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ENGLISH FOR INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

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ISBN 978-985-457-911-5
, 2009
2
CONTENS

Unit 1. The Theory of International Relations 5


I. Reading
1. International Relations 7
2. The Theory of International Relations 11
3. Concepts in International Relations 15
II. Reading and Discussion
1. Belarus Will Be Improving National Security System 19
2. History of Diplomacy 21

Unit 2. International Organisations (1) 24


I. Reading
1. International Organisations 25
2. The United Nations 29
3. The UNESCO 33
4. The Republic of Belarus in the United Nations 37
II. Reading and Discussion
1. The United Nations General Assembly 41
2. Bilateral Meetings at UN Session 42
3. Belarus Supports New Security Architecture in Europe 43

Unit 3. International Organisations (2) 44


I. Reading
1. The European Union 46
2. Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe 49
3. NATO 52
4. Association of Southeast Asian Nations 56
II. Reading and Discussion
1. Terrorism 59
2. Terrorism and extremism 61

3
Unit 4. Foreign Policy 62
I. Reading
1. Foreign Policy of the Republic of Belarus 63
2. Foreign Policy of China 68
3. Foreign Policy of France 71
II. Reading and Discussion
1. Multidimensional Foreign Policy of Belarus
in Current International Situation 74
2. Bush Diplomacy Critisized by Obama 76
3. History of Strained Relations between France
and the United Kingdom 79

Unit 5. Negotiations 80
I. Reading
1. Approaches to Negotiation 81
2. Diplomatic Strategy 84
3. Positive and Negative Affects in Negotiation 87
4. Studies of Emotion in Negotiation 91
II. Reading and Discussion
1. Salami Tactics 95
2. The Eurasian Economic Community 97

Unit 6. Globalisation 98
I. Reading
1. History of Globalisation 99
2. Effects of Globalisation 102
3. Globalisn and Anti-globalism 108
II. Reading and Discussion
4. World Bank Figures on Globalisation Outcomes 112
5. Globalisation Critics Arguments 113
6. Anti-globalisation Protests 115

Sources 118

4
UNIT I
THE THEORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
STARTING-UP
International Relations (IR) is a branch of political science. It
represents the study of foreign affairs and global issues among
states within the international system, including the roles of states,
inter-governmental organisations (IGOs), non-governmental
organisations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). It
is both an academic and public policy field, and can be either
positive or normative as it both seeks to analyse as well as
formulate the foreign policy of particular states.
Apart from political science, IR draws upon such diverse
fields as economics, history, law, philosophy, geography,
sociology, anthropology, psychology, and cultural studies. It
involves a diverse range of issues, from globalisation and its
impacts on societies and state sovereignty to ecological
sustainability, nuclear proliferation, nationalism, economic
development, terrorism, organised crime, human security, and
human rights.

A Classify the aspects of IR given below according to which branch


of science they belong to:
foreign affairs organised crime
culture human rights
public policy globalisation
economic policy nuclear proliferation
state sovereignty independence
human security territorial conflicts
economic policy international trade
philosophy marketing
ecology negotiations
terrorism oil security

B Say which of the aspects mentioned above belong to the


academic discipline you study.

5
VOCABULARY FOCUS
Relations between two states are called bilateral relations. Thus,
relations between more than two states are multilateral relations.
Negotiations are talks and a treaty is an agreement usually
arrived at as a result of the talks.
Proliferation suggests some multiplication, causing to increase in
number. Nonproliferation is opposite in meaning and is usually
associated with nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.
Sovereignty is a countrys independence. Sovereign states
pursue/conduct both internal (home/domestic) policy and
external (foreign) policy which is usually government concern in
foreign affairs (relations).

Use the above words to complete the following sentences:


1. A state is considered to be ________ if its ________ is
recognized by other states.
2. The ________ relations between Russia and Belarus are
extending.
3. In its ________ policy the Republic of Belarus maintains
friendly ________ relations in Europe, Asia and Latin
America.
4. Sensible politicians are concerned about ________ of
nuclear weapons.
5. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for the
outcome of ________ with other countries on political
issues.
6. The ________ on nonproliferation of nuclear weapons was
signed by the countries that possessed them.

6
READING
1 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
PRE-READING
A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of
the following words:

development sanction diverse equal


advancement ultimate involve entity
encourage research impact found
trace back mobilize notion train
recognize institute failure alter
stimulate superior resort seek
establish channel shame tool
devote to enforce range

B Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of


the word from the list above:
1) Most countries want to have _________ rights in global
decision making.
2) They also want to enjoy nuclear security for development
and _________ of their countries.
3) For this purposes states establish international institutions
_________ in diverse range of activities.
4) A number of organisations define their functions which
include _______ research, _______ personnel, _______
human contacts etc.
5) Diplomacy is one of the _________ to resolve issues instead
of resorting to force.
6) To alter a states unfair actions a world organisation can
mobilize international _________ .
7) The _________ of international shame can be effective.
8) International Relations _________ to analyse and define
foreign policy.
READING
Read the text and remember four systemic tools of international
relations mentioned in it.

7
International Relations
International Relations is the study of the relations of states
with each other and with international organisations and certain
subnational entities (e.g. political parties and interest groups). It
studies the roles of states, inter-governmental organisations, non-
governmental organisations, and multinational corporations.
International relations involves a diverse range of issues, from
globalisation and its impacts on societies and state sovereignty to
ecological problems, nuclear proliferation, economic
development, terrorism, organised crime, human security, and
human rights.
It seeks both to analyze as well as formulate foreign policy. It
is related to a number of other academic disciplines, including
political science, geography, history, economics, law, sociology,
psychology, and philosophy.
The history of international relations is often traced back to
the Peace of Westfalia of 1648, where the modern state system
was developed. Westfalia instituted the notion of sovereignty,
which meant that rulers, or sovereigns, would recognize no
internal equals within a defined territory, and no external
superiors. Westfalia encouraged the rise of the nation-state and the
institution of diplomacy and armies. Later, this European system
was exported to America, Africa and Asia. The contemporary
international system was finally established during the Cold War.
In the 1920s, there came a strong impulse toward the
development of international studies in universities. New centres,
institutes, and schools devoted to teaching and research in
International Relations were founded. Courses were organised and
general textbooks on the subject began to appear. Private
organisations were formed, and large grants were channeled to the
advancement of citizens in world affairs through special training
institutes, conferences, and seminars, and to the stimulation of
university research.
Systemic tools of international relations are:
Diplomacy which is the practice of conducting negotiating
between representatives of states. All other tools of
international relations can be considered the failure of
diplomacy.

8
Sanctions are usually a first resort after the failure of
diplomacy, and are one of the main tools used to enforce
treaties. They can take the form of diplomatic or economic
sanctions.
War, the use of force, is often thought of as the ultimate
tool of international relations. A widely accepted definition
is that war is the continuation of politics by other means.
The mobilization of international shame can also be
thought of as a tool of international relations. This is
attempting to alter states actions through naming and
shaming at the international level.

POST-READING
Give the Russian equivalents for the following:
tools of international relations; practice of conducting
negotiations; the failure of diplomacy; a first resort; to alter
states actions; to name and shame states at international level;
economic sanctions; a widely accepted definition; the use of
force; representatives of states; schools devoted to teaching and
research; a strong impulse toward the development; the
contemporary international system; to encourage the rise of
diplomacy; to institute the notion of sovereignty; to trace back
to; to seek to analyse foreign policy; to be related to a number of
other academic disciplines; a diverse range of issues.

A Find the synonyms among verbs given below + policy


combinations:
conduct policy, form policy, consider policy, pursue policy,
analyse policy, decide policy, make policy.

B There is a set of words in the table related to the word


policy. Explain their meanings.
cy
Poli+ tics
tical ly
tician

9
C Put the right word in the blanks in these sentences:
1) Mr. Blair and Mr. Brown are two famous _______ . 2) Those
people are studying the science of _______ . 3) We sometimes
call a persons work his ________ activity. 4) People should be
________ educated. 5) The ________ regime of a democratic
country is usually called democracy. 6) The government pursues
a reasonable economic ________ .

D Translate into English:


1) .
2)
.
3) .
4) .
5)
.
6) .

E Answer the following questions:


1) What does International Relations as an academic discipline
study?
2) What other academic subjects is it related to?
3) What historic event is the establishment of international
relations traced back to?
4) When was the contemporary international system actually
established?
5) What is the first resort in settling issues in international
relations?
6) What is the tool usually resorted to in case of the failure of
diplomacy?
7) What definition would you give to war?
8) Is naming and shaming states at international level an
effective means of international relations?
F Make a summary of the text.

10
2 THE THEORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

VOCABULARY FOCUS
Positivism is a philosophic system which considers that truth can
be verified only by facts. A positivist is an adherent of positivism.
A positivist theory/ approach is the one that supports the ideas of
positivism.
A norm means a standard, an average. Thus, normal is,
something conforming to a standard, and normative is something
establishing a norm. So, normative approach is the one based on
personal values or judgements.
Explicitly means clearly and openly stated, while implicitly has
the meaning of being understood though not stated.

PRE-READING
A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of
the following words:
on the grounds distinguish security power
phenomenon dedicated survival reject
convergence facilitate distinct argue
expectation replicate oppose cite
experience focus on degree aim
vindication promote ignore

B Find among the above words synonyms for the following:


devoted to, to seek, extent, to make distinction, on the basis,
particular, goal, to deny, to oppose, to enhance, to concentrate
on, confirmation, to dispute, authority.

READING
Read the text containing some of the theories on IR and then do
the tasks that follow.

11
The Theory of International Relations
What is explicitly recognized as International Relations theory
was not developed until after World War I. IR theory, however,
has a long tradition of drawing on the work of other social
sciences. The use of capitalizations of the I and R in
International Relations aims to distinguish the academic discipline
of International Relations from the phenomena of international
relations.
Initially, International Relations as a distinct field of study
was almost entirely British-centered. In 1919, the Chair in
International Politics was established at the University of Wales,
in the early 1920s, the London School of Economics department
of International Relations was founded on the advice of Nobel
Peace Prize winner Philip Noel-Baker. In 1927 the first university
institution entirely dedicated to the study of IR, was founded the
Graduate Institute of International Studies , and offered one of
the first Ph.D. degrees in international relations in the country.
IR theories can be roughly divided into one of two camps:
positivist and post-positivist. Positivist theories aim to
replicate the methods of the natural sciences by analysing the
impact of material forces. They typically focus on features of
international relations such as state interactions, size of military
forces, balance of powers etc. Post-positivism rejects the idea that
the social world can be studied in an objective and value-free way.
It rejects the central ideas of neo-realism/liberalism, such as
Rational Choice theory, on the grounds that the scientific method
cannot be applied to the social world and that a science of IR is
impossible.
A key difference between the two positions is that while
positivist theories, such as neo-realism, offer causal explanations
(such as why and how power is exercised) post-positivist theories
focus instead on constitutive questions, for instance, what is meant
by power; what makes it up, how it is experienced and how it is
reproduced. Often, post-positivist theories explicitly promote a
normative approach to IR by considering ethics. This is something
which has often been ignored under traditional IR as positivist
theories make a distinction between facts and normative
judgements or values.

12
Realism focuses on state security and power above all else.
Early realists argued that states are self-interested, power-seeking
rational actors, who try to maximize their security and chances of
survival. Any cooperation between states is explained as
functional in order to maximize each individual states security (as
opposed to more idealistic reasons). Many realists saw World
War II as the vindication of their theory. It should be noted that
classical writers such as Thucydides, Machiavelli, and Hobbes
are often cited as the founding fathers of realism.
Regime theory is derived from the liberal tradition that
argues that international institutions or regimes affect the
behaviour of states (or other international actors). It assumes that
cooperation is possible in the anarchic system of states. Indeed,
regimes are, by definition, instances of international cooperation.
While realism predicts that conflict should be the norm in
international relations, regime theorists say that there is
cooperation and they cite cooperation in trade, human rights and
collective security among other issues. These instances of
cooperation are regimes. The most commonly cited definition of
regimes comes from Stephen Krasner who defines regimes as
institutions possessing norms, decision rules, and procedures
which facilitate a convergence of expectations.
International Society theory, also called the English School,
focuses on the shared norms and values of states and how they
regulate international relations. Examples of such norms include
diplomacy, order, and international law.

POST-READING
A Translate the following word-combinations into Russian:
to be explicitly recognized; a distinct field of study; to be entirely
dedicated to; Ph.D. degree; to be roughly divided into two camps;
to replicate the methods; to focus on the features; state
interactions: balance of powers; to reject the idea; to study in a
value-free way; Rational Choice theory; on the grounds that; to
apply a method to; to offer causal explanations; to exercise
power; to promote an approach; normative judgements or values;
above all else; to argue that; power-seeking actors; chances of

13
survival; the vindication of the theory; it should be noted; to be
often cited; the founding fathers; to be derived from; to affect
behaviour; instances of; collective security; to facilitate a
convergence of expectations; the shared norms and values.

B Complete the following sentences:


1) International Relations theory was not developed until after
_________.
2) The use of capitalizations of the I and R in International
Relations aims to distinguish the academic discipline of
International Relations _________.
3) Initially, International Relations as a distinct field of study
was almost entirely _________.
4) In 1927 the first university institution entirely dedicated to
the study of IR _________.
5) IR theories can be roughly divided into one of two camps:
_________.
6) Positivist theories typically focus on features of
international relations such as _________.
7) Post-positivism rejects the idea that the social world can be
studied in an objective and value-free way and considers
that a science of IR _________.
8) Positivist theories make a distinction between facts and
normative _________.
9) Realism focuses on state security and _________.
10) Regime theory argues that international institutions or
regimes affect the _________.
11) International Society theory focuses on the shared norms
and values of states and how they _________.

C Answer the following questions:


1) Why are the words International Relations capitalized?
2) Where was the theoretical study of international relations
initially established?
3) What camps can IR theories be divided into?
4) What is the difference between positivist and post-positivist
theories?
5) What does realism focus on?

14
6) What is the essence of Regime theory?
7) What does International Society theory focus on?
D Make a summary of the text.

3 CONCEPTS IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

VOCABULARY FOCUS
Concept is a general notion or an idea of something.
Cold war is a state of diplomatic tension between East and West
deliberately maintained for the winning of advantages without
fighting. Balance of power means parity between rival nations
preserved by the system of military and economic alliances.
Polarity is an arrangement of power in the world. Unipolarity
suggests the international system where power belongs to a single
state, bipolarity the international system where power is shared
between two states and multi-polarity the international system
where power is shared among more than two states. Hegemony
means leadership exercised by one state. Status quo is the existing
state of affairs.

PRE-READING
Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of the
following words:
gain prominence superpower prevalent affairs
interdependence hard power highlight define
retrospectively soft power coercive revise
preponderance draw upon prior to shape
disadvantage periphery version view
environment reinforce exploit sole

READING
Read the text containing some of the concepts in IR and answer
the following questions after reading:
1) How can the concept of power in international relations be
described?
2) What does hard power mean?

15
3) What does soft power mean?
4) What does the concept of polarity refer to?
5) What did the concept of polarity arise from?
6) How can the international system be described prior to
1945?
7) When did unipolarity arise?
8) When did the theory of the balance of power gain
prominence?
9) What does the concept of hegemony suggest?
10) Is unipolarity a stable configuration?
11) What is the current international system consistent with?
12) What is the essence of Dependency theory?
13) What is the status quo?

Concepts in International Relations


International relations are often viewed in terms of levels of
analysis. The systemic level concepts are those broad concepts
that define and shape an international environment.
The concept of power in international relations can be
described as the degree of resources, capabilities, and influence in
international affairs. It is often divided up into the concepts of
hard power and soft power, hard power relating primarily to
coercive power, such as the use of force, and soft power
commonly covering economics, diplomacy and cultural influence.
However, there is no clear dividing.
Polarity in international relations refers to the arrangement of
power within the international system. The concept arose from
bipolarity during the Cold War, with the international system
dominated by the conflict between two superpowers, and has been
applied retrospectively. Consequently, the international system
prior to 1945 can be described as multi-polar, with power being
shared among great powers. The collapse of the Soviet Union in
1991 led to what some would call unipolarity, with the United
States as a sole superpower.
Several theories of international relations draw upon the idea of
polarity. The balance of power was a concept prevalent in Europe
prior to the First World War, the thought being that by balancing

16
power blocs it would create stability and prevent war. Theories of
the balance of power gained prominence again during the Cold
War, being a central mechanism of Kenneth Waltzs neorealism.
Hegemonic stability theory (developed by Robert Gilpin) also
draws upon the idea of polarity, specifically the state of
unipolarity. Hegemony is the preponderance of power at one pole
in the international system, and the theory argues this is a stable
configuration because of mutual gains by both the dominant power
and others in the international system. This is contrary to many
neorealist arguments, particularly made by Kenneth Waltz, stating
that the end of the Cold War and the state of unipolarity is an
unstable configuration that will inevitably change.
Many advocate that the current international system is
characterized by growing interdependence, the mutual
responsibility and dependency on others. The role of international
institutions and widespread acceptance of a number of operating
principles in the international system reinforces ideas that relations
are characterized by interdependence.
Dependency theory is a theory most commonly associated with
Marxism, stating that a set of core states exploit a set of weaker
periphery states for their prosperity. Various versions of the theory
suggest that this is either an inevitability (standard dependency
theory), or use of the theory to highlight the necessity for change.
States can be classified by whether they accept the
international status quo, or are revisionist, i.e. want change.
Revisionist states seek to fundamentally change the rules and
practices of international relations, feeling disadvantaged by the
status quo. They see the international system as a largely western
creation which serves to reinforce current realities. Japan is an
example of a state that has gone from being a revisionist state to
one that is satisfied with the status quo, because the status quo is
now beneficial to it.

POST-READING
A Translate the following word-combinations into Russian:
broad concepts; to define and shape an international environment;
the degree of resources; capabilities, and influence in international
affairs; hard power; to relate to coercive power; the use of force;

17
soft power; to cover economics; cultural influence; there is no
clear dividing; the arrangement of power within the international
system; to draw upon the idea of polarity; the preponderance of
power at one pole; mutual gains; both the dominant power and
others; a largely western creation.

B Translate the following sentences into Russian:


The concept of power is often divided up into the concepts
of hard power and soft power, hard power relating primarily to
coercive power, such as the use of force, and soft power
commonly covering economics, diplomacy and cultural influence.
The concept arose from bipolarity during the Cold War, with
the international system dominated by the conflict between two
superpowers.
The international system prior to 1945 can be described as
multi-polar, with power being shared among Great powers.
The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 had led to what
some would call unipolarity, with the United States as a sole
superpower.
The balance of power was a concept prevalent in Europe
prior to the First World War, the thought being that by balancing
power blocs it would create stability and prevent war.
Theories of the balance of power gained prominence again
during the Cold War, being a central mechanism of Kenneth
Waltzs neorealism.
Revisionist states seek to fundamentally change the rules and
practices of international relations, feeling disadvantaged by the
status quo.
Japan is an example of a state that has gone from being a
revisionist state to one that is satisfied with the status quo, because
the status quo is now beneficial to it.

C Find derivatives of the following words:


to revise, to depend, to relate, to exploit, to view, to
preponderate, to dominate, to divide, polar, advantage, prior, to
influence, to create, to define, real.

18
D Complete the following sentences:
1) States can be classified by whether they accept the
international status quo, or are _________ , i.e. want
revision.
2) Many advocate that the current international system is
characterized by growing _________, the mutual responsibility
and dependency on others.
3) A number of operating principles in the international system
reinforce ideas that _________ are characterized by
interdependence.
4) Sometimes there is no clear _________ between soft power
and hard power.
5) The concept of polarity arose from _________ when the
international system was dominated by two superpowers.
6) Neorealists argue that the end of the Cold War and the state
of _________ is an unstable configuration that will
inevitably change.
7) Theories of the balance of power gained _________ again
during the Cold War.
E Make a summary of the text.

READING AND DISCUSSION


Read the speech of the President of the Republic of Belarus at the
Independence Day military parade and then do the tasks that
follow.
Belarus Will Be Improving National Security System
Belarus will be constantly improving the national and, above
all, military security system promptly responding to new trends in
the international situation.
Strengthening the Armed Forces and the military organization
of the country has always been one of the top-priority goals of the
Belarusian state policy. We will continue working on improving
the organizational structure and qualitative parameters of the
technical supply of the troops, polishing the government system,
enhancing the efficiency of military personnel training.

19
The Belarusian people learnt the lessons of the past war. It is
not by accident that the Belarusians have a heightened sense of
responsibility for the security of their Fatherland. The history
teaches and warns that wars and armed conflicts do not happen by
themselves, they are unleashed by those whose ambitions prevail
over the interests of countries and whole continents.
Today the mankind faces such dangerous challenges and
threats as local armed conflicts, international terrorism, religious,
national and political extremism, human trafficking, illicit drugs,
famine and shortage of energy resources.
Today we have seen the attempts prodded by some politicians
to rewrite the history and to destroy the post-war system of
international relations. The prospects of NATO expansion into
former Soviet Union countries appear more feasible. NATO
remains the most powerful military bloc. Its infrastructure has
approached Belarus closely. The process of deploying the
American anti-missile system at the Belarusian border is acquiring
an irreversible nature. The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces
in Europe has, in fact, ceased to be one of the pillars of the
European security.
The unilateral declaration of Kosovo independence attests to
the existence of double standards and poses a threat to boundary
revisions, repartition of the European political map. Encouraging
separatism is an unwise and dangerous policy.

POST-READING
A Say if the following statements are true or false. Correct the
ones which you consider false.
1) Nowadays international situation is favourable.
2) There are no conflicts in the world which make Belarus be
concerned about its security.
3) World War II taught us many lessons.
4) The mankind faces a lot of dangerous threats.
5) NATO doesnt plan to expand into former Soviet Union
countries.
6) NATO remains the most powerful military bloc.

20
7) The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe
ensures security in Europe.
8) There are no double standards in international politics.

B Complete the following sentences using the correct form of the


verb in brackets:
1) New trends in international situation make Belarus
_________ national security. (improve)
2) One of the top priorities of the state has always been
_________ the Armed Forces. (strengthen)
3) Wars are unleashed by the states that _________ their
ambitious interests. (pursue)
4) The mankind faces dangerous challenges and tries
_________ local armed conflicts. (stop)
5) Some politicians attempt _________ the post-war system of
international relations. (destroy)
6) The process of deploying the NATO anti-missile system
near our borders _________ a threat to the security of the
Republic of Belarus. (pose)
7) Some western politicians use double standards _________
the borders and the European political map. (revise)

C Discuss the following:


The current political situation in the world.
Changes in international relations and their causes.
The necessity to react to the new challenges and threats.
Double standards used in international relations.

D Read the text and say what stages in the history of diplomacy
are significant.
History of Diplomacy
The ability to practise diplomacy is one of the defining
elements of a state, and diplomacy has been practised since the
first city-states were formed millennia ago.
Modern diplomacys origins are often traced to the states of
Northern Italy in the early Renaissance, with the first embassies
21
being established in the thirteenth century. Milan played a leading
role, especially under Francesco Sforza who established
permanent embassies to the other city states of Northern Italy. It
was in Italy that many of the traditions of modern diplomacy
began, such as the presentation of ambassadors credentials to the
head of state.
From Italy the practice was spread to the other European
powers. As foreign powers such as France and Spain became
increasingly involved in Italian politics the need to accept
emissaries was recognized. Soon the major European powers were
exchanging representatives. By the late 16th century, permanent
missions became customary.
During that period the rules of modern diplomacy were further
developed. The top rank of representatives was an ambassador. At
that time an ambassador was a nobleman, the rank of the noble
assigned varying with the prestige of the country he was delegated
to. Strict standards developed for ambassadors, requiring they
have large residences, host parties, and play an important role in
the court life of their host nation.
Ambassadors, nobles with little foreign experience and no
expectation of a career in diplomacy, needed to be supported by
large embassy staff. These professionals would be sent on longer
assignments and would be far more knowledgeable than the
higher-ranking officials about the host country. The need for
skilled individuals to staff embassies was met by the graduates of
universities, and this led to a great increase in the study of
international law, modern languages, and history at universities
throughout Europe. At the same time, permanent foreign
ministries began to be established in almost all European states to
coordinate embassies and their staffs.
The elements of modern diplomacy slowly spread to Eastern
Europe and Russia, arriving by the early eighteenth century. After
the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna of 1815 established
an international system of diplomatic rank. After World War II the
rank of ambassador became the norm.

22
POST-READING

A Translate the following sentences into Russian:


1) It was in Italy that many of the traditions of modern
diplomacy began, such as the presentation of ambassadors
credentials to the head of state.
2) It is this practice that has been employed since the
conception of the first city-states within the international
spectrum.
3) Diplomats in Asia were originally sent only for the purpose
of negotiation. Milan was the first to send a representative to
the court of France in 1455.
4) Embassy staff would include a wide range of employees,
including some dedicated to espionage.
5) Modern diplomacys origins are often traced to the states of
Northern Italy in the early Renaissance, with the first
embassies being established in the thirteenth century.

B Review the following questions for discussion:


1) Since when has diplomacy been practised?
2) What were the usual activities of diplomats during early
time diplomacy?
3) Who were diplomats at that time?
4) When and where did modern diplomacy originate?
5) Where was the practice spread to?
6) What led to a great increase in the study of international
law, modern languages, and history at universities
throughout Europe?
7) What institutions began to be established in almost all
European states to coordinate embassies and their staffs?
8) When did modern diplomacy spread to Eastern Europe and
Russia?

23
UNIT 2
INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS (1)
STARTING-UP
International institutions form a vital part of contemporary
international relations. Much interaction at the system level is
governed by them, and they outlaw some traditional institutions
and practices of international relations.
As humanity enters the planetary phase of civilization, some
scientists and political theorists see a global hierarchy of
institutions replacing the existing system of sovereign nation-
states as the primary political community. They argue that nations
are an imagined community that cannot resolve modern challenges
such as the legal and political status of stateless people and
refugees, and the need to address worldwide concerns like climate
change and pandemics.
The United Nations (UN) is an international organization that
describes itself as a global association of governments facilitating
co-operation in international law, international security, economic
development, and social equity. It is the most prominent
international institution. Many of the legal institutions follow the
same organisational structure as the UN.

VOCABULARY FOCUS
Hierarchy is any arrangement of principles or things or people
within an organisation with graded importance or authority. A
new, more legitimate (i.e. being in accord with accepted rules or
laws) form of global politics is based on constrained pluralism.
Pluralism is the doctrine that there is more than one universal
principle. This doctrine guides the formation of institutions based
on three characteristics: irreducibility, where some issues must be
decided at the global level; subsidiarity, which limits the scope of
global authority to truly global issues while smaller-scope issues
are regulated at lower levels; and heterogeneity, which allows for
diverse forms of local and regional institutions as long as they
meet global obligations.

24
Use the above words or their derivatives to complete the following
sentences:
1. Companies with functional structure are also called ______.
2. The ________ form of the noun phenomenon is
phenomena.
3. The daughter company may also be called that companys
_________.
4. The people of the country fight for their _________ rights.
5. The prices may be _________ at the end of the season.
6. The information is so _________ that it cant be possibly
summed up.

READING
1 INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS
PRE-READING
A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of
the following words:
membership criterion resolve scope
comply with carry on charter mere
grouping approve refer to pure
assembly provide debate sign
enter into rely on ad hoc

B Answer the following questions:


1) Is membership in international organisations obligatory?
2) If you are a member of some organisation, must you comply
with its charter and rules?
3) What criteria should be taken into consideration before you
join an organisation?
4) Are international assemblies and debates able to resolve
world problems or are they merely an arena to carry on
interests of superior nations?

READING
Read the text and then do the tasks that follow.

25
International Organisations
International organisation is, by definition, any organisation
with international membership, scope, or presence. However, in
common usage, the term is usually reserved for intergovernmental
organisations (IGO) such as the UN, the European Union, the
Council of Europe, or the World Trade Organization, with
sovereign states or other IGOs as members. Their scope and aims
are most usually in the public interest but may also have been
created with a specific purpose.
While many non-governmental organisations (NGOs) though
privately created with international scope have international
presence and aims.
Legally speaking, an international organisation may be
established by a constituent document such as a charter, a treaty or a
convention, which when signed by the founding members, provides
the IGO with legal recognition. International organisations so
established are subjects of international law, capable of entering into
agreements among themselves or with states. Thus international
organisations in a legal sense are distinguished from mere groupings
of states, such as the G-8 and the G-77, neither of which have been
founded by a constituent document and exist only as task groups,
though in non-legal contexts these are sometimes referred
erroneously as international organisations.
International organisations must also be distinguished from
treaties. Many treaties (e.g., the North American Free Trade
Agreement (NAFTA) or, in the 1947-1995 period, the General
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)) do not establish an
international organisation and rely purely on the parties for their
administration becoming legally recognised as an ad hoc
commission.
International organisations differ in function, membership and
membership criteria. Membership of some organisations (global
organisations) is open to all the nations of the world as far as they
comply with membership criteria and after approval by a general
assembly or similar body. This category includes the United
Nations and its specialised agencies and the World Trade
Organization. Other organisations are only open to members from
a particular region or continent of the world, like European Union,
African Union, ASEAN and other regional organisations. Finally,
26
some organisations base their membership on other criteria:
cultural or historical links (the Commonwealth of Nations, La
Francophonie, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries,
the Latin Union), level of economic development or type of
economy (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD), Organisation of Petroleum-Exporting
Countries (OPEC), or religion (Organisation of the Islamic
Conference).
International organisations developed mainly from the need of
nations and governments to have a neutral forum where to debate
and consider matters of importance to more than one particular
nation. However, some IOs also developed from the need of an
either executive or enforcement body which could carry on
multinational interests in a unified form.
International organisations describe and define their purpose
in their charter or other document of creation. International
organisations exist with diverse aims: to increase international
relations, promote education, health care, economic development,
environmental protection, human rights, humanitarian efforts,
inter-cultural approach and conflict resolution.

POST-READING
A Complete the following sentences using the appropriate word:
1) International organisation is, by definition, any organisation
with international _________.
2) In common usage, the term IO is usually reserved for
_________ organisations.
3) Many non-governmental organisations are privately created
with international _________ and have international
presence and aims.
4) An international organisation may be established by a
constituent document such as _________ a treaty or a
convention.
5) A constituent document when signed by the founding
members, _________ the IGO with legal recognition.
International organisations so established are subjects of
international law, capable of _________ into agreements
among themselves or with states.

27
6) International organisations in a legal sense are distinguished
from mere _________ of states which exist only as task
groups.
7) International organisations must be distinguished from
treaties which rely purely on the parties for their
administration and are legally recognized as _________
commission.
8) International organisations differ in function, membership
and membership _________.
9) Membership of some global organisations is open to all the
nations of the world as far as they_________ membership
criteria.
10) International organisations developed mainly from the need
of nations and governments to have a neutral forum where
_________ matters of importance to more than one
particular nation.
11) International organisations exist with diverse aims,
including to promote education, health care, economic
development, environmental protection, cultural approach
and conflict _________.
B Use the appropriate preposition.
1) The scope and aims of IO are most usually _________ the
public interest but may also have been created _________ a
specific purpose.
2) Legally speaking, an international organisation may be
established _________ a constituent document such as a
charter, a treaty or a convention which when signed by the
founding members, provides the IGO _________ legal
recognition.
3) International organisations must be distinguished
_________ treaties.
4) Many treaties do not establish an international organisation
and rely purely _________ the parties _________ their
administration becoming legally recognized as an ad hoc
commission.
5) International organisations differ _________ function,
membership and membership criteria.

28
6) Membership of some organisations is open _________ all
the nations of the world as far as they comply _________
membership criteria.
7) Some IOs also developed _________ the need of an either
executive or enforcement body which could carry
_________ multinational interests in a unified form.
C Look at the outline of the text given below and correct the
succession of the items.
1) The definitions of intergovernmental and non-governmental
organisations;
2) Legal establishment of IGOs;
3) The difference between international organisations and state
groupings;
4) The difference between international organisations and
treaties;
5) The purposes of international organisations;
6) The cause of creation of international organisations;
7) The difference between international organisations due to
function, membership and membership criteria.
D Discuss in detail each item of the outline.

2 THE UNITED NATIONS


PRE-READING
A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of
the following words:
headquarters endeavour facilitate agency
deliberative signatory draw up budget
substantive guideline judicial set out
encompass deal with replace state
come into existence sign Secretary-General
B Replace the underlined word in the following sentences with
the appropriate new word from the list above:
1) One of the aims of the UN is to promote cooperation in
different fields.

29
2) The United Nations Charter was composed in 1945.
3) The Charter declares the rights and obligations of the UN
member-states.
4) The organisation started its work on 24 October 1945.
5) The UN central governing office is located in New York.
6) Within the UN there are a lot of specialized organisations.
7) Actually, it includes 15 agencies and several programmes
and bodies.
8) Central bodies of governance are not enough to handle all
spheres of this vast organisation.
9) Every programme has its own course of activities.
10) The staff exert their efforts in attempts to reach people in
every corner of the world.
11) The agencies make decisions on particular and general
issues of their policy.

READING
Read the text and remember the aims and activities of the United
Nations.
The United Nations
The United Nations (UN) is an international organisation
whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in international law,
international security, economic development, social progress and
human rights issues. The UN was founded in 1945 to replace the
League of Nations, to stop wars between nations and to provide a
platform for dialogue.
In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco
at the United Nations Conference on international organisation to
draw up the United Nations Charter. The organisation officially
came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter was
ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom,
the United States and a majority of other signatories. It has six
official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and
Spanish. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October.
The Charter is the constituting instrument of the United
Nations, setting out the rights and obligations of Member States,
and establishing the organisations organs and procedures. The
purposes of the United Nations, as set forth in the Charter, are to
30
maintain international peace and security; to develop friendly
relations among nations; to cooperate in solving international
economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems and in
promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms;
and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in
attaining these ends.
There are now 192 member states, including almost every
recognized independent state. From its headquarters on
international territory within New York City, the UN and its
specialized agencies decide on substantive and administrative
issues in regular meetings held throughout the year. The UNs
most visible public figure is the Secretary-General, currently Ban
Ki-moon of South Korea.
The organisation is divided into administrative bodies,
primarily: The General Assembly (the main deliberative
assembly), The Security Council (decides certain resolutions for
peace and security), The Economic and Social Council (assists in
promoting international economic and social cooperation and
development), The Secretariat (provides studies, information, and
facilities needed by the UN) and The International Court of
Justice (the primary judicial organ).
The United Nations family, however, is much larger,
encompassing 15 agencies and several programmes and bodies.
Additional bodies deal with the governance of all other UN system
agencies, such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and
United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF). The United Nations
family of organisations is made up of the United Nations
Secretariat, the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the
specialized agencies. The programmes, funds and agencies have
their own governing bodies and budgets, and set their own
standards and guidelines. Together, they provide technical
assistance and other forms of practical help in virtually all areas of
economic and social endeavour. Economic institutions are as
follows: World Trade Organization, World Bank, International
Monetary Fund, Asian Development Bank. International legal
bodies include: International Court of Justice, European Court of
Justice, African Court of Justice, International Tribunal for the
Law of the Sea.

31
The UN is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions
from member states which are assessed on a scale approved by the
General Assembly. The fundamental criterion on which the scale
of assessments is based is the capacity of countries to pay. This is
determined by considering their relative shares of total gross
national product, adjusted to take into account a number of factors,
including their per capita incomes. In addition, countries are
assessed, in accordance with a modified version of the basic scale,
for the costs of peacekeeping operations.
POST-READING
A Say if the following statements are true or false. Correct the
ones you consider false.
1) The UN was founded in 1955 to replace the League of
Nations, to stop wars between nations and provide a
platform for dialogue.
2) Representatives of 50 countries met in New York at the
United Nations Conference to draw up the United Nations
Charter.
3) The Charter is the constituting instrument of the United
Nations, setting out the rights and obligations of member
states, and establishing the organisations organs and
procedures.
4) The purposes of the United Nations are to maintain
international peace and security; to develop friendly
relations among nations; to cooperate in solving
international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian
problems.
5) There are now 200 member states, including almost every
recognized independent state.
6) The UN doesnt have any administrative bodies.
7) The United Nations family is large, encompassing 50
agencies and several programmes and bodies.
8) The programmes, funds and agencies have their own
governing bodies and budgets, and set their own standards
and guidelines.
9) The UN doesnt have any economic or legal institutions.
10) All member states pay equal contributions into the budget of
the UN.

32
B Say which of the verbs are synonyms:
facilitate, assist, promote, provide, modify ,comply with, assess,
accord, approve, endeavour, include, govern, comprise,
maintain, divide, decide, create, resolve, establish, replace,
found, administrate, ratify, set out, set forth, set up, adapt, solve,
develop, keep, evaluate, exchange, conform to, agree with,
follow, change, adjust.
C Answer the following questions:
1) When and where was the United Nations organisation
established?
2) What legal document was drawn up for the UN to come into
existence?
3) What does the Charter set out?
4) What are the purposes of the United Nations?
5) Are there regular meetings at the UN to decide on
substantive and administrative issues?
6) What administrative bodies is the UN divided into?
7) What are the activities of agencies and programmes within
the UN?
8) In what way is the UN financed?

D Make a resume of the text.

3 THE UNESCO
PRE-READING
A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of
the following words:
policy-making strengthen science foster
administration education culture adopt
governance discharge access offer
encourage executive refute
implement activities day-to-day running

B Complete the following sentences with the appropriate word


or its derivative using the list above:

33
1) Three main bodies of the UNESCO _________ its policy.
2) The _________ of its activities is vital for the spheres of
education, science, culture and information.
3) The UNESCO provides _________ opportunities for people
in all corners of the world.
4) The _________ of its decisions is ensured by the Executive
Board.
5) The UNESCO encourages free _________ to information.
6) The organisations goal is to educate public and _________
the notion of the evil human nature.
7) It _________ partnerships to gain common benefits.

READING
Read the text and remember the main activities of the UNESCO.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural


Organisation
The UNESCO has 193 member states and 6 associate
members. The UNESCO headquarters are in Paris, France. Three
bodies are responsible for policy-making, governance, and day-to-
day administration at the UNESCO: The General Conference, The
Executive Board and The Secretariat.
The General Conference is a gathering of the organisations
member states and associate members, in which each state has one
vote. Meeting every two years, it sets general policies and defines
programme lines for the organisation.
The Executive Boards 58 members are elected by the General
Conference for four-year terms. The Executive Board prepares the
sessions of the General Conference and ensures that its
instructions are carried out. It also discharges other specific
mandates assigned to it by the General Conference.
The Secretariat consists of the Director-General and his staff
and is responsible for the day-to-day running of the organisation.
The UNESCO implements its activities through the 5
programme areas: education, natural sciences, social and human
sciences, culture, and communication and information.

34
The UNESCO is providing international leadership in creating
learning societies with educational opportunities for all; it supports
research in comparative education and provides expertise and
fosters partnerships to strengthen national educational leadership
and the capacity of countries to offer quality education for all.
This includes: the International Institute for Educational Planning
(IIEP) which is a centre for training and research to strengthen the
capacity of countries to plan and manage their education systems,
and Environmental Conservation organisation.
The UNESCO also issues public statements to educate the
public: Seville Statement on Violence is a statement adopted by
the UNESCO in 1989 to refute the notion that humans are
biologically predisposed to organised violence.
The organisation is concerned with numerous diverse projects
including: projects and places of cultural and scientific significance,
such as: international network of geoparks; exploring biosphere
reserves through the programme on Man and the Biosphere since
1971; City of Literature (in 2007, the first city to be given this title
was Edinburgh, the site of Scotlands first circulating library);
endangered languages and linguistic diversity projects; masterpieces
of the oral and intangible heritage of humanity, and many others.
The UNESCO encourages the free flow of ideas by images
and words, promotes freedom of expression, press freedom and
access to information through the International Programme for the
Development of Communication and the Communication and
Information Programme. It promotes universal access to ICT
through the Information for All Programme (IFAP), pluralism and
cultural diversity in the media and such events as International
Literacy Day.

POST-READING
A Complete the following sentences:
1) The General Conference sets general policies and defines
programme lines for the organization. It is responsible for
_________ in the fields of education, science and culture.
2) The Executive Board prepares the sessions of the General
Conference and ensures that its instructions are _________ .

35
3) The Secretariat is responsible for the _________ running of
the organization.
4) The organisation supports research and _________
partnerships to _________ national education.
5) It supports the capacity of countries to _________ quality
education for all.
6) Seville Statement on Violence was adopted by the UNESCO
in 1989 to _________ the notion that humans are
biologically predisposed to organised violence.
7) UNESCO _________ the free flow of ideas and promotes
universal _________ to ICTs through the Information for
All Programme.

B Which of these verbs are synonyms?


provide, encourage, govern, support, take part in, run,
participate, set up, foster, strengthen, implement, facilitate,
establish, carry out, administrate.

C Match the following parts of sentences:


1). The UNESCO is a) universal access to ICT.
concerned
2). It issues public b) with numerous diverse
statements projects.
3). It promotes c) learning societies with
educational opportunities.
4). It encourages d) to educate the public.
5). It creates e) for policy-making,
governance, and day-to-
day administration.
6). Its bodies are f) through the five
responsible programme areas.
7). It implements its g) access to information.
activities

36
D Make an outline of the text.
E Speak in short on the items of your outline.

4 THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS


IN THE UNITED NATIONS
PRE-READING
A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of
the following words:
disaster
collective security disarmament maternity priority
render assistance undermine elaborate appoint
non-proliferation advocacy objective uphold
founding state milestone refugee elect

B Complete the following sentences with the appropriate word


or its derivative using the above list:
1) Belarus has been an active UN member since its ________.
2) Belarus has always _________ the principles and policies of
the UN.
3) Its representatives have been _________ members of the
chief committees and councils.
4) The Millennium Summit of the UN was a _________ event.
5) Belarus contributes to the processes of nuclear _________
and non-_________.
6) It elaborates new approaches to the issues of international
collective _________ on a local, regional and global scale.

READING
Read the text and list the main activities of the Republic of Belarus
in the United Nations.
The Republic of Belarus in the United Nations
Being a founding state of the United Nations, Belarus has
been upholding objectives and principles of the organisation,
aiming at strengthening UN positions in solving complicated
world problems in most active way.

37
Belarus was elected a member of the UN Security Council
(1974-1975), of the UN Economic and Social Council and some of
its functional commissions. Many times Belarusian representatives
were appointed as vice-presidents of the General Assembly,
worked as chairpersons, vice-chairpersons and speakers for the
chief committees of the General Assembly.
The key aspect of the UN and Belarus cooperation is the
participation of official missions of Belarus in the work of annual
and special sessions of the UN General Assembly and other bodies
of the Organization, the UN specialized institutions and in the
activity of different UN international forums. The Millennium
Summit was an important event of 2000 for the UN system.
Belarusian delegation took part in that milestone event.
Belarus is a member of more than 50 UN specialized
institutions and other intergovernmental organisations cooperating
with the UN on the basis of special agreements. Among them are
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organisation (UNESCO), International Labour Organisation
(ILO), World Health Organisation (WHO), UN Industrial
Development Organisation (UNIDO), the International Atomic
Energy Agency (IAEA) and many others.
In 1993 a UN/UNDP representative office was opened in
Minsk with the aim of rendering consultative and technical
assistance in the field of market transformations. Division of the UN
International Childrens Fund with the appropriate financial backing
for implementing the programme of maternity and childhood
protection was opened in Minsk. UN also actively supports the
countrys efforts in dealing with issues of refugees and migration.
The key areas of Belarus cooperation with UN are as follows:
involving countries in commercial, economic, scientific, technical,
environmental, social and humanitarian spheres of the UN
activity; use of resources and experience of intergovernmental
organisations of the UN system aimed at full integration into the
system of world economic relations; contribution of the UN to
consolidation of international cooperation in dealing with the
impact of the Chernobyl disaster.
Today the main objectives of Belarus within the UN system
are the following: further support of initiatives featuring Belarusian
priorities in the sphere of domestic and foreign policy and their

38
embodiment in the final documents and UN General Assembly
resolutions; advocacy of the proposals on reforming and
strengthening the UN that meet interests of Belarus; further
development of the countrys contribution to the processes of
nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation agreements;
elaboration of new approaches to the issues of international
collective security on a local, regional and global scale; creation of
necessary conditions for applying the legally obligatory character
to the existing de-facto nuclear-free Central and Eastern Europe
region; elaboration of an open, nondiscriminatory and transparent
system of world trade with World Trade Organisation at its core.
Belarus is firmly committed to the key role of the Security
Council in maintaining international peace and security. Actions
that bypass the authority given to the Security Council by the
Charter of the United Nations undermine the legal basis of the
established system of international relations and threaten the very
foundations of the international legal order.
Belarus supports the process of reforming Security Council,
taking into account the major changes in the international arena
and the significant increase in the number of UN member states.
Effective reform of the Security Council can be achieved only by
consensus among all the participants in this process.
Belarus pays great importance to the efforts to ensure
transparency, democracy and accountability in the working
methods and procedures of the Security Council, including
decision-making process. Belarus fully supports the measures
aimed at improving the flow of information regarding the
Councils activities, increasing its cooperation with the General
Assembly and further rationalizing the preparation and submission
of its annual reports to the General Assembly.
There is a need for increased transparency in the Councils
work, first and foremost by providing adequate information on the
outcome of the closed consultations of the members of the Council
and on the activities of the sanctions committees and by increasing
the number of briefings for states that are not members of the
Council. Belarus has consistently advocated the Councils
adoption of the practice of holding orientation discussions at the
level of Ministers for Foreign Affairs on the most important issues
on the international agenda.

39
POST-READING
A Give the Russian equivalents for the following word-
combinations:
a founding state; to uphold objectives and principles; to be
aimed at strengthening positions; to be appointed; to be elected;
annual and special sessions; the milestone event; with the aim of
rendering assistance; issues of refugees and migration; the
impact of Chernobyl disaster; to feature Belarusian priorities;
nuclear disarmament; non-proliferation agreements; approaches
to issues of collective security; non-discriminatory and
transparent policy; to be firmly committed to; to undermine the
legal basis; actions that bypass the authority; to improve the
flow of information; submission of annual reports; the outcome
of closed consultations; briefings for states; adoption of the
practice.
B Answer the following questions:
1) When did the Republic of Belarus become a member of the
UN?
2) What objectives and principles does Belarus uphold?
3) Is Belarus an active member of the UN? Prove it.
4) Does Belarus participate in the work of specialized UN
institutions?
5) When was a UN representative office opened in Minsk?
What are its functions?
6) What are the key areas of Belarus cooperation with the UN?
7) What are the main objectives Belarus upholds within the
UN?
8) Why does Belarus support the process of reforming the
Security Council?
9) Which functions of the Security Council activities should be
improved?
C Discuss the following:
The activities of Belarus within the UN;
The proposals to reform the Security Council.
D Make a written rsum of the text.

40
READING AND DISCUSSION
Read the short report about the opening day of the United Nations
General Assembly and then do the tasks that follow.
The United Nations General Assembly
More than 120 world leaders met in New York for the
opening of the United Nations General Assembly. UN Secretary
General Ban Ki-Moon was the first of many to address the
growing financial crisis.
US President Bush said the country was taking decisive action
to address the financial meltdown, and tried to assure world
leaders the crisis would be diffused. But that was later in his
speech. He used much of his 22 minutes to push for multilateral
cooperation on his Administrations so-called War on Terror.
This was Bushs last speech at the UN, and he encouraged UN
members to enforce sanctions on Iran and North Korea, while also
attacking Iran and Syria as state sponsors of terrorism.
Also speaking was Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, President of Liberia,
noting that in spite of the countrys progress towards economic
stability, they still have a long way to go towards eradicating
poverty.

POST-READING
A Answer the following questions:
1) Why did UN Secretary General devote his speech to the
financial crisis?
2) What did President Bush focus on in his last speech at the
Assembly?
3) What is another vital problem for the states like Liberia to
be solved?

B Enlarge on:
The world financial crisis;
Terrorism;
Poverty.

41
Read the interview of Russian deputy foreign minister and do the
tasks that follow.
Bilateral Meetings at UN Session
MOSCOW, (RIA Novosti) Russian Foreign Minister Sergei
Lavrov held some 50 bilateral meetings during the annual UN
General Assembly session, a deputy foreign minister said.
In an interview with the Rossiiskaya Gazeta the high-ranking
diplomat said that besides regular sessions, the UN General
Assembly is important from the point of view of bilateral
meetings. Russia drew attention to three of its draft resolutions it
considered to be important with regard to security and the
establishment of stable intergovernmental relations.
The first draft resolution, he said, concerns measures of
transparency and trust in activities in outer space. The second
relates to the spheres of information and telecommunications in
the context of international security, and the third to measures
against the escalation of racism, ethnic discrimination, xenophobia
and related intolerance.

POST-READING
Answer the following questions:
1) Why is the existence of the UN vital for the world?
2) What activities besides regular sessions are held by foreign
ministers during the work of the General Assembly?
3) To what draft resolutions did Russian Foreign Minister draw
attention of the General Assembly?

Agree or disagree with the following statements and give your


pros and cons. Choose phrases of agreement/disagreement
from the list to begin:
I must agree totally with . . . . .
Id like to begin by agreeing with . . . . .
I support the opinion that . . . . .
By the way, I dont agree with . . . . .
I cant agree with . . . . .
I cant share the view that . . . . .

42
Bilateral meetings are very important due to the existing
political and financial crises.
There are more important problems for the world to resolve
than outer space exploration or information and
telecommunication security.
Terrorism is the threat for the whole mankind.
Poverty can be done away with without the assistance of the UN.

Read the report of BelTA and then do the tasks that follow.
Belarus Supports New Security Architecture in Europe
Within the framework of the United Nations Organisation
Belarus backed Russias proposal to create new security
architecture in Europe and expressed readiness to take an active
part in the effort, BelTA learnt from the Permanent Representative
Office of the Republic of Belarus in the UN.
The statement was made by Deputy Foreign Minister of
Belarus. The Belarusian diplomat called upon the USA and Russia
to develop a new agreement instead of the Strategic Offensive
Reductions Treaty as a tangible practical contribution to the
fulfillment of the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty
(NPT). Ratification of existing treaties, first of all, the
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, could be a positive signal in
support of the NPT.
As far as non-proliferation and disarmament are concerned, it
was stressed that every member-state has an inalienable right to
peaceful nuclear activities and that existing mechanisms of the
international community should contribute to ensuring equal non-
discriminating access of all interested countries to the nuclear
energy production.
Attention was drawn to Belarus resolution on banning the
development and production of new kinds of weapons of mass
destruction. The draft resolution has an element of political
commitments of the member-states and suggests a mechanism of
response via the Conference on Disarmament.
The representative of Belarus also reminded, in line with
Ottawa Convention obligations Belarus still faces a difficult task
of utilising over three million antipersonnel mines, a task difficult
to accomplish without international aid.

43
The Deputy Foreign Minister of Belarus said that Belarus
would continue supporting and promoting measures of trust and
transparency in control over arms and exports through regularly
submitting data to the UN register of conventional arms and
participation in UN standardized military expenses accounting.
POST-READING
A Answer the following questions:
1) What Russian proposal did Belarus back?
2) Why is it necessary to develop a new agreement instead of
the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty?
3) Do the existing mechanisms of the international community
contribute to ensuring equal non-discriminating access to the
nuclear energy production?
4) What is the aim of Belarus draft resolution on banning the
development and production of new kinds of weapons of
mass destruction?
5) Which commitment did Belarus confirm?
B Discuss the following:
The initiatives Belarus put forward;
The challenges to International security;
The international situation background which makes states
worry about their insecurity.

UNIT 3
INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS (2)
STARTING-UP
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic
community of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
Europe.
The Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe
(OSCE) is an international organisation which serves as a forum
for political dialogue. Its stated aim is to secure stability in the
region, based on democratic practices and improved governance.
44
The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) is a military
alliance of West European and newly joined East European
countries and the United States which constitutes a system of
collective defense in response to an attack by any external party.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) aims
to accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural
development in the region and to promote regional peace and
stability through the rule of law and adherence to the principles of
the United Nations Charter.

VOCABULARY FOCUS
Early warning means forestalling some event or process.
Conflict prevention deals with averting conflict while crisis
management suggests crisis control. Post-conflict
rehabilitation includes measures to remove the consequences of
the conflict.
Collaboration means cooperation, mutual activities.
Contribution is an act of providing material or moral help by
paying to or supporting some fund or organisation.
Hemisphere is half of the globe.

Use the above words or their derivatives to complete the following


sentences:
The best means to avoid fires is to establish mechanisms of
their _________ .
The ________ of many influential international organisations
is needed to eradicate poverty.
There some crises that are difficult _________ .
There are two _________ : Southern and Northern.
It would have been better to _________ the conflict. But it
took place and the only thing to do is to _________ it.
Russia launched the first sputnik and so _________ to the
world space exploration.

45
READING
1 THE EUROPEAN UNION
PRE-READING
Before reading the text make sure you know the meaning of the
following words:
community accession confirm update
precedence nominate summit hybrid
successive carry out appoint affect
legislature generate trace to enact
stem from combine initiate apply
represent estimate amend adopt
gross domestic product share abolish pillar

READING
Read the text and do the tasks that follow.
The European Union
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic
community of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
Europe. It was established in 1993 by the Maastricht Treaty,
adding new areas of policy to the existing European Community.
With almost 500 million citizens, the EU combined generates an
estimated 30% share of the worlds nominal gross domestic
product.
The EU has developed a single market through a standardized
system of laws which apply in all member states, guaranteeing the
freedom of movement of people, goods, services and capital. It
maintains a common trade policy, agricultural and fisheries
policies, and a regional development policy. Fifteen member states
have adopted a common currency, the euro. It has developed a role
in foreign policy, representing its members in the World Trade
Organization, at G8 summits and at the United Nations. Twenty-
one EU countries are members of NATO. It has developed a role
in justice and home affairs, including the abolition of passport
control between many member states under the Schengen
Agreement.

46
EU operation is a hybrid of intergovernmentalism and
supranationalism. In certain areas it depends upon agreement
between the member states. However, it also has supranational
bodies, able to make decisions without the agreement of members.
Important institutions and bodies of the EU include the European
Commission, the European Parliament, the Council of the
European Union, the European Council, the European Court of
Justice and the European Central Bank. EU citizens elect the
Parliament every five years.
The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel
Community formed among six countries in 1951 and the Treaty of
Rome in 1957. Since then the EU has grown in size through the
accession of new member states and has increased its powers by
the addition of new policy areas. The Treaty of Lisbon, signed in
December 2007 and intended to be ratified by the end of 2008, is
planned to amend the existing treaties to update the political and
legal structure of the union.
The EU is based on a series of treaties which have built up the
current structure by successive additions and amendments. The
treaties define the broad policy goals of the organisation and
establish institutions with the necessary legal powers to implement
those goals, including the ability to enact legislation which can
directly affect all member states and their inhabitants (the
principle of direct effect). National courts enforce the EU treaties
and the laws enacted under them, as one of the conditions of
membership. In case of a conflict when a law stemming from EU
legislation conflicts with another national law, the EU law is
considered to take precedence (the principle of supremacy).
The EU is often described as being divided into three areas of
responsibility, called pillars. The original European Community
policies form the first pillar, while the second and the third consist
of Common Foreign and Security Policy.
The European Commission acts as the EU executive arm and
is responsible for initiating legislation and the day-to-day running
of the EU. It is intended to act solely in the interest of the EU as a
whole. The President of the Commission and all the other
commissioners are nominated by the Council. Appointment of the
Commission President, and the Commission has to be confirmed
by Parliament.

47
The European Parliament forms one half of the EU
legislature. The 785 Members of the European Parliament (MEPs)
are directly elected by EU citizens every five years. Although
MEPs are elected on a national basis, they sit according to
political groups rather than their nationality. Each country has a
set number of seats. The Parliament and the Council form and pass
legislation jointly, using co-decision, in certain areas of policy.
The President of the European Parliament carries out the role of
speaker in parliament and represents it externally. The president
and vice presidents are elected by MEPs every two and a half
years.

POST-READING
A Give the Russian equivalents for the following word-
combinations:
a political and economic community; laws apply in all member
states; an estimated 30% share; the freedom of movement of
people; to adopt a common currency; to grow in size through the
accession of new members; the addition of new policy areas; the
treaty intended to be ratified; to amend the existing treaties; to
update the structure; to build up the current structure; successive
amendments; to implement goals; to enact legislation; to enforce
the EU treaties; a law stemming from EU legislation; to conflict
with another law; three pillars; the day-to-day running of the
EU; to act solely in the interest; a set number of seats; to pass
legislation jointly.

B Find in the text the sentences with the word-combinations


given above, read and translate them into Russian.

C Put two questions to every paragraph of the text.

D Make a written rsum of the text.

48
2 ORGANISATION FOR SECURITY AND
COOPERATION IN EUROPE
PRE-READING
Before reading the text make sure you know the meaning of the
following words:
predominantly settlement modality summit
commitment dimension schedule rotate
monitoring supervise convene settle
be concerned with combat body
Match the parts:
summit a programme or a time-table, tabulated
statement of activities
commitment directing the execution
modality a calling together an assembly
monitoring obligation
dimension control, test and check (for better
quality)
supervision a meeting or talks held between heads of
governments
convocation necessity, requirements, needs
schedule special, created for specific purpose
ad hoc extent, scope or measurement in one
direction

READING
Read the text and remember the spheres of activities of the OSCE.
The OSCE
The OSCE is an ad hoc organization under the United
Nations Charter, and is concerned with early warning, conflict

49
prevention, crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation. Its
56 participating States are from Europe, the Caucasus, Central
Asia and North America and covers most of the northern
hemisphere. It was created as an East-West forum.
Political direction to the Organization is given by heads of
state or government during summits. Summits are not regular or
scheduled but held as needed. The high-level decision-making
body of the Organization is the Ministerial Council, which meets
at the end of every year. At ambassadorial level the Permanent
Council convenes weekly in Vienna and serves as the regular
negotiating and decision-making body.
Responsibilities of the Chairman-in-Office (CiO) include
coordination of the work of OSCE institutions; representing the
Organization; supervising activities related to conflict prevention,
crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation. The
Chairmanship rotates annually, and the post of the Chairman-in-
Office is held by the foreign minister of the participating State
which holds the Chairmanship. The CiO is assisted by the
previous and incoming Chairman-in-Office; the three of them
together constitute the Troika. The origin of the institution lies
with the Charter of Paris for a New Europe (1990), the Helsinki
Document 1992 formally institutionalized this function.
In addition to the Ministerial Council and Permanent Council,
the Forum for Security and Co-operation is also an OSCE
decision-making body. It deals predominantly with matters of
military cooperation, such as modalities for inspections according
to the 1999 Vienna Document. The OSCE takes a
comprehensive approach to the politico-military dimension of
security, which includes a number of commitments by
participating States and mechanisms for conflict prevention and
resolution. The Organization also seeks to enhance military
security by promoting greater openness, transparency and
cooperation.
The end of the Cold War resulted in a huge amount of
weapons becoming available in what is known as the international
grey market for weapons. The OSCE helps to stop the illegal
spread of such weapons and offers assistance with their
destruction.

50
The actions taken by the OSCE in border monitoring, range
from conflict prevention to post-conflict management. With its
expertise in conflict prevention, crisis management and early
warning, the OSCE contributes to world-wide efforts in combating
terrorism. The OSCE works to prevent conflicts from arising and
to facilitate lasting comprehensive political settlements for
existing conflicts. It also helps with the process of rehabilitation in
post-conflict areas. OSCE police operations are an integral part of
the Organizations efforts in conflict prevention and post-conflict
rehabilitation.
Activities in the economic and environmental dimension
include the monitoring of developments related to economic and
environmental security in OSCE participating States, with the aim
of preventing them from any threat of conflict.
The OSCE Secretariat is located in Vienna, Austria. The
Organization also has offices in Copenhagen, Geneva, The
Hague, Prague and Warsaw.

POST-READING
A Give the Russian equivalents for the following word-
combinations:
an ad hoc organisation; early warning; conflict prevention; post
conflict rehabilitation; crisis management; participating states;
high-level decision-making body; to hold chairmanship; at
ambassadorial level; modalities for inspections; a
comprehensive approach; the politico-military dimension of
security; commitments of participating states; to promote greater
openness, transparency and cooperation; to result in a grey
market for weapons; the illegal spread of weapons; border
monitoring; to contribute to combating terrorism; an integral
part of the efforts; any threat of conflict.

B Find in the text the sentences with the word-combinations


given above, read and translate them into Russian.

51
C Answer the following questions:
1) What is the OSCE concerned with?
2) What countries are the participating states of the OSCE?
3) Are OSCE summits held on a regular basis?
4) Which body of the organisation meets at the end of each
year?
5) What are the responsibilities of the Chairman- in- Office?
6) Which country holds the Chairmanship at the moment?
7) What inspections does the OSCE make? What are their
purposes?

D List all activities of the OSCE.

E Make a written resume of the text.

3 THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANISATION


PRE-READING
A Before reading the text make sure you know the meaning of
the following words:
engagement expansion defense station
deployment arms race dtente wage
dissolution offensive alliance fleet
adversary embargo missile join
mass destruction nuclear weapons

B Complete the following sentences with the appropriate word


from the list above:
1) States join together and form an _________ to counteract
their _________ .
2) Military Alliances have defensive and _________ strategy.
3) They are engaged in _________ and further developing
weapons of mass _________ .
4) These activities do not facilitate _________ .

52
5) Expansion of alliances and _________ of missiles close to
the borders of their enemy is the goal of military blocs.
6) Its easier to _________ hostilities using all types of
weapons.

READING
Read the text and do the tasks that follow.

NATO
The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) (also called
the North Atlantic Alliance) is a military alliance established by
the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949. Headquartered in
Brussels, Belgium, the organisation constitutes a system of
collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual
defense in response to an attack by any external party. During
most of the duration of the Cold War, NATO maintained a pattern
with no actual military engagement as an organization. They also
signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
In 1978, NATO countries officially defined two
complementary aims of the Alliance, to maintain security and
pursue dtente. This was supposed to mean matching defenses at
the level rendered necessary by the Warsaw Pacts offensive
capabilities without a further arms race.
In 1979, in light of Warsaw Pact nuclear capabilities in
Europe, ministers approved the deployment of U.S. cruise missiles
and Pershing II nuclear weapons in Europe. The new warheads
were also meant to strengthen the western negotiating position in
regard to nuclear disarmament. This action led to peace movement
protests throughout Western Europe.
The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Warsaw
Pact in 1991 removed the de facto main adversary of NATO. This
caused a strategic re-evaluation of NATOs purpose, nature and
tasks. In practice this ended up entailing a gradual expansion of
NATO to Eastern Europe, as well as the extension of its activities
to areas that had not formerly been NATO concerns.

53
Yet the first post-Cold War expansion of NATO came with
the reunification of Germany in 1990 though it was agreed that
foreign troops and nuclear weapons would not be stationed in the
east. In 1997, three former socialist countries, Hungary, the Czech
Republic, and Poland, were invited to join NATO, which finally
happened in 1999. And the process still goes on.
The first NATO military operation caused by the conflict in
the former Yugoslavia ran in 19931996. It provided enforcement
of the arms embargo and economic sanctions against the Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia. A NATO bombing campaign began in
August, 1995, against the Army of Republika Srpska. On 24
March 1999, NATO saw its first broad-scale military engagement
in the Kosovo War, where it waged an 11-week bombing
campaign.
The September 11 attacks caused NATO to invoke Article 5
of the NATO Charter for the first time in its history. The Article
says that an attack on any member shall be considered to be an
attack on all. NATO determined that the attacks were indeed under
the terms of the North Atlantic Treaty. The official actions taken
by NATO in response to the attacks included: naval operations in
the Mediterranean Sea to prevent the movement of terrorists or
weapons of mass destruction as well as to enhance the security of
shipping in general.

POST-READING
A Which of the words are antonyms?
dtente, offense, ally, arms race, armament, construction,
expansion, defense, disarmament, destruction, adversary,
contraction.

B Complete the following sentences:


1) The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation is a military
_________ .
2) The organisation constitutes a system of collective
_________ .
3) During the Cold War NATO maintained a pattern with no

54
actual military _________ as an organization.
4) They officially defined two complementary aims of the
Alliance, to maintain security and pursue _________ .
5) Dtente meant relaxation of tension without further
_________ .
6) Later the countries of NATO approved _________ of
nuclear weapons in Europe.
7) Gradual _________ of NATO to Eastern Europe began after
the Cold war.
8) NATO promised not to _________ its missiles in the East.
9) The process of other eastern countries _________ NATO is
still going on.
10) NATO saw its first broad-scale military _________ in the
Kosovo War, where it _________ an 11-week bombing
campaign.
11) The Mediterranean Sea military operations were aimed to
prevent the movement of terrorists or weapons of
_________ .

C Answer the following questions:


1) What kind of organisation is NATO?
2) What was NATO policy like during the Cold war?
3) Under what pretext was it decided to deploy nuclear
weapons in Europe?
4) What did NATO promise not to do after the fall of the
Berlin wall?
5) What is the policy of NATO nowadays?
6) Is NATO engaged in military operations?
7) Does this policy cause anxiety of Russia, Belarus and other
former Soviet Union countries? Why?

D Make a written summary of the text.

E Express your opinion on nowadays NATO policy.

55
4 ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS
PRE-READING
A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of
the following words:
focal point affiliation stability attend
adherence dialogue partner region
accelerate portfolio be held

B Replace the underlined word with the synonym from the list
above:
1) Southeast Asia is a very large area.
2) The aim of ASEAN is to speed up the development in the
region.
3) The organization states its commitment to the principles of
the UN Charter.
4) Alongside its permanent members ASEAN has dialogue
participants.
5) Ministerial meetings on a number of programmes are held
regularly.
6) The most important point is the August ASEAN Economic
Ministers Meetings.
7) These meetings are also attended by Economic Ministers of
not permanent partners.

READING
Read the text and do the tasks that follow.
ASEAN
Established in 1967, the Association of Southeast Asian
Nations (ASEAN) aims to accelerate economic growth, social
progress and cultural development in the region and to promote
regional peace and stability through the rule of law and adherence
to the principles of the United Nations Charter. At the 13th
ASEAN Summit in November 2007, the leaders signed the
ASEAN Charter which provides a legal and institutional
framework to support the realization of ASEANs objectives,
including regional integration.

56
ASEAN comprises ten countries: Burma, Brunei Darussalam,
Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore,
Thailand and Vietnam.
ASEAN has ten Dialogue Partners: Australia, Canada, China,
EU, India, Japan, New Zealand, ROK, Russia and the United
States. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) also
has dialogue status. Australia became ASEANs first Dialogue
Partner in 1974.
ASEAN holds annual Head of State/Government-level
Summits towards the end of each year. The East Asia Summit
(EAS) is also held at this time. ASEAN holds regular ministerial
and senior officials meetings across a number of portfolios
throughout the year. The main meetings involving the foreign
ministers of ASEAN and its dialogue partners are the Post
Ministerial Conferences (PMC), normally held in July, followed by
the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF). The focal point of the year for
economic ministers is the ASEAN Economic Ministers Meetings
(AEM), normally held in August. The AEM is attended by
Economic Ministers of ASEAN and a number of dialogue partners.
The Chair of ASEAN is rotated among the ASEAN countries
on an annual basis, and acts as host of the Summit and key
ministerial meetings. Thailand is the current Chair of ASEAN.
The ASEAN Secretariat, based in Jakarta, Indonesia,
coordinates, initiates and implements ASEAN activities. The
Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General of ASEAN, who is
appointed for a five-year term and accorded ministerial status. Dr
Surin Pitsuwan, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Thailand,
assumed the post of Secretary-General of ASEAN on 7 January
2008.
ASEAN has several specialized bodies to implement inter-
governmental cooperation in various fields, such as the ASEAN
Agricultural Development Planning Centre and the ASEAN
Centre for Energy. In addition, ASEAN promotes dialogue and
consultations with professional and business organisations, such as
the ASEAN-Chambers of Commerce and Industry and ASEAN
Business Forum. A number of non-governmental organisations
(NGOs) have formal affiliations with ASEAN.

57
POST-READING
A Complete the following sentences:
1) ASEAN aims to _________ economic growth, social
progress and cultural development in the region.
2) The organisation promotes regional peace and _________
through the rule of law and _________ to the principles of
the United Nations Charter.
3) The main meetings involve the foreign ministers of ASEAN
and its _________ partners.
4) The _________ point of the year for economic ministers is
the ASEAN Economic Ministers Meetings normally
_________ in August.
5) The meetings are _________ by Economic Ministers of
ASEAN and a number of dialogue partners.
6) The East Asia _________ is usually held at the end of the
year.
7) A number of non-governmental organisations have formal
_________ with ASEAN.
8) ASEAN holds regular ministerial and senior officials
meetings across a number of ________ throughout the year.

B Work in pairs. Put questions to each paragraph of the text and


answer them.

C Read the text given below and render it in English.




- ()
.

, ,
.


,

, , .

58


.
1996 . (
, , , ,
).

.


.

READING AND DISCUSSION


1. Read the text and do the tasks that follow.

Terrorism
Terrorism has been used by a broad array of political
organisations in furthering their objectives both right-wing and
left-wing political parties, nationalistic, and religious groups,
revolutionaries and ruling governments. An International Round
Table on Constructing Peace, Deconstructing Terror (2004)
recommended that a distinction should be made between terrorism
and acts of terror. While acts of terrorism are criminal acts as
recognized by the United Nations Security Council Resolution
1373 and domestic jurisprudence of almost all countries in the
world, terrorism refers to a phenomenon including the actual acts,
the perpetrators of acts of terrorism themselves and their motives.
There is an intellectual consensus globally, that acts of terrorism
should not be accepted under any circumstances.
The only general characteristic of terrorism generally agreed
upon is that terrorism involves violence and the threat of violence.
The attack is carried out in such a way as to maximize the severity
and length of the psychological impact. Each act of terrorism is a
performance, devised to have an impact on many large
audiences. Terrorists also attack national symbols to show their
power and to shake the foundation of the country or society they

59
are opposed to. This may negatively affect a governments
legitimacy, while increasing the legitimacy of the given terrorist
organisation and/or ideology behind a terrorist act.
Something all terrorist attacks have in common is their
perpetration for a political purpose. Terrorism is a political tactic
that is used by activists when they believe no other means will
influence the kind of change they desire. The change is desired so
badly that failure is seen as a worse outcome than the deaths of
civilians. This is often where the interrelationship between
terrorism and religion occurs.

POST-READING
A Answer the following questions:
1) What phenomenon does the term terrorism refer to?
2) Why should a distinction be made between terrorism and
acts of terror?
3) What is the only general characteristic of terrorism
generally agreed upon?
4) What is the usual purpose of a terrorist attack?
5) What do terrorist attacks have in common?

B Agree or disagree with the following and give your comments:


The distinctive nature of terrorism lies in its intentional
and specific selection of civilians as direct targets.
The criminal intent is shown when babies, children,
mothers, and the elderly are murdered or injured though
they are not the targets of terrorists.
Terrorists see the civilians that are targeted as symbols,
tools, or corrupt beings.
The victims suffering accomplishes the terrorists goals
of instilling fear, getting a message out to an audience.
Spiritual failure is worse for terrorists than their own death
or the deaths of innocent civilians.

60
Terrorists never pretend to be non-combatants, they never
hide among non-combatants or fight from in the midst of
the crowd.
When they can, terrorists strive to mislead and provoke
the government soldiers into attacking the wrong people,
so that the government might be blamed for it.

2. Read the text and do the tasks that follow.


Terrorism and Extremism
The terms terrorism and extremism are sometimes used
interchangeably. However, there is a significant difference
between the two. Terrorism is essentially threat or act of physical
violence. Extremism involves using non-physical instruments to
mobilize minds to achieve political or ideological ends. For
instance, Al Qaeda is involved in terrorism while the Iranian
revolution of 1979 is a case of extremism. A global research report
An Inclusive World (2007) asserts that extremism poses a more
serious threat than terrorism in the decades to come. For these and
other reasons, media outlets wishing to preserve a reputation for
impartiality are extremely careful in their use of the term.
Some groups, when involved in a liberation struggle, were
called terrorists by the Western governments or media. Later,
these same persons, as leaders of the liberated nations, were called
statesmen by the same organisations. Two examples of this
phenomenon are the Nobel Peace Prize laureates Menachem
Begin and Nelson Mandela.
Sometimes states that are close allies, for reasons of history,
culture and politics, can disagree over whether members of a
certain organisation are terrorists. For example for many years
some branches of the United States government refused to label
members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) as terrorists, while it
was using methods against one of the United States closest allies
Britain. But Britain branded the attacks as terrorist.

61
POST-READING
A Answer the following questions:
1) Why cannot the terms terrorism and extremism be used
interchangeably?
2) What is a more serious threat in the years to come?
3) Why did the attitude to some groups or leaders considered
to be terrorists get changed with the time?
4) Do governments always have the same opinion on
whether to label an organisation as terrorist?
B Discuss the following:
Terrorism as a global phenomenon;
The difference between terrorism and extremism;
Examples of terrorist attacks in the world;
Attitude to terrorism around the world.

UNIT 4
FOREIGN POLICY
STARTING-UP
A countrys foreign policy is a set of goals that seeks to
outline how that particular country will interact on an official basis
with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state
actors. As well, an entire range of factors relating to those other
nations including economic, political, social, military etc. is
evaluated and monitored in attempts to maximize benefits of
multilateral international cooperation. Foreign policies are
designed to help protect a countrys national interests, national
security, ideological goals, and economic prosperity. This can
occur as a result of peaceful cooperation with other nations, or
through aggression, war, and exploitation.
The purpose of a foreign policy doctrine is to provide general
rules for the conduct of foreign policy through decisions on
international relations. These rules allow the political leadership of
a nation to deal with a situation and to explain the actions of a
nation to other nations.

62
VOCABULARY FOCUS
Usually, creating foreign policy is the job of the head of
government and the foreign minister. In some countries the
legislature also has considerable oversight. As an exception, in
France and Finland, it is the head of state that is responsible for
foreign policy, while the head of government mainly deals with
internal policy. In the United States, the head of state (the
President) also functions as the head of government.
A foreign policy doctrine is a general statement of foreign policy
and belief system through a doctrine. In some cases, the statement
is made by a political leader, typically a nations chief executive
or chief diplomat, and comes to be named after that leader.
Richard Nixons justification for the phased withdrawal of the
United States from Vietnam, for example, came to be called the
Nixon Doctrine. This pattern of naming is not universal, however;
Chinese doctrines, for example, are often referred to by number.
Doctrine is usually not meant to have any negative connotations;
it is especially not to be confused with dogma.

Use the above words in sentences of your own.

READING

1 FOREIGN POLICY OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

PRE-READING
A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of
the following words:
interference safeguard preserve removal
cultural ties alignment balanced promote
suppression milestone initiative arsenal
elimination defensive position
nuclear-free area on safeguards to to be aimed at

63
B Answer the following questions:
1) What practice of international relations does Belarus stand
for? Why?
2) Is Belarus a nuclear-free area? Has it been a nuclear area
before?
3) Who guarantees its security?
4) What are the main principles of foreign policy of the
Republic aimed at?
5) What are the principles of military doctrine of the Republic
of Belarus?
READING
Read the text and define the key points of the foreign policy of
Belarus.
Foreign Policy of the Republic of Belarus
Belarus, more than any other country, understands the
necessity to preserve and promote world peace. Our country,
having lost during World War II almost one third of its population,
knows the price of peaceful life and does its best to ensure that
military conflicts disappear from the practice of international
relations forever. An important milestone of Belarusian foreign
policy was the signing in 1996 of the Comprehensive Test Ban
Treaty, decision on removal of strategic nuclear weapons from the
country, Belarusian initiative on creating nuclear-free area in
Central and Eastern Europe. Security of Belarus is legally
guaranteed by the UN Security Council and through bilateral
treaties concluded with several countries. Belarus has recently
signed International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of
Nuclear Terrorism and adhered to the Additional Protocol on
safeguards to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
Belarus considers the OSCE as a key structure ensuring
security and stability in Europe. The significant part of the dialog
between Belarus and Western countries is still concentrated within
the Organization. Belarus interaction with the OSCE is aimed at
strengthening all elements of cooperation in the framework of the
organization and at promoting a progressive reform of the
organization taking into account interests of every single member
state.
64
Belarus has close relations with the major international
institutions such as the United Nations Organization, Non-
Alignment Movement, World Bank, International Monetary Fund,
etc. During the UN Millennium Assembly and Summit, Belarus
spoke for preserving UN as a unique universal international
institution leading further development of international relations.
Belarus supports consistent policy of the United Nations in
such fields as international peace and security, development of
existent international regimes on non-proliferation of weapons of
mass destruction, reduction and elimination of its arsenals,
combating international terrorism.
Belarus respects sovereignty of other countries, their right to
choose way of development. Belarus opposes interference in
internal affaires of other countries since it is of opinion that there
should not be any conflicts on the Earth.
Military doctrine of Belarus consists of a number of principles
on ensuring military security of the country by use of political and
military measures. The doctrine specifies main directions of
military policy of the nation, as well as determines its attitude to
military conflicts and their prevention, military construction and
use of military power to protect vital interests of the nation.
Declaring the military doctrine, that has exceptionally defensive
nature, Belarus believes that no nation is now potential enemy and
considers its military security as state of protection of national
interests during possible transformation of military risk to military
threat to the nation.
Belarus pursues a balanced foreign policy, the main purpose
of which is to strengthen its international positions. Belarus acts
actively both in trade and economic field, security affairs, as well
as in developing cultural ties.

POST-READING
A Translate the following word-combinations into Russian:
to preserve and promote world peace; an important milestone of
foreign policy; the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; removal of
strategic nuclear weapons; initiative on creating nuclear-free
area; through bilateral treaties; Convention for the Suppression

65
of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism; to adhere to; the Nuclear Non-
Proliferation Treaty; to ensure security and stability; in the
framework of the organisation; Non-Alignment Movement; the
UN Millennium Assembly; non-proliferation of weapons of
mass destruction; reduction and elimination of arsenals; to
combat international terrorism; interference in internal affaires;
to specify main directions of military policy; to protect vital
interests; to declare the military doctrine; to have exceptionally
defensive nature; to be potential enemy; military threat to the
nation; to pursue a balanced foreign policy; to strengthen
international positions; to develop cultural ties.

B Give antonyms for the following words:


nuclear area; legal; proliferation; alignment; offensive; outside
the organisation; internal affairs; interference; dependence;
security; possible; balance; equality.

C Match the parts:


to protect a treaty
to pursue preserving the UN as a unique institution
to strengthen military doctrine
to declare international positions
to interfere cultural ties
to speak for national interests
to develop in internal affairs
to respect in security affairs
to act actively sovereignty
to sign balanced foreign policy

D Complete the following sentences:


1) An important milestone of Belarusian foreign policy was the
signing in 1996 of _________ .
2) Belarus initiated creating _________ in Central and Eastern
Europe.
3) Belarus signed International Convention for _________ of
Acts of Nuclear Terrorism.

66
4) Belarus adhered to the Additional Protocol on safeguards to
the nuclear _________ .
5) Belarus considers the OSCE as a key structure ensuring
_________ in Europe.
6) Belarus interaction with the OSCE is aimed at
strengthening all elements of cooperation _________ of the
organisation.
7) Belarus has close relations with the major international
institutions such as the United Nations Organisation,
_________ Movement, World Bank, International Monetary
Fund etc.
8) During the UN Millennium Assembly and Summit, Belarus
spoke for _________ UN as a unique universal international
institution leading further development of international
relations.
9) Belarus supports consistent policy of the United Nations on
non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, reduction
and _________ of its arsenals.
10) Belarus respects _________ of other countries, their right to
choose way of development. Belarus opposes _________ in
internal affaires of other countries since it is of opinion that
there should not be any conflicts on the Earth.
11) Military _________ of Belarus consists of a number of
principles on ensuring military security of the country by
use of political and military measures.
12) The doctrine _________ main directions of military policy
of the nation, as well as determines its attitude to military
conflicts and their prevention.
13) Belarus declared the military doctrine that has exceptionally
_________ nature.
14) Belarus pursues a _________ foreign policy, the main
purpose of which is to strengthen its international positions.

E Make a summary of the text.

67
2 FOREIGN POLICY OF CHINA
PRE-READING
A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of
the following words:
territorial integrity with regard to aspiration reform
hot spot/ hot bed under pretext prosperity accede
all-dimensional in the light of engage in impose
modernization proceed from resort to reflect
merit/ demerit coexistence rational propel

B Match antonyms:
peaceful area modernize
integrity poverty
merit lack stance
interference unreasonable
remain stagnant disintegrity
have stance non-interference
rational hot spot
prosperity demerit

READING
Read the text and define the key points of the foreign policy of
China.
Foreign Policy of China
China pursues an independent foreign policy of peace. The
fundamental goals of this policy are to preserve Chinas
independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, create a
favorable international environment for Chinas reform and
opening up and modernization construction, maintain world peace
and propel common development.
China has all along adhered to the principle of independence.
With regard to all international affairs, China will, proceeding
from the fundamental interests of the Chinese people and the
people of the world, determine its stand and policy in the light of
the merits and demerits of the matter, without yielding to any
68
outside pressure. China does not form an alliance with any big
power or group of big powers. Nor does China establish military
groups with other countries, or engage in arms race and military
expansion.
China opposes hegemonism and preserves world peace. China
believes that all countries, big or small, strong or weak, rich or
poor, are equal members of the international community.
Countries should resolve their disputes and conflicts peacefully
through consultations and not resort to the use or threat of force.
Nor should they interfere in others internal affairs under any
pretext. China never imposes its social system and ideology on
others, nor allows other countries to impose theirs on it.
China actively facilitates the establishment of a new
international political and economic order that is fair and rational.
China holds that the new order should give expression to the
demands of the development of history and progress of the times
and reflect the universal aspirations and common interests of the
peoples of all countries in the world. The Five Principles of
Peaceful Coexistence and the universally recognized norms
governing international relations should serve as the basis for
setting up the new international political and economic order.
China is ready to establish and develop friendly relations of
cooperation with all the countries on the basis of mutual respect
for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression,
mutual non-interference in each others internal affairs, equality
and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.
China pursues a policy of all-dimensional opening up to the
outside. It is ready to develop, on the basis of equality and mutual
benefit, extensive trade relations, economic and technological
cooperation and scientific and cultural exchanges with countries
and regions of the world so as to promote common prosperity.
After 15 years talks, China finally acceded to the World
Trade Organization on December 11, 2001. While enjoying the
relevant rights, China has begun earnestly honoring its obligations
within the framework of the WTO and its commitments. China
remains ready to play a positive role, together with other
countries, in improving world multilateral trade system and
promoting prosperity and progress in the world.

69
As a permanent member of the Security Council of the United
Nations, China actively participates in the political solution of the
problems of regional hot spots. Chinas peace-keepers have joined
United Nations peace-keeping operations. China supports the
reform of the United Nations and a continued important role of the
United Nations and other multilateral organs in international
affairs. China is firmly opposed to all forms of terrorism and has
made important contributions to international anti-terrorism
cooperation. China devotes itself actively to pushing forward the
cause of international arms control, disarmament and non-
proliferation. To date, China has joined all the treaties related to
international arms control and non-proliferation.

POST-READING
A Translate the following paragraph into Russian.
China has all along adhered to the principle of independence.
With regard to all the international affairs, China will,
proceeding from the fundamental interests of the Chinese people
and the people of the world, determine its stand and policy in the
light of the merits and demerits of the matter, without yielding
to any outside pressure. China does not form an alliance with
any big power or group of big powers. Nor does China establish
military groups with other countries, or engage in arms race and
military expansion.
B Answer the following questions:
1) What are the fundamental goals of Chinas independent
foreign policy?
2) Whose interests will China proceed from in determining its
stand in matters of foreign policy?
3) Does China form an alliance with any big power?
4) Does China want to impose its social and ideological system
on other countries?
5) What principles and norms governing international relations
does China consider as the basis for setting up the new
international political and economic order?

70
6) On what basis is China ready to establish its relations with
other countries?
7) Is China a member of the WTO? What is its role in the
organisation?
8) What are Chinas activities in the UN?

C Compare the foreign policy of China and Belarus. Say which


of the key points are alike and which differ. What can be the
causes of the differences?

D Make a written resume of the text.

E Discuss the relations between Belarus and China.

3 FOREIGN POLICY OF FRANCE


PRE-READING
A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of
the following words:
cordial
commercial relations exchange emerge fallout
launch a process personnel posture frank
lay foundations energetic cession tense

B Complete the following sentences with the appropriate word:


1) France has strong military _________ and energetic
diplomacy.
2) It _________ foundations for good relations with many
countries.
3) France _________ the Asia-Europe Meeting process.
4) France supported the process of the peaceful _________ of
some territories to India.
5) The largest current _________ between the United States
and France involves the Iraq War.
6) Franco-Algerian relationship in post-colonization period has
been sometimes _________ .

71
READING
Read the text and define the key regions of France relations.
Foreign Policy of France
France is a power in Western Europe because of its size,
location, economy, membership in European organisations, strong
military posture and energetic diplomacy. France generally has
worked to strengthen the global economic and political influence
of the EU and its role in common European defense and collective
security.
It views Franco-German cooperation and the development of a
European Security and Defense Identity (ESDI) as the foundation
of efforts to enhance security in the European Union. France
cooperates closely with Germany and Spain, but relations with the
United Kingdom are historically tense.
From the Middle Ages onwards, France and England were
often enemies, and occasionally allies. However, in the beginning
of the 20th century a policy of friendship was started. France and
the United Kingdom became allies, and despite occasional
tensions, remain so to the present day.
Relations between post-colonial Algeria and France have
remained close throughout the years, although sometimes difficult.
In 1962, the Evian Accords peace treaty laid the foundations of a
new Franco-Algerian relationship.
France has extensive political and commercial relations with
Asian countries, including the Peoples Republic of China, India,
Pakistan, Japan, and Southeast Asia as well as an increasing
presence in regional fora. France was instrumental in launching
the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) process which could eventually
emerge as a competitor to APEC.
France has been involved in trade and cultural exchange
initiatives with Japan. Some people see this as being a result of
French leader Jacques Chirac being a japanophile. Chirac visited
Japan over 40 times, probably more than any other world leader
outside of Japan, and was an expert on the country. France started
the export promotion campaign and the international personnel
exchange programme.

72
France and India established diplomatic relationships soon
after India achieved independence in 1947. Indias strong
diplomatic ties with France resulted in the peaceful cession of
Pondicherry to India in 1954 without any military opposition from
France.
Relations between the United States and France are active and
cordial. Mutual visits by high-level officials are conducted on a
regular basis and bilateral contact at the cabinet level is active.
France and the United States cooperate closely on some issues
(such as anti-terrorism) but differ on others (such as the Israeli-
Palestinian conflict and a number of trade issues). Differences are
discussed frankly. The largest current fallout between the United
States and France involves the Iraq War, and some aspects of the
post-September 11 War on Terror.

POST-READING
Answer the following questions:
1) What are the reasons to consider France as a power in
Western Europe?
2) How does France see its role in the European Union?
3) What are the relation of France with Germany, Spain and
the UK?
4) Why have the relations with Algeria remained difficult?
5) What instrumental process did France launch in Asia?
6) What was particular in Frances relations with Japan?
7) What are the relations between France and India like?
8) What are the relations between France and the USA like?
9) What did the current fallout between the USA and France
involve?

Make a summary of the text.

73
READING AND DISCUSSION
Read the text and then do the tasks that follow.
Multidimensional Foreign Policy of Belarus in Current
International Situation
The first five years of the 21st century did not make the world
more peaceful and stable. The threat of global nuclear catastrophe
was replaced by new challenges: international terrorism, organized
crime, drug trafficking, and proliferation of weapons of mass
destruction. The emergence of unipolar world not only failed to
ease tensions in international relations, but also brought about new
hot beds of conflicts, most negatively affected fates of many
nations. Afghanistan became the center of drug trafficking. Iraq
continues to remain the source of instability of the entire region.
All these features of modern world development acquired
paramount importance for the Republic of Belarus, seriously
influenced its foreign policy, the effectiveness of which largely
depends on the accuracy of correlation between world trends and
national objectives and possibilities on international arena. Even
under such circumstances, far from being favourable, peaceful
pragmatism and democratic approach have been and remain
political cornerstones of Belarus international strategy.
The Declaration on State Sovereignty adopted in Belarus in
1990, proclamation of economic and political independence of the
country signified a new period of international development.
Having realized its natural right to be independent, Belarus started
to build a sovereign nation, conduct its own foreign policy, aimed
at strengthening independence, inclusion in pan-European process,
fostering cooperation with neighboring countries and world
powers.
Because of complicated historical path of Belarus, its foreign
policy was formed through synthesis of historical traditions with
due regard for fundamentally new approaches related to drastic
changes both in Belarus and in the world. Mentality of Belarusian
people who had always been looking for friends and partners,
specificity of todays stage of development of international
relations, pragmatic economic estimates determined the decision
taken by Belarus to choose multidimensional foreign policy, which
implies constructive work at all directions.

74
At the same time, objective limitation of Belarus foreign
policy resources makes it necessary to concentrate them on the
most important directions this is a common practice in the world.
Strategic goals of Belarus at the international arena are
safeguarding the sovereignty of the nation, protecting interests of
the citizens, preserving nuclear-free status. Priorities of foreign
policy of Belarus include allied relations with Russia, participation
in pan-European political and economic processes, contribution to
strengthening regional and global security, work in international
organizations. Belarus proceeds from the conviction that world
order of the 21st century should be based on joint settlement of
disputes, on the primacy of UN Charter and international law.
Stability of the system of international relations can only be
achieved through real equality of all its subjects, mutual respect
and mutually advantageous cooperation.
The Republic of Belarus has established diplomatic relations
with 153 states. Diplomatic infrastructure has been developed
abroad. Currently, 51 diplomatic missions in 45 countries
worldwide represent Belarus, including 43 embassies, 3 permanent
missions to international organizations, and 7 consulates general,
31 embassies of foreign countries, 3 branches of embassies, 1 trade
mission, 13 consular offices, 12 missions of international
organizations function in Belarus. 81 missions of foreign countries
and international organizations are accredited to Belarus
concurrently.

POST-READING
A Answer the following questions:
1) What new challenges have added to international tensions in
the 21st century?
2) What are the cornerstones of Belarusian foreign strategy due
to changes in international situation?
3) What does multidimensional foreign policy imply?
4) What factors made Belarus conduct multidimensional
foreign policy?

75
5) What are the priorities of the Republic of Belarus in foreign
policy?
6) What diplomatic infrastructure has been developed abroad
and inside Belarus?
B Discuss the following:
Nowadays international situation;
New challenges in the world;
The most prominent international events;
The way different countries behave in the circumstances
on the international arena.
C Agree or disagree with the ideas expressed by your colleagues
choosing phrases of agreement/disagreement from the list to
begin:
I must agree totally with . . . . .
Id like to begin by agreeing with . . . . .
I support the opinion that . . . . .
I cant but agree with . . . . .
I cant agree with . . . . .
I cant share the view that . . . . .

Read the passage from Obamas pre-election critics of Bush


diplomacy and then do the tasks that follow.
Bush Diplomacy Critisized by Obama
The United States is trapped by the Bush-Cheney approach
to diplomacy that refuses to talk to leaders they dont like to talk
to. Not talking doesnt make administration look tough it makes
it look arrogant, it denies the US opportunities to make progress,
and it makes it harder for America to rally international support
for its leadership. On challenges ranging from terrorism to disease,
nuclear weapons to climate change, the administration cannot
make progress unless it can draw on strong international support.
George Bush policy in the Americas has been negligent
toward the US friends, ineffective with the adversaries,
disinterested in the challenges that matter in peoples lives, and
76
incapable of advancing the US interests in the region. As the
Americas have changed, the administration didnt offer any
compelling vision and created a vacuum for demagogues to
advance an anti-American agenda.
Under the Bush administration, foreign policy has been used
as a political wedge issue to divide the US people not as a cause
to bring America together. And it is no coincidence that one of the
most secretive administrations in history has pursued policies that
have been disastrous for the American people. Foreign policy is
stronger when Americans are united, and the government is open
with the American people.
Under the Bush administration the Kyl-Lieberman
amendment was adopted which says the US should use military
presence in Iraq to counter the threat from Iran. It was reckless for
Congress to give George Bush any justification to extend the Iraq
War or to attack Iran. Obama also introduced a resolution in the
Senate declaring that no act of Congress including Kyl-
Lieberman gives the Bush administration authorization to attack
Iran.
The Bush Administrations policy neglects U.S.-Russian
relations. The US should pursue a new, comprehensive strategy
that advances American national interests without compromising
the US enduring principles.

POST-READING
A Agree or disagree with the following:
1) If George Bush had talked to every leader without
arrogance, he would have gained more international
support on a broad range of issues;
2) If he had shown better regard to friends of the US, he
would have advanced the US interests in Americas;
3) The administration tried and did its best to offer the
strategy of establishing good-neighbour relations with
American states;

77
4) If the American administration had been more secretive,
the terrible disasters inside the US wouldnt have
happened.
5) If Congress hadnt accepted Bush false arguments, the
war in Iraq wouldnt have been extended.
6) The more the Bush administration compromises the better
it advances American national interests.

B Discuss the failures of President Bush foreign policy.

C Discuss some of the items of the Obama-Biden plan to renew


American diplomacy.
Obama supports tough, direct presidential diplomacy with
Iran without preconditions. Now is the time to pressure Iran
directly to change their troubling behavior. Obama and Biden
would offer the Iranian regime a choice. If Iran abandons its
nuclear program and support for terrorism, we will offer
incentives like membership in the World Trade Organization,
economic investments, and a move toward normal diplomatic
relations. If Iran continues its troubling behavior, we will step up
our economic pressure and political isolation.
Obama and Biden will make progress on the Israeli-
Palestinian conflict a key diplomatic priority. They will make a
sustained push working with Israelis and Palestinians to
achieve the goal of two states, a Jewish state in Israel and a
Palestinian state, living side by side in peace and security.
Obama and Biden will crack down on nuclear proliferation
by strengthening the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty so that
countries like North Korea and Iran that break the rules will
automatically face strong international sanctions.
Barack Obama and Joe Biden strongly support the U.S.-
Israel relations, believe that our first and incontrovertible
commitment in the Middle East must be to the security of Israel,
Americas strongest ally in the Middle East. They support this
closeness, stating that that the United States would never distance
itself from Israel.

78
Read the text and then do the tasks that follow.
History of Strained Relations between France and the United
Kingdom
France pursued close relations with the semi-autonomous
Egypt. In 1869 French workers completed the Suez Canal. A
rivalry emerged between France and Britain for control of Egypt,
and eventually Britain emerged victorious by buying out the
Egyptian shares of the company before the French had time to act.
France plays a significant role in Africa, especially in its
former colonies, through extensive aid programs, commercial
activities, military agreements, and cultural impact. In those former
colonies where the French presence remains important, France
contributes to political, military, and social stability. Many think
that French policy in Africa - particularly where British interests
are also involved - is susceptible to what is known as Fashoda
syndrome. Others have criticized the relationship as
neocolonialism, stressing Frances support of various dictatorships.
A chronic point of contention between France and the United
Kingdom was the future of the European Union. Under French
president Charles de Gaulle France opposed on several occasions
the UK joining the European Economic Community (as the EU
was then called). De Gaulle argued that the UK had extensive
alliances outside Europe, especially with the United States, and
was famously suspicious of its European neighbours. After the UK
joined the EEC, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher argued
for and won a reduction of its contributions to the EEC budget.
Prime Minister, Tony Blair expressed scepticism at French
economic policies, but forged an alliance with President Nicolas
Sarkozy.
There is still the perception among some in France that the
British abandoned France in 1940 and the perception among some
in Britain that the French wrongly opposed the 2003 Invasion of
Iraq.

79
POST-READING
Discuss the following:
The incidences of tension in relations between France and
the UK. Which of the countries used to take over?
The appearance of the term Fashoda syndrome. Why is
the term applied to the French?
A chronic point of contention between France and the UK.
The fact that the British abandoned the French in 1940.
What happened at that time?
The fact that France opposed the invasion in Iraq.

UNIT 5
NEGOTIATIONS
STARTING-UP
Negotiation is a dialogue intended to resolve disputes, to
produce an agreement upon courses of action, to bargain for
individual or collective advantage, or to craft outcomes to satisfy
various interests. It is the primary method of alternative dispute
resolution.
Negotiation occurs in business, non-profit organisations,
government branches, legal proceedings, among nations and in
personal situations such as marriage, divorce, parenting, and
everyday life.

VOCABULARY FOCUS
The study of the subject is called negotiation theory.
Those who work in negotiation professionally are called
negotiators.
Professional negotiators are often specialized, such as union
negotiators, leverage buyout negotiators, peace negotiators,
hostage negotiators, or may work under other titles, such as
diplomats, legislators or brokers.

80
Negotiation typically manifests itself with a trained negotiator
acting on behalf of a particular organisation or position.
It can be compared to mediation where a disinterested third party
listens to each sides arguments and attempts to help craft an
agreement between the parties.
It is also related to arbitration which, as with a legal proceeding,
both sides make an argument as to the merits of their case and
then the arbitrator decides the outcome for both parties.
Cherry picking is used primarily in purchasing negotiations,
although the principles are applicable to many other situations. In
essence, the purchaser pursuing a cherry picking strategy
examines the proposals of several potential vendors, picks out the
best components from each proposal, and then tries to negotiate
based upon their ideal proposal.
Salami sausages are big things (often spicy) that are eaten a slice at
a time, they would be indigestible if taken in a single large piece.
This aspect has led negotiators to use the name salamy tactics for
a negotiating technique that tries to do just that: to win
concessions in small doses (slices) when the other party would
probably reject them if they were put on the table all at once. It is
often used on a party that is mainly concerned with damage
limitation.

Study the terms given above and explain their meanings in


Russian.

READING
1 APPROACHES TO NEGOTIATION
PRE-READING
A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of
the following words:
mutual gains approach precondition
win-lose approach substance benefit
win-win approach bargain agenda
zero-sum game context option

81
B Complete the following sentences with the appropriate word
from the list above:
1) There are certain issues on the ______ of negotiations.
2) If one persons gain results in another persons loss, such a
negotiation is called _______ approach.
3) A trade or _______ is possible that is beneficial to both
parties.
4) When both parties benefit, such a negotiation is therefore
not _______ game.
5) If a decision is reached that benefits both parties, it is
_______ approach.
6) Skilled negotiators set ________ to deceptive approaches.

READING
Read the text and remember the basic elements of negotiation.
Approaches to Negotiation
Negotiation involves three basic elements: process, behavior
and substance. The process refers to how the parties negotiate: the
context of the negotiations, the parties to the negotiations, the
tactics used by the parties, and the sequence and stages in which
all of these play out. Behavior refers to the relationships among
these parties, the communication between them and the styles they
adopt. The substance refers to what the parties negotiate over: the
agenda, the issues (positions and interests), the options, and the
agreement(s) reached at the end.
Skilled negotiators may use a variety of tactics ranging from
negotiation hypnosis, to a straightforward presentation of demands
or setting of preconditions to more deceptive approaches such as
cherry picking. Intimidation and salami tactics may also play a
part in swaying the outcome of negotiations.
In the advocacy approach, a skilled negotiator usually serves
as advocate for one party to the negotiation and attempts to obtain
the most favorable outcomes possible for that party. In this process
the negotiator attempts to determine the minimum outcome(s) the
other party is (or parties are) willing to accept, then adjusts their
demands accordingly. A successful negotiation in the advocacy

82
approach is when the negotiator is able to obtain all or most of the
outcomes their party desires, but without driving the other party to
permanently break off negotiations, unless the best alternative to a
negotiated agreement (BATNA) is acceptable.
Traditional negotiating is sometimes called win-lose because
of the assumption of a fixed pie, that one persons gain results in
another persons loss. This is only true, however, if only a single
issue needs to be resolved, such as a price in a simple sales
negotiation. If multiple issues are discussed, differences in the
parties preferences make win-win negotiation possible. For
example, in a labor negotiation, the union might prefer job
security over wage gains. If the employers have opposite
preferences, a trade is possible that is beneficial to both parties.
Such a negotiation is therefore not a zero-sum game.
During the early part of the twentieth century, academics such
as Mary Parker Follett developed ideas suggesting that agreement
often can be reached if parties look not at their stated positions but
rather at their underlying interests and requirements to reach a
decision that benefits both parties. In the 1970s, practitioners and
researchers began to develop win-win approaches to negotiation.
Win-win is taken from Economic Game Theory, and has been
adopted by North American academics to loosely mean Principled
Negotiation. Getting to YES was published by Roger Fisher and
William Ury as part of the Harvard negotiation project, sometimes
called mutual gains bargaining. The mutual gains approach has
been applied in environmental situations.

POST-READING
A Give the Russian equivalents for the following word-
combinations:
the context of the negotiations; the parties to the negotiations;
the tactics used; the adopted styles; to negotiate over the agenda;
the options reached at the end.
B Read the first paragraph of the text again and explain what
the following concepts of negotiation mean:
1) process; 2) behaviour; 3) substance.

83
C Translate the text into Russian in the written form.
D Answer the following questions:
1) Which tactics do skilled negotiators use to reach the best
outcome?
2) What are the tactics the negotiators use in the advocacy
approach?
3) Why can traditional negotiating tactics be called win-lose?
4) In which cases is traditional negotiating tactics applied?
5) Does mutual gains bargaining mean the same as win-win
negotiating practice?
E Make a rsum of the text.

2 DIPLOMATIC STRATEGY
PRE-READING
A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of
the following words:
withdraw a diplomat on the merit of prosecute
a breach of honour act reasonably persecute
split the difference force to agree immunity
persona non grata the gain from incentive
reach agreements compromise appeal to
recall a diplomat make a deal hostility
commit a crime hard power sanctity
make a demand soft power violate

B Answer the following questions:


1) Has real world diplomacy traditionally been influenced by
hard or soft power?
2) Why is it difficult to reach agreements?
3) Can anything be gained from splitting the difference and
compromising?
4) Can a diplomat violate rules of the host country if he is
granted immunity?
5) What does the government do if their diplomat is declared
persona non grata?

84
READING
Read the text and then do the tasks that follow.
Real world diplomatic negotiations are very different from
intellectual debates in a university where an issue is decided on the
merit of the arguments and negotiators make a deal by splitting the
difference. Though diplomatic agreements can sometimes be
reached among liberal democratic nations by appealing to higher
principles, most real world diplomacy has traditionally been
heavily influenced by hard power.
The interaction of strength and diplomacy can be illustrated by
a comparison to labour negotiations. If a labor union is not willing
to strike, then the union is not going anywhere because management
has absolutely no incentive to agree to union demands. On the other
hand, if management is not willing to take a strike, then the
company will be walked all over by the labour union, and
management will be forced to agree to any demand the union
makes. The same concept applies to diplomatic negotiations.
There are also incentives in diplomacy to act reasonably,
especially if the support of other actors is needed. The gain from
winning one negotiation can be much less than the increased
hostility from other parts. This is also called soft power.
Many situations in modern diplomacy are also rules based.
When for instance two WTO countries have trade dispute, it is in
the interest of both to limit the spread of damage to other areas by
following some agreed-upon rules.
The sanctity of diplomats has long been observed. This
sanctity has come to be known as diplomatic immunity. While
there have been a number of cases where diplomats have been
killed, this is normally viewed as a great breach of honour.
Genghis Khan and the Mongols were well known for strongly
insisting on the rights of diplomats, and they would often punish
any state that violated these rights.
Diplomatic rights were established in the mid-seventeenth
century in Europe and have spread throughout the world. These
rights were formalized by the 1961 Vienna Convention on
Diplomatic Relations, which protects diplomats from being

85
persecuted or prosecuted while on a diplomatic mission. If a
diplomat does commit a serious crime while in a host country he
may be declared as persona non grata (unwanted person). Such
diplomats are then often tried for the crime in their homeland.
In times of hostility, diplomats are often withdrawn for
reasons of personal safety, as well as in some cases when the host
country is friendly but there is a perceived threat from internal
dissidents. Ambassadors and other diplomats are sometimes
recalled temporarily by their home countries as a way to express
displeasure with the host country. In both cases, lower-level
employees still remain to actually do the business of diplomacy.

POST-READING
A Say if the statements below are true or false. Correct the ones
which are false.
1) Real world diplomatic negotiations are the same as
intellectual debates in a university.
2) There are incentives in diplomacy to act reasonably,
especially if the support of other actors is needed.
3) The gain from winning a negotiation can be much more than
any other matter.
4) If two WTO countries have trade dispute, it is in the interest
of both to win it.
5) When diplomats have been killed, this is normally viewed as
a great breach of honour.
6) Diplomatic rights were formalized by the 1961 Vienna
Convention on Diplomatic Relations.
7) Diplomatic rights do not protect diplomats from being
persecuted or prosecuted while on a diplomatic mission.
8) If a diplomat does commit a serious crime while in a host
country he may be declared as persona non grata (unwanted
person).
9) Diplomats are never withdrawn for reasons of personal
safety.
10) Ambassadors and other diplomats are sometimes recalled
temporarily by their home countries as a way to express
gratitude to the host country.

86
B Give the definition or explanation of the following terms:
hard power; soft power; diplomacy: sanctity; diplomatic
immunity; breach of honour; diplomatic mission; sanction; to
withdraw diplomats; to recall diplomats; persona non grata.

C Find sentences with the above words in the text. Read and
translate these sentences into Russian

D Make a summary of the text.

3 POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE AFFECTS


IN NEGOTIATION

PRE-READING
A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of
the following words:
instrumental confidence sincerity effect
affect(ivity) (un)biased enhance utility
willingness drawback disrupt reject
contentious behaviour dyadic anger
detrimental take risks distort joint
retaliate against consequence

B Match the word and its antonym:


contentious unprejudiced
dyadic restraint
enhance admit
confidence unwillingness
drawback friendly
willingness mistrust
biased beneficial
reject advantage
sincerity reduce
detrimental single

87
READING
Read the text and then do the tasks that follow.
Even before the negotiation process starts, people in a positive
mood have more confidence, and higher tendencies to plan to use
a cooperative strategy. During the negotiation, negotiators who are
in a positive mood tend to enjoy the interaction more, show less
contentious behaviour, use less aggressive tactics and more
cooperative strategies. This in turn increases the likelihood that
parties will reach their instrumental goals, and enhance the ability
to find integrative gains. Indeed, compared with negotiators with
negative or natural affectivity, negotiators with positive affectivity
reached more agreements and tended to honour those agreements
more.
Those favourable outcomes are due to better decision making
processes, such as flexible thinking, creative problem solving,
respect for others perspectives, willingness to take risks and
higher confidence. Post negotiation positive affect has beneficial
consequences as well. It increases satisfaction with achieved
outcome and influences ones desire for future interactions. The
positive affect (PA) achieved by reaching an agreement facilitates
the dyadic relationship, which result in affective commitment that
sets the stage for subsequent interactions. PA also has its
drawbacks: it distorts perception of self performance in such a
way that performance is judged to be relatively better than it
actually is. Thus, studies involving self reports on achieved
outcomes might be biased.
Negative affect (NA) has detrimental effects on various stages
in the negotiation process. Although various negative emotions
affect negotiation outcomes, by far the most researched is anger.
Angry negotiators plan to use more competitive strategies and to
cooperate less, even before the negotiation starts. These
competitive strategies are related to reduced joint outcomes.
During negotiations, anger disrupts the process by reducing the
level of trust, clouding parties judgment, narrowing parties focus
of attention and changing their central goal from reaching
agreement to retaliating against the other side. Angry negotiators
pay less attention to opponents interests and are less accurate in
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judging their interests, thus achieve lower joint gains. Moreover,
because anger makes negotiators more self-centered in their
preferences, it increases the likelihood that they will reject
profitable offers. Anger doesnt help in achieving negotiation
goals either: it reduces joint gains and does not help to boost
personal gains, as angry negotiators dont succeed in claiming
more for themselves. Moreover, negative emotions lead to
acceptance of settlements that are not in the positive utility
function but rather have a negative utility. However, expression of
negative emotions during negotiation can sometimes be beneficial:
legitimately expressed anger can be an effective way to show
ones commitment, sincerity, and needs. Moreover, although NA
reduces gains in integrative tasks, it is a better strategy than PA in
distributive tasks (such as zero-sum).

POST-READING
A Say which of the words suggest positive emotions, qualities or
behaviour and which of them negative ones:
confidence; interaction; cooperation; contentious behaviour;
aggressive tactics; cooperative strategy; instrumental position;
negative affectivity; detrimental effect; favourable outcomes;
flexible thinking; creative problem solving; respect for others
perspectives; willingness to take risks; beneficial consequences;
biased assessment; anger; angry negotiators; reducing the level
of trust; clouding parties judgements; retaliating against the
other side; self-centered in preferences and interests; positive
utility; commitment; sincerity; to disrupt the process.

B Complete the following sentences:


1) During the negotiation, negotiators who are in a positive
mood tend to enjoy the interaction more, show less
_________ behaviour, use less aggressive tactics and more
cooperative strategies.
2) Positive mood increases the likelihood that parties will reach
their _________ goals and _________ the ability to find
integrative gains.

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3) Compared with negotiators with negative or natural
_________, negotiators with positive _________ reached
more agreements.
4) Post negotiation positive affect has beneficial _________ .
5) The PA increases satisfaction with achieved _________ and
influences ones desire for future interactions.
6) The PA achieved by two parties reaching an agreement
facilitates the _________ relationship.
7) The PA also has its _________ as: it distorts perception of
self performance.
8) Studies involving self reports on achieved outcomes show
that self-assessment might be _________ .
9) Negative affect has _________ effects on various stages in
the negotiation process.
10) The most researched negative emotions affect in negotiation
outcomes, is _________ .
11) During negotiations, anger _________ the process by
reducing the level of trust.
12) The parties might change their central goal from reaching
agreement to _________ against the other side.
13) Because anger makes negotiators more _________ in their
preferences, it increases the likelihood that they will
_________ profitable offers.
14) Negative emotions lead to acceptance of settlements that are
not in the positive _________.
15) Expression of negative emotions during negotiation can
sometimes be _________ .
16) Legitimately expressed anger can be an effective way to
show ones commitment, _________ , and needs.

C Which of the nouns are synonyms?


affect, mood, consequence, effect, influence, impact, result,
emotion, outcome, affectivity.

D Translate the text into Russian in the written form.

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E Answer the following questions:
1) How does a positive mood influence the outcome of
negotiations?
2) What is a positive affect in negotiations associated with?
3) What are beneficial consequences of a positive negotiation
affect?
4) What is the most researched negative affect of negotiations?
5) How does a negative affect influence the outcome of
negotiations?
6) In what situations can negative affect be sometimes
beneficial?
F Make a rsum of the text.

4 STUDIES OF EMOTION IN NEGOTIATION


PRE-READING
A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of
the following words:
cold / hot emotions destructive rest on
disappointment adjustment signal
complimentary disposition regret
compromise reciprocal cause
compassion concede settle
break down escalate yield
complexity sadness guilt
B Match the word and its synonym:
indicator guilt
additional concede
adaptation break down
give in reciprocal
collapse signal
mutual complimentary
mood settle
resolve adjustment
base on emotion
feeling disposition
blame rest on

91
READING
Read the text and then do the tasks that follow.
Studies of Emotion in Negotiation
Emotions play an important part in the negotiation process,
although it is only in recent years that their effect is being studied.
Emotions have the potential to play either a positive or negative
role in negotiation. During negotiations, the decision as to whether
the problem must be settled rests in part on emotional factors.
Negative emotions can cause intense and even irrational behavior,
and can cause conflicts to escalate and negotiations to break down,
while positive emotions facilitate reaching an agreement and help
to maximize joint gains.
Dispositional affects influence the various stages of the
negotiation process: which strategies are planned to be used,
which strategies are actually chosen, the way the other party and
its intentions are perceived, the willingness to reach an agreement
and the final outcomes. Positive affectivity and negative
affectivity of one or more of the negotiating sides can lead to very
different outcomes.
Most studies on emotion in negotiations focus on the effect of
the negotiators own emotions on the process. However, what the
other party feels might be just as important, as group emotions are
known to affect processes both at the group and the personal
levels. When it comes to negotiations, trust in the other party is a
necessary condition for its emotion to affect, and visibility
enhances the effect. Emotions contribute to negotiation processes
by signaling what one feels and thinks and can thus prevent the
other party from engaging in destructive behaviors and to indicate
what steps should be taken next: PA signals to keep in the same
way, while NA points that mental or behavioral adjustments are
needed. Partners emotions can have two basic effects on
negotiators emotions and behavior: reciprocal or complimentary.
For example, disappointment or sadness might lead to compassion
and more cooperation. In a study by Butt et al. (2005) which
simulated real multi-phase negotiation, most people reacted to the
partners emotions in reciprocal, rather than complimentary,
manner. Specific emotions were found to have different effects on
the opponents feelings and strategies chosen.

92
Anger caused the opponents to place lower demands and to
concede more in a zero-sum negotiation, but also to evaluate the
negotiation less favourably. It provoked both dominating and
yielding behaviors of the opponent. Pride led to more integrative
and compromise strategies by the partner.
Guilt or regret expressed by the negotiator led to better
impression of him by the opponent, however it also led the
opponent to place higher demands. On the other hand, personal
guilt was related to more satisfaction with what one achieved.
Worry or disappointment left bad impression on the opponent, but
led to relatively lower demands by the opponent.
Negotiation is a rather complex interaction. Capturing all its
complexity is a very difficult task, let alone isolating and
controlling only certain aspects of it. For this reason most
negotiation studies are done under laboratory conditions, and
focus only on some aspects. Although lab studies have their
advantages, they do have major drawbacks when studying
emotions.
Emotions in lab studies are usually manipulated and are
therefore relatively cold (not intense). Although those cold
emotions might be enough to show effects, they are qualitatively
different from the hot emotions often experienced during
negotiations. In real life there is self-selection to which negotiation
one gets into, which effects the emotional commitment,
motivation and interests. However this is not the case in lab
studies.
POST-READING
A Say which of the words given below are associated with
emotions and which are not.
anger, sincerity, complexity, worry, demand, satisfaction,
content, motivation, interest, disappointment, feeling, sadness,
quality, compassion, guilt, reciprocity, pride, selection,
impression.

B Say if the following statements are true or false:


1) Emotions play an important part in the negotiation process.
2) Emotions play a negative role in negotiation.

93
3) During negotiations, the decision rests only on emotional
factors.
4) Positive emotions can cause intense and even irrational
behavior, and can cause conflicts to escalate and
negotiations to break down.
5) Positive emotions facilitate reaching an agreement and help
to maximize joint gains.
6) Dispositional affects influence the various stages of the
negotiation process.
7) What the other party feels might be just as important as
group emotions.
8) Positive emotions signal to keep in the same way, while
negative emotions point that mental or behavioral
adjustments are needed.
9) Disappointment or sadness might lead to the other partys
irritation.
10) Anger causes the opponents to place higher demands and
not to concede.
11) Anger provokes both dominating and yielding behaviors of
the opponent.
12) Guilt or regret expressed by the negotiator leads to the
opponents placing higher demands.
13) Worry or disappointment leads to lower demands by the
opponent.

C Which of the verbs are synonyms?


rest on, provoke, be based on, feel, cause, affect, settle, show,
effect, result in, influence, concede, yield, motivate, cooperate,
stimulate, enhance, raise, increase, facilitate, interact,
communicate, indicate, experience, resolve.

D Translate the following sentences into Russian in writing:


1) Emotions play an important part in the negotiation process,
although it is only in recent years that their effect is being
studied.
2) During negotiations, the decision as to whether the problem
must be settled rests in part on emotional factors.

94
3) However, what the other party feels might be just as
important, as group emotions are known to affect processes
both at the group and the personal levels.
4) When it comes to negotiations, trust in the other party is a
necessary condition for its emotion to affect, and visibility
enhances the effect.
5) In a study by Butt et al. which simulated real multi-phase
negotiation, most people reacted to the partners emotions in
reciprocal, rather than complimentary, manner.
6) Specific emotions were found to have different effects on
the opponents feelings and strategies chosen.
7) Capturing all negotiation complexity is a very difficult task,
let alone isolating and controlling only certain aspects of it.

E Make an outline of the text and speak on its items.

READING AND DISCUSSION


1. Read some instructions on the use of salami tactics in
negotiations and remember them.
Salami Tactics
Some negotiators just love to play tactical games. If the union
negotiators decide to use the salami tactic they will present just
one of their demands for discussion and push hard to reach
agreement on it. Lets say they focus on a 6% pay rise and after a
long discussion they agree on 4%. Deal done, there is more to
come. Thats just the first slice of the salami and there is a whole
sausage yet to come. The next slice of salami might be to try to
implement the pay deal earlier than usual, like this month instead
of waiting, as in previous years, until next April. Whatever
happens to the timing of the pay deal they have yet another slice of
salami waiting the holiday arrangements. And so the slicing of
the salami sausage continues: private health, pension, canteen,
allowances, and so on.
The salami is not restricted to management-union
negotiations. Any negotiator who has a list of things on which
they want to gain agreement can use it. Try it when you next buy a
car. Are you buying just one item, the car? Or are you gaining
agreement on several things: buying the car, filling the petrol tank,

95
replacing worn tires if its a used car, a free service next year
and whatever else you can think of. Will they lose the sale over a
tank of petrol? No! Will they risk losing the deal over one (two?)
new tire? No! Will they risk losing the deal over?
So, what do you do if you are on the receiving end and the
other party tries to salami you? Of course, your first line of
defense is to recognize what they are doing and your second is to
put a stop to it. You will need to be assertive about this but the
response is quite straightforward. The salami tactic works because
the person being sliced does not recognize what is happening.
Once you do, you can fight it. How? Simply refuse agreement on
any one slice until you have everything out on the table. Is there
anything else you want to discuss as part of these negotiations?
Do you want to include a discussion on (something you want to
raise anyway)? Is that everything? Once everything is out in the
open put forward a proposal on a collective agreement bundle
the lot together. Then the discussion can begin in earnest and you
can now bring out your negotiating skills. If, like the management
team above, you are mainly concerned about damage limitation
then trade one slice of salami off against another by offering some
flexibility on, say, item one provided that they drop, say, item two.
Continue like that until you are happy with the deal, then close.
Good luck! And watch out for that spicy sausage!

POST-READING

A Review questions for discussion:


1) What example of salami tactics is given in the text?
2) What is this tactics compared with?
3) What is the essence of salami tactics?
4) Is it restricted to a certain kind of negotiation?
5) How can this tactics be applied in purchasing something?
6) How should you behave when the other party tries to salami
you?

B Discuss the following:


Negotiations you have ever participated in;
Negotiation tactics you are aware of;

96
Your attitude to negotiation tactics such as salami tactics
and cherry picking;
Existing tactics that are more preferable to you.

C Agree or disagree with the ideas expressed by your colleagues


using phrases of agreement/disagreement.

2. Read the information about the Eurasian Economic Community


and then do the tasks that follow.
The Eurasian Economic Community
The Eurasian Economic Community was put into motion on
10 October 2000 when Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia
and Tajikistan signed the treaty. EEC was formally created when
the treaty was finally ratified by all five member states in May
2001.
The EEC grew out of the CIS Customs Union. All the
members of the EEC are also members of the older
Commonwealth of Independent States and the relationship
between the two organisations is ambiguous. The members have
also all agreed that EEC should be merged with the Central Asian
Cooperation Organization (CACO).
With the revival of the EEC in 2005 there is a possibility for
the Common Economic Space agenda to be implemented in its
framework with or without the participation of Ukraine. This was
confirmed in August 2006 and in October 2007 it was announced
that a customs union would be formed by Russia, Belarus, and
Kazakhstan by 2011 with other members being able to join later.

POST-READING
A Review questions for discussion:
1) When was the Eurasian Economic Community put into
motion?
2) When was the EEC created?
3) Of which organisation did the EEC grow out?
4) What countries are members of the EEC?
5) What are the goals of the EEC?

97
B Read the following article in Russian and render it in English.

2009 ,
.
,
,

(, , , ,
),
, ,
. 2002
, 2003
.

C Discuss the following:


The necessity of the EEC and its programme;
World challenges and the EEC activities.

UNIT 6
GLOBALISATION
STARTING-UP
Globalisation in its literal sense is the process of making,
transformation of some things or phenomena into global ones. It
can be described as a process by which the people of the world are
unified into a single society and function together. This process is
a combination of economic, technological, social and cultural and
political forces. Globalisation is very often used to refer to
economics, i.e. integration of national economies into the
international economy through trade, foreign direct investment,
capital flows, migration, and the spread of technology.

98
VOCABULARY FOCUS

Sometimes the terms internationalisation and globalisation are


used interchangeably but there is a slight formal difference. The
term internationalisation refers to the importance of
international trade, relations, treaties etc. International means
between or among nations. Globalisation means erasure of
national boundaries for economic, political, and other purposes;
international trade (governed by comparative advantage)
becomes interregional trade (governed by absolute advantage).
The word globalisation has been used by economists since the
1980s; however, its concepts did not become popular until the
later half of the 1980s and 1990s. The earliest written theoretical
concepts of globalisation were penned by an American
proponent of globalisation) Charles Taze Russell who coined the
term corporate giants. Anti-globalisation (mundialism) is a
term used to describe the political stance of people and groups
(opponents) who oppose the neoliberal version of globalisation.
Advocates of globalisation are also called pro-globalists.

READING
1 HISTORY OF GLOBALISATION
PRE-READING
A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of
the following words:
under the auspices tremendous boundary enable
incorporate into integration advance series
enculturation expansion collapse round
issue shares share risk adverse track

B Complete the following sentences with the appropriate form of


the word from the above list:
1) Global _________ arose from the expansion of trade.
2) Early globalisation is associated with _________ growth of
population.

99
3) Global trade and colonization led to the process of
_________ of colonized countries.
4) African and Pacific regions were _________ into the world
system.
5) The first era of globalisation _________ in 1920s due to
gold standard crisis.
6) The Dutch East India Company became the first company in
the world to _________ risk.
7) It created an important driver of globalisation _________
joint ownership through the issuing of shares.
8) The World Bank and the IMF were set up to promote world
growth and manage _________ consequences.
9) All agreements on globalisation were originally signed
under the _________ of GATT.

READING
Read the text and then do the tasks that follow.
Globalisation is viewed as a centuries long process, tracking
the expansion of human population and the growth of civilization,
that has accelerated dramatically in the past 50 years. Early forms
of globalisation existed during the Roman Empire, the Parthian
empire, and the Han Dynasty, when the silk road started in China,
reached the boundaries of the Parthian empire, and continued
onwards towards Rome. The Islamic Golden Age is also an
example, when Muslim traders and explorers established an early
global economy across the Old World resulting in a globalisation
of crops, trade, knowledge and technology; and later during the
Mongol Empire, when there was greater integration along the Silk
Road. Global integration continued through the expansion of
European trade, as in the 16th and 17th centuries, when the
Portuguese and Spanish Empires reached to the Americas.
Globalisation has had a tremendous impact on cultures around the
world. For the first time in history, a wave of global trade,
colonization, and enculturation reached all corners of the world.
In the 17th century, globalisation became a business
phenomenon when the Dutch East India Company, which is often
described as the first multinational corporation, was established.
Because of the high risks involved with international trade, the

100
Dutch East India Company became the first company in the world
to share risk and enable joint ownership through the issuing of
shares: an important driver for globalisation.
The 19th century was sometimes called The First Era of
Globalisation, a period characterized by rapid growth in
international trade and investment, between the European imperial
powers, their colonies, and, later, the United States. It was in this
period that areas of sub-Saharan Africa and the Island Pacific were
incorporated into the world system. The First Era of
Globalisation began to break down at the beginning of the 20th
century with World War I and later collapsed during the gold
standard crisis in the late 1920s and early 1930s.
Globalisation in the era since World War II was the result of
planning by economists and politicians who recognized the costs
associated with protectionism and declining international
economic integration. Their work led to the Bretton Woods
conference and the founding of several international institutions
intended to oversee the renewed processes of globalisation,
promoting growth and managing adverse consequences.
These were the International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (the World Bank) and the International Monetary
Fund. It has been facilitated by advances in technology which
have reduced the costs of trade, and trade negotiation rounds,
originally under the auspices of GATT, which led to a series of
agreements to remove restrictions on free trade.

POST-READING
A Give the Russian equivalents for the following word-
combinations:
a centuries long process ; to track the expansion of human
population; to accelerate dramatically; to continue onwards
towards Rome; to establish an early global economy; to have a
tremendous impact on; a wave of global trade, colonization and
enculturation; to become a business phenomenon; high risks
involved with international trade; to share risk and enable joint
ownership; through the issuing of shares; an important driver for
globalisation; to incorporate into the world system; to oversee

101
the renewed processes; to manage adverse consequences; to be
facilitated by advances in technology; originally under the
auspices of GATT; to lead to a series of agreements; to remove
restrictions on free trade.

B Find the above word-combinations in the text, read the


sentences and translate them into Russian.

C Answer the following questions:


1) Has globalisation started comparatively recently or has it
been a centuries long process?
2) Since when has globalisation been dramatically accelerated?
3) Where did early forms of globalisation exist?
4) What did global integration continue through?
5) What impact has globalisation had around the world?
6) When did globalisation become a business phenomenon?
7) How did the Dutch East India Company become the first
multinational corporation?
8) Which period is called The first era of globalisation?
9) What caused a new wave of globalisation in the era since
World War II?
10) Which international organisations were established to
oversee the processes of globalisation and manage adverse
consequences?
11) What processes have advances in technology facilitated?
12) What does the abbreviation GATT stand for? What was the
main purpose of this organisation?

D Make a rsum of the text.

2 EFFECTS OF GLOBALISATION
PRE-READING
A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of
the following words:
at the expense of accompany consumer decade
in the name of availability borrower advent

102
consciousness emergence supplant boom
assimilation result from wealthy rival
reallocation arise from illusory bust

B Complete the following sentences with the appropriate word


from the above list:
1) Industrial effect of globalisation is achieved at the
_________ of poor nations.
2) It is associated with ________ of world production markets.
3) Speculations in global financial markets caused economic
_________ in Asia.
4) Political effects _________ from social and economic
globalisation.
5) Political effects can result in _________ of political power
in the world.
6) Informational effect deals with increased _________ of high
technologies.
7) Cultural effect is associated with _________ of new
categories of consciousness and Westernisation.

READING
Read the text and then do the tasks that follow.
Globalisation has various aspects which affect the world in
several different ways.
Industrial effect of globalisation involves emergence of
worldwide production markets and broader access to a range of
foreign products for consumers and companies. It is accompanied
by movement of materials and goods between and within
transnational corporations, and access to goods by wealthier
nations and individuals at the expense of poorer nations and
individuals who supply the labour.
Financial effect is emergence of worldwide financial markets
and better access to external financing for corporate, national and
subnational borrowers. Simultaneous though not necessarily purely
globalist is the emergence of under or unregulated foreign exchange
and speculative markets leading to inflated wealth of investors and

103
artificial inflation of commodities, goods, and in some instances
entire nations as with the Asian economic boom-bust that was
brought on externally by free trade.
Economic effect results from realization of a global common
market, based on the freedom of exchange of goods and capital.
Political effect deals with political globalisation and is the
creation of a world government which regulates the relationships
among nations and guarantees the rights arising from social and
economic globalisation. Politically, the United States has enjoyed
a position of power among the world powers, in part because of its
strong and wealthy economy. With the influence of globalisation
and with the help of The United States own economy, the
Peoples Republic of China has experienced some tremendous
growth within the past decade. If China continues to grow at the
rate projected by the trends, then it is very likely that in the next
twenty years, there will be a major reallocation of power among
the world leaders. China will have enough wealth, industry, and
technology to rival the United States for the position of leading
world power. The European Union, Russian Federation and India
are among the other already established world powers which may
have the ability to influence future world politics.
Informational effect can be illustrated by increase in
information flows between geographically remote locations.
Arguably this is a technological change with the advent of fibre
optic communications, satellites, and increased availability of
telephony and Internet, possibly unrelated to the globalist ideology.
Cultural effect is associated with growth of cross-cultural
contacts; advent of new categories of consciousness and identities
such as globalism which embodies cultural diffusion, the desire
to consume and enjoy foreign products and ideas, adopt new
technology and practices, and participate in a world culture, loss
of languages (and corresponding loss of ideas). However, the
imported culture can easily supplant the local culture, causing
reduction in diversity through hybridization or even assimilation.
The most prominent form of this is Westernization.
Ecological effect is the result of the advent of global
environmental challenges that can not be solved without

104
international cooperation, such as climate change, cross-boundary
water and air pollution, over-fishing of the ocean, and the spread
of invasive species. Many factories are built in developing
countries where they can pollute freely. Globalism and free trade
interplay to increase pollution and accelerate it in the name of an
ever expanding capitalist growth economy in a non-expanding
world. The detriment is again to the poorer nations while the
benefit is allocated to the wealthier nations.
Social effect is increased circulation by people of all nations
with fewer restrictions provided that the people of those nations
are wealthy enough to afford international travel, which the
majority of the worlds population cannot afford. It is an illusory
benefit recognized by the elite and wealthy, and increasingly so
as fuel and transport costs rise.
Greater immigration, includes illegal immigration, except for
those countries around the world including the UK, Canada, and
the United States who in 2008 accelerated removal of illegal
migrants and modified laws to increase the ease of removing those
who entered the country illegally, while ensuring that immigration
policies allow those more favourable to the stimulation of
economy to enter, primarily focusing on the capital that
immigrants can move into a country with them.

POST-READING
A Give the Russian equivalents for the following word-
combinations:
emergence of worldwide production markets; accompanied by
movement of material and goods; at the expense of poorer
nations; Asian economic boom-bust; to bring on externally by
free trade; to guarantee the rights; to arise from social and
economic globalisation; to enjoy a position of power among the
world powers; a major reallocation of power ; to rival the United
States for the position of leading world power; already
established world powers; information flows between
geographically remote locations; the advent of fibre optic
communications; increased availability of telephony and
Internet; growth of cross-cultural contacts; advent of new

105
categories of consciousness and identities; to easily supplant the
local culture; to cause reduction in diversity; the advent of
global environmental challenges; in the name of an ever
expanding capitalist growth economy in a non-expanding world;
the detriment allocated to the poorer nations; to accelerate
removal of illegal migrants.

B Complete the following sentences:


1) Industrial effect of globalisation involves _________ of
worldwide production markets and access to goods by
wealthier nations _________ of poorer nations.
2) Financial effect is emergence of artificial inflation of
commodities, goods, and in some instances entire nations as
with the Asian economic _________ that was brought on
externally by free trade.
3) Economic effect _________ from the advent of a global
common market, based on the freedom of exchange of
goods and capital.
4) Political effect deals with political globalisation and is the
creation of a world government which regulates the
relationships among nations and guarantees the rights
_________ from social and economic globalisation.
5) Informational effect can be illustrated by _________ of fibre
optic communications, satellites, and increased availability
of telephony and Internet.
6) Cultural effect is associated with growth of cross-cultural
contacts; advent of new categories of _________ and
identities such as globalism which embodies cultural
diffusion.
7) Ecological effect is the result of the advent of global
environmental _________ that can not be solved without
international cooperation, such as climate change.
8) The detriment is again to the poorer nations while the
benefit is allocated to the _________ nations.
9) Social effect is increased circulation by people of all nations
with fewer _________.
10) Some countries _________ removal of illegal migrants and
modified laws to increase the ease of removing those who
have entered the country illegally.

106
C Give derivatives of the following words in writing:
to emerge, advantage, benefit, effect, to produce, to consume, to
borrow, wealthy, poor, national, to grow, to increase, to expand,
to accelerate, conscious, legal, industrial, financial, social,
economic, cultural, ecological.

D Translate the following sentences into Russian in the written


form:
1) Simultaneous though not necessarily purely globalist is the
emergence of under or unregulated foreign exchange and
speculative markets leading to inflated wealth of investors
and artificial inflation of commodities, goods, and in some
instances entire nations as with the Asian economic boom-
bust that was brought on externally by free trade.
2) If China continues to grow at the rate projected by the
trends, then it is very likely that in the next twenty years,
there will be a major reallocation of power among the world
leaders.
3) Globalism and free trade interplay to increase pollution and
accelerate it in the name of an ever expanding capitalist
growth economy in a non-expanding world.
4) Social effect is increased circulation by people of all nations
with fewer restrictions provided that the people of those
nations are wealthy enough to afford international travel,
which the majority of the worlds population cannot afford.
5) It is an illusory benefit recognized by the elite and
wealthy, and increasingly so as fuel and transport costs rise.
6) Greater immigration, includes illegal immigration, except
for those countries around the world including the UK,
Canada, and the United States who have in 2008 accelerated
removal of illegal migrants and modified laws to increase
the ease of removing those who have entered the country
illegally, while ensuring that immigration policies allow
those more favourable to the stimulation of economy to
enter, primarily focusing on the capital that immigrants can
move into a country with them.

107
E Speak on the aspects of globalisation:
1) industrial, 2) financial, 3) economic, 4) political,
5) informational, 6) social, 7) cultural, 8) ecological.

F Make a rsum of the text

3 GLOBALISM AND ANTI-GLOBALISM

PRE-READING
A Before reading the text make sure you know the meanings of
the following words:
standard of living in advance foothold rate
deterioration prosperity leverage phase
alienation inevitable evidence liberty
supporter damage advocate spread

B Complete the following sentences with the appropriate word


from the list above:
1) Globalisation has taken a strong _________ in most
Western countries.
2) Improvements in poverty rates are cited by globalisation
_________ to prove its advantages.
3) Globalisation ideologists cant say _________ what its
consequences can be in other countries.
4) Some say globalisation has started, so it is _________ for
the whole world.
5) Its _________ to poor regions is considered to be a positive
process.
6) Statistics provides different _________ as evidence of
globalisation benefits.
7) International corporations are so powerful that they can
_________ any agreement.
8) Extensive deterioration of the environment causes global
_________ to our planet.

108
READING
Read the text and then do the tasks that follow.
Globalism and Anti-globalism
Globalisation advocates point to the above average drop in
poverty rates in countries, such as China, where globalisation has
taken a strong foothold, compared to areas less affected by
globalisation, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, where poverty rates
have remained stagnant.
Generally, support of free trade, capitalism, and democracy
systems are widely believed to facilitate globalisation. Supporters
of free trade claim that it increases economic prosperity as well as
opportunity, especially among developing nations, enhances civil
liberties and leads to a more efficient allocation of resources.
Economic theories of comparative advantage suggest that free
trade leads to a more efficient allocation of resources, with all
countries involved in the trade benefiting. In general, this leads to
lower prices, more employment, higher output and a higher
standard of living for those in developing countries.
One of the ironies of the recent success of India and China is
the fear that success in these two countries comes at the expense
of the United States. The advocates say that these fears are wrong
because the world is not a zero-sum struggle but rather is a
positive-sum opportunity in which improving technologies and
skills can raise living standards around the world.
Supporters of democratic globalisation are sometimes called
pro-globalists. They believe that the first phase of globalisation,
which was market-oriented, should be followed by a phase of
building global political institutions representing the will of world
citizens. The difference from other globalists is that they do not
define in advance any ideology to orient this will, but would leave
it to the free choice of those citizens via a democratic process.
Some simply view globalisation as inevitable and advocate
creating institutions such as a directly-elected United Nations
Parliamentary Assembly to exercise oversight over unelected
international bodies.

109
Supporters of globalisation argue that the anti-globalisation
movement uses anecdotal evidence to support their protectionist
view, whereas worldwide statistics strongly support globalisation.
Anti-globalisation may involve the process or actions taken by
a state in order to demonstrate its sovereignty and practise
democratic decision-making. Anti-globalisation may occur in
order to put brakes on the international transfer of people, goods
and ideology, particularly those determined by the organisations
such as the IMF or the WTO in imposing the radical deregulation
programme of free market fundamentalism on local governments
and populations.
Participants of anti-globalisation movement stand in
opposition to the unregulated political power of large, multi-
national corporations, as the corporations exercise power through
leveraging trade agreements which damage in some instances the
democratic rights of citizens, the environment, particularly air
quality index and rain forests, as well as national governments
sovereignty to determine labour rights including the right to
unionize for better pay, and better working conditions, or laws as
they may otherwise introduce into cultural practices and traditions
of developing countries.
Critiques of the current wave of economic globalisation
typically look at both the damage to the planet, in terms of the
perceived harm done to the biosphere, and the perceived human
costs, such as increased poverty, inequality, injustice and the
erosion of traditional culture which, the critics contend, all occur
as a result of the economic transformations related to
globalisation. They challenge directly the metrics, such as GDP,
used to measure progress by institutions such as the World Bank,
and look to other measures, such as the Happy Planet Index,
created by the New Economics Foundation. They point to a
multitude of interconnected fatal consequences social
disintegration, a breakdown of democracy, more rapid and
extensive deterioration of the environment, the spread of new
diseases, increasing poverty and alienation which they claim are
the unintended but very real consequences of globalisation.

110
POST-READING
A Find in the text all the words meaning 1) supporters of
globalisation; 2) opponents of globalisation.

B Find in the text all the words dealing with 1) positive effects of
globalisation; 2) negative effects of globalisation.

C Answer the following questions:


1) Which countries poverty rates do globalisation advocates
usually compare? Why?
2) What systems are widely believed to facilitate globalisation?
3) What do supporters of free trade claim?
4) What do economic theories of comparative advantage
suggest?
5) What phase of globalisation in their theory will follow the
first market-oriented phase?
6) What evidence in their view strongly supports globalisation?
7) What policy may involve the process or actions taken by a
state in order to demonstrate its sovereignty and practise
democratic decision-making?
8) Why do participants of anti-globalization movement stand
in opposition to the unregulated political power of large
multi-national corporations?
9) Which two aspects do critiques of the current wave of
economic globalisation typically look at? What are human
costs of globalisation?
10) What indices and metrics do anti-globalists challenge?
11) Are there any interconnected fatal consequences of
globalisation?

D Make a summary of the text.

READING AND DISCUSSION


1. Read the text containing the World Bank figures on
improvements in the world due to globalisation and then do
the tasks that follow.

111
World Bank Figures on Globalisation Outcomes
From 1981 to 2001, according to World Bank figures, the
number of people living on $1 a day or less declined from 1.5
billion to 1.1 billion in absolute terms. At the same time, the world
population increased, so in percentage terms the number of such
people in developing nations declined from 40% to 20% of the
population with the greatest improvements occurring in economies
rapidly reducing barriers to trade and investment.
The percentage of people living on less than $2 a day has
decreased greatly in areas affected by globalisation, whereas
poverty rates in other areas have remained largely stagnant. In
East-Asia, including China, the percentage has decreased by 50,
1% compared to a 2.2% increase in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Income inequality for the world as a whole is diminishing.
Due to definitional issues and data availability, there is
disagreement with regards to the pace of the decline in extreme
poverty.
Life expectancy has almost doubled in the developing world
since World War II and is starting to close the gap between itself
and the developed world where the improvement has been smaller.
Even in sub-Saharan Africa, the least developed region, life
expectancy increased from 30 years before World War II to about
a peak of about 50 years before the AIDS pandemic and other
diseases started to force it down to the current level of 47 years.
Infant mortality has decreased in every developing region of the
world.
The proportion of the worlds population living in countries
where per-capita food supplies are less than 2,200 calories per day
decreased from 56% in the mid-1960s to below 10% by the 1990s.
Between 1950 and 1999, global literacy increased from 52%
to 81% of the world. Women made up much of the gap: female
literacy as a percentage of male literacy has increased from 59% in
1970 to 80% in 2000.
The percentage of children in the labour force has fallen from
24% in 1960 to 10% in 2000.
There are increasing trends in the use of electric power, cars,
radios, and telephones per capita, as well as a growing proportion
of the population with access to clean water.

112
POST-READING
A Discuss the following:
The figures and arguments cited by the World Bank;
Other more detailed variables measuring poverty that
should be studied;
Income inequality for the world as a whole.

B Say if you support the opinion that:


Regardless of who is right about the past trend in income
inequality, improving absolute poverty is more important
than relative inequality.

2. Read the text giving globalisation critics arguments and then


do the tasks that follow.
Globalisation Critics Arguments
Poorer countries are sometimes at disadvantage: While it is
true that globalisation encourages free trade among countries on
an international level, there are also negative consequences
because some countries try to save their national markets. The
main export of poorer countries is usually agricultural goods. It is
difficult for these countries to compete with stronger countries that
subsidize their own farmers. Because the farmers in the poorer
countries cannot compete, they are forced to sell their crops at
much lower price than what the market is paying.
Exploitation of foreign impoverished workers: The
deterioration of protections for weaker nations by stronger
industrialized powers has resulted in the exploitation of the people
in those nations to become cheap labour. Due to the lack of
protections, companies from powerful industrialized nations are
able to offer workers enough salary to make them endure
extremely long hours and unsafe working conditions. The
abundance of cheap labour is giving the countries in power
incentive not to reduce the inequality between nations. If these
nations developed into industrialized nations, the army of cheap
labour would slowly disappear alongside development. With the
world in this current state, it is impossible for the exploited

113
workers to escape poverty. It is true that the workers are free to
leave their jobs, but in many poorer countries, this would mean
starvation for the worker, and possibly, even his/her family.
The shift to service work: The low cost of offshore workers
has made corporations move production to foreign countries. The
laid off unskilled workers are forced into the service sector where
wages and benefits are low, but turnover is high. This has
contributed to the widening economic gap between skilled and
unskilled workers. The loss of these jobs has also contributed
greatly to the slow decline of the middle class which is a major
factor in the increasing economic inequality in the United States.
Families that were once part of the middle class are forced into
lower positions by massive layoffs and outsourcing to another
country. This also means that people in the lower class have a
much harder time climbing out of poverty because of the absence
of the middle class as a stepping stone.
Weak labour unions: The surplus in cheap labour coupled
with an ever growing number of companies in transition has
caused a weakening of labour unions in the United States. Unions
lose their effectiveness when their membership begins to decline.
As a result unions hold less power over corporations that are able
to easily replace workers, often for lower wages, and have the
option to not offer unionized jobs anymore.

POST-READING
A Say if the following statements are true or false. Correct the
ones you consider to be false.
1) Globalisation encourages free trade among countries on an
international level, so there are advantages for all countries.
2) As the main export of poorer countries is usually
agricultural goods, it is not difficult for these countries to
compete with stronger countries and set their own prices.
3) Foreign companies offer workers in poor countries low
wages, long hours and unsafe working conditions.
4) If the workers in poor countries dont agree with the offered
working conditions they are free to leave their jobs and find
the new ones.

114
5) The middle class was a stepping stone between the rich and
the poor in the US and other well-developed countries.
6) The disappearance of the middle class doesnt worry people
in wealthy countries.
7) Weakening of labour unions is closely connected with their
declining membership.

B Discuss the following:


Consequences of globalisation for poor countries;
Consequences of globalisation for rich people in wealthy
countries;
Consequences of globalisation for middle-class and poor
people in wealthy countries.

3. Read the text about anti-globalisation activities and then do


the tasks that follow.
Anti-globalisation Protests
Peaceful demonstrations are one of the key means by which
citizens can protest against the actions of their leaders, making
them more responsive to their wishes. Until recently,
demonstrations were overwhelmingly local or national in scope.
However, the nature of demonstrations has changed since the
emergence of globalisation. Nowadays, protest itself is
increasingly transnational in character. People are assembling all
across the globe to protest the actions of international institutions
rather than individual governments. Ironically, it is the anti-
globalisation movement that has best applied the universal right to
freedom of assembly to a global scale.
One of the most international and broad social movements of
recent times, the anti-globalisation movement is made up of a
variety of causes, including environmentalism, debt forgiveness,
animal rights, the protection of children, anarchism and anti-
capitalism. Most of the movements adherents believe that
globalisation leads to exploitation of the worlds poor, workers
and the environment.

115
The movements key mode of organising is mass
demonstrations. It first came to the attention of the international
media in 1999 when 100,000 demonstrators marched on the
opening ceremony of the World Trade Organisations (WTO)
third ministerial meeting in Seattle, Washington. The majority of
protesters were peaceful, but a minority overturned newspaper
stands and smashed shop windows. Police fired pepper gas, tear
gas and plastic bullets into the crowd and arrested 500 people. A
state of civil emergency was declared. Damage to buildings and
business losses were valued at 12.5m.
In 2000 and 2001, large-scale demonstrations modelled after
the so-called Battle of Seattle were organised by anti-
globalisation protestors. Other protests have occurred at the
meetings of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund
(IMF) in Washington, the World Economic Forum in Davos,
(Switzerland), the Summit of Americas in Quebec City, May Day
events in London and Berlin and the European Union summit in
Gothenburg (Sweden).
The most recent protests occurred at the World Trade Summit
in Cancun (Mexico). There were wild celebrations amongst those
opposed to globalisation when the talks collapsed.
The polices reaction to the demonstrations has often been
heavily criticised by civil liberties and human rights organisations.
They have been charged with denying some protestors their right
to freedom of assembly and using excessive force on non-violent
protestors. The most violent demonstration occurred in July of
2001 at the G8 Summit in Genoa (Italy), when one Italian
demonstrator was shot dead by the police, and several hundred
were beaten. Amnesty International (AI) claims that at least 200
protesters were tortured in Genoa.
Many anti-globalisation activists believe that violence takes
the focus away from the movements agenda. They have instead
advocated organising constructive, non-violent alternatives to the
explosive mass demonstrations. Activists organised the World
Social Forum, which meets annually in January. It is held in
parallel with the business and government-led World Economic
Forum. The last meeting was in Bombay, India. The 100,000
attendees to the event discuss alternatives to global capitalism,
opposition to militarism, and support for peace and social justice.

116
POST-READING
A Say if the following statements are true or false. Correct the
ones you consider to be false.
1) Anti-globalisation demonstrations are mostly organised and
held in poor countries.
2) By organising mass demonstrations at key international
meetings, anti-globalisation activists are taking advantage of
the universal right to freedom of association and assembly
in an innovative way.
3) While the majority of protestors are non-violent, there is a
small camp of radical protestors who actively use violence
at demonstrations by hurling missiles or destroying
property.
4) During anti-globalisation demonstrations, police in several
US and European cities have reacted to the violence of these
few protesters by allegedly using excessive force in non-
violent situations.
5) Anti-globalists see the aggressive behaviour as the only
means of struggle against globalisation.

B Review questions for discussion:


Why do people around the world struggle so violently
against globalisation?
What are the means used in the struggle against
globalisation?
When and where are demonstrations usually held?
In your point of view, is globalisation inevitable in
nowadays world?
How can the consequences of globalisation be reduced?

117
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ENGLISH FOR INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS


. .
. .
. .

30.04.2009 .
6084 /16. .
Times. .
. . . 6,9. .-. . 7,5. 100 . .

:
.
02330/0494319 01.04.2009 .
02330/0494184 03.04.2009 .
220007, . , . , 17.

120