International Relations 3) Initially, International Relations as a distinct field of study was almost entirely 4) In 1927 the first university institution entirely dedicated to the study of IR 5) IR theories can be roughly divided into one of two camps:

6) Positivist theories typically focus on features of

7)

international relations such as Post-positivism rejects the idea that the social world can be studied in an objective and value-free way and considers

that a ‘science’ of IR

8) Positivist theories make a distinction between ‘facts’ and normative

9)

10) Regime theory argues that international institutions or regimes affect the 11) International Society theory focuses on the shared norms and values of states and how they

Realism focuses on state security and

C Answer the following questions:

Why are the words ‘International Relations’ capitalized?

2) Where was the theoretical study of international relations initially established?

1)

3)

What camps can IR theories be divided into?

4)

What is the difference between positivist and post-positivist

5)

theories? What does realism focus on?

14

6)

What is the essence of Regime theory?

7)

What does International Society theory focus on?

D Make a summary of the text.

3

CONCEPTS IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

VOCABULARY FOCUS

Concept is a general notion or an idea of something.

Cold war is a state of diplomatic tension between East and West deliberately maintained for the winning of advantages without fighting. Balance of power means parity between rival nations preserved by the system of military and economic alliances. Polarity is an arrangement of power in the world. Unipolarity suggests the international system where power belongs to a single state, bipolarity – the international system where power is shared between two states and multi-polarity – the international system where power is shared among more than two states. Hegemony means leadership exercised by one state. Status quo is the existing state of affairs.

PRE-READING

Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of the following words:

gain prominence

superpower

prevalent

affairs

interdependence

hard power

highlight

define

retrospectively

soft power

coercive

revise

preponderance

draw upon

prior to

shape

disadvantage

periphery

version

view

environment

reinforce

exploit

sole

READING

Read the text containing some of the concepts in IR and answer the following questions after reading:

1)

How can the concept of ‘power’ in international relations be

2)

described? What does ‘hard power’ mean?

15

3)

What does ‘soft power’ mean?

4)

What does the concept of ‘polarity’ refer to?

5)

What did the concept of ‘polarity’ arise from?

6) How can the international system be described prior to

1945?

7)

When did ‘unipolarity’ arise?

8)

When did the theory of ‘the balance of power’ gain

9)

prominence? What does the concept of ‘hegemony’ suggest?

10) Is ‘unipolarity’ a stable configuration? 11) What is the current international system consistent with? 12) What is the essence of Dependency theory?

13) What is the ‘status quo’?

Concepts in International Relations

International relations are often viewed in terms of levels of analysis. The systemic level concepts are those broad concepts that define and shape an international environment. The concept of ‘power’ in international relations can be described as the degree of resources, capabilities, and influence in international affairs. It is often divided up into the concepts of ‘hard power‘ and ‘soft power‘, hard power relating primarily to coercive power, such as the use of force, and soft power commonly covering economics, diplomacy and cultural influence. However, there is no clear dividing. Polarity in international relations refers to the arrangement of power within the international system. The concept arose from bipolarity during the Cold War, with the international system dominated by the conflict between two superpowers, and has been applied retrospectively. Consequently, the international system prior to 1945 can be described as multi-polar, with power being shared among great powers. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to what some would call ‘unipolarity’, with the United States as a sole superpower. Several theories of international relations draw upon the idea of ‘polarity‘. The balance of power was a concept prevalent in Europe prior to the First World War, the thought being that by balancing

16

power blocs it would create stability and prevent war. Theories of ‘the balance of power’ gained prominence again during the Cold War, being a central mechanism of Kenneth Waltz’s neorealism. Hegemonic stability theory (developed by Robert Gilpin) also draws upon the idea of polarity, specifically the state of unipolarity. Hegemony is the preponderance of power at one pole in the international system, and the theory argues this is a stable configuration because of mutual gains by both the dominant power and others in the international system. This is contrary to many neorealist arguments, particularly made by Kenneth Waltz, stating that the end of the Cold War and the state of unipolarity is an unstable configuration that will inevitably change. Many advocate that the current international system is characterized by growing interdependence, the mutual responsibility and dependency on others. The role of international institutions and widespread acceptance of a number of operating principles in the international system reinforces ideas that relations are characterized by interdependence. Dependency theory is a theory most commonly associated with Marxism, stating that a set of core states exploit a set of weaker periphery states for their prosperity. Various versions of the theory suggest that this is either an inevitability (standard dependency theory), or use of the theory to highlight the necessity for change. States can be classified by whether they accept the international status quo, or are revisionist, i.e. want change. Revisionist states seek to fundamentally change the rules and practices of international relations, feeling disadvantaged by the status quo. They see the international system as a largely western creation which serves to reinforce current realities. Japan is an example of a state that has gone from being a revisionist state to one that is satisfied with the status quo, because the status quo is now beneficial to it.

POST-READING

A Translate the following word-combinations into Russian:

broad concepts; to define and shape an international environment; the degree of resources; capabilities, and influence in international affairs; hard power; to relate to coercive power; the use of force;

17

soft power; to cover economics; cultural influence; there is no clear dividing; the arrangement of power within the international system; to draw upon the idea of polarity; the preponderance of power at one pole; mutual gains; both the dominant power and others; a largely western creation.

B Translate the following sentences into Russian:

The concept of ‘power’ is often divided up into the concepts of hard power and soft power, hard power relating primarily to coercive power, such as the use of force, and soft power commonly covering economics, diplomacy and cultural influence. The concept arose from bipolarity during the Cold War, with the international system dominated by the conflict between two superpowers. The international system prior to 1945 can be described as multi-polar, with power being shared among Great powers. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 had led to what some would call ‘unipolarity’, with the United States as a sole superpower. ‘The balance of power‘ was a concept prevalent in Europe prior to the First World War, the thought being that by balancing power blocs it would create stability and prevent war. Theories of ‘the balance of power’ gained prominence again during the Cold War, being a central mechanism of Kenneth Waltz’s neorealism. Revisionist states seek to fundamentally change the rules and practices of international relations, feeling disadvantaged by the status quo. Japan is an example of a state that has gone from being a revisionist state to one that is satisfied with the status quo, because the status quo is now beneficial to it.

C Find derivatives of the following words:

to revise, to depend, to relate, to exploit, to view, to preponderate, to dominate, to divide, polar, advantage, prior, to influence, to create, to define, real.

18

D Complete the following sentences:

1) States can be classified by whether they accept the

, i.e. want

international status quo, or are revision.

2) Many advocate that the current international system is

characterized by growing and dependency on others.

, the mutual responsibility

3)

A number of operating principles in the international system

reinforce ideas that interdependence.

are characterized by

4)

Sometimes there is no clear

between soft power

and hard power. 5) The concept of ‘polarity’ arose from

when the

international system was dominated by two superpowers.

6)

Neorealists argue that the end of the Cold War and the state

of

is an unstable configuration that will

7)

inevitably change. Theories of ‘the balance of power’ gained during the Cold War.

again

E Make a summary of the text.

READING AND DISCUSSION

Read the speech of the President of the Republic of Belarus at the Independence Day military parade and then do the tasks that follow.

Belarus Will Be Improving National Security System

Belarus will be constantly improving the national and, above all, military security system promptly responding to new trends in the international situation. Strengthening the Armed Forces and the military organization of the country has always been one of the top-priority goals of the Belarusian state policy. We will continue working on improving the organizational structure and qualitative parameters of the technical supply of the troops, polishing the government system, enhancing the efficiency of military personnel training.

19

The Belarusian people learnt the lessons of the past war. It is not by accident that the Belarusians have a heightened sense of responsibility for the security of their Fatherland. The history teaches and warns that wars and armed conflicts do not happen by themselves, they are unleashed by those whose ambitions prevail over the interests of countries and whole continents. Today the mankind faces such dangerous challenges and threats as local armed conflicts, international terrorism, religious, national and political extremism, human trafficking, illicit drugs, famine and shortage of energy resources. Today we have seen the attempts prodded by some politicians to rewrite the history and to destroy the post-war system of international relations. The prospects of NATO expansion into former Soviet Union countries appear more feasible. NATO remains the most powerful military bloc. Its infrastructure has approached Belarus closely. The process of deploying the American anti-missile system at the Belarusian border is acquiring an irreversible nature. The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe has, in fact, ceased to be one of the pillars of the European security. The unilateral declaration of Kosovo independence attests to the existence of double standards and poses a threat to boundary revisions, repartition of the European political map. Encouraging separatism is an unwise and dangerous policy.

POST-READING

A Say if the following statements are true or false. Correct the ones which you consider false.

1)

Nowadays international situation is favourable.

2)

There are no conflicts in the world which make Belarus be

3)

concerned about its security. World War II taught us many lessons.

4)

The mankind faces a lot of dangerous threats.

5) NATO doesn’t plan to expand into former Soviet Union countries.

6)

NATO remains the most powerful military bloc.

20

7)

The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe

8)

ensures security in Europe. There are no double standards in international politics.

B Complete the following sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets:

1) New trends in international situation make Belarus

national security. (improve) One of the top priorities of the state has always been

2)

the Armed Forces. (strengthen) 3) Wars are unleashed by the states that

their

ambitious interests. (pursue) 4) The mankind faces dangerous challenges and tries

local armed conflicts. (stop)

5)

Some politicians attempt international relations. (destroy)

the post-war system of

6) The process of deploying the NATO anti-missile system

a threat to the security of the

Republic of Belarus. (pose) 7) Some western politicians use double standards the borders and the European political map. (revise)

near our borders

C Discuss the following:

The current political situation in the world.

Changes in international relations and their causes.

The necessity to react to the new challenges and threats.

Double standards used in international relations.

D Read the text and say what stages in the history of diplomacy are significant.

History of Diplomacy

The ability to practise diplomacy is one of the defining elements of a state, and diplomacy has been practised since the first city-states were formed millennia ago. Modern diplomacy’s origins are often traced to the states of Northern Italy in the early Renaissance, with the first embassies

21

being established in the thirteenth century. Milan played a leading role, especially under Francesco Sforza who established permanent embassies to the other city states of Northern Italy. It was in Italy that many of the traditions of modern diplomacy began, such as the presentation of ambassadors’ credentials to the head of state. From Italy the practice was spread to the other European powers. As foreign powers such as France and Spain became increasingly involved in Italian politics the need to accept emissaries was recognized. Soon the major European powers were

exchanging representatives. By the late 16

missions became customary. During that period the rules of modern diplomacy were further developed. The top rank of representatives was an ambassador. At that time an ambassador was a nobleman, the rank of the noble assigned varying with the prestige of the country he was delegated to. Strict standards developed for ambassadors, requiring they have large residences, host parties, and play an important role in the court life of their host nation. Ambassadors, nobles with little foreign experience and no expectation of a career in diplomacy, needed to be supported by large embassy staff. These professionals would be sent on longer assignments and would be far more knowledgeable than the higher-ranking officials about the host country. The need for skilled individuals to staff embassies was met by the graduates of universities, and this led to a great increase in the study of international law, modern languages, and history at universities throughout Europe. At the same time, permanent foreign ministries began to be established in almost all European states to coordinate embassies and their staffs. The elements of modern diplomacy slowly spread to Eastern Europe and Russia, arriving by the early eighteenth century. After the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna of 1815 established an international system of diplomatic rank. After World War II the rank of ambassador became the norm.

th

century, permanent

22

POST-READING

A Translate the following sentences into Russian:

It was in Italy that many of the traditions of modern

diplomacy began, such as the presentation of ambassadors’ credentials to the head of state. 2) It is this practice that has been employed since the conception of the first city-states within the international spectrum.

3)

Diplomats in Asia were originally sent only for the purpose

of negotiation. Milan was the first to send a representative to the court of France in 1455. 4) Embassy staff would include a wide range of employees, including some dedicated to espionage.

5)

Modern diplomacy’s origins are often traced to the states of Northern Italy in the early Renaissance, with the first embassies being established in the thirteenth century.

1)

B Review the following questions for discussion:

1)

Since when has diplomacy been practised?

2) What were the usual activities of diplomats during early

3)

time diplomacy? Who were diplomats at that time?

4)

When and where did modern diplomacy originate?

5)

Where was the practice spread to?

6) What led to a great increase in the study of international law, modern languages, and history at universities throughout Europe? 7) What institutions began to be established in almost all European states to coordinate embassies and their staffs?

8)

When did modern diplomacy spread to Eastern Europe and Russia?

23

UNIT 2

INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS (1)

STARTING-UP

International institutions form a vital part of contemporary international relations. Much interaction at the system level is governed by them, and they outlaw some traditional institutions and practices of international relations. As humanity enters the planetary phase of civilization, some scientists and political theorists see a global hierarchy of institutions replacing the existing system of sovereign nation- states as the primary political community. They argue that nations are an imagined community that cannot resolve modern challenges such as the legal and political status of stateless people and refugees, and the need to address worldwide concerns like climate change and pandemics. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization that describes itself as a “global association of governments facilitating co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity”. It is the most prominent international institution. Many of the legal institutions follow the same organisational structure as the UN.

VOCABULARY FOCUS

Hierarchy is any arrangement of principles or things or people within an organisation with graded importance or authority. A new, more legitimate (i.e. being in accord with accepted rules or laws) form of global politics is based on ‘constrained pluralism. Pluralism is the doctrine that there is more than one universal principle. This doctrine guides the formation of institutions based on three characteristics: irreducibility, where some issues must be decided at the global level; subsidiarity, which limits the scope of global authority to truly global issues while smaller-scope issues are regulated at lower levels; and heterogeneity, which allows for diverse forms of local and regional institutions as long as they meet global obligations.

24

Use the above words or their derivatives to complete the following sentences:

1. Companies with functional structure are also called

2. The

‘phenomena’.

form of the noun ‘phenomenon’ is

3. The daughter company may also be called that company’s

4. The people of the country fight for their

5. The prices may be

6. The information is so summed up.

rights.

at the end of the season. that it can’t be possibly

READING

1

INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS

PRE-READING

A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of the following words:

membership

criterion

resolve

scope

comply with

carry on

charter

mere

grouping

approve

refer to

pure

assembly

provide

debate

sign

enter into

rely on

ad hoc

B Answer the following questions:

1)

Is membership in international organisations obligatory?

2)

If you are a member of some organisation, must you comply with its charter and rules?

3)

What criteria should be taken into consideration before you join an organisation?

4) Are international assemblies and debates able to resolve world problems or are they merely an arena to carry on interests of superior nations?

READING

Read the text and then do the tasks that follow.

25

International Organisations

International organisation is, by definition, any organisation with international membership, scope, or presence. However, in common usage, the term is usually reserved for intergovernmental organisations (IGO) such as the UN, the European Union, the Council of Europe, or the World Trade Organization, with sovereign states or other IGOs as members. Their scope and aims are most usually in the public interest but may also have been created with a specific purpose. While many non-governmental organisations (NGOs) though privately created with international scope have international presence and aims. Legally speaking, an international organisation may be established by a constituent document such as a charter, a treaty or a convention, which when signed by the founding members, provides the IGO with legal recognition. International organisations so established are subjects of international law, capable of entering into agreements among themselves or with states. Thus international organisations in a legal sense are distinguished from mere groupings of states, such as the G-8 and the G-77, neither of which have been founded by a constituent document and exist only as task groups, though in non-legal contexts these are sometimes referred erroneously as international organisations. International organisations must also be distinguished from treaties. Many treaties (e.g., the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) or, in the 1947-1995 period, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)) do not establish an international organisation and rely purely on the parties for their administration becoming legally recognised as an ad hoc commission. International organisations differ in function, membership and membership criteria. Membership of some organisations (global organisations) is open to all the nations of the world as far as they comply with membership criteria and after approval by a general assembly or similar body. This category includes the United Nations and its specialised agencies and the World Trade Organization. Other organisations are only open to members from a particular region or continent of the world, like European Union, African Union, ASEAN and other regional organisations. Finally,

26

some organisations base their membership on other criteria:

cultural or historical links (the Commonwealth of Nations, La Francophonie, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Latin Union), level of economic development or type of economy (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Organisation of Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC), or religion (Organisation of the Islamic Conference). International organisations developed mainly from the need of nations and governments to have a neutral forum where to debate and consider matters of importance to more than one particular nation. However, some IOs also developed from the need of an either executive or enforcement body which could carry on multinational interests in a unified form. International organisations describe and define their purpose in their charter or other document of creation. International organisations exist with diverse aims: to increase international relations, promote education, health care, economic development, environmental protection, human rights, humanitarian efforts, inter-cultural approach and conflict resolution.

POST-READING

A Complete the following sentences using the appropriate word:

International organisation is, by definition, any organisation with international

2) In common usage, the term IO is usually reserved for organisations.

3)

and have international

Many non-governmental organisations are privately created

1)

with international presence and aims.

4) An international organisation may be established by a

a treaty or a

constituent document such as convention.

5) A constituent document when signed by the founding

the IGO with legal recognition.

members,

International organisations so established are subjects of

international law, capable of

among themselves or with states.

27

into agreements

6)

International organisations in a legal sense are distinguished

from mere

of states which exist only as task

groups. 7) International organisations must be distinguished from

treaties which rely purely on the parties for their administration and are legally recognized as commission. International organisations differ in function, membership and membership

9) Membership of some global organisations is open to all the

8)

nations of the world as far as they

membership

criteria. 10) International organisations developed mainly from the need of nations and governments to have a neutral forum where matters of importance to more than one particular nation. 11) International organisations exist with diverse aims, including to promote education, health care, economic development, environmental protection, cultural approach and conflict

B Use the appropriate preposition.

the

public interest but may also have been created specific purpose. 2) Legally speaking, an international organisation may be

a constituent document such as a

charter, a treaty or a convention which when signed by the

legal

recognition. 3) International organisations must be distinguished treaties.

4)

their

administration becoming legally recognized as an ad hoc

commission. 5) International organisations differ membership and membership criteria.

function,

Many treaties do not establish an international organisation

a

1)

The scope and aims of IO are most usually

established

founding members, provides the IGO

and rely purely

the parties

28

6) Membership of some organisations is open the nations of the world as far as they comply membership criteria.

7) Some IOs also developed

all

the need of an either

executive or enforcement body which could carry multinational interests in a unified form.

C Look at the outline of the text given below and correct the succession of the items.

1)

The definitions of intergovernmental and non-governmental

2)

organisations; Legal establishment of IGOs;

3)

The difference between international organisations and state groupings;

4) The difference between international organisations and treaties;

5)

The purposes of international organisations;

6)

The cause of creation of international organisations;

7) The difference between international organisations due to

function, membership and membership criteria.

D Discuss in detail each item of the outline.

2

THE UNITED NATIONS

PRE-READING

A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of the following words:

headquarters

endeavour

facilitate

agency

deliberative

signatory

draw up

budget

substantive

guideline

judicial

set out

encompass

deal with

replace

state

come into existence

sign

Secretary-General

B Replace the underlined word in the following sentences with the appropriate new word from the list above:

1) One of the aims of the UN is to promote cooperation in different fields.

29

2)

The United Nations Charter was composed in 1945.

3)

The Charter declares the rights and obligations of the UN

4)

member-states. The organisation started its work on 24 October 1945.

5)

The UN central governing office is located in New York.

6)

Within the UN there are a lot of specialized organisations.

7)

Actually, it includes 15 agencies and several programmes

8)

and bodies. Central bodies of governance are not enough to handle all

9)

spheres of this vast organisation. Every programme has its own course of activities.

10) The staff exert their efforts in attempts to reach people in every corner of the world. 11) The agencies make decisions on particular and general issues of their policy.

READING

Read the text and remember the aims and activities of the United Nations.

The United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an international organisation whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. The UN was founded in 1945 to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between nations and to provide a platform for dialogue. In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on international organisation to draw up the United Nations Charter. The organisation officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter was ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and a majority of other signatories. It has six official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October. The Charter is the constituting instrument of the United Nations, setting out the rights and obligations of Member States, and establishing the organisation’s organs and procedures. The purposes of the United Nations, as set forth in the Charter, are to

30

maintain international peace and security; to develop friendly relations among nations; to cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these ends. There are now 192 member states, including almost every recognized independent state. From its headquarters on international territory within New York City, the UN and its specialized agencies decide on substantive and administrative issues in regular meetings held throughout the year. The UN’s most visible public figure is the Secretary-General, currently Ban Ki-moon of South Korea. The organisation is divided into administrative bodies, primarily: The General Assembly (the main deliberative assembly), The Security Council (decides certain resolutions for peace and security), The Economic and Social Council (assists in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development), The Secretariat (provides studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN) and The International Court of Justice (the primary judicial organ). The United Nations family, however, is much larger, encompassing 15 agencies and several programmes and bodies. Additional bodies deal with the governance of all other UN system agencies, such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). The United Nations family of organisations is made up of the United Nations Secretariat, the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the specialized agencies. The programmes, funds and agencies have their own governing bodies and budgets, and set their own standards and guidelines. Together, they provide technical assistance and other forms of practical help in virtually all areas of economic and social endeavour. Economic institutions are as follows: World Trade Organization, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Asian Development Bank. International legal bodies include: International Court of Justice, European Court of Justice, African Court of Justice, International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea.

31

The UN is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions from member states which are assessed on a scale approved by the General Assembly. The fundamental criterion on which the scale of assessments is based is the capacity of countries to pay. This is determined by considering their relative shares of total gross national product, adjusted to take into account a number of factors, including their per capita incomes. In addition, countries are assessed, in accordance with a modified version of the basic scale, for the costs of peacekeeping operations.

POST-READING

A Say if the following statements are true or false. Correct the ones you consider false.

1) The UN was founded in 1955 to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between nations and provide a platform for dialogue. 2) Representatives of 50 countries met in New York at the United Nations Conference to draw up the United Nations Charter.

3) The Charter is the constituting instrument of the United Nations, setting out the rights and obligations of member states, and establishing the organisation’s organs and procedures. 4) The purposes of the United Nations are to maintain international peace and security; to develop friendly relations among nations; to cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems. 5) There are now 200 member states, including almost every recognized independent state.

6)

7) The United Nations family is large, encompassing 50

agencies and several programmes and bodies. 8) The programmes, funds and agencies have their own

governing bodies and budgets, and set their own standards and guidelines. The UN doesn’t have any economic or legal institutions.

9)

10) All member states pay equal contributions into the budget of the UN.

The UN doesn’t have any administrative bodies.

32

B Say which of the verbs are synonyms:

facilitate, assist, promote, provide, modify ,comply with, assess, accord, approve, endeavour, include, govern, comprise, maintain, divide, decide, create, resolve, establish, replace, found, administrate, ratify, set out, set forth, set up, adapt, solve, develop, keep, evaluate, exchange, conform to, agree with, follow, change, adjust.

C Answer the following questions:

1) When and where was the United Nations organisation

2)

established? What legal document was drawn up for the UN to come into

3)

existence? What does the Charter set out?

4)

What are the purposes of the United Nations?

5) Are there regular meetings at the UN to decide on

6)

substantive and administrative issues? What administrative bodies is the UN divided into?

7)

What are the activities of agencies and programmes within

8)

the UN? In what way is the UN financed?

D Make a resume of the text.

3

THE UNESCO

PRE-READING

A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of the following words:

policy-making

strengthen

science

foster

administration

education

culture

adopt

governance

discharge

access

offer

encourage implement activities

executive

refute day-to-day running

B Complete the following sentences with the appropriate word or its derivative using the list above:

33

1)

Three main bodies of the UNESCO

its policy.

2) The

of its activities is vital for the spheres of

education, science, culture and information.

3)

The UNESCO provides

opportunities for people

in all corners of the world.

4)

The

of its decisions is ensured by the Executive

5)

Board. The UNESCO encourages free

to information.

6)

The organisation’s goal is to educate public and the notion of the evil human nature.

7)

It

partnerships to gain common benefits.

READING

Read the text and remember the main activities of the UNESCO.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation

The UNESCO has 193 member states and 6 associate members. The UNESCO headquarters are in Paris, France. Three bodies are responsible for policy-making, governance, and day-to- day administration at the UNESCO: The General Conference, The Executive Board and The Secretariat. The General Conference is a gathering of the organisation’s member states and associate members, in which each state has one vote. Meeting every two years, it sets general policies and defines programme lines for the organisation. The Executive Board’s 58 members are elected by the General Conference for four-year terms. The Executive Board prepares the sessions of the General Conference and ensures that its instructions are carried out. It also discharges other specific mandates assigned to it by the General Conference. The Secretariat consists of the Director-General and his staff and is responsible for the day-to-day running of the organisation. The UNESCO implements its activities through the 5 programme areas: education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture, and communication and information.

34

The UNESCO is providing international leadership in creating learning societies with educational opportunities for all; it supports research in comparative education and provides expertise and fosters partnerships to strengthen national educational leadership and the capacity of countries to offer quality education for all. This includes: the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) which is a centre for training and research to strengthen the capacity of countries to plan and manage their education systems, and Environmental Conservation organisation. The UNESCO also issues public ‘statements’ to educate the public: ‘Seville Statement on Violence‘ is a statement adopted by the UNESCO in 1989 to refute the notion that humans are biologically predisposed to organised violence. The organisation is concerned with numerous diverse projects including: projects and places of cultural and scientific significance, such as: international network of geoparks; exploring biosphere reserves through the programme on ‘Man and the Biosphere‘ since 1971; ‘City of Literature‘ (in 2007, the first city to be given this title was Edinburgh, the site of Scotland’s first circulating library); endangered languages and linguistic diversity projects; masterpieces of the oral and intangible heritage of humanity, and many others. The UNESCO encourages the free flow of ideas by images and words, promotes freedom of expression, press freedom and access to information through the International Programme for the Development of Communication and the Communication and Information Programme. It promotes universal access to ICT through the Information for All Programme (IFAP), pluralism and cultural diversity in the media and such events as International Literacy Day.

POST-READING

A Complete the following sentences:

1)

The General Conference sets general policies and defines

2)

programme lines for the organization. It is responsible for in the fields of education, science and culture. The Executive Board prepares the sessions of the General Conference and ensures that its instructions are

35

3)

The Secretariat is responsible for the

running of

the organization. 4) The organisation supports research and

partnerships to

national education.

5) It supports the capacity of countries to education for all.

6)

quality

Seville Statement on Violence was adopted by the UNESCO

in 1989 to

the notion that humans are

biologically predisposed to organised violence.

the free flow of ideas and promotes to ICTs through the Information for

7) UNESCO universal All Programme.

B Which of these verbs are synonyms?

provide, encourage, govern, support, take part in, run, participate, set up, foster, strengthen, implement, facilitate, establish, carry out, administrate.

C Match the following parts of sentences:

1). The

UNESCO

is

a) universal access to ICT.

 

concerned

2).

It

issues

public

b) with

numerous

diverse

statements

 

projects.

3). It promotes

c) societies

learning

with

 

educational opportunities.

4). It encourages

 

d) to educate the public.

5). It creates

e) for

policy-making,

 

governance,

and

day-to-

day administration.

6).

Its

bodies

are

f) through

the

five

responsible

programme areas.

7).

It

implements

its

g) access to information.

activities

36

D Make an outline of the text.

E Speak in short on the items of your outline.

4

THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN THE UNITED NATIONS

PRE-READING

A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of the following words:

 

disaster

collective security

disarmament

maternity

priority

render assistance

undermine

elaborate

appoint

non-proliferation

advocacy

objective

uphold

founding state

milestone

refugee

elect

B Complete the following sentences with the appropriate word or its derivative using the above list:

1)

Belarus has been an active UN member since its

2)

Belarus has always

the principles and policies of

the UN. 3) Its representatives have been

the UN. 3) Its representatives have been

4)

chief committees and councils. The Millennium Summit of the UN was a

members of the

event.

5) Belarus contributes to the processes of nuclear

and non- 6) It elaborates new approaches to the issues of international

collective

on a local, regional and global scale.

READING

Read the text and list the main activities of the Republic of Belarus in the United Nations.

The Republic of Belarus in the United Nations

Being a founding state of the United Nations, Belarus has been upholding objectives and principles of the organisation, aiming at strengthening UN positions in solving complicated world problems in most active way.

37

Belarus was elected a member of the UN Security Council (1974-1975), of the UN Economic and Social Council and some of its functional commissions. Many times Belarusian representatives were appointed as vice-presidents of the General Assembly, worked as chairpersons, vice-chairpersons and speakers for the chief committees of the General Assembly. The key aspect of the UN and Belarus cooperation is the participation of official missions of Belarus in the work of annual and special sessions of the UN General Assembly and other bodies of the Organization, the UN specialized institutions and in the activity of different UN international forums. The Millennium Summit was an important event of 2000 for the UN system. Belarusian delegation took part in that milestone event. Belarus is a member of more than 50 UN specialized institutions and other intergovernmental organisations cooperating with the UN on the basis of special agreements. Among them are the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), International Labour Organisation (ILO), World Health Organisation (WHO), UN Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and many others. In 1993 a UN/UNDP representative office was opened in Minsk with the aim of rendering consultative and technical assistance in the field of market transformations. Division of the UN International Children’s Fund with the appropriate financial backing for implementing the programme of maternity and childhood protection was opened in Minsk. UN also actively supports the country’s efforts in dealing with issues of refugees and migration. The key areas of Belarus cooperation with UN are as follows:

involving countries in commercial, economic, scientific, technical, environmental, social and humanitarian spheres of the UN activity; use of resources and experience of intergovernmental organisations of the UN system aimed at full integration into the system of world economic relations; contribution of the UN to consolidation of international cooperation in dealing with the impact of the Chernobyl disaster. Today the main objectives of Belarus within the UN system are the following: further support of initiatives featuring Belarusian priorities in the sphere of domestic and foreign policy and their

38

embodiment in the final documents and UN General Assembly resolutions; advocacy of the proposals on reforming and strengthening the UN that meet interests of Belarus; further development of the country’s contribution to the processes of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation agreements; elaboration of new approaches to the issues of international collective security on a local, regional and global scale; creation of necessary conditions for applying the legally obligatory character to the existing de-facto nuclear-free Central and Eastern Europe region; elaboration of an open, nondiscriminatory and transparent system of world trade with World Trade Organisation at its core. Belarus is firmly committed to the key role of the Security Council in maintaining international peace and security. Actions that bypass the authority given to the Security Council by the Charter of the United Nations undermine the legal basis of the established system of international relations and threaten the very foundations of the international legal order. Belarus supports the process of reforming Security Council, taking into account the major changes in the international arena and the significant increase in the number of UN member states. Effective reform of the Security Council can be achieved only by consensus among all the participants in this process. Belarus pays great importance to the efforts to ensure transparency, democracy and accountability in the working methods and procedures of the Security Council, including decision-making process. Belarus fully supports the measures aimed at improving the flow of information regarding the Council’s activities, increasing its cooperation with the General Assembly and further rationalizing the preparation and submission of its annual reports to the General Assembly. There is a need for increased transparency in the Council’s work, first and foremost by providing adequate information on the outcome of the closed consultations of the members of the Council and on the activities of the sanctions committees and by increasing the number of briefings for states that are not members of the Council. Belarus has consistently advocated the Council’s adoption of the practice of holding orientation discussions at the level of Ministers for Foreign Affairs on the most important issues on the international agenda.

39

POST-READING

A Give

the

Russian

combinations:

equivalents

for

the

following

word-

a founding state; to uphold objectives and principles; to be aimed at strengthening positions; to be appointed; to be elected; annual and special sessions; the milestone event; with the aim of rendering assistance; issues of refugees and migration; the impact of Chernobyl disaster; to feature Belarusian priorities; nuclear disarmament; non-proliferation agreements; approaches to issues of collective security; non-discriminatory and transparent policy; to be firmly committed to; to undermine the legal basis; actions that bypass the authority; to improve the flow of information; submission of annual reports; the outcome of closed consultations; briefings for states; adoption of the practice.

B Answer the following questions:

1)

When did the Republic of Belarus become a member of the

2)

UN? What objectives and principles does Belarus uphold?

3)

Is Belarus an active member of the UN? Prove it.

4) Does Belarus participate in the work of specialized UN

5)

institutions? When was a UN representative office opened in Minsk?

6)

What are its functions? What are the key areas of Belarus cooperation with the UN?

7) What are the main objectives Belarus upholds within the UN? 8) Why does Belarus support the process of reforming the

Security Council? Which functions of the Security Council activities should be improved?

9)

C Discuss the following:

The activities of Belarus within the UN;

The proposals to reform the Security Council.

D Make a written résumé of the text.

40

READING AND DISCUSSION

Read the short report about the opening day of the United Nations General Assembly and then do the tasks that follow.

The United Nations General Assembly

More than 120 world leaders met in New York for the opening of the United Nations General Assembly. UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon was the first of many to address the growing financial crisis. US President Bush said the country was taking decisive action to address the financial meltdown, and tried to assure world leaders the crisis would be diffused. But that was later in his speech. He used much of his 22 minutes to push for multilateral cooperation on his Administration’s so-called War on Terror. This was Bush’s last speech at the UN, and he encouraged UN members to enforce sanctions on Iran and North Korea, while also attacking Iran and Syria as state sponsors of terrorism. Also speaking was Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, President of Liberia, noting that in spite of the country’s progress towards economic stability, they still have a long way to go towards eradicating poverty.

POST-READING

A Answer the following questions:

1) Why did UN Secretary General devote his speech to the financial crisis? 2) What did President Bush focus on in his last speech at the Assembly? 3) What is another vital problem for the states like Liberia to be solved?

B Enlarge on:

The world financial crisis;

Terrorism;

Poverty.

41

Read the interview of Russian deputy foreign minister and do the tasks that follow.

Bilateral Meetings at UN Session

MOSCOW, (RIA Novosti) – Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov held some 50 bilateral meetings during the annual UN General Assembly session, a deputy foreign minister said. In an interview with the Rossiiskaya Gazeta the high-ranking diplomat said that besides regular sessions, the UN General Assembly is important from the point of view of bilateral meetings. Russia drew attention to three of its draft resolutions it considered to be important with regard to security and the establishment of stable intergovernmental relations. The first draft resolution, he said, concerns measures of transparency and trust in activities in outer space. The second relates to the spheres of information and telecommunications in the context of international security, and the third to measures against the escalation of racism, ethnic discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance.

POST-READING

Answer the following questions:

1)

Why is the existence of the UN vital for the world?

2) What activities besides regular sessions are held by foreign ministers during the work of the General Assembly?

3)

To what draft resolutions did Russian Foreign Minister draw attention of the General Assembly?

Agree or disagree with the following statements and give your pros and cons. Choose phrases of agreement/disagreement from the list to begin:

I must agree totally with

I’d like to begin by agreeing with

I support the opinion that

By the way, I don’t agree with

I can’t agree with

I can’t share the view that

42

Bilateral meetings are very important due to the existing political and financial crises.

There are more important problems for the world to resolve than outer space exploration or information and telecommunication security.

Terrorism is the threat for the whole mankind.

Poverty can be done away with without the assistance of the UN.

Read the report of BelTA and then do the tasks that follow.

Belarus Supports New Security Architecture in Europe

Within the framework of the United Nations Organisation Belarus backed Russia’s proposal to create new security architecture in Europe and expressed readiness to take an active part in the effort, BelTA learnt from the Permanent Representative Office of the Republic of Belarus in the UN. The statement was made by Deputy Foreign Minister of Belarus. The Belarusian diplomat called upon the USA and Russia to develop a new agreement instead of the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty as a tangible practical contribution to the fulfillment of the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Ratification of existing treaties, first of all, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, could be a positive signal in support of the NPT. As far as non-proliferation and disarmament are concerned, it was stressed that every member-state has an inalienable right to peaceful nuclear activities and that existing mechanisms of the international community should contribute to ensuring equal non- discriminating access of all interested countries to the nuclear energy production. Attention was drawn to Belarus’ resolution on banning the development and production of new kinds of weapons of mass destruction. The draft resolution has an element of political commitments of the member-states and suggests a mechanism of response via the Conference on Disarmament. The representative of Belarus also reminded, in line with Ottawa Convention obligations Belarus still faces a difficult task of utilising over three million antipersonnel mines, a task difficult to accomplish without international aid.

43

The Deputy Foreign Minister of Belarus said that Belarus would continue supporting and promoting measures of trust and transparency in control over arms and exports through regularly submitting data to the UN register of conventional arms and participation in UN standardized military expenses accounting.

POST-READING

A Answer the following questions:

1)

What Russian proposal did Belarus back?

2)

Why is it necessary to develop a new agreement instead of

3)

the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty? Do the existing mechanisms of the international community

4)

contribute to ensuring equal non-discriminating access to the nuclear energy production? What is the aim of Belarus’ draft resolution on banning the

5)

development and production of new kinds of weapons of mass destruction? Which commitment did Belarus confirm?

B Discuss the following:

The initiatives Belarus put forward;

The challenges to International security;

The international situation background which makes states worry about their insecurity.

UNIT 3

INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS (2)

STARTING-UP

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic community of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Europe. The Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organisation which serves as a forum for political dialogue. Its stated aim is to secure stability in the region, based on democratic practices and improved governance.

44

The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) is a military alliance of West European and newly joined East European countries and the United States which constitutes a system of collective defense in response to an attack by any external party. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) aims to accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region and to promote regional peace and stability through the rule of law and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter.

VOCABULARY FOCUS

Early warning means forestalling some event or process. Conflict prevention deals with averting conflict while crisis management suggests crisis control. Post-conflict rehabilitation includes measures to remove the consequences of the conflict.

Collaboration means cooperation, mutual activities. Contribution is an act of providing material or moral help by paying to or supporting some fund or organisation.

Hemisphere is half of the globe.

Use the above words or their derivatives to complete the following sentences:

The best means to avoid fires is to establish mechanisms of their

The

of many influential international organisations is needed to eradicate poverty.

There some crises that are difficult

There are two

It would have been better to

took place and the only thing to do is to Russia launched the first sputnik and so world space exploration.

: Southern and Northern.

the conflict. But it it. to the

45

READING

PRE-READING

1

THE EUROPEAN UNION

Before reading the text make sure you know the meaning of the following words:

community

accession

confirm

update

precedence

nominate

summit

hybrid

successive

carry out

appoint

affect

legislature

generate

trace to

enact

stem from

combine

initiate

apply

represent

estimate

amend

adopt

gross domestic product

share

abolish

pillar

READING

Read the text and do the tasks that follow.

The European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic community of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Europe. It was established in 1993 by the Maastricht Treaty, adding new areas of policy to the existing European Community. With almost 500 million citizens, the EU combined generates an estimated 30% share of the world’s nominal gross domestic product. The EU has developed a single market through a standardized system of laws which apply in all member states, guaranteeing the freedom of movement of people, goods, services and capital. It maintains a common trade policy, agricultural and fisheries policies, and a regional development policy. Fifteen member states have adopted a common currency, the euro. It has developed a role in foreign policy, representing its members in the World Trade Organization, at G8 summits and at the United Nations. Twenty- one EU countries are members of NATO. It has developed a role in justice and home affairs, including the abolition of passport control between many member states under the Schengen Agreement.

46

EU operation is a hybrid of intergovernmentalism and supranationalism. In certain areas it depends upon agreement between the member states. However, it also has supranational bodies, able to make decisions without the agreement of members. Important institutions and bodies of the EU include the European Commission, the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, the European Court of Justice and the European Central Bank. EU citizens elect the Parliament every five years. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community formed among six countries in 1951 and the Treaty of Rome in 1957. Since then the EU has grown in size through the accession of new member states and has increased its powers by the addition of new policy areas. The Treaty of Lisbon, signed in December 2007 and intended to be ratified by the end of 2008, is planned to amend the existing treaties to update the political and legal structure of the union. The EU is based on a series of treaties which have built up the current structure by successive additions and amendments. The treaties define the broad policy goals of the organisation and establish institutions with the necessary legal powers to implement those goals, including the ability to enact legislation which can directly affect all member states and their inhabitants (the principle of ‘direct effect‘). National courts enforce the EU treaties and the laws enacted under them, as one of the conditions of membership. In case of a conflict when a law stemming from EU legislation conflicts with another national law, the EU law is considered to take precedence (the principle of ‘supremacy‘). The EU is often described as being divided into three areas of responsibility, called ‘pillars‘. The original European Community policies form the first pillar, while the second and the third consist of Common Foreign and Security Policy. The European Commission acts as the EU executive arm and is responsible for initiating legislation and the day-to-day running of the EU. It is intended to act solely in the interest of the EU as a whole. The President of the Commission and all the other commissioners are nominated by the Council. Appointment of the Commission President, and the Commission has to be confirmed by Parliament.

47

The European Parliament forms one half of the EU legislature. The 785 Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) are directly elected by EU citizens every five years. Although MEPs are elected on a national basis, they sit according to political groups rather than their nationality. Each country has a set number of seats. The Parliament and the Council form and pass legislation jointly, using co-decision, in certain areas of policy. The President of the European Parliament carries out the role of speaker in parliament and represents it externally. The president and vice presidents are elected by MEPs every two and a half years.

POST-READING

A Give

the

Russian

combinations:

equivalents

for

the

following

word-

a political and economic community; laws apply in all member states; an estimated 30% share; the freedom of movement of people; to adopt a common currency; to grow in size through the accession of new members; the addition of new policy areas; the treaty intended to be ratified; to amend the existing treaties; to update the structure; to build up the current structure; successive amendments; to implement goals; to enact legislation; to enforce the EU treaties; a law stemming from EU legislation; to conflict with another law; three pillars; the day-to-day running of the EU; to act solely in the interest; a set number of seats; to pass legislation jointly.

B Find in the text the sentences with the word-combinations given above, read and translate them into Russian.

C Put two questions to every paragraph of the text.

D Make a written résumé of the text.

48

2

ORGANISATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE

PRE-READING

Before reading the text make sure you know the meaning of the following words:

predominantly

settlement

modality

summit

commitment

dimension

schedule

rotate

monitoring

supervise

convene

settle

be concerned with

combat

body

Match the parts:

summit

programme or a time-table, tabulated statement of activities

a

commitment

directing the execution

modality

a

calling together an assembly

monitoring

obligation

dimension

control, test and check (for better quality)

supervision

a

meeting or talks held between heads of

governments

convocation

necessity, requirements, needs

schedule

special, created for specific purpose

ad hoc

extent, scope or measurement in one

direction

READING

Read the text and remember the spheres of activities of the OSCE.

The OSCE

The OSCE is an ad hoc organization under the United Nations Charter, and is concerned with early warning, conflict

49

prevention, crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation. Its 56 participating States are from Europe, the Caucasus, Central

Asia and North America and covers most of the northern

hemisphere. It was created as an East-West forum. Political direction to the Organization is given by heads of state or government during summits. Summits are not regular or scheduled but held as needed. The high-level decision-making body of the Organization is the Ministerial Council, which meets at the end of every year. At ambassadorial level the Permanent Council convenes weekly in Vienna and serves as the regular negotiating and decision-making body. Responsibilities of the Chairman-in-Office (CiO) include coordination of the work of OSCE institutions; representing the Organization; supervising activities related to conflict prevention, crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation. The Chairmanship rotates annually, and the post of the Chairman-in- Office is held by the foreign minister of the participating State which holds the Chairmanship. The CiO is assisted by the previous and incoming Chairman-in-Office; the three of them together constitute the Troika. The origin of the institution lies with the Charter of Paris for a New Europe (1990), the Helsinki Document 1992 formally institutionalized this function. In addition to the Ministerial Council and Permanent Council, the Forum for Security and Co-operation is also an OSCE decision-making body. It deals predominantly with matters of military cooperation, such as modalities for inspections according to the 1999 Vienna Document. The OSCE takes a comprehensive approach to the politico-military dimension of security, which includes a number of commitments by participating States and mechanisms for conflict prevention and resolution. The Organization also seeks to enhance military security by promoting greater openness, transparency and cooperation. The end of the Cold War resulted in a huge amount of weapons becoming available in what is known as the international grey market for weapons. The OSCE helps to stop the illegal spread of such weapons and offers assistance with their destruction.

50

The actions taken by the OSCE in border monitoring, range from conflict prevention to post-conflict management. With its expertise in conflict prevention, crisis management and early warning, the OSCE contributes to world-wide efforts in combating terrorism. The OSCE works to prevent conflicts from arising and to facilitate lasting comprehensive political settlements for existing conflicts. It also helps with the process of rehabilitation in post-conflict areas. OSCE police operations are an integral part of the Organization’s efforts in conflict prevention and post-conflict rehabilitation. Activities in the economic and environmental dimension include the monitoring of developments related to economic and environmental security in OSCE participating States, with the aim of preventing them from any threat of conflict. The OSCE Secretariat is located in Vienna, Austria. The Organization also has offices in Copenhagen, Geneva, The

Hague, Prague and Warsaw.

POST-READING

A Give

the

Russian

combinations:

equivalents

for

the

following

word-

an ad hoc organisation; early warning; conflict prevention; post conflict rehabilitation; crisis management; participating states; high-level decision-making body; to hold chairmanship; at ambassadorial level; modalities for inspections; a comprehensive approach; the politico-military dimension of security; commitments of participating states; to promote greater openness, transparency and cooperation; to result in a grey market for weapons; the illegal spread of weapons; border monitoring; to contribute to combating terrorism; an integral part of the efforts; any threat of conflict.

B Find in the text the sentences with the word-combinations given above, read and translate them into Russian.

51

C

Answer the following questions:

1)

What is the OSCE concerned with?

2)

What countries are the participating states of the OSCE?

3)

Are OSCE summits held on a regular basis?

4) Which body of the organisation meets at the end of each

5)

year? What are the responsibilities of the Chairman- in- Office?

6)

Which country holds the Chairmanship at the moment?

7)

What inspections does the OSCE make? What are their purposes?

D

List all activities of the OSCE.

E

Make a written resume of the text.

3

THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANISATION

PRE-READING

A Before reading the text make sure you know the meaning of the following words:

engagement

expansion

defense

station

deployment

arms race

détente

wage

dissolution

offensive

alliance

fleet

adversary

embargo

missile

join

mass destruction

nuclear weapons

B Complete the following sentences with the appropriate word from the list above:

to counteract

1) States join together and form an their

2)

3) They are engaged in

Military Alliances have defensive and

strategy.

and further developing

4)

weapons of mass These activities do not facilitate

52

5) Expansion of alliances and

of missiles close to

6)

the borders of their enemy is the goal of military blocs.

It’s

weapons.

easier

to

hostilities using all types of

READING

Read the text and do the tasks that follow.

NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) (also called the North Atlantic Alliance) is a military alliance established by the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949. Headquartered in Brussels, Belgium, the organisation constitutes a system of collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. During most of the duration of the Cold War, NATO maintained a pattern with no actual military engagement as an organization. They also signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty In 1978, NATO countries officially defined two complementary aims of the Alliance, to maintain security and pursue détente. This was supposed to mean matching defenses at the level rendered necessary by the Warsaw Pact’s offensive capabilities without a further arms race. In 1979, in light of Warsaw Pact nuclear capabilities in Europe, ministers approved the deployment of U.S. cruise missiles and Pershing II nuclear weapons in Europe. The new warheads were also meant to strengthen the western negotiating position in regard to nuclear disarmament. This action led to peace movement protests throughout Western Europe. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact in 1991 removed the de facto main adversary of NATO. This caused a strategic re-evaluation of NATO’s purpose, nature and tasks. In practice this ended up entailing a gradual expansion of NATO to Eastern Europe, as well as the extension of its activities to areas that had not formerly been NATO concerns.

53

Yet the first post-Cold War expansion of NATO came with the reunification of Germany in 1990 though it was agreed that foreign troops and nuclear weapons would not be stationed in the east. In 1997, three former socialist countries, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland, were invited to join NATO, which finally happened in 1999. And the process still goes on. The first NATO military operation caused by the conflict in the former Yugoslavia ran in 1993–1996. It provided enforcement of the arms embargo and economic sanctions against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. A NATO bombing campaign began in August, 1995, against the Army of Republika Srpska. On 24 March 1999, NATO saw its first broad-scale military engagement in the Kosovo War, where it waged an 11-week bombing campaign. The September 11 attacks caused NATO to invoke Article 5 of the NATO Charter for the first time in its history. The Article says that an attack on any member shall be considered to be an attack on all. NATO determined that the attacks were indeed under the terms of the North Atlantic Treaty. The official actions taken by NATO in response to the attacks included: naval operations in the Mediterranean Sea to prevent the movement of terrorists or weapons of mass destruction as well as to enhance the security of shipping in general.

POST-READING

A Which of the words are antonyms?

détente, offense, ally, arms race, armament, construction, expansion, defense, disarmament, destruction, adversary, contraction.

B Complete the following sentences:

1) The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation is a military

2) The organisation constitutes a system of collective

3) During the Cold War NATO maintained a pattern with no

54

actual military

as an organization.

4) They officially defined two complementary aims of the

Alliance, to maintain security and pursue 5) Détente meant relaxation of tension without further

6) Later the countries of NATO approved nuclear weapons in Europe.

of

7)

Gradual

of NATO to Eastern Europe began after

8)

the Cold war. NATO promised not to

its missiles in the East.

9)

The process of other eastern countries still going on.

NATO is

10) NATO saw its first broad-scale military

in the

Kosovo War, where it

an 11-week bombing

campaign. 11) The Mediterranean Sea military operations were aimed to prevent the movement of terrorists or weapons of

C Answer the following questions:

1)

What kind of organisation is NATO?

2)

What was NATO policy like during the Cold war?

3) Under what pretext was it decided to deploy nuclear

4)

weapons in Europe? What did NATO promise not to do after the fall of the

5)

Berlin wall? What is the policy of NATO nowadays?

6)

Is NATO engaged in military operations?

7)

Does this policy cause anxiety of Russia, Belarus and other former Soviet Union countries? Why?

D Make a written summary of the text.

E Express your opinion on nowadays NATO policy.

55

4

ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS

PRE-READING

A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of the following words:

focal point

affiliation

stability

attend

adherence

dialogue

partner

region

accelerate

portfolio

be held

B Replace the underlined word with the synonym from the list above:

1)

Southeast Asia is a very large area.

2)

The aim of ASEAN is to speed up the development in the

3)

region. The organization states its commitment to the principles of

4)

the UN Charter. Alongside its permanent members ASEAN has dialogue

5)

participants. Ministerial meetings on a number of programmes are held

6)

regularly. The most important point is the August ASEAN Economic

7)

Ministers’ Meetings. These meetings are also attended by Economic Ministers of not permanent partners.

READING

Read the text and do the tasks that follow.

ASEAN

Established in 1967, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) aims to accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region and to promote regional peace and stability through the rule of law and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter. At the 13 th ASEAN Summit in November 2007, the leaders signed the ASEAN Charter which provides a legal and institutional framework to support the realization of ASEAN’s objectives, including regional integration.

56

ASEAN comprises ten countries: Burma, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. ASEAN has ten Dialogue Partners: Australia, Canada, China, EU, India, Japan, New Zealand, ROK, Russia and the United States. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) also has dialogue status. Australia became ASEAN’s first Dialogue Partner in 1974. ASEAN holds annual Head of State/Government-level Summits towards the end of each year. The East Asia Summit (EAS) is also held at this time. ASEAN holds regular ministerial and senior officials’ meetings across a number of portfolios throughout the year. The main meetings involving the foreign ministers of ASEAN and its dialogue partners are the Post Ministerial Conferences (PMC), normally held in July, followed by the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF). The focal point of the year for economic ministers is the ASEAN Economic Ministers’ Meetings (AEM), normally held in August. The AEM is attended by Economic Ministers of ASEAN and a number of dialogue partners. The Chair of ASEAN is rotated among the ASEAN countries on an annual basis, and acts as host of the Summit and key ministerial meetings. Thailand is the current Chair of ASEAN. The ASEAN Secretariat, based in Jakarta, Indonesia, coordinates, initiates and implements ASEAN activities. The

Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General of ASEAN, who is appointed for a five-year term and accorded ministerial status. Dr Surin Pitsuwan, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Thailand, assumed the post of Secretary-General of ASEAN on 7 January

2008.

ASEAN has several specialized bodies to implement inter- governmental cooperation in various fields, such as the ASEAN Agricultural Development Planning Centre and the ASEAN Centre for Energy. In addition, ASEAN promotes dialogue and consultations with professional and business organisations, such as the ASEAN-Chambers of Commerce and Industry and ASEAN Business Forum. A number of non-governmental organisations

(NGOs) have formal affiliations with ASEAN.

57

POST-READING

A Complete the following sentences:

1) ASEAN aims to

economic growth, social

progress and cultural development in the region. 2) The organisation promotes regional peace and

through the rule of law and the United Nations Charter.

The main meetings involve the foreign ministers of ASEAN

partners. point of the year for economic ministers is

the ASEAN Economic Ministers’ Meetings normally in August.

and its

to the principles of

3)

4) The

5) The meetings are

by Economic Ministers of

ASEAN and a number of dialogue partners.

6)

year. 7) A number of non-governmental organisations have formal with ASEAN. 8) ASEAN holds regular ministerial and senior officials’

is usually held at the end of the

The East Asia

meetings across a number of

throughout the year.

B Work in pairs. Put questions to each paragraph of the text and answer them.

C Read the text given below and render it in English.

Партнерство Россия–АСЕАН

Укрепление сотрудничества с Ассоциацией государств Юго-Восточной Азии (АСЕАН) относится к числу приоритетов азиатской политики России. Организация является «ядром» региональных интеграционных процессов в АТР, одним из влиятельных центров мировой политики, способствующим формированию многополярного мира. Развитие взаимодействия с «десяткой» АСЕАН имеет для России большое значение для формирования в регионе новой системы политических и экономических отношений, упрочения российских позиций и продвижения российских инициатив, в первую очередь, в сфере безопасности.

58

Отношения России с АСЕАН строятся в рамках диалогового партнерства – основной формы внешних связей Ассоциации. Россия является партнером «десятки» по диалогу с 1996 г. (диалоговыми партнерами АСЕАН являются также США, Евросоюз, Китай, Индия, Япония и другие – всего десять). Россия активно проводит линию на расширение взаимодействия с АСЕАН в сфере борьбы с терроризмом. Совместная декларация о сотрудничестве в борьбе с международным терроризмом положила основу для борьбы с транснациональной преступностью.

READING AND DISCUSSION

1. Read the text and do the tasks that follow.

Terrorism

Terrorism has been used by a broad array of political organisations in furthering their objectives both right-wing and left-wing political parties, nationalistic, and religious groups, revolutionaries and ruling governments. An International Round Table on Constructing Peace, Deconstructing Terror (2004) recommended that a distinction should be made between terrorism and acts of terror. While acts of terrorism are criminal acts as recognized by the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373 and domestic jurisprudence of almost all countries in the world, terrorism refers to a phenomenon including the actual acts, the perpetrators of acts of terrorism themselves and their motives. There is an intellectual consensus globally, that acts of terrorism should not be accepted under any circumstances. The only general characteristic of terrorism generally agreed upon is that terrorism involves violence and the threat of violence. The attack is carried out in such a way as to maximize the severity and length of the psychological impact. Each act of terrorism is a “performance,” devised to have an impact on many large audiences. Terrorists also attack national symbols to show their power and to shake the foundation of the country or society they

59

are opposed to. This may negatively affect a government’s legitimacy, while increasing the legitimacy of the given terrorist organisation and/or ideology behind a terrorist act. Something all terrorist attacks have in common is their perpetration for a political purpose. Terrorism is a political tactic that is used by activists when they believe no other means will influence the kind of change they desire. The change is desired so badly that failure is seen as a worse outcome than the deaths of civilians. This is often where the interrelationship between terrorism and religion occurs.

POST-READING

A Answer the following questions:

1)

What phenomenon does the term ‘terrorism’ refer to?

2)

Why should a distinction be made between terrorism and

acts of terror? 3) What is the only general characteristic of terrorism generally agreed upon?

4)

What is the usual purpose of a terrorist attack?

5)

What do terrorist attacks have in common?

B Agree or disagree with the following and give your comments:

The distinctive nature of terrorism lies in its intentional and specific selection of civilians as direct targets.

The criminal intent is shown when babies, children, mothers, and the elderly are murdered or injured though they are not the targets of terrorists.

Terrorists see the civilians that are targeted as ‘symbols, tools, or corrupt beings’.

The victims’ suffering accomplishes the terrorists’ goals of instilling fear, getting a message out to an audience.

Spiritual failure is worse for terrorists than their own death or the deaths of innocent civilians.

60

Terrorists never pretend to be non-combatants, they never hide among non-combatants or fight from in the midst of the crowd.

When they can, terrorists strive to mislead and provoke the government soldiers into attacking the wrong people, so that the government might be blamed for it.

2. Read the text and do the tasks that follow.

Terrorism and Extremism

The terms ‘terrorism’ and ‘extremism’ are sometimes used interchangeably. However, there is a significant difference between the two. Terrorism is essentially threat or act of physical violence. Extremism involves using non-physical instruments to mobilize minds to achieve political or ideological ends. For instance, Al Qaeda is involved in terrorism while the Iranian revolution of 1979 is a case of extremism. A global research report An Inclusive World (2007) asserts that extremism poses a more serious threat than terrorism in the decades to come. For these and other reasons, media outlets wishing to preserve a reputation for impartiality are extremely careful in their use of the term. Some groups, when involved in a ‘liberation’ struggle, were called terrorists by the Western governments or media. Later, these same persons, as leaders of the liberated nations, were called statesmen by the same organisations. Two examples of this phenomenon are the Nobel Peace Prize laureates Menachem Begin and Nelson Mandela. Sometimes states that are close allies, for reasons of history, culture and politics, can disagree over whether members of a certain organisation are terrorists. For example for many years some branches of the United States government refused to label members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) as terrorists, while it was using methods against one of the United States’ closest allies – Britain. But Britain branded the attacks as terrorist.

61

POST-READING

A Answer the following questions:

1)

Why cannot the terms ‘terrorism’ and ‘extremism’ be used

2)

interchangeably? What is a more serious threat in the years to come?

3)

Why did the attitude to some groups or leaders considered

4)

to be terrorists get changed with the time? Do governments always have the same opinion on whether to label an organisation as ‘terrorist’?

B Discuss the following:

Terrorism as a global phenomenon;

The difference between terrorism and extremism;

Examples of terrorist attacks in the world;

Attitude to terrorism around the world.

UNIT 4

FOREIGN POLICY

STARTING-UP

A country‘s foreign policy is a set of goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact on an official basis with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. As well, an entire range of factors relating to those other nations including economic, political, social, military etc. is evaluated and monitored in attempts to maximize benefits of multilateral international cooperation. Foreign policies are designed to help protect a country’s national interests, national security, ideological goals, and economic prosperity. This can occur as a result of peaceful cooperation with other nations, or through aggression, war, and exploitation. The purpose of a foreign policy doctrine is to provide general rules for the conduct of foreign policy through decisions on international relations. These rules allow the political leadership of a nation to deal with a situation and to explain the actions of a nation to other nations.

62

VOCABULARY FOCUS

Usually, creating foreign policy is the job of the head of government and the foreign minister. In some countries the legislature also has considerable oversight. As an exception, in France and Finland, it is the head of state that is responsible for foreign policy, while the head of government mainly deals with internal policy. In the United States, the head of state (the President) also functions as the head of government.

A foreign policy doctrine is a general statement of foreign policy and belief system through a doctrine. In some cases, the statement is made by a political leader, typically a nation’s chief executive or chief diplomat, and comes to be named after that leader. Richard Nixon‘s justification for the phased withdrawal of the United States from Vietnam, for example, came to be called the Nixon Doctrine. This pattern of naming is not universal, however; Chinese doctrines, for example, are often referred to by number. “Doctrine” is usually not meant to have any negative connotations; it is especially not to be confused with “dogma.”

Use the above words in sentences of your own.

READING

1 FOREIGN POLICY OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

PRE-READING

A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of the following words:

interference

safeguard

preserve

removal

cultural ties

alignment

balanced

promote

suppression

milestone

initiative

arsenal

elimination

defensive

position

nuclear-free area

on safeguards to

to be aimed at

63

B Answer the following questions:

1) What practice of international relations does Belarus stand for? Why? 2) Is Belarus a nuclear-free area? Has it been a nuclear area before?

3)

4) What are the main principles of foreign policy of the

Republic aimed at? What are the principles of military doctrine of the Republic of Belarus?

5)

Who guarantees its security?

READING

Read the text and define the key points of the foreign policy of Belarus.

Foreign Policy of the Republic of Belarus

Belarus, more than any other country, understands the necessity to preserve and promote world peace. Our country, having lost during World War II almost one third of its population, knows the price of peaceful life and does its best to ensure that military conflicts disappear from the practice of international relations forever. An important milestone of Belarusian foreign policy was the signing in 1996 of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, decision on removal of strategic nuclear weapons from the country, Belarusian initiative on creating nuclear-free area in Central and Eastern Europe. Security of Belarus is legally guaranteed by the UN Security Council and through bilateral treaties concluded with several countries. Belarus has recently signed International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and adhered to the Additional Protocol on safeguards to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Belarus considers the OSCE as a key structure ensuring security and stability in Europe. The significant part of the dialog between Belarus and Western countries is still concentrated within the Organization. Belarus’ interaction with the OSCE is aimed at strengthening all elements of cooperation in the framework of the organization and at promoting a progressive reform of the organization taking into account interests of every single member state.

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Belarus has close relations with the major international institutions such as the United Nations Organization, Non- Alignment Movement, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, etc. During the UN Millennium Assembly and Summit, Belarus spoke for preserving UN as a unique universal international institution leading further development of international relations. Belarus supports consistent policy of the United Nations in such fields as international peace and security, development of existent international regimes on non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, reduction and elimination of its arsenals, combating international terrorism. Belarus respects sovereignty of other countries, their right to choose way of development. Belarus opposes interference in internal affaires of other countries since it is of opinion that there should not be any conflicts on the Earth. Military doctrine of Belarus consists of a number of principles on ensuring military security of the country by use of political and military measures. The doctrine specifies main directions of military policy of the nation, as well as determines its attitude to military conflicts and their prevention, military construction and use of military power to protect vital interests of the nation. Declaring the military doctrine, that has exceptionally defensive nature, Belarus believes that no nation is now potential enemy and considers its military security as state of protection of national interests during possible transformation of military risk to military threat to the nation. Belarus pursues a balanced foreign policy, the main purpose of which is to strengthen its international positions. Belarus acts actively both in trade and economic field, security affairs, as well as in developing cultural ties.

POST-READING

A Translate the following word-combinations into Russian:

to preserve and promote world peace; an important milestone of foreign policy; the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; removal of strategic nuclear weapons; initiative on creating nuclear-free area; through bilateral treaties; Convention for the Suppression

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of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism; to adhere to; the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty; to ensure security and stability; in the framework of the organisation; Non-Alignment Movement; the UN Millennium Assembly; non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; reduction and elimination of arsenals; to combat international terrorism; interference in internal affaires; to specify main directions of military policy; to protect vital interests; to declare the military doctrine; to have exceptionally defensive nature; to be potential enemy; military threat to the nation; to pursue a balanced foreign policy; to strengthen international positions; to develop cultural ties.

B Give antonyms for the following words:

nuclear area; legal; proliferation; alignment; offensive; outside the organisation; internal affairs; interference; dependence; security; possible; balance; equality.

C Match the parts:

to protect to pursue to strengthen to declare to interfere to speak for to develop to respect to act actively to sign

a treaty preserving the UN as a unique institution military doctrine international positions cultural ties national interests in internal affairs in security affairs sovereignty balanced foreign policy

D Complete the following sentences:

1)

An important milestone of Belarusian foreign policy was the signing in 1996 of

2)

Belarus initiated creating

in Central and Eastern

3)

Europe. Belarus signed International Convention for Acts of Nuclear Terrorism.

of

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4)

Belarus adhered to the Additional Protocol on safeguards to the nuclear

5) Belarus considers the OSCE as a key structure ensuring in Europe. 6) Belarus’ interaction with the OSCE is aimed at

of the

organisation. 7) Belarus has close relations with the major international institutions such as the United Nations Organisation, Movement, World Bank, International Monetary

Fund etc. During the UN Millennium Assembly and Summit, Belarus

8)

UN as a unique universal international

institution leading further development of international

strengthening all elements of cooperation

spoke for

9)

relations.

Belarus supports consistent policy of the United Nations on non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, reduction

and 10) Belarus respects

of its arsenals.

of other countries, their right to

in

internal affaires of other countries since it is of opinion that there should not be any conflicts on the Earth.

of Belarus consists of a number of

choose way of development. Belarus opposes

11) Military

principles on ensuring military security of the country by

use of political and military measures.

main directions of military policy

of the nation, as well as determines its attitude to military

conflicts and their prevention.

12) The doctrine

13) Belarus declared the military doctrine that has exceptionally nature.

14) Belarus pursues a

foreign policy, the main

purpose of which is to strengthen its international positions.

E Make a summary of the text.

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2

FOREIGN POLICY OF CHINA

PRE-READING

A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of the following words:

territorial integrity

with regard to

aspiration

reform

hot spot/ hot bed

under pretext

prosperity

accede

all-dimensional

in the light of

engage in

impose

modernization

proceed from

resort to

reflect

merit/ demerit

coexistence rational

propel

B Match antonyms:

peaceful area

modernize

integrity

poverty

merit

lack stance

interference

unreasonable

remain stagnant

disintegrity

have stance

non-interference

rational

hot spot

prosperity

demerit

READING

Read the text and define the key points of the foreign policy of China.

Foreign Policy of China

China pursues an independent foreign policy of peace. The fundamental goals of this policy are to preserve China’s independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, create a favorable international environment for China’s reform and opening up and modernization construction, maintain world peace and propel common development. China has all along adhered to the principle of independence. With regard to all international affairs, China will, proceeding from the fundamental interests of the Chinese people and the people of the world, determine its stand and policy in the light of the merits and demerits of the matter, without yielding to any

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outside pressure. China does not form an alliance with any big power or group of big powers. Nor does China establish military groups with other countries, or engage in arms race and military expansion. China opposes hegemonism and preserves world peace. China believes that all countries, big or small, strong or weak, rich or poor, are equal members of the international community. Countries should resolve their disputes and conflicts peacefully through consultations and not resort to the use or threat of force. Nor should they interfere in others’ internal affairs under any pretext. China never imposes its social system and ideology on others, nor allows other countries to impose theirs on it. China actively facilitates the establishment of a new international political and economic order that is fair and rational. China holds that the new order should give expression to the demands of the development of history and progress of the times and reflect the universal aspirations and common interests of the peoples of all countries in the world. The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and the universally recognized norms governing international relations should serve as the basis for setting up the new international political and economic order. China is ready to establish and develop friendly relations of cooperation with all the countries on the basis of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence. China pursues a policy of all-dimensional opening up to the outside. It is ready to develop, on the basis of equality and mutual benefit, extensive trade relations, economic and technological cooperation and scientific and cultural exchanges with countries and regions of the world so as to promote common prosperity. After 15 years’ talks, China finally acceded to the World Trade Organization on December 11, 2001. While enjoying the relevant rights, China has begun earnestly honoring its obligations within the framework of the WTO and its commitments. China remains ready to play a positive role, together with other countries, in improving world multilateral trade system and promoting prosperity and progress in the world.

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As a permanent member of the Security Council of the United Nations, China actively participates in the political solution of the problems of regional hot spots. China’s peace-keepers have joined United Nations peace-keeping operations. China supports the reform of the United Nations and a continued important role of the United Nations and other multilateral organs in international affairs. China is firmly opposed to all forms of terrorism and has made important contributions to international anti-terrorism cooperation. China devotes itself actively to pushing forward the cause of international arms control, disarmament and non- proliferation. To date, China has joined all the treaties related to international arms control and non-proliferation.

POST-READING

A Translate the following paragraph into Russian.

China has all along adhered to the principle of independence. With regard to all the international affairs, China will, proceeding from the fundamental interests of the Chinese people and the people of the world, determine its stand and policy in the light of the merits and demerits of the matter, without yielding to any outside pressure. China does not form an alliance with any big power or group of big powers. Nor does China establish military groups with other countries, or engage in arms race and military expansion.

B Answer the following questions:

1) What are the fundamental goals of China’s independent

2)

foreign policy? Whose interests will China proceed from in determining its