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CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHOD

3.1 Introduction

This chapter explained the methods that being used to know the factors that influence to the

awareness of people toward hybrid car. Not only that, this chapter will present about the

hypothesis to be tested, research design, instrumentation, data collection and data analysis

procedures. The researchers try to translate all the raw data into specific terms. In short, this

section specifies the plan or overall scheme of the research which is designed to provides the

researchers with answers to research questions (Brown, 2006).

For further information on research design (find which design suits your research)
3.2 Research Design https://www.afidep.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Module-3-Handout-1-12-Major-
Types-of-Research-Designs.pdf

Research design can be defined as structure of the research. It identified the variables in a

problem situation and also developed the theoretical framework. Next, the research needs to

be design in a way that the requisite data can be gathered and analyzed. In addition, it also

involves a series of rational decision-making choices (Sekaran and Bougie, 2010). Thus, in

this research the researchers intended to use cross-sectional study. It means that the data is

gathered just once, perhaps over a period days or weeks or months, to answer a research

question and it also known as one-shot studies (Sekaran, 2003).

The stage of a research project includes defining the research problems, research questions,

hypothesis, conceptual framework, formulating the research design and determining the

research methodology for the data collection and data analysis. A research design refers to

how the researchers put a research study together to answer a question. Research design

works as a systematic plan outlining the study will arrive at its conclusion and the limitation
of the research. A research design lays the procedures for obtaining the information required

to ensure that the research is conducted effectively and efficiently.

Research design can be classified into exploratory or conclusive. Exploratory research is a

type of research conduct for a problem that has not been clearly defined. In addition,

exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and

selection of subjects. On the other hand, conclusive research is meant to provide information

that is useful in reaching conclusion or decision making. It tends to be quantitative in nature

in which in the form of numbers that can qualified and summarized. The purpose of

conclusive research is to provide reliable or representative picture of the population through

the use of valid research instrument. Conclusive research can be subdivided into two major

categories which is descriptive or casual research.

In this context, descriptive study is undertaken as it able to describe the characteristics about

what is being studied. Descriptive study is basically about the frequencies, averages and other

statistical calculations. The goal of descriptive study is to offer researcher a better

understanding regarding a certain topic as it is the exploration of the existing certain

phenomena. Descriptive study had been chosen because such information may be vital before

even considering certain corrective steps to be taken. It is also easy to conduct and able to

identify the mistake if it occurs in the research.

The researchers focus on the factors that influence to the awareness of people toward hybrid

car at Seremban 3. Research design refers to a framework or blueprint for conducting the

research project it portrays the detail of the procedures used to obtain the information in order

to answer the research questions and solve the research problems (Maholtra, 2004). The

research design start with the sample of the group that the researchers want to study. The
research design also considers about what is the method that the researchers will use to

conduct the research.

This study uses the quantitative approaches. Quantitative approaches means it concerned with

the collection and analysis of data in a numeric form. The researchers use questionnaires

research technique and it might be seen as a quantitative approach as a researchers will

distributed the questionnaires to people that the researchers will study on. Thus, this study is

to examine and identify the factors that influence to the awareness of people toward hybrid

car, a case study on Seremban 3.

3.3 Unit of Analysis Please refer Page 71 (RMG)

The unit of analysis refers to the level of aggregation of the data while the subsequence data

analysis happens. According to Sekaran (2003), unit of analysis refers to the level of

aggregation of the data collected during the subsequent data analysis stage. To make this

research successfully, the individual is used as the unit of analysis. This study is concentrates

on the people awareness toward hybrid car which is Seremban 3 will be used to conduct this

survey. The population in Seremban 3 is estimated to be 80 000 peoples. From the

population, the researchers choose 150 as a sample size to distribute questionnaire to the

public in area Taman Rasah Jaya. From the 150 0f questionnaires that have been distributed,

only 125 were returned and answered by the respondents. The study is on public in Seremban

3 in order to discover about their awareness toward the factors that influence to their

awareness toward hybrid car.


Refers to no. of units to be studied as part of the study. You also can refer to
3.4 Sample Size Krejcie and Morgans sampling size table:
https://home.kku.ac.th/sompong/guest_speaker/KrejcieandMorgan_article.pdf
The researchers were not using the whole population of people that live in Seremban 3. In

this research, the researchers refers to the theory by Roscoe (1975) which states that sample

size larger than 30 and less than 500 are appropriate for most research. Thus, the researchers

distributed 150 questionnaires and 125 complete answered and returned questionnaires were

gained. Refers to no. of units to be studied as part of the study. Please refer Page 76 (RMG)

3.5 Sampling Technique Please refer Page 72 (RMG)

The researchers use the non-probability sampling technique. The researchers use the

convenience sampling technique. Convenience sampling technique refers to the non-

probability process by which scientist gathers statistical data from the population. This form

of selection is done based on the ease of gaining the statistical data. Rather than gathering

data from people nearby. This method of sampling allows for the researchers to gather data

even when facing obstacles. By analyzing the data, the researchers can extrapolate trends and

compensate for some lack in the data.

3.6 Measurement / Instrumentation Please refer Page 78 (RMG)

From the information, the instruments that the researcher used in this research were using

questionnaire method. The questionnaire has two parts that were part A and part B in part A,

we asked about demographic factor of respondents. While in part B, we asked about the

content of our research that was the factors that influence to the awareness of people toward

hybrid car. Our targets were public in Seremban 3 to get some information about our

research.
#Make sure:
Your objective is to determine the relationship / association.
Definition of concept is clear, then your measurement will be easier.
For the measurement, please refer page 79 (Table 5.1)
Table 3.6: Table of Measurement/Instrument

No Objectives Concept Measurement


1 To determine the association Personal financial is the financial The level of personal

between personal financial with management which an individual financial or income of

the awareness of people toward or a family unit is required to do the people and their

hybrid car. obtain, budget, save, and spend level of purchasing

monetary resources over time, power.

taking into account various risks

and future life events. This

includes their level of income,

investment, insurance and their

purchasing power (Barber and

Lyon, 1996).
2 To determine the association According to Hungerford and The level of people

between environmental Volk (1990) environmental awareness toward

sensitivity and consumption with sensitivity includes people environment and their

the awareness of people toward knowledge about environment, consumption toward

hybrid car. environment education and goods for example

predisposition to take responsible petrol.

environmental action.

Consumption can be said as the

act of consuming or the state of

being consumed. In others

meaning, consumption can be

said like expenditure on goods or

service for final personal used


(Bourdier and Ritzer, 1970).
3 To determine the association People preferences and The most factors that

between people preferences and perception refer preferences lead to the people

perception with the awareness of could be conceived of as an preferences and

people toward hybrid car. individuals attitude towards a set perception.

of objects, typically reflected in

an explicit decision-making

process (Lichtenstein & Slovic,

2006). Perception is the process

by which we utilize external

sensory information in the

combination with other internal

conscious and unconscious

workings of the brain to make

sense of the world, is itself not

even a specific system in the

brain through which we can

explain visual communication

(Barry & Hill, 2002).


4 To determine the factors that Awareness refer to consumers The level of people

affects the awareness of people or who have the knowledge about awareness toward the

users toward hybrid car. the existence of a problem, hybrid car.

knowledge of better options, a

feeling of responsibility, and the

belief that their own actions can

improve the situation tempted to


reduce those harmful behavior. In

this study, the focus would be to

determine the most factors that

affect the awareness of people or

users toward hybrid car (Coad, de

Haan, and Woersdorfer, 2009).

Depending on how you collect or gather the data or


3.7 Data Collection
information.
All of data and information will be collect by using the questionnaire. The question will be

created based on our research topic. This method has been chosen because it is an efficient

data collection mechanism when the researchers know exactly what is required and how to

measure the variables of interest. The questionnaire will be distributed to the people that live

at the Seremban 3.As a result we can obtain the information and feedback from the people.

The questionnaires that were distributed are about 150 set of questions and there is only 125

set of questionnaires that were answered and returned. The data will be considered as a

primary data because we design and distribute to the people that live at the Seremban 3.

3.7.1 Primary Data

The primary data collected for a specific purpose which to address the research

problem. The primary data collected in this research by using questionnaire.

3.7.1.1 Questionnaire

The use of questionnaire as a data collection method is because of the cost is

less expensive and also easy to student answering it. The questionnaire will be
printed in white papers and English and Malay language are used as a medium

of the communication of the questionnaire. Besides, the font that is used also

clear and easy to understand. The researchers used the multiple choice and

likert scale. The researchers use scale to examine how strongly the

respondents agree or disagree with the statement given on a 4 multiple choices

response which are strongly disagree, disagree, agree and strongly agree. For

this research, from 150 set of questionnaire that have been distributed, only

125 set were answered and returned from public in Seremban 3 area. All the

collected questionnaires were being kept confidentially and personally.

Part A Consist of the question that related to the demography of the

respondents such as gender, age, race, education level, salary and tax

awareness toward hybrid car.

Part B Consist of the measurement scale with 4 multiple choices response

categories ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree.

3.7.2 Secondary Data

3.7.2.1 Internet

The using of internet to search the information can help reducing the time and

energy of the researcher. Internet is a connection of a computer to any other

computer anywhere in the world via dedicated routers and servers. It is an

electrical device that used to find data and information.

3.7.2.2 Journal

The data and information also can be found in journal especially online journal

that are related to our research. There are several previous researches that have
been done by the others researchers and we have used it to make as a revision

and guideline.

3.7.2.3 Book

Beside of the journals, we also has use book as a guideline to make this study.

Most of the books are we are chosen from internet where it is easier for us to

make references compared borrow from library. It is also time consuming.

3.6.2.4 Newspaper

Newspaper also has helping us to find more data and information regarding on

the issue that we have choose. As we all know newspaper always give us the

most appropriate issues and additional information where we can take it as a

reference for our research.

3.8 Data Analysis

The uses of statistical software which is SPSS Version 20.0 descriptive statistic are so

important in order to analyze the data that had been collected from the respondents. The

benefits that will be provided by using this software, it able to show descriptive statistics such

as frequency, cross tabulation and comparison of mean. In the other hand, this software also

make easier to prepare the appropriate graph need to represent the data after analyzing it in

form of pie chart, histogram, bar chart and so on.

For standardization, use Correlation and Regression in your


statistic. You also can use T-Test if necessarily. Depending on
Table 3.8: Table of Data Analysis
your research objectives.

Objectives Concept Measurement Statistic


1 To determine the Personal financial is the The level of Correlation
association between financial management personal

personal financial with the which an individual or a financial or

awareness of people toward family unit is required to do income of the

hybrid car. obtain, budget, save, and people and their

spend monetary resources level of

over time, taking into purchasing

account various risks and power.

future life events. This

includes their level of

income, investment,

insurance and their

purchasing power (Barber

and Lyon, 1996).


2 To determine the According to Hungerford The level of Correlation

association between and Volk (1990) people

environmental sensitivity environmental sensitivity awareness

and consumption with the includes people knowledge toward

awareness of people toward about environment, environment

hybrid car. environment education and and their

predisposition to take consumption

responsible environmental toward goods

action. Consumption can be for example

said as the act of consuming petrol.

or the state of being

consumed. In others

meaning, consumption can


be said like expenditure on

goods or service for final

personal used (Bourdier and

Ritzer, 1970).
3 To determine the People preferences and The most Correlation

association between people perception refer preferences factors that lead

preferences and perception could be conceived of as an to the people

with the awareness of individuals attitude towards preferences and

people toward hybrid car. a set of objects, typically perception.

reflected in an explicit

decision-making process

(Lichtenstein & Slovic,

2006). Perception is the

process by which we utilize

external sensory

information in the

combination with other

internal conscious and

unconscious workings of

the brain to make sense of

the world, is itself not even

a specific system in the

brain through which we can

explain visual

communication (Barry &

Hill, 2002).
4 To determine the factors Awareness refer to The level of Regression

that affects the awareness of consumers who have the people

people or users toward knowledge about the awareness

hybrid car. existence of a problem, toward the

knowledge of better hybrid car

options, a feeling of

responsibility, and the belief

that their own actions can

improve the situation

tempted to reduce those

harmful behavior. In this

study, the focus would be to

determine the most factors

that affect the awareness of

people or users toward

hybrid car (Coad, de Haan,

and Woersdorfer, 2009).