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Lynehtnirg State Colony

INTRODUCTION dium of expression is a relatively primi-

tive one, drawing. The second phase is
The H-T-P (freehand drawing of verbal, apperceptive, and more formally
House, Tree, and Person) is a technique structured; in it the subject is provided
designed to aid the clinician in obtaining with an opportunity to define, describe,
information concerning the sensitivity, and interpret the objects drawn and their
maturity, and integration of a subject's respective environments and to associate
personality, and the interaction of that concerning them.
personality with its environment (both
specific and general). The H-T-P is a MATERIALS
two-phased approach to the personality.
The first phase is non-verbal, creative, al- The materials for the H - T - P a r e : (1)
most completely unstructured; the me- a four-page scoring folder; (2) a post-
No. Out-Pt.,
Natne: -Mr. K. N., -Date: 1 August 1946_
Se.r: Malc Race: -White. Birthdate:. ,11 May 1920.
Grade or
School: -High SchooL JCIass: _ -Graduated
Residence: Virginia Occupation:. . Insurance Salesman.
House Tree Person
Details: Details: Details:
100(4) A2 201 (1) SI 300 II (b) A3
101 (1) SI 202(1) SI 301 (3) Dl
102(1) D2 203 (4) A3 303(3) S2
106(2) SI 204(3) A2 305(2) A2
107(2) A2 205(3) A3 306(3) Al
109(1) SI 206(4) A2* 307(4) Al
110(1) SI Proportion: 308(2) Al
111 (2) S2 311 (6) . . , , A3
112(1) Dl 209 II A2 312(1) A3
113(2) A2 2101 D2 315 (4) Al
114(1) SI 2111 (a) A2 316(4) A3
IlS(l) S2 212(3) Al 317(1) SI
116(1) SI
Perspective: Proportion:
Proportion: 215(2) A2 318(2) Al
119 II (b) A2 216V(c) /V3 319(3) A2
* In the Post-Drawing In- 323 II (b) Al
Perspective: terrogation session the subject 323 III (c) A2
1311 Dl said that the Tree was dead. 323 IV (d) A3
Quantitative Score:
324(4) A3
D . 7 Weighted Good 119 326 (1-d) SI
Raw: A .30 Score: ^, ' TT 329 II (c) A3
S .13 Flaw 11 330(2) A3
Percentage Raw G: 2i3 (1) Dl, Dl
86IQ 107
FIG. 1. Quantitative Scoring Blank for illustration case, Mr. K. N.

drawing interrogation form; (3) a four- POST-DRAWING INTERROGATION

page form sheet of white papereach P 1. Is that a man or a woman (or boy or
page 7 X 8J/2 inches in sizewith the girl) ?
word House printed at the top of the sec- P 2. How old is he?
ond page; the word Tree at the top of the P 3. Who is he?
third page; Person at the top of the P 4. Is he a relation, a friend, or what?
fourth; (4) several lead pencils (Grade P 5. Whom were you thinking about while.
you were drawing?
No. 2) with erasers; (5) the. tentative P 6. What is he doing? (And where is he do-
manual. ing it?)
P 7. What is he thinking about?
P 8. How does he feel? Why?
First, the subject is asked to draw as T 1. What kind of tree is that?
good a picture of a House as he can; he T 2. Where is that tree actually located?
is told that he may draw any kind of T 3. About how old is that tree?
House he wishes; he may erase as much T 4. Is that tree aiive?
as he likes; and he may take as long as he T S. A (If subject says that the tree is alive)
(a) What is there about that tree
chooses^but his drawing must be free- that gives you the impression
hand. If he protests that he is no artist, that it's alive?
he is assured that the H-T-P is not a test (b) Is any part of that tree deacf?
of artistic ability. Then, in turn, he is What part?
(c) What do you think caused it to
asked to draw as good a picture of a Tree die?
and a Person as he can^the whole per- (d) When do you think it died?
son, however; not the head and shoulders
B (H subject says that the tree is dead)
only. (a) What do you think caused it to
On the first page of the scoring folder die?
the examiner notes: (1) the exact order (b) When do you think it died?
T 6. Which does that tree look more like to
in which the details of the House, Tree, you : a man or a woman ?
and Person are drawn, numbering the T 7. What is there about it that gives you
items; (2) any spontaneous comment that impression?
(whether statetnent or question)' made by T 8. If that were a person instead of a tree,
which way wotild the person be facing?
the subject, recording it verbatim when T 9. Is that tree by itself, or is it in a group
possible, and any emotion exhibited by of trees?
the subject, relating the point of occur- TIO. As you look at that tree, do you get the
rence of either comment or emotion to impression that it is above you, below
you, or about on a level with you?
the detail item being drawn, just drawn, Til. What is the weather like in this picture?
or about to be drawn; (3) any time- T12. Is there any wind blowing in this picture?
latency shown by the subject, indicating T13. Show me in what direction it is blowing?
T14. What sort of wind is it?
how long it lasted and where it took place; TIS. If you had drawn the sun in this picture,
(4) the time consumed by tbe subject where would you have put it?
for each of his drawings. T16. Do you see the sun as being in the north,
After the subject has completed his south, east, or west?
drawings, the examiner turns to tbe post- H 1. How many stories does that house have?
drawing interrogation sheet and ques- H 2. Is that a frame-house, a brick-house, or
tions the subject concerning what he has what?
just drawn (the questions are spiralled H 3. Is that your own house? XVhose house
so as to help prevent the establishment of is it?
H 4. Whose house were you thinking about
an "answer-set"). Experience has shown while you were drawing?
that the act of drawing the House, Tree, H S. Would you like to own that house your-
and Person often arouses a strong emo- self? Why?
tional reaction; that upon completion of H 6. If you did own that house, and_ you coutd
his drawings it is frequently possible for do whatever you liked with it;
(a) Which room would you take for
the subject to verbalize for the first time your own? Why?
hitherto suppressed material. (b) Whom would yu like to have live
in that house with you? Why?

H 7. As you look at that house, does it seem To conclude, the examiner records a
to be close by or far away? plan of the floors of the drawn House,
H 8. As you look at that house, do you get the noting the location and typeas living-
impression that it is above you, below
you, or about on a level with you? room, dining-room, etc.(and occupant
H 9. What does that house make you think of the room, if any) of each room. The
of? examiner also records, in the space pro-
HIO. What does it remind you of? vided therefor, the answers to questions
H l l . Is it a happy, friendly sort of house?
H12. What is there about it that gives you asked in an effort to ascertain the possi-
that impression? ble significance of scars on the Tree,
H13. Do you feel that way about most houses ? broken or dead branches; shadows; and
Why? any de^'iant proportional or spatial or
H14. What is the weather like in this picture? positional relationships.
T17. What does that tree make you think of? The post-drawing questions listed above
T18. What does it remind you of? are minimal only. The examiner is ex-
T19. Is it a: healthy tree? pected to ask such additional questions
T20. What is there about it that gives you as may be necessary to clarify the sub-
that impression ? ject's responses or make clear his drawn
T21. Is it a strong tree?
T22. What is there about it that gives you productions. This post-drawing inter-
that impression? rogation s e s s i o n (more conveniently
known as the P-D-I) is intended to pro-
P 9. What does that person make you think vide the examiner with every possible
of? opportunity to determine just what mean-
PIO. What does that person remind you of?
P l l . Is that person well? ing the constant stimulus words Hoitse,
P12. What is there about him that gives you Tree, and Person bave had for tbe sub-
that impressiott? ject.
P13. Is that person happy? On page 2 of tbe scoring folder pro-
P14. What is there about him that gives you vision is made for the quantitative scor-
that impression?
P15. How do you feel about that person? ing of tbe drawings. The attempt is to
Why? measure intelligence by evaluating con-
' P16. Do you feel that way about most people ? cept formation.
P17. What is the weather like in this picture? ANALYSIS
P18. Whom does that person remind you of? A study (1943-44) of sets of drawings
What does that person need most? produced by 140 white adults of seven
predetermined intelligence levels revealed
Whom does, that tree remind you of? tbat items of detail, proportion, and per-
Why? spective (spatial relationship) served
What does that tree need most? best to differentiate between tbe levels.
Whom does that house make you think Tbese items were numbered and assigned
of? Why? factor ratings as, D3 (very inferior), D2
What does that house need most? (Imbecile), Dl (Moron); Al (border-
line) tbrougb S2 (very Superior). All
Supplementary Questions factors, borderline through very Superior,
To what does that chimney lead? (And
that chimney?) were called "Crf)od"; all tbe D-f actors
To what does that walkway lead? were termed "Flaw."
If this were a person instead of a tree The quantitative scoring system de-
or shrub (or windmill, or any other vised enables the examiner: (1) to deter-
irrelevant object not a part of the
house itself), who might it be? mine the adult subject's intelligence quo-
tient (norms for children are not yet
If this were a person instead of a bird available) ; (2) to compare tbe H-T-P
(or another tree, or any other irrele- IQ with the IQ attained by tbe subject
vant thing not a part of the originally on standard intelligence tests (any
drawn tree itself) who might it be?
marked disparity may well be bigbly
What kind of clothing does this person significant) ; (3) to detect quantitative
have on? differences between the disparate wholes

(this, in turn, suggests qualitative differ- observer; a segment of the drawing to the
ences in the areas tapped by those whole drawing; and segment to segment
wholes) ; (4) to appraise raw score scat- within a whole. Also evaluated are: the
ter (greater than average scatter suggests impression of "life" conveyed by the
personality disorganization). drawings; the subject's use of sexual de-
The correlation of the H-T-P IQ with tails (actual or symbolic) ; the conform-
the Stanford-Binet IQ was .45 for a ity of the drawings to reality. V. Time:
small group of adult mentally deficient, appraised from the ^standpoints of time
epileptic, or psychotic patients. For consumed versus the'quality of the draw-
larger groups, the correlation between ings (for the drawings both individually
the H-f-P IQ and the Wechsler-Bellevue and as a group) ; and latency periods.
IQ has ranged from .56 to .74, with the VI. Comments: (spontaneous or exami-
correlation being somewhat higher the ner induced; verbal or written) are evalu-
more maladjusted the subjects were. It ated as to volume, relevance, range, ob-
seems rather surprising that there should jectivity, emotionality, point of occur-
be even this close a correlation between rence, and consistency. VII. Line Qual-
the unstructured and unstable H-T-P ity: appraised as to motor control, force,
and the highly structured and relatively type, and consistency. VIII. Self-Criti-
stable Stanford-Binet and the Wechsler- clsni: considered from the standpoints of
Bellevue. type and consistency. IX. Attitude:
**- Pages 3 and 4 of the scoi'ing folder toward the whole task and the disparate
are reserved for a qualitative analysis of wholes. X. Drive: appraised as to
the drawings. In 1945-46, sets of draw- amount, control, and consistency.
ings produced by 150 white adults who The validity of the qualitative analysis
were either maladjusted, psychopathic, was tentatively demonstrated by three
epileptic, psychoneurotic, or psychotic, methods: (1) comparison of conclusions
were studied in an attempt to identify and diagnosis derived from the H-T-P
factors (tentatively called P-factors) that with the conclusions of staff psychiatrists
would serve to differentiate, on any basis and the staff's final diagnosis; (2) com-
but that of intelligence per se, between parison of conclusions and diagnosis de-'
drawings produced by these- more or less rived from the H-T-P with the findings
abnormal subjects and drawings pro- on the Rorschach administered and inter-
duced by subjects who exhibited no ma- preted by a skilled Rorschach examiner;
jor persotiality flaws. (3) comparison of conclusions arrived at
This study showed that it was profit- through blind analyses of H-T-P pro-
able to analyze the drawings from the ductions with (a) opinions of intimate
standpoints of: I. Concept: the drawings friends (psychiatrists or psychologists)
are appraised from the viewpoints of of the subjects, and (b) the opinion of
their content, conventionality, and ob- insightful subjects concerning the ac-
jectivity ; the order in which the details curacy of deductions made from their
are produced within a given whole (atypi- drawings.
cal order of detail presentation is often It has been found (1) that the weight
the first indication of a breakdown in of each so-called P-f actor (as P-1, for a
concept formation) ; and consistency. II. potentially pathological sign; P-2 for a
Details: evaluated as to their quantity, pathoformiic item; and P-3 for a frank-
relevance, the emphasis placed upon them, ly pathological factor) must be deter-
and consistency. III. Proportion: con- mined on the basis of its relationship to
sidered from the viewpoints of the pro- the entire configuration presented by the
portional relationship of the drawn subject; (2) that an item which may
whole to the form space; a given segment have no significance in one setting may be
to the drawn whole; segment to segment pathognomic in another.
within a given whole; and consistency.
IV. Perspective: appraised as to the posi- IXTERPRETATIOX
tional relationship of the drawn whole to In addition to qualitative anah sis. defir
the form page; the drawn whole to the
nite inteqiretation of content^whether

actual or symbolicmay be undertaken, subject's past which he regards as pain-

and to good advantage. But interpreta- fully traumatic.
tion must always be made with great cir- It is postulated further that the trunk
cumspection, and in the light of as com- represents the subject's feeling of basic
plete a knowledge of the subject's back- power; that the branch structure repre-
ground as possible, and the subject him- sents his feeling of ability to derive satis-
self must be afforded every possible op- faction from his environment; that the
portunity to indicate the meaning that organization of the drawn whole repre-
his drawings have for him. sents his feeling of intra-personal balance.
It has been found that the House, a The Person as a living, or recently liv-
dwelling place, and as such the scene of ing, human being obviously lends itself
the most intimate and frequently the most well to direct self-portraiture: the sub-
satisfying. or frustrating inter-personal ject may draw himself as he now is (in
relationships experienced by the subject, which case cosmetic Raws, physiological
most often represents home (home as it malformations, etc., are often reproduced
is now, as it was in the past, or as the faithfully, but usually as if mirrored) ;
subject would like it to be in the future). he may draw himself as he feels (and the
Regarded as a portrait of the subject projection of body-feeling is often strik-
himself, the House can provide the ex- ing) ; or he may draw himself as he would
aminer with information concerning the like to be. In a sense the drawn Person
subject's psycho-sexual a d j u s t m e n t appears always to be a self-portrait, but
(based on the subject's ability to handle to the subject it may be the individual
the several sexual symbols presented by. whom the subject most likes or dislikes,
the House) ; the subject's contact with or toward whom he has highly ambivalent
reality (the ground line is postulated as feelings. From the drawn Person the
representing the level of reality; the far- examiner may learn the subject's concept
ther one goes upward therefrom the of his sexual role (based on the physio-
logical characteristics emphasized), and
closer one approaches pharitasy) ; and the the subject's attitude toward interpersonal
subject's accessibility (doors are modes relationships in general (based largely on
of ingress and egress; windows usually the perspective employed and the sub-
provide for visual contact). ject's comments).
The Tree, an inanimate living, or one-
time living, thing, in an elemental, stress- As evidence that the H-T-P does actu-
ful environment, is apparently the one ally get below the superficial level of the
of the three disparate wholes that is most personality we have the following bits of
likely to convey to the examiner the sub- evidence: (1) a large number of subjects
ject's felt impression of himself in rela- have exhibited strong, overt, emotional
tion to his environment, since its struc- reactions during the drawing phase or the
ture and the method of its presentation P. D. I., or both, which suggests that
are less dictated by conventional stereo- areas of acute sensitivity have been
type than are the structure and method tapped; and the very strength of the emo-
of presentation of the House and the Per- tional responses implies that more than
son. Further, it is apparently easier for the so-called surface has been scratched ;
a subject to portray graphically the rav- (2) during the P. D. I., or. in subsequent
ages of environmental pressure upon a interviews, subjects have spontaneously
Tree than upon a House or a Person interpreted certain details, proportional
without arousing within himself an distortions, perspective flaws, etc., and
awareness oi such portrayal. A tortu- have thereafter been able to verbalize ma-
ous and twisted trunk, broken branches, terial previously unexpressible by them;
scars, etc., the equivalent of which would (3) a number of subjects have reported
represent obvious mutilation on the that for several nights following the ad-
House or Person, serve only to add real- ministration of the H-T-P they dreamt
ism to the drawing of the Tree and are more frequently, more vividly, and more
often found to represent events in the disturbingly than theretofore.

ILLUSTRATIVE CASE been able to maintain himself much above

the marginal level economically, until
The following sample case should illus- shortly before this examination when he
trate rather well just what may be ex-
pected from the H-T-P. had started selling life insurance and had
begun to do well once the threat of an
K. N. is a 26-year-old, white, male, immediately and constantly supervising
native Virginian, who came to one of the male figure (presumably a father sub-
Colony's mental hygiene clinics in 1946. stitute) was removed. He was married,
Although he was a high school graduate but he had never made a satisfactory
and although he had a Wechsler-Bellevue, sexual adjustment: this he attributed to
Form I, full IQ of 121, he had never his wife's physical incapacity. Mr. N

FIG, 2. Drawings of House, Tree and Person made by illustrative case, Mr. K. N,

complained of cbronic fatigue, diffuse house keeper, when they were .small Ijoys.
anxiety, low thresholds for frustration Tbeir father had left tbem tbere wbile be
and satiation; he listed an imposing num- went to look for workafter their mother
ber of somatic complaints. On psycho- had deserted tbe family,
logical examination it was found that he 2. Details: tbe absence of a chimney
was far too prone to seek in phantasy the (an omission not explainable bere on tbe
satisfactions that bad thiis far eluded him grounds of intellectual inferiority) sug-
in tbe world of reality. gests two tbings: (1) a definite lack of
Tbe diagnosis was: Ps3'choneurosis, vvarmtb in the home situation; (2) diffi-
mixed type, witb above average intelli- culty dealing with masculine sex sym-
gence. bols. Tbe trees and tbe sbrub, wbicb at
QUANTITATIVE SCORING first sight appeared to be higbly irrelevant
details, were found to symbolize (from
Several things are to be dedviced from left to rigbt) tbe father, the patient's
tlie quantitative score (see Figure 1) at- brotber, and tbe motber (note that sym-
tained by Mr. N on the H-T-P. We find . bolically as well as actually, sbe is the
that whej-eas he had an IQ of 121 on the fartbest away) ! Tbe tentative walkway,
Wechsler, his H-T-P IQ is only 107: tlie ladder-like steps, and tbe pseudobar
this diminished function is compatible drawn across the porcb appear to sym-
with the diagnosis aforementioned. The bolize (viewing the House in this instance
individual raw factor scatter is from as a self-portrait) (1) his relative un-
high dull average to very superior, is willingness to permit access to his real
greater than the three level scatter usu- self; (2) his reluctance to make inter-
ally seen in well-adjusted patients, but is personal relationships: except upon his
not indicative of a major disturl^ance. The own terms.
raw D, A, and S factor ratio indicates a
potential function of at least above aver- He drew his windows in most unusual
age ; and tbe suggestion is tbat tbe rela- sequence; drew tbe second from the left
tively high D-factor score represents de- in tbe second story last of all. This led
pression of function as a result of emo- tbe examiner to suspect tbe arousal of a
tional disturbance, for the individual D- definitely unpleasant association witb tbe
factors themselves do not suggest organic room from which that window opened.
deterioration and tlie organization within The suspicion was strengthened by the
tbe wholes is good. bar-like window panes ; later confirmed by
the patient bimself wben he stated that
QUALITATIVE SCORING the window in question was tbat of tbe
room that be and bis Ijrotber bad oc-
Analysis reveals the presence of 4 P-1 cupied.
factors, and 4 P-2 iactors for the House; Post-Drawing Comments: When the
5 P-l's and 1 P-2 for the Tree; 6 P-l's patient was asked wbich room of this
and 3 P-2's for the Person (these P- house he would occupy if the house were
factors are described and interpreted in his own, he indicated that be would take
tbe next section). The presence of 8 tbe second-story room fartliest to the
P-2 factors is indicative of a personality rigbt, at tbe back of the house. Further
maladjustment of a serious, but by no interrogation elicited the fact tbat wben
means critical type (for there are no be and his brotber had lived in tbat house,
P-3's). tbat particular room bad been tbat of a
INTERPRETATION young dancer wbo bad been uncommonly
House: (1) Concept: in tbe post-draw- kind to tbe boys.
ing interrogation session, Mr. N. ex-
pressed himself amazed to recognize bis Tree: 1. Concept: Tbe patient identi-
drawn House (see Figure 2) as an ex- fied bis tree as an oak tbat had been in tbe
cellent likeness of tbe one in wbich be backyard of a chiklbood bome (not that
and his younger brotlier liad suffered of the drawn house, however)^so much
greatly at the bands of a sadistic boarding- for tbe manifest content. As for tbe la-

tent content: in the P. D. I. Mr. N stated but never before below the waist, which
that his Tree appeared to him to be more would imply a strong desire to stay away
feminine than masculine; reminded him from the conflict-producing .pelvic area.
of his motherdead (in effect) since she In many ways this is a self-pdrtrait; a pro-
deserted the family when Mr. N was nine jection of body-feeling: Oscir;^as he
years of age. On questioning (making calls his Personstands in rigid, rela-
the assumption that temporally the tively helpless position. The hulGous
groundline represents infancy; the top- nose, the scrawny neck, the malformed
most portion of the Tree, the present) it ear, depict his expressed feelings of awk-
was found that for the patient the scar wardness and unattractiveness (actually
near the trunk's base stood for the death Mr. N is a rather good-looking, clean-cut
of a playmate when Mr. N was four; the chap).
scar farther up the trunk symbolized 2. Details: The emphasis on mouth
psychic trauma stistained at life age 15 and cigar suggests strong oral preoccupa-
by Mr. N at the death of his brother. tion. The over-emphasis on relatively
The prominent baseline (drawn before unessential details of clothing such as
the topmost branches were put on) is lapel slits, pocket handkerchief, 'etc., im-
interpreted as indicating insecurity. plies narcissistic self-contemplation with
Proportion: The size of the Tree when compensatory self-adornment.
compared to the form page size suggests 3. Perspective: The careful centering
that Mr. N feels definitely constricted by of the drawn Person on the form page
and in his environment. is believed to be indicative of strong
Perspective: The leaning of the Tree feelings of insecurity.
to the right implies that the psychological 4. Post-Drawing Comments: Mr. N
future plays a large role in his psycho- said that Oscar is a drugstore cowboy,
logical field from the temporal standpoint; standing on the corner, watching the girls
that the subject is trying to suppress the go by. Mr. N added a bit wryly, "It's
past. all in his head!" indicating his feeling of
Spontaneous Comment: While he was dissatisfaction with his own present sex-
drawing, Mr. N remarked, "I'm more in- ual role.
terested in dead trees than I am in live He later continued, "Oh, he's day-
ones ! Is that O. K. ?"indicating an dreaming like me. . . . I'd be standing on
awareness of the niorhidity of his inter- the corner wondering how my wife was;
est. what was going on at home." Further
. Post-Drawing Comments: At first Mr. interrogation brought out the fact that'
N stated that his Tree was dead; he later in some respects Mr. N's wife is a mother
amended this, however, to say that the substitute.
Tree was living, but was neither healthy
nor strong. This is interpreted as indi- SUMMARY
cating an awareness of recently increased Evidence is presented that appears to
possibilities for securing satisfaction from justify the foUowing conclusions:
his environment, hut an awareness as yet
not sufficient to dispel the overwhelming 1. Mr. N has a basic intelligence level
feeling of futility that has handicapped of at least above average; he is pr^-
him in recent years. ently suffering a diminution of func-
tional efficiency which does not,
however, appear to be irrevei-sible.
Person: 1. Concept: Mr. N's Person
2. Mr. N has experienced aaite frus-
is, in his opinion, the portrait of a per- tration in his attempts to satisfy his
son whose attitudes, abilities, etc., are major needs (security, affection,
utterly unlike his own. Mr. N remarked achievement, autonomy). This has
somewhat ruefully that he wished that he resulted in the development of stroi^
could be as "slaphappy" and carefree as feelings that his environment is
his drawn Person. Mr. N had drawn constrictive and unsatisfying; that
this "doodle" figure many times before. I.e is incapable of coping with it.

3. Mr. N's inability to enact a fully ma- less than average intelligence; (3) the
ture male sexual role has produced non-verbal phase is almost completely un-
painful anxiety. structured which compels projection; (4)
4. Mr. N has developed a tendency to the act of drawing House, Tree, and Per-
avoid inter-personal relationships; a son is frequently so emotion-producing
tendency to act in rigid and unsure that during it or afterwards subjects can
fashion in those relationships that verbalize hitherto suppressed (and per-
he cannot avoid. haps at times repressed) material; (5)
5. Mr. N has sought satisfaction in the post-drawing interrogation system
phantasy, hut without much success. permits the subject to define, interpret,
6. From the temporal point of view, and associate concerning his drawn pro-
Mr. N's psychological field is domi- ductions, and provides him also with an
nated by events of the past; events opportunity for further projection.
that were usually highly unpleasant At present the H-T-P's major disad-
for him. He is now striving strongly vantages appear to be ; (1) the relative
to orient himself more adequately to lack of objectivity of the methods of
the future. qualitative analysis and interpretation;
(2) the absence of score and response
patterns positively identified as pathog-
In favor of employment of the H-T-P nomic for specific syndromes. The work
appear to be the following points: (1) of validation is continuing. It is hoped
the approach to the appraisal of the total ultimately to be able to support many of
personality is both non-verbal and ver- the qualitative and interpretative points
bal; (2) drawing, a relatively primitive by experimental evidence. The original
method, facilitates expression by sub- tentative manual is being revised and will
jects who are withdrawn or who are of be released soon in monograph form.


University of Texas

INTRODUCTION Descriptions of ocular activity during

Need for tested and verified knowledge inspection of' the Rorschach cards have
concerning perceptual processes for both been presented by Beck^i), Rapaport^*'
theoretical understanding and diagnostic and others. In general, they have been
purposes has recently been emphasized by based either on casual observation of ocu-
Rapaport^'). Systematic investigation of lar activity or on inferences about it
perceptual behavior among normal sub- drawn from experience with different
jects during administration of appropriate kinds of verbal responses to the cards.
diagnostic tests is a step toward this goal. While no quantitative study has been
This report which is based on photo- made, such information is needed for
graphic recording of ocular behavior dur- more thorough understanding of the
ing administration of the Rorschach test theoretical implications of the meanings
is designed to evaluate certain aspects of of Rorschach responses.
that activity. However, the results are
also related to the more general psycho- REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
logical problem of the manner in which Since this study is not concerned with
perception of flat surfaces occurs. the Rorschach as a diagnostic test, studies