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1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 LIGHTING SYSTEMS


1.1.1 Theory
One important thing in every building is the lighting system, whether it is a
window passing the sunlight into the room or a lamp lighting it up. But having some
amount of light is just not enough, the lighting system has to fulfill some
characteristics to provide us with the right Illuminance (lux, lm/m2), colour
temperature (Kelvin) and colour rendering index, CRI. The CRI is often denoted as
Ra and indicates how accurately the light source renders colours compared to the
ideal light source

1.1.2 Light sources


When lighting up a building there are numerous light sources available, both
natural and artificial. In the subsections below, some of the most common ones will
be introduced.

Daylight
The first and most desirable light source is the light from the sun, here referred to as
daylight. The sun is in fact a huge nuclear fusion reactor, which radiates energy by its
high surface temperature, approximately 6000 C. One of the most desirable
properties of daylight is how wide spectrum of wavelength it spans, from long wave
infrared (about 1500nm) to ultraviolet (350nm). This gives a colour rending index Ra
of 100, which is the reference value as mentioned in the previous section. It is
therefore desirable that the artificial light sources have the same properties as
daylight. Common light levels outdoor at day and night can be found in the table
below:
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Table 1.1 : Light level

Incandescent lamps
The incandescent light bulb, better known as the conventional light bulb is the type of
lamp we can expect to find in most homes but has almost disappeared from office
buildings and factories. This lamp is constructed with a very fine wire that is sealed of
by a glass bulb and when electricity runs through the wire it heats up and emits light.
The disadvantage with this light source is that only around five percent of the
electrical energy consumed is converted into light and the rest emitted as heat. This
makes this type of lamps the least luminous and energy efficient. Because of this,
many countries have decided to eliminate this type of lamps by setting legislation to
prohibit their sale and thereby enforce the transition to more energy efficient
alternatives. The advantages of the incandescent lamp is its price, its pleasant warm
light, the fact that it do not need any extra equipment to operate and how easily it can
be dimmed to give different light output.

Fluorescent lamps
The fluorescent lamp is the type of lamp that accounts for a greater amount of
artificial light produced than any other (about 70%). This lamp uses the same
principles as the compact one, mentioned previously, except that the ballast is not a
part of the actual lamp. Therefore it is possible to make all sorts of combinations with
lamps and ballasts. The glass tube is filled with gas and a small quantity of mercury.
The tube is coated with a thin phosphorous layer and the ends of the tube are the
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electrodes. When electricity passes between them a mercury vapor emits UV


radiation. When this radiation hits the phosphorous it emits visible light with a colour
that varies with different phosphorous mixes. Fluorescent lamps are very energy
efficient and only need around 15% energy of an incandescent lamp and have a very
long lifetime. A great effort has gone into the development of electronic ballasts for
this type of lamps and therefore they are dimmable and the ballasts are in fact a major
part of modern lighting control. Because of how popular these lamps are they are
available in many variations regarding colour temperature and colour rending index.

The outdoor light level is approximately 10,000 lux on a clear day. In the
building, in the area closest to windows, the light level may be reduced to
approximately 1,000 lux. In the middle area its may be as low as 25 - 50 lux.
Additional lighting equipment is often necessary to compensate the low levels. Earlier
it was common with light levels in the range 100 - 300 lux for normal activities.
Today the light level is more common in the range 500 - 1000 lux - depending on
activity. For precision and detailed works, the light level may even approach 1500 -
2000 lux. The table below is a guidance for recommended light level in different
work spaces:

Table 1.2 : Recommended light level


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1.2 ACOUSTIC SYSTEM


1.2.1 Theory
Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all
mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration,
sound, ultrasound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an
acoustician while someone working in the field of acoustics technology may be called
an acoustical engineer. The application of acoustics is present in almost all aspects of
modern society with the most obvious being the audio and noise control industries.

Hearing is one of the most crucial means of survival in the animal world, and
speech is one of the most distinctive characteristics of human development and
culture. Accordingly, the science of acoustics spreads across many facets of human
societymusic, medicine, architecture, industrial production, warfare and more.
Likewise, animal species such as songbirds and frogs use sound and hearing as a key
element of mating rituals or marking territories. Art, craft, science and technology
have provoked one another to advance the whole, as in many other fields of
knowledge. Robert Bruce Lindsay's 'Wheel of Acoustics' is a well-accepted overview
of the various fields in acoustics.

1.2.2 Background Noise


In acoustics and specifically in acoustical engineering, background noise or
ambient noise is any sound other than the sound being monitored (primary sound).
Background noise is a form of noise pollution or interference. Background noise is an
important concept in setting noise levels affect your background in formations. See
noise criteria for cinema/home cinema applications.

Examples of background noises are environmental noises such as waves, traffic


noise, alarms, people talking, bioacoustic noise from animals or birds and mechanical
noise from devices such as refrigerators or air conditioning, power supplies or motors.
The prevention or reduction of background noise is important in the field of active
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noise control. It is an important consideration with the use of ultrasound (e.g. for
medical diagnosis or imaging), sonar and sound reproduction. In astronomy,
background noise or cosmic background radiation is electromagnetic radiation from
the sky with no discernible source.

In information architecture, irrelevant, duplicate or incorrect information may be


called background noise. In physics and telecommunication, background signal noise
can be detrimental or in some cases beneficial. The study of avoiding, reducing or
using signal noise is information theory. In telephony, artificial comfort noise is used
as a substitute for natural background noise, to fill in artificial silence created by
discontinuous transmission systems using voice activity detection. Background noise
can also affect concentration.

1.2.3 Reverberation Time


Reverberation time is the time required for the sound to "fade away" in a closed
area. Sound in a room will repeatedly bounce off reflective surfaces such as the floor,
walls, ceiling, windows or tables. When these reflections mix with each other, a
phenomena known as reverberation is created. Reverberation reduces when the
reflections hit absorbent surfaces such as curtains, padded chairs and even people.
Reverberation is a key parameter when qualifying the acoustic status of a room.
Particularly, too much reverberation has a negative impact on the intelligibility of
speech.
If a sound is created in a room and then the sound is abruptly stopped, the
reflections will linger in the room for a short period thereafter. This is particularly
noticeable in a church, for example, where the sound may be heard for several
seconds while it fades away. A reverberation time measurement is used to calculate
the time required for the sound to "fade away". That is, for the sound pressure to
reduce by a predefined value.
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2.0 OBJECTIVES

2.1 Objectives for Lighting System Testing


1. To determine appropriate lighting levels for the function of an area
2. To ensure whether the Lux value in the study occupied and according to standard
3. Checking for lighting system adequacy in study area

2.2 Objective for Acoustic System Testing


1. To determine the background noise in the lecture class
2. To determine the reverberation time at the lecture class
3. To determine the acoustic intensity and to measure the sound pressure level, but
does not necessarily determine levels of sound in relation to tolerance of the
human ear.

3.0 AREA OF STUDY

The study area was chosen at B1 BK21 in University Tun Hussein Onn. This size of the
study area around 8 meter x 6 meter. This classroom always be used as lecture hall for all
faculties in UTHM. This classroom has no acoustic panel which is when lecture session is
ongoing, the sound in the classroom can be heard at outside the class. It can disturb other
people around that area. For the lighting, there are windows that can provide some natural
lighting for this room and this classroom also provided fluorescent lamps. At the night, the
artificial lamps will be used. Sometimes, the lamps not in good condition, and certain of
lamps not working well.
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4.0 METHODOLOGY

4.1 LIGHTING TEST


4.1.1 Procedures
General assessment:
1. Check the room dimensions and measure layout of the lighting fittings
2. Assess the conditions of the surveyed area, interior surfaces (surface colours,
clean or dirty), daylight availability, weather conditions, etc
3. Assess the details of luminaire, number of lamps per luminaire, wattage and
controls method.

Illuminance measurements:
1. Calculate the room index and decide the number of measurement points (assume
5% accuracy)
2. Design a suitable grid or matrix for the measurements
3. Perform lighting measurements for the room when all the lighting is switched on.

Figure 4.1.1: Lighting testing


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4.1.2 Equipment
a. Digital 4 in 1 meter wind speed / wind velocity / anemometer, humidity /
hygrometer, thermometer, and light / lux meter. Model no.:- lm 8000
b. Measuring tape

Figure 4.1.2: Equipment for lux meter test

4.1.3 The Top 8 Items to Remember When Recording Lux Levels

1) Before taking readings, photocells should be exposed to proximate illuminance to


be measured, until reading is stabilized
2) Measurement should be taken either after dark or daylight excluded, where
possible.
3) Lighting system should be on for a sufficient time before LUX levels are taken,
allowing time to stabilize * Measurement should be taken on horizontal, vertical or
the incline in which the task is performed. In open areas take levels at floor level.
4) A series of points, set out in a regular pattern should be used to take LUX levels
then apply an average.
5) A typical space or measurement area should be selected out of a large area, as a
representative measurement space.
6) Measurement areas should be near to square if possible and cover an entire
pattern of array of lighting
7) Measurements to be taken 1 meter apart, except in large warehouses where it is
more practical to take up to 5 meters apart.
8) Measurements should be no closer to the wall than 1 meter.
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4.2 SOUND TEST

4.2.1 Procedure
1. Decide the number of measurement points (3 points).
2. Design a suitable grid or matrix for the measurements.
3. Perform noise measurements for the room when noise made in the
building at the time of the test.

Figure 4.2: Sound testing

4.2.2 Equipment
a. Omnidirectional sound source
b. Symphony dB sound measurement
c. Meter reader
d. Tripod and microphone
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Figure 4.2.2: Equipment for sound testing

4.2.3 The Top 4 Items to Remember When Recording Background Noise

1) All doors should be fully fitted and closed.


2) There should be no noise during the test other than from the testing
equipment.
3) The test plots and adjacent areas within the building should be quiet
for the duration of the test.
4) No work should be carried out or noise made in the building at the
time of the test.
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5.0 DATA & ANALYSIS


5.1 LIGHTING SYSTEM

I. Layout (figure 5.1)


1m

0A B C D E F G
1m

4 8 meter

8
Window

Door
6 meter
Fluorescent
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II. Fluorescent Lamp (figure 5.2)

55 55 55 71 39 6 6

91 91 119 91 151 71 71

71 55 91 119 71 71 71

71 55 55 71 71 71 61

71 79 71 55 41 41 55

39 55 71 71 55 55 55

41 15 55 15 15 15 41

55 71 71 39 39 39 41

55 71 71 39 39 39 15
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III. Daylight only (figure 5.3)

3 1 1 0 0 0 0

3 1 3 1 1 1 1

3 6 6 3 1 1 1

9 15 15 6 1 0 3

9 3 10 1 1 39 6

39 71 41 10 6 6 10

55 19 21 10 3 3 10

21 55 29 15 10 10 10

21 55 29 15 10 10 10
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In conclusion, from the data that have been observed at Classroom BK-21, has been
shown in Figure 5.3 and Figure 5.2. For the lux meter value is (79-6 lux) Fluorescent
lamp and (0-71lux) for daylight. The range of the value is according to the standard
(refer to Table 1.2). From the standard, it stated that lux for the classroom is 250.

5.2 CHOOSING LAMP IN LIGHTING DESIGN

The total light loss factor for lighting installation is 70%

The luminous efficacy we refer from table 1.2

Fluorescent Lamp Incandescent Bulbs


Lifespan 10,000 hours 1200 hours
Luminous efficiency 75 lm/w 13.5 lm/w
Watt of electricity used per 12 watts 60 watts
hour
Table 5.1: Show Energy Efficacy

10 hours x 6 days x 50 weeks = 3000 hours


Lighting Hours
Floor Area 6m x 8m = 48 m2

Installed Lumens Lux required x Floor area = 250 Lux x 48 m2 x 100


70% 70
= 17142.9 Lumen
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5.2.1 Incandescent lamp


Using a 100W Incandescent lamp, with the efficacy of 75 lumen/watt, and need to be replaced
every 3000 hours. The total cost of electricity for kW/hour is RM 0.218.

Input Power = Installed Lumen


Efficiency

= 17142.9 Lumen
13.5 Lumen/watts

= 1269.84
= 1.27 kW
Number of lamp required to be installed = 1269.84
100 W

=13 units

Installed power of total lamps 13 unit x 100W


1000
= 1.3 kW
The electricity cost = 1.3kW x 3000 hours x RM 0.218
= RM 850.20 / year
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5.2.2 Florescent lamp


Using a 65W fluorescent warm white lamp, with the efficacy of 62 lumens/Watts, and need to be
replaced every 3000hours. The total cost of electricity for kW/hour is RM 0.218

Input Power = Installed Lumen


Efficiency

= 17142.9 Lumen
75 Lumen/watts

= 228.57
= 0.23 kW
Number of lamps required to be installed = 228.57
100 W

= 3 units

Installed power of total lamps 3 unit x 100W


1000
= 0.3 kW
The electricity cost = 0.3 kW x 3000 hours x RM 0.218
= RM 196.2 / year

As a conclusion, from the calculation result in our groups choose to compare the fluorescent
lamp and Incandescent lamp. Now, the tutorial room 21 use the fluorescent lamps. In our
calculation, we can conclude the cheaper price is a fluorescent lamp. The electricity cost is
RM 196.2/year cheaper than an Incandescent lamp. For Incandescent lamp, the electricity cost is
RM 850.20/year. In addition, the fluorescent lamp also has a long lifespan (6000 20000 hours)
that why this type of lamp always be selected.

.
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5.3 ACOUSTIC SYSTEM

5.3.1 Background Noise

Based on the result, it show that the value get from test is NC-35, for estimation look at the
graph at figure below than we take at 1k or 10k, it show that the value of dB at the class is 35dB.

5.3.2 Reverberation Time (RT)

Below it shows the data from the test.

Point Trial Hz
125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
1&2 1st 2.31s 1.68s 1.01s 0.94s 0.92s 0.86s 0.71s
2nd 2.18s 1.69s 1.09s 0.95s 0.93s 0.88s 0.76s
3rd 2.00s 1.68s 1.03s 1.00s 0.89s 0.84s 0.73s
3&4 1st 1.78s 1.42s 1.04s 0.96s 0.98s 0.87s 0.73s
2nd 1.68s 1.37s 1.05s 0.98s 0.93s 0.86s 0.73s
3rd 1.51s 1.40s 1.06s 0.97s 0.91s 0.84s 0.72s
5&6 1st 2.10s 1.46s 1.16s 1.01s 0.92s 0.91s 0.73s
2nd 1.61s 1.43s 1.08s 1.01s 0.92s 0.87s 0.71s
3rd 1.56s 1.45s 1.18s 0.94s 0.93s 0.91s 0.74s

The data already been minimized to see which point the lowest and become the overall RT.
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Point Hz
125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 RT = (RT1+...RTn) / no of RT
1&2 2.00s 1.68s 1.01s 0.94s 0.89s 0.84s 0.71s =22.97 / 21
3&4 1.51s 1.37s 1.04s 0.96s 0.91s 0.84s 0.72s =1.09s
5&6 1.56s 1.43s 1.08s 0.94s 0.92s 0.91s 0.71s

Therefore overall Reverberation Time (RT) is 1.09s. It is shows that the value is below than 2.

As a conclusion, refer on ANSI Standard S12.60, the maximum reverberation time in an


unoccupied, furnished classroom with a volume less than 10,000 cubic feet is 0.6 seconds, and
0.7 seconds for a classroom between 10,000 and 20,000 cubic feet. It shows that our RT is high,
so we need to do some improving method that will be explained in recommendation to get a
lesser for Reverberation Time (RT). Other than that, the maximum level of background noise
allowed in the same classroom is 35 decibels (dBA). Hence it shows that, our dBA at the right
track therefore we have good dBA value.

6.0 RECOMMENDATION
From our study, we found there should be additions to the lighting system. Our group select
fluorescent lamp because the lifespan and electricity using, maintenance cost are better than
Incandescent lamp. In addition, our group suggest light tubes install in Seminar room 21
because the using natural lighting is cheaper than electrical lighting. Natural lighting is free
lighting and energy saving. If the electricity supply is disconnected, this method appropriate
to facilitate continuous lighting. Learning in the classroom is not interrupted. For sound
system, our group suggest to improve the proper choice of microphone because a headworn
wireless microphone is ideal since the distance to the lips remains constant, thus assuring the
same reinforcement regardless of the talkers movements. Besides that, sound level need to
control because the minimum values of speech intelligibility, it is obviously necessary to
provide a sufficiently high sound level. No other requirements apply to the sound level. In
situations without significant background noise the speech level should be at least 65 - 75 dB
(A) at all the seats. Level differences in the seating area should not exceed 6 dB (A).
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7.0 CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, the project of Building Services has been done with the satisfied results
which the study area at B1 BK21 in University Tun Hussein Onn. This project is
successfully done because all the objectives of the project are achieved.

Based on the lighting test, there are 3 measurements that need to be determined which are
luminaire, number of lamps per luminaire, wattage and controls method. The luminaire data
obtained from the fluorescent lamp in the classroom is at the range of 6-119 lux while the
table of the standard lighting stated that the lux for the classroom is 250 lux. Thus, the
luminaire at the classroom is not at the standard and need to upgrade to user. Next, the
number of lamps per luminaire and the wattage of the existing lamp in the classroom are also
carried out at this project. The existing fluorescent lamp is compared to the incandescent
lamp. From the results, there are 21 units of the fluorescent lamp and the electricity cost is
RM 196.2/year/unit while for the incandescent lamp is RM 850.20/year/unit. Thus, the more
power saving and economic lamp is chosen which is fluorescent lamp. In order to let the
users or students that have the best condition of lighting when using the classroom, the
fluorescent lamp should be added until reach the standard. There is a recommendation to
improve the lighting system in the classroom which is the natural lighting can be guide into
the classroom through the window.

Another test is the acoustic system test for the same classroom. The results of the
maximum level of background noise from the classroom is 35 decibels (dBA). Thus, the dBA
is in the right track and the classroom has a good dBA value. Then, the data obtained show
that the overall Reverberation Time (RT) is 1.09s and it is below than 2. From the ANSI
Standard S12.60, Reverberation time in the classroom is high and need to be improved.

Hopefully, this project can inspire the parties involved to manage and take action to the
limitation of the classroom at B1 BK21 in University Tun Hussein Onn immediately.
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8.0 REFERENCES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acoustics
http://www.nti-audio.com/en/functions/reverberation-time-rt60.aspx
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Acoustic/revtim.html
http://www.nti-audio.com/en/functions/reverberation-time-rt60.aspx
http://aptsoundtesting.co.uk/blog/
https://www.armstrongceilings.com/commercial/en-us/articles/classroom-acoustics-ansi-
standard.html
http://www.eggenschwiler.arch.ethz.ch/Vortrag13.pdf
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9.0 APPENDICES

10.0 Estimation of the Background Noise NC Index


11.0 Location: Bilik Kuliah 21 PNS
12.0 Group No.: 7
13.0
14.0

Customer: Dr Tong Yean Ghing and Dr Lee Yee Yong Test date: 03/26/17

Description and identification of the building, test set-up and measurement direction:

Frequency f, (Hz) Background noise (Octave), dB

63 52.4

125 44.5

250 40.1

500 34.5

1000 31.8

2000 28.8

4000 18.9

8000 13.1

The background noise is in accordance with the index: NC-35

N Rapport : Organisme dessai :

Date: 3/26/2017 Signature:


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Background Noise
Channel 1
[ID=0] Background nois e Hz ;(dB[2.000e-05 Pa], PW R) 1k 31.8
60

55

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10
31.5 63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k 8k

[ID 2] NC 35 Hz ;dB 63 52.400


100

90

80

NC-70
70
NC-65

NC-60
60
NC-55

NC-50
50
NC-45

NC-40
40
NC-35

NC-30
30
NC-25

NC-20
20
NC-15

10
NC-0
0
63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k 8k
25

Channel 2
[ID=1] Background nois e Hz ;(dB[2.000e-05 Pa], PW R) 1k 31.0
60

55

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10
31.5 63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k 8k

[ID 3] NC 35 Hz ;dB 63 50.570


100

90

80

NC-70
70
NC-65

NC-60
60
NC-55

NC-50
50
NC-45

NC-40
40
NC-35

NC-30
30
NC-25

NC-20
20
NC-15

10
NC-0
0
63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k 8k
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RT 1st try 1st point


RT 1 k Hz 0.94s Correlation0.995 31.5Hz 63Hz R T = 0.47 s
3 .0
2 .5 80 80
2 .0
60 60
1 .5
1 .0 40 40
0 .5 20 20
0 .0
3 1.5 63 1 25 2 50 5 00 1k 2k 4k 8k 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

125Hz RT = 2.31 s 250Hz RT = 1.68 s 500Hz RT = 1.01 s


80 80 80

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

1 kHz RT = 0.94 s 2 kHz RT = 0.92 s 4 kHz RT = 0.86 s


80 80 80

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

8 kHz RT = 0.71 s
80

60

40

20

0 1 2 3 4

nd
RT 2 try 1st point
RT 1 k Hz 0.95s Correlation0.993 31.5Hz 63Hz
3 .0
2 .5 80 80
2 .0
60 60
1 .5
1 .0 40 40
0 .5 20 20
0 .0
3 1.5 63 1 25 2 50 5 00 1k 2k 4k 8k 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

125Hz RT = 2.18 s 250Hz RT = 1.69 s 500Hz RT = 1.09 s


80 80 80

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

1 kHz RT = 0.95 s 2 kHz RT = 0.93 s 4 kHz RT = 0.88 s


80 80 80

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

8 kHz RT = 0.76 s
80

60

40

20

0 1 2 3 4
27

RT 3rd try 1st point


RT 1 k Hz 1.00s Correlation0.988 31.5Hz 63Hz
3 .0
2 .5 80 80
2 .0
60 60
1 .5
1 .0 40 40
0 .5 20 20
0 .0
3 1.5 63 1 25 2 50 5 00 1k 2k 4k 8k 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

125Hz RT = 2.00 s 250Hz RT = 1.68 s 500Hz RT = 1.03 s


80 80 80

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

1 kHz RT = 1.00 s 2 kHz RT = 0.89 s 4 kHz RT = 0.84 s


80 80 80

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

8 kHz RT = 0.73 s
80

60

40

20

0 1 2 3 4

nd
RT 1st try 2 point
RT 1 k Hz 0.96s Correlation0.994 31.5Hz 63Hz
2 .0
80 80
1 .5
60 60
1 .0
40 40
0 .5
20 20
0 .0
3 1.5 63 1 25 2 50 5 00 1k 2k 4k 8k 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

125Hz RT = 1.78 s 250Hz RT = 1.42 s 500Hz RT = 1.04 s


80 80 80

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

1 kHz RT = 0.96 s 2 kHz RT = 0.98 s 4 kHz RT = 0.87 s


80 80 80

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

8 kHz RT = 0.73 s
80

60

40

20

0 1 2 3 4
28

RT 2nd try 2nd point


RT 1 k Hz 0.98s Correlation0.997 31.5Hz 63Hz
2 .0
80 80
1 .5
60 60
1 .0
40 40
0 .5
20 20
0 .0
3 1.5 63 1 25 2 50 5 00 1k 2k 4k 8k 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

125Hz RT = 1.68 s 250Hz RT = 1.37 s 500Hz RT = 1.05 s


80 80 80

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

1 kHz RT = 0.98 s 2 kHz RT = 0.93 s 4 kHz RT = 0.86 s


80 80 80

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

8 kHz RT = 0.72 s
80

60

40

20

0 1 2 3 4

nd
RT 3rd try 2 point
RT 1 k Hz 0.97s Correlation0.995 31.5Hz 63Hz
2 .0
80 80
1 .5
60 60
1 .0
40 40
0 .5
20 20
0 .0
3 1.5 63 1 25 2 50 5 00 1k 2k 4k 8k 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

125Hz RT = 1.51 s 250Hz RT = 1.40 s 500Hz RT = 1.06 s


80 80 80

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

1 kHz RT = 0.97 s 2 kHz RT = 0.91 s 4 kHz RT = 0.84 s


80 80 80

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

8 kHz RT = 0.72 s
80

60

40

20

0 1 2 3 4
29

RT 1st try 3rd point


RT 1 k Hz 1.01s Correlation0.986 31.5Hz 63Hz
3 .0
2 .5 80 80
2 .0 60 60
1 .5
1 .0 40 40
0 .5 20 20
0 .0
3 1.5 63 1 25 2 50 5 00 1k 2k 4k 8k 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

125Hz RT = 2.10 s 250Hz RT = 1.46 s 500Hz RT = 1.16 s


80 80 80

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

1 kHz RT = 1.01 s 2 kHz RT = 0.92 s 4 kHz RT = 0.91 s


80 80 80

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

8 kHz RT = 0.73 s
80

60

40

20

0 1 2 3 4

nd
RT 2 try 3rd point
RT 1 k Hz 1.01s Correlation0.988 31.5Hz 63Hz
2 .0
80 80
1 .5
60 60
1 .0
40 40
0 .5
20 20
0 .0
3 1.5 63 1 25 2 50 5 00 1k 2k 4k 8k 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

125Hz RT = 1.61 s 250Hz RT = 1.43 s 500Hz RT = 1.08 s


80 80 80

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

1 kHz RT = 1.01 s 2 kHz RT = 0.92 s 4 kHz RT = 0.87 s


80 80 80

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

8 kHz RT = 0.71 s
80

60

40

20

0 1 2 3 4
30

RT 3rd try 3rd point


RT 1 k Hz 0.94s Correlation0.988 31.5Hz 63Hz
2 .0
80 80
1 .5
60 60
1 .0
40 40
0 .5
20 20
0 .0
3 1.5 63 1 25 2 50 5 00 1k 2k 4k 8k 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

125Hz RT = 1.56 s 250Hz RT = 1.45 s 500Hz RT = 1.18 s


80 80 80

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

1 kHz RT = 0.94 s 2 kHz RT = 0.93 s 4 kHz RT = 0.91 s


80 80 80

60 60 60

40 40 40

20 20 20

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

8 kHz RT = 0.74 s
80

60

40

20

0 1 2 3 4