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Heat, Ventilation &

Air Conditioning (HVAC)


Heat Exchanger

Department of Maritime Studies Hochschule Wismar


Prof. Dr.-Ing. Michael Rachow
E-Mail: michael.rachow@hs-wismar.de
www.hs-wismar.de

Dept. of Marine Engineering ITS


Sutopo Purwono Fitri, Ph.D.
Email: sutopopf@its.ac.id
www.its.ac.id
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 2

I. Boiler II. Heat Exchanger III. Fuels

IV. Combustion V. Firing System VI. Combustion Air


Calculation Supplying

VII. Feed Water VIII. Water Steam IX. Condensate


Circulation Management

X. Legal Regulations XI. Safety Equipment XII. Boiler Damage

XII. Thermal Oil XIV. Boiler Operation


PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 3

Key Aspects

Classification of heat exchangers


Basics of heat transfer

Partition wall heat exchangers

Tube- and plate heat exchangers

Design bases

surface heat exchangers

radiation heat exchangers

operation characteristic
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 4

Classification of Heat Exchangers along the


Physical Working Principle

Heat
Exchangers

Partition Wall Intermediate


Mixture Heat Storage Heat
Heat Circuit Heat
Exchangers Exchangers
Exchangers Exchangers
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 5

Basics Heat Transfer

Heat transfer is provided by:


radiation

convection

conduction

In practice convection and conduction occur


simultaneously, often said as convection, but meant as
convection and conduction
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 6

Size of Transferred Heat Flow Depends on:

Type of heat exchanger

Medium and its physical properties

Flow velocity in exchanger

Material of heat exchanger

arrangement in layers

physical properties of material-type

thickness of material
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 7

Partitional Wall Heat Exchangers


Medium 1
Medium 2
(Heat source)
(Heat sink)

Medium temperature 1

Medium temperature 2

Wall thickness
L1 of layer 1
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 8

Partitional Wall Heat Exchangers


Medium 1
Medium 2
(Heat source)
(Heat sink)

Medium temperature 1

1 Heat ransfer
from medium 1 to
the wall

Medium temperature 2

Wall thickness
L1 of layer 1
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 9

Partitional Wall Heat Exchangers


Medium 1
Medium 2
(Heat source)
(Heat sink)

Medium temperature 1
1 Heat
conduction in
1 Heat ransfer the wall
from medium 1 to
the wall

Medium temperature 2

Wall thickness
L1 of layer 1
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 10

Partitional Wall Heat Exchangers


Medium 1
Medium 2
(Heat source)
(Heat sink)

Medium temperature 1
1 Heat
conduction in
1 Heat ransfer the wall
from medium 1 to 2 Heat transfer
the wall
from the wall to medium 2

Medium temperature 2

Wall thickness
L1 of layer 1
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 11

Partitional Wall Heat Exchangers


Medium 1
Medium 2
(Heat source)
(Heat sink)

Medium temperature 1
1 Heat
conduction in
1 Heat ransfer the wall Q k A m
from medium 1 2 Heat transfer
to the wall
from the wall to
medium 2 1
k n
1 L 1
i
Medium temperature 2 1 i 1 i 2

Wall
L1 thickness of
layer 1
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 12

Basic Types of Tube Heat Exchangers

G K

A
B S
m

ln B
S

Co-current
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 13

Basic Types of Tube Heat Exchangers

G K G

A
B S
A
m

ln B
S

Co-current Counter current


PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 14

Basic Types of Tube Heat Exchangers

G
G K G

K
K

A
B S
A
m

A

ln B
S

Co-current Counter current Cross counter current


PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 15

Tube Heat Exchanger

1 Cover connecting piece


2 Jacket connecting piece
3 Thermometer
4 Jacket
5 Inner tube
6 Return disc with spacer
7 Tube sheet/Tube plate
8 Return cover
9 Stand
10 Drain cock
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Heat Exchanger 16

Tube Heat Exchangers


PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 17

Embodiments of Plate Heat Exchangers

Source: http://www.separationequipment.com/marineexchangers.htm
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 18

Single Plates Inner the Plate Package

Sealing of a single plate

Sources:
http://wcrbenelux.nl/site/content/view/12/13/lang,en/
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 19

Calculation Basis

Q k A m

1
k n
1 Li 1

1 i 1 i 2

B S
m
B
ln
S
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 20

Calculation along Operation Characteristics

Often only the entry temperatures for a specific heat


exchanger are given

exit temperatures are not quantifiable by the balance


procedure

exit temperatures attune in subject to mass flows


PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 21

Calculation along Operation Characteristics

Often only the entry temperatures for a specific heat


exchanger are given

Exit temperatures are not quantifiable by the balance


procedure

Exit temperatures attune in subject to mass flows

If the mass flows and the specific thermal capacities are


known, the operation characteristic can be used
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 22

Calculation Along Operation Characteristics

Often only the entry temperatures for a specific heat


exchanger are given
exit temperatures are not quantifiable by the balance
procedure
exit temperatures attune in subject to mass flows

If the mass flows and the specific thermal capacities are


known, the operation characteristic can be used
heat exchangers is simulated in x parallel standard
transfer units
NTU-method (Net Transfer Unit)

NTU as non-dimensional variable of the heat exchanger


PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 23

Calculation along Operation Characteristics

Ruler is used for medium flow 1 and 2 of the heat


exchanger

Non-dimensional temperature change

Non-dimensional temperature flow ratio

Thermal capacitiy flow


Inlet condition `
Outlet condition ``
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 24

Cross counter current


heat exchanger
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 25

Cross co-counter
current heat exchanger
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 26

Heat Transfer by Radiation into Cylindrical Cross-Section

1
K Thickness of the wall in m
1 1

EG
Radiation Steam Coefficient for thermal conduction in W/mK
Coefficient of heat transfer in W/mK
Coefficient of heat transfer exhaust gas to wall

Nu
EG

d
in W/mK d Outer wall diameter of the heat exchanger tube in m
Re from to C m
1 4 0,891 0,330
Nusseltzahl 4 40 0,821 0,385
40 4000 0,615 0,466
Nu 1,11 C Re Pr
m 0 , 31
4000 40000 0,174 0,618
40000 400000 0,024 0,805

Reynoldszahl cd
Re
EG

c p , EG 10
3

Pr
EG EG
Prandtlzahl
Wall
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 27

Heat Transfer by Radiation


K
1 Thickness of the wall in m
1 1
Coefficient for thermal conduction in W/mK
EG
Radiation Steam
Coefficient of heat transfer in W/mK
Coefficient for heat transfer of gas radiation to wall

Radiation Wall G (TG ) T G G (TW ) T W



4

4
1
in W/mK
T G T W

Emission coefficient of the gas

G
CO 2 H 2O
PM 24 Heat Ventilation and Air Condition 04/2012

Heat Exchanger 28

Example Calculation Heat Exchanger


A partitional wall heat exchanger in counter current construction shall be used as oilcooler for a
generator diesel engine. Check, if the oilcooler is dimensionend amply to the given conditions.

Given:
Power of generator diesel engine Pe = 750 kW
Heat flow to be discharged by oil Q = 3 % Pe
Area of heat exchanger A = 2,4 m
Thickness of the wall d = 1,5 mm
Scale deposition d = 0,1 mm

Cooling water inlet temperature CWI = 14 C


Cooling water outlet temperature CWO = 17 C
Oil inlet temperature oilin = 56 C
Oil outlet temperature oilout = 51 C

Coefficient for conduction oil-wall 1 = 500 W/(m K)


Coefficient for heat transfer wall Wall = 54,5 W/(m K)
Coefficient for heat transfer scale scale = 1,4 W/(m K)
Coefficient for conduction wall-water 2 = 600 W/(m K)