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Bobby is a 9th grade student who lives with his mother, older sister, and

sometimes his dad who is active duty in the military. Since Bobby was younger and
attended Kindergarten testing has revealed that Bobby has average/above average
cognitive and academic abilities. However, in his early school years as well as currently,
Bobby has performed poorly in academics. His teachers observe that Bobby chronically
daydreams and is easily distracted by peers. Bobby has been enrolled in special
education resource program for two hours each day focusing on spelling, reading
comprehension, and social skills.

Bobby also struggles with social skills. His mother reports that Bobby has never
been particularly social and even as a young child had little interest in others. When he
initiates contact it is usually with adults and are on topics that are considered to be
odd. Bobby loves astronomy, mathematical equations, numbers, computers, and
computer software. Bobby has recently shown an interest in girls his own age. It seems
his is interested in interacting and forming relationships with them, but he does not
appear to have the social skills required for age-appropriate conversations and
interactions. When attempting conversations with the girls, they generally fail to
respond to his attempts. When the girls refuse, Bobby becomes verbally aggressive.
Bobbys teachers describe him as having poor social skills and to be immature for his
age. Bobby does not work well in groups, and occasionally when he does join a group,
he is often verbally aggressive towards his peers.

It is clear that Bobby struggles with communication, specifically he is not


equipped with the proper techniques on how to properly engage with his classmates. I
decided that Bobbys target behavior would be as follow: Bobby will initiate and
maintain a conversation with a peer on a preferred or non-preferred topic 75% of the
time (3/5 times) in English and Social Studies. Bobby lacks social skill acquisition. In
other words, he lacks the knowledge needed to execute a social skill. The direct
observation for Bobby indicates that thus far he has been unsuccessful in engaging in
conversations with peers, particularly females. Failure to understand how to
appropriately engage in peer conversation to access peer attention is Bobbys struggle.
The key factors that will be the focus of attention in improving Bobbys social
performance will require certain skills. Bobby needs to know how to initiate a
conversation with peers of all genders. He needs to know what is deemed appropriate
and what is inappropriate. Bobby needs to understand that some people may not want
to always talk about topics of his choice. He also needs to be able to relay his feelings
appropriately when he is frustrated or stressed. All of these factors will assist Bobby in
improving his social competence.

Discrepancy Analysis Assessment for Bobby


Inventory of Non-Disabled
Inventory of Bobby Skills That Require Attention
Student

Participates in group Bobby attempts to make Bobby independently initiates


activities. conversation with peers and or responds to peers
gets verbally aggressive. appropriately during
Engages in appropriate social conversation.
interactions with peers and Bobby is immature for his
adults. age. Bobby participates in a
conversation on non-
Discusses preferred and non- He only discussed preferred preferred topics.
preferred topics with peers topics (math, numbers,
appropriately. astronomy, computers, and Bobby engages appropriately
computer software). in conversations with adults.

Bobby typically engages with Bobby discusses feelings of


adults on odd topics. stress and frustration in a
way that works best with the
When he joins in group teacher and him.
activities, he is often verbally
aggressive towards peers. In a group setting, Bobby will
reciprocate a conversation
with peers appropriately (or
with minimal prompts).
Direct Social Skill Assessment for Bobby

Form Context Reciprocity Goal Outcome

Bobby verbally Bobby Bobby will 1. Failure to Unsuccessful


bids to peers attempts to attempt to understand
throughout the engage in initiate the how to
school day. social interaction in a appropriately
interactions clumsy way. engage in
with females in The females peer
the classroom. will snub him. conversation
When this 2. Peer
occurs, Bobby attention
becomes
verbally
aggressive. (No
peer response)
Criteria Points Comments Possible

Clearly written interpretation and analysis


of social skill discrepancy information/data
Well
for case study student
thought out
3 3
and
organized
Clearly written interpretation and analysis
of direct observation social skill assessment
information/data for case study student

Well
thought out
3 3
and
organized

Creation of a clearly written direct


observation social skill assessment form and 3 Present 3
related information
3.

Successful identification of key factors for


attention and manipulation/modification
connected to improving the students social
skills, based on the direct observation social
skill assessment form and related
information

Clear,
concise,
3 and aligned 3
with your
assessment

Accurate spelling and grammar

3 3

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Social Skills Part 2

Bobby, a 9th grader, struggles with social skills. His mother reports that Bobby has never

been particularly social and even as a young child had little interest in others. When he initiates

contact it is usually with adults and are on topics that are considered to be odd. Bobby loves

astronomy, mathematical equations, numbers, computers, and computer software. Bobby has

recently shown an interest in girls his own age. It seems his is interested in interacting and

forming relationships with them, but he does not appear to have the social skills required for

age-appropriate conversations and interactions. When attempting conversations with the girls,

they generally fail to respond to his attempts. When the girls refuse, Bobby becomes verbally

aggressive. Bobbys teachers describe him as having poor social skills and to be immature for

his age. Bobby does not work well in groups, and occasionally when he does join a group, he is

often verbally aggressive towards his peers.

In analyzing Bobbys discrepancy analysis assessment and direct social skill assessment

data, it is clear that Bobby needs an intervention plan that will improve his social performance.

The specification of Bobbys social behavior is as follows: Bobby will initiate and maintain a

conversation with a peer on a preferred or non-preferred topic 75% of the time (3/5 times) in

English and Social Studies.

Recently, Bobby has formed a positive relationship with the para-educator. The para-

educator is someone that he knows and thinks highly of. He actually prefers to work with the

para-educator, which is why the para-educator is the best person to model this behavior. This

can draw Bobbys attention in to the key parts of the social behavior being taught. The para-

educator can demonstrate what it looks like to appropriately communicate with peers on a
preferred and non-preferred topic. I would like the para-educator to be videotaped to ensure

we can watch it with Bobby and he can demonstrate it with the para-educator as well.

Different video models can be shown to Bobby. I would like for him to not only see the

para-educator on video, but I would also like for him to see two peers communicating

appropriately on video. Eventually, we can get Bobby interacting with a peer on video for him to

analyze and learn to self-monitor, self-evaluate, and provide self-reinforcement for goal

attainment. This will include all the types of video modeling for Bobby to visually examine.

The next step would be to role play and practice the behavior strategy being implemented.

After Bobby and the para-educator have worked together on modeling this behavior, I would

like Bobby to choose a female classmate to work with him and the para-educator. The student

must be willing and pre-approved by the teacher in order to ensure success with Bobby. Bobby

will initiate conversation with his peer accompanied by guidance from the para-educator. To

start, the conversation will be on a preferred topic of Bobbys choice. This can take place in the

Resource Room, outside at recess, inside the classroom, or at lunch. Having Bobby choose a

peer will allow him to partake in peer-supported techniques. Social interaction opportunities will

be arranged for the purpose of getting Bobby acquainted to certain situations. If the process is

going well, he has the opportunity to recruit more peers, which in turn will allow him to socially

communicate with them appropriately. He will also, hopefully, gain more friends as well. The

students chosen will have a better understanding of Bobby and his strength and struggles.

Coaching and performance feedback with Bobby should be provided at every single stage of

instruction to ensure he is understanding the social behavior being taught. Bobby needs to

practice proximity to the person he is speaking to, make eye contact, and use an appropriate

tone of voice without verbal aggression. Bobby and the para-educator will practice for a while
so he feels comfortable and confident, while understanding why this strategy will work. Once

these initial goals are achieved, we will focus on perfecting the target social skill. The para-

educator will slowly distance himself/herself away from the interaction while the skill is being

used in a variety of settings and eventually with multiple individuals.

We will then provide Bobby with practice opportunities and rehearsals in a natural setting.

In this case, Bobby will be using the skills taught independently with an individual student as

well as a group of students. I would like for Bobby to use this strategy during Social studies

and English as those are two subjects he is not fond of and his currently performing below

grade level. Bobby will have performed this strategy with his classmate in different settings

prior to this step. The same peer that assisted Bobby along with the para-educator will be his

peer confederate during this process. She would have been familiar with what to expect and

someone Bobby can rely on and look to for assistance/model. Informal feedback and coaching

will be given to Bobby by the para-educator, teacher, and possibly his peer confederate. Bobby

will also discuss how he thinks it went and how he feels about it.

I would also like to include social narratives as a cognitive-based technique with Bobby.

This will help Bobby understand how to communicate in certain social situations. The social

narrative will be about why it is important to properly communicate with peers. Another social

narrative will include a story from the peers point of view and how they might react to Bobby

pre-social skill behavioral plan and post social skill behavioral plan. Bobby can grasp a better

understanding from all different points of view. This will lead itself to social thinking methods.

Bobby will be able to ask himself: how will my behavior affect others? What will happen if I am

verbally aggressive? How will I feel and how will they feel? What will they think of me? Why

should I do this or why shouldnt I do this? This will allow the para-educator to teach Bobby to
recognize the expectations and motives of others, practice self-awareness, observe cues from

others, and understand verbal and non-verbal messages.

Another strategy that we can use with Bobby is the power card. Having the power card will

allow Bobby to communicate on a topic of interest to him, whether it is math, numbers,

computers, astronomy, or computer software.

The final step will be to gradually extend social skill instruction into increasingly less

supported settings with a group of students. From here we will be able to re-evaluate Bobby

and make changes as needed. Bobby will be carrying a travel card with him to each class in

order for feedback to be given on his social behaviors. This evaluation plan will not only allow

for Bobby to self-assess but will allow the para-educator and/or teacher to assess Bobby as

well. I would like for the people involved to sit down to discuss the progress Bobby is making

using these travel cards. If the goal has been reached, then Bobby will earn his reward that is

mutually agreed upon by the teacher and Bobby. This will motivate Bobby to be successful and

to overcome any challenges.

Criteria Comments Points Possible

Clearly written interpretation and analysis of Well summarized,


direct observation data and discrepancy aligned with Part
analysis information 1's analysis 10 10

Clearly described intervention plan for Bobby: --


a) explicit instructional methods (6 points); Video modeling 6 6

Nice use of
b) social skill prompting and coaching performance
methods (6 points); feedback! 6 6
c) social understanding and social problem-
solving methods (6 points); CBT 6 6

d) peer-mediated strategies (6 points); 6 6


e) evaluation plan for intervention (6 points). Travel card 6 6

Accurate spelling and grammar 5 5

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