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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

This chapter presented the introduction, background of the study, theoretical and

conceptual framework, statement of the problem, scope and limitation of the study, significance

of the study, and definition of terms of this research paper.

INTRODUCTION

Universities are under increasing pressure to respond to external agendas, and to re-

invent' themselves to meet the needs of wider society. Public engagement puts universities on

the front foot, demonstrating a proactive approach to: Accountability and transparency, Trust and

license to practice, Relevance, Responsiveness. Every University has different Agenda to give

the best service to their students and employees.

The Sintang Paaralan or much known as Polytechnic University has its own Agenda

which is the PUP Presidents 8 Point agenda. The 8 Point agenda basically the roadmap of the

University. It affects all aspects of the University whether it is the core Academic Services,

Extension Services or Administrative Services. The 8-point agenda is a convergence point of

everyone who are part of the University to achieve a common goal. It serves as a binding element

that forces people to work together and pursue what is perceived to be the "best" for the University

given the current times

The President of the PUP since 2012 Dr. Emmanuel De Guzman, initiated the university

policy known as Presidents 8-Point Agenda wherein all of agendas and improvement involves

for the betterment of the services to academe.

The rationale behind the policy is to keep PUP on its track and balance as the epistemic

community and well-performance academe in the country.


In fact, the Polytechnic University of the Philippines is a coeducational, research

university located at Sta. Mesa, Manila with 25 other branches and campuses in the entire country

that established since October 19, 1904. It is acknowledged by the majority of the Filipinos

particularly by the marginalized students as the Poor Mans University due to its famous

Edukasyong 12 pesos per each academic unit that still remained since 1979. In addition, this

university is performing well in the center stage as one of the prestigious State University due to

their excellence in different fields like academic, non-academic and sports fields.

In that note, all of the staffs, officers, college deans, department heads and the faculty

members should be the catalyst to grant the policys purposes for the will of the PUPians.

However, we cant deny that there are some issues covered while implementing it

especially to the desire of the manpower to do so. The challenges and obstacles are still present

on this execution of this policy.

The researcher would like to assess the level of satisfaction of the faculty member in the

implementation processes of the Presidents 8-Point Agenda in the Polytechnic University of the

Philippines for the purpose for further suggestions, opinions and other forms of discussions to

improve this policy.

The first step involved the analysis of four independent variables suggested in the

literature to be correlated with Faculty members; (1) age (2) Sex (3) Educational Attainment (4)

Length of service.
Theoretical Framework

The researchers of the study used the Agenda Setting Theory (1972) which was

developed by Drs. Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw. This theory was developed on 1968 as

a study purpose on the presidential election known as the Chapel Hill Study (McCombs & Shaw,

1972). Maxwell McCombs introduced his objective to the students of Elon in the field of

communications as a purpose of giving the objective of the media on formulating agenda for public

purposes to affect ones society. He did not tell it just to inform but also to use the agenda setting

theory.

Agenda Setting Theory is also known as the Agenda Setting Function of the Mass Media

states and discusses the influence of information from media in terms of public opinion. According

to the theory, the role of the media is important because it will know and classify the idea of public

and their feelings toward the main issue or the current event (Lindsay Fendt, '11).

Agenda-setting sets the reaction of the people in terms of their consciousness and

awareness about the leading issues introduces by news media. There are two basis assumptions

that support the agenda setting: (1) the media as well as the press cover the exact happenings of

the news. They coat it using filtration and shaping it out to redirect the news into something new;

(2) media can manipulate the focus of the issue as it makes the awareness of the publicity to

cover the important issues than other issues making it more important.

The principles and the concept of the agenda-setting theory can be critical in aspect in

terms on its time frame and the difference between the agenda setting- potential of different

media. This theory is quite suitable enough to know and recognize the objective of the media like

the communication system in politics.


According to Bernard Cohen (1963), even though most of the time, press is not successful

on broadcasting what to think by the public, yet they are successful to make the public able to

understand what theyre going to think about.

Social media is use nowadays to disseminate and promulgate the news by either posting

it or by just clicking on it to share. The 8-point agenda of the PUP was disseminated to every

branch of the PUP including the Quezon City Branch to set and implement what is written in the

agenda of the president. This agenda of the PUP may be a case of just only to say that just

having it and expose but not being implemented or practiced inside.

So in connection to the study, researchers aim to know the satisfaction level of the faculty

members of PUP QC through the analysis of the principles of the Agenda Setting theory in

determining the awareness and concern of the faculty to each of the 8-point agenda by the

President of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines.

The theory will be correlated to the 8-point agenda in terms of knowing the existence of

the implementation and if each of the 8-point agenda is being exercised by the PUP.
Conceptual Framework

Input Process Output


This study will determine the Data Gathering For the faculty
assessment of the respondents
Administration of members to be
level of satisfaction on PUP informed on the
Presidents 8-point Agenda validated Survey
different
Questionnaire perspectives of the
Specifically, it will answer the
Statistical 8-point agenda
following questions:
Treatment of data implemented in the
1. What is the demographic Analysis and University.
profile of the group Interpretation of For them to know
respondents in terms of: what specific
1.1 Age
data changes must be
1.2 Sex made.
1.3 Length of service Evaluate the
1.4 Educational current status of
attainment teaching/education
2. What is the respondents in the University.
level of satisfaction on the Encourage them to
PUP Presidents 8-point engage in more
Agenda in terms of; instructional-
2.1 Extent of related activities.
Implementation Review the
2.2 Reliability institutions 8-point
2.3 Satisfaction agenda as they
3. Is there any significant affect professional
difference on the development
respondents level of activities
satisfaction on the PUP
Presidents 8-point
Agenda

Agenda Setting Theory


by Drs.
Maxwell McCombs and
Donald Shaw (1972)

Feedback

Figure 1

Paradigm of the Study


The paradigm of the study showed the Conceptual Framework of the study which uses

the Input- Process- Output (IPO) model

First, is input, it contained the demographic profile or the description of the respondents

such as age, sex, educational attainment and length of services and the theory under agenda

which is Agenda Setting Theory and theorist which was used to further understand the study. The

input also includes the assessment of the group of respondents on the satisfaction level of the

faculty members in the following variables: extend of Implementation, reliability, and satisfaction.

Also, the significant difference on the respondent's level of satisfaction on the President's 8-point

agenda.

The next is process, it showed the methods used by the researchers in gathering data for

the study. It is consists of the data gathering, administration of validated Survey Questionnaire,

statistical treatment of data and the analysis and interpretation of data.

The last is the output, it is consist of the outcome of the research. The output is to informed

the faculty members on the different perspectives of the 8-point agenda implemented in the

university, to know what specific changes must be made, evaluate the influence of the 8-point

agenda to the current status of the teaching/education in the university, to engage in more

instructional activities, and to review the university's 8-point agenda as they affect the professional

development activities.

Statement of the Problem

The study aims to know the assessment of the satisfaction level of the faculty members to the

PUP President's 8-point agenda. Specifically, this study will answer the following questions:

1. What is the demographic profile of the group respondents in terms of:

1.1 Age
1.2 Sex

1.3 Educational Attainment

1.4 Length of service

2. What is the assessment of the group of respondents on the satisfaction level of the faculty

members to the PUP President's 8-Point Agenda.

2.1 Extent of Implementation

2.2 Reliability

2.3 Satisfaction

3. Is there any significant difference on the respondent's level of satisfaction on the PUP

President's 8-Point Agenda.

Hypothesis

There is no significant relationship between the assessments of the group of respondents

on the satisfaction level to the PUP Presidents 8-point Agenda.

Significance of the Study

This study was concerned with the Satisfaction Level of the Faculty Members on the

President of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines 8-Point Agenda. The study might be

substantial to the following entities:

To the President Through this study, the university President will have knowledge about the

satisfaction level of the faculty on the 8-point agenda and may help in conceiving the Presidents

agenda.

To the University The recommendation of this study may help in formulating the agenda of the

PUP President that may result in the better improvement of the entire organization of PUP.
To the Faculty Members This study may help the faculty members to be more engaged in the

PUP Presidents 8-Point Agenda.

To the Students This study will prove the valuable needs of the students in terms of academic

and non-academic discipline through the improvement and implementation of these agenda. This

will also help them to gain more knowledge, acquire development and attain goals.

To the Future Researchers Through the help of this study, future researchers can use this study

as their reference. The outcome of the study can be utilized as source of perspective for directing

future inquiries about that are identified with the present study.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study was delimited to know the Satisfaction Level of the Faculty Members on the

President of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines 8-Point Agenda. The researchers will

determine the assessment of the respondents level of satisfaction on the existing Polytechnic

University of the Philippines Presidents 8-Point Agenda under the following variables; Pursuing

Academic Excellence through Disciplinary Integrity; Embedding a Culture of Research; Assuring

Transparency and Participatoriness in Giving Rewards and Sanctions; Modernization and

Upgrading of Physical Facilities, Equipment, Library and Campus Development; Re-

conceptualization of Academic Freedom; Institutionalizing Civil Society Engagement and Involved

Extension Service Program; Fiscal Responsibility; and Assessment of the Institutional Processes

and Critical-Rational Review of the Entire Organization.

The target respondents of the research were the Faculty members of the Polytechnic

University of the Philippines, who were the people that will prove the Satisfaction Level of the

Faculty Members on the PUP Presidents 8-Point Agenda.


Definition of Terms

The following terms were defined both functionally and operationally to provide better

understanding on how the following words were used in the study.

Academic Services - Academic Services is responsible for policy and operations relating to

institutional governance, academic organization and governance, committee operations, quality

management and enhancement strategy and processes, research governance, and senior

academic staff appointments.

Agenda In an Institution, Agenda is the roadmap of the University. So it affects all aspects of

the University, whether its your core Academic Services, Extension Services or administrative

Services.

Agenda Setting Theory - Agenda-setting theory is the theory that the mass-news media have a

large influence on audiences by their choice of what stories to consider newsworthy and how

much prominence and space to give them.

Coeducational - Having male and female students being taught together in the same school or

college rather than separately.

College - A college is an educational institution or a constituent part of one. A college may be a

degree-awarding tertiary educational institution, a part of a collegiate or federal university, or an

institution offering vocational education.

Extension - Extension is a term which is open to a wide variety of interpretations. Each extension

agent probably has his own understanding of what extension is. This understanding will be based

on past experience and the particular type of extension service in which the agent is working. In

Education, Extension is an educational opportunity provided by colleges and universities to

people who are not enrolled as regular students.


Faculty - The scholarly staff at colleges or universities, as opposed to the students or support

staff.

Institution Institution is a society or organization having a particular object or common factor,

especially a scientific, educational, or social one.

Invent An act that will make the PUP able to satisfy the needs of wider society.

Length of Service - The number of years the specific Faculty teaching.

University - an educational institution designed for instruction, examination, or both, of students

in many branches of advanced learning, conferring degrees in various faculties, and often

embodying colleges and similar institutions

Satisfaction - A fulfillment of a need or desire.

Poor Mans University PUP has been called Poor Mans University because of its affordable

12 pesos per each academic unit.

Professional Development Activities - Professional development is learning to earn or maintain

professional credentials such as academic degrees to formal coursework, conferences and

informal learning opportunities situated in practice. It has been described as intensive and

collaborative, ideally incorporating an evaluative stage.


Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents a review and related literature and studies. The researchers

conducted an intensive research in the availability of materials related to the study.

The secret of your success is determined by your daily agenda

-John C. Maxwell

The quote above implies that setting things to be done is your queue to be successful.

This is not only pertains to an individual person but it also for a group, institution or even or country.

It is your step to pull out what holds you back to forward.

Agenda and policies were made to ensure the productivity and effectiveness of a group of

people or institution. Agenda is set as a continuous process intending to have changes,

development for the better outcome not only to the people but for the institution. (Shanahan, 2010)

Imposing right goals to accomplish is addressing them to stick what you and your

organization aims for. (McCardell, 2014)

Every institution or organization sets agenda for the effectiveness, development and

improvement for a certain objective to establish a well organize function. Agenda of every

institutions needs to be expose on the people especially students, faculty, administrators etc.

inquiring the goal of the school and one that has been described is Polytechnic University of the

Philippines that seems to have it.


PUPs 8-Point Agenda

1. Pursuing Academic Excellence through Disciplinal Integrity

According to California State University, Academic Excellence is the demonstrated

capacity to perform, achieve, or excel in scholastic activities. Academic excellence has been

identified with achieving high grades and superior performance. But it is more than just making

good grades.

Thus, it is the capacity to perform, accomplish, as well as exceed expectations in

educational exercises. It is been related to accomplishing high evaluations and unrivaled

execution. These are tips on how you can seek academic excellence: Education is a process, it

is set as limitless where you can enjoy it for lifetime. Consider recommendations which can enable

you to accomplish your works and tasks. Choose educational programs that is fit to your major.

Comprehension is a must, you can utilize it by reading in the library, magazines, etc. Build your

self-esteem, courage yourself to aim and dream big, initiate capabilities. Academic Excellence is

also by making evaluations, it is the greatest improvement of yourself by limits and abilities

possess by you. Work the things you expect and choose to do that will surely reflect to your

integrity and behavior.

Disciplinal Integrity will fall under the quality of being honest and having strong moral

principles. It is generally to a personal choice of quality fairness that we all aspire to.

According to Institutional Integrity by Satori , The institutional level, integrity implies an

organization that defines, and acts within a strong code of ethical conduct and positive values,

adopts the tolerance of attitudes, actions and activities by people under it. The concept is strongly

interlinked with the principle of transparency, implying openness, communication and

accountability.
As far as the organization and institution are concerned, the key aspect is that an integrity-

based organization performs it task in line with its intended purpose. Also, the behavior of an

individual is important for the consistency of the values and goals that are being followed. The

organization and its associates takes all necessary step to do their work in compliance with that

values. (Grebe & Woermann, 2011)

2. Embedding a Culture of Research

The many, often subtle 'point-sized' rules and customs of research activity picked up and

repeated by organizational members until their actions 'blend into a collective attitude. Within this

community the accepted research culture - even if it is unconsciously accepted by many - defines

how each individual should think, act and make decisions about research." (Hauter 1993)

The PUP should pushed their effort to make the students participate and contribute in

accordance to their efforts. That is why, the University of the Philippines is well-known in science

and technology because they very interested in the field of research, in somehow, they invented

things and conceptualized ideas in heed to the own criteria as the part of the study.

Schein (1985) identifies research culture with refers to the organization culture literature

through six general meanings of culture in the organization.

The six general meaning intended are:

1.) Observed behavioral regularities when people engage in research, such as language and the

rituals used.

2.) The norms that evolve in research groups or research environments.

3.) The philosophy that guides an organization's policy towards research.


4.) The dominant research related values espoused by an organization such as applied focus or

leadership in qualitative research.

5.) The rules of the game for getting along with research in the organization. "the ropes that a

newcomer must learn in order to become accepted researcher.

6. The feeling or climate about research that is conveyed in an organization by the physical and

administrative facilities as well as the way in which researchers in the organization interact with

others.

PUP set their agenda through transforming the university into one of the research

institutes in the country. It is important to plat the environment into the appropriate procedures,

so that the students and the faculty members having their freedom and well-disciplined through

their research study, especially the basics, attitudes and norms of such research activity.

In 1992 a Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) was carried out in the United Kingdom.

A reasonably large body of literature has since reported on the variables that appear to correlate

with research productivity. RAE was an evaluation of the quality of research across various

academic departments, in a wide range of academic institutions. According to Johnston (1994)

the assessments were done by a number of different panels (60 in 1992) which used differing

criteria. Most, however, are reported by Johnston, as using quality of published output as the

major indicator. While productivity measured as publications is not a direct parallel with presence

of a research culture, and is in fact debated as a valid criterion of research quality, the Research

Culture 5 literature on the RAE does give some insight into the variables that may constrain the

emergence of research culture.

According to Dr. Robin Hill (1979) "Research, to put it simply, involves 'finding out.' If this

is done in advance of future action, there are obvious advantages... ...we might take a simple

example. The youth who is now a paraplegic in hospital is there because he neglected to do some
elementary research. He would not have suffered a broken neck had he searched the river for

rocks before he dived in. Maybe he did look, cursorily. But his investigations would have had to

have been sufficiently thorough to discover the submerged rocks as well as the visible ones,

especially at the point where he dived. Otherwise he could be said to have generalized from an

unrepresentative sample (the visible rocks)."

This quotation sets the scene for this paper. It is an attempt to "look before you leap" into

the actions of setting up programs, institutions and resources to establish and sustain a research

oriented environment, or research presence, in an organization that has not traditionally been

involved in research. Much of the salient literature on the topic comes from Nursing Research and

the Society of Research Administrators, with some additional input from Higher Education

research literature.PUP is one the well-known state universities in the Philippines just because of

their academe that promotes the culture of research, their ideas, concepts, materializations, and

other mediums that heeds the social problem of the country through their research. Their research

represents the concepts, the voice of the youth in amidst to the social issues, which is why they

keep on their efforts to do so.

Andrew Cheetham of the University of Western Sydney (UWS), Australia, further notes,

The research culture is the structure that gives [research behavior] significance and that allows

us to understand and evaluate the research activity.3 So, an institutions culture of research is

not simply a group of scholars who see the importance of research. A culture of research provides

a supportive context in which research is uniformly expected, discussed, produced, and valued.

Came back from the scribes of history, there are many civilizations that luring their

advancement in science and other disciplines, just because of research. They dont think as the

part of being citizen of that certain community but they value research as the one that can change

anything. Many countries in the ancient period have turned their status into being civilized state

because of the advancement and research. In the Philippines, PUP is one of it, by promoting the
essence of research in which they are capable to find not just the inquiry but that inquiry that can

turn into sometime which can change in a sudden and create an impact.

While defining a culture of research may be difficult, it is no challenge to recognize the

increasing importance of having one. Faculty at major research institutions have traditionally been

expected to maintain scholarly activities, including conducting research and publishing scholarly

works. But it is no secret that, in recent decades, faculty at comprehensive and teaching

universities have also come under pressure to research and publish. This pressure continues

today. Institutions and units that have traditionally emphasized effective faculty contact with

students as a criterion for success are looking to develop cultures of research and increase faculty

research production. (Price, T.M 2009)

In this type of scenario of developing the certain university as one of the best research in

the country, it takes time and efforts especially from the faculty member. The faculty has the big

role in leading the students in their efforts of their contributions not just for the university, but for

the country. So, the role of the faculty has the bigger in developing through this.

3. Assuring Transparency and Participatoriness in Giving Rewards and Sanctions

Transparency is about sharing all the information the receiver wants or needs, and not just

the information that the sender is willing to share. It is about putting all facts on the table, even

when some of them are uncomfortable. It is about being honest and open about what actions are

taken, by whom and on what grounds. It is about enabling people to have conversations where

questions can be asked and answered in open and honest ways, creating mutual understanding.

It is about removing any barriers that hinder people from accessing the information they could

need to be better at their jobs. It is about making people and their skills, knowledge and ideas

visible and accessible to all their colleagues. (Berg Oscar, 2011)


Typical symptoms of lack of transparency are sub-optimization, duplicate work, bad decision-

making and inability to innovate. These things dont just impact the bottom line results negatively

-- they also hamper an organizations ability to compete and survive in the long haul.

According to Enterprise Collaboration, Transparency will fall by making the information

actionable. With that, the ability to act on information is what often separates successful

companies from those less successful. Yet, many people dont because they distrust information,

often because they cannot confirm its accuracy, freshness or completeness.

A study by AIIM in 2009 concluded that "52% of organizations have 'little or no confidence'

that their electronic information is 'accurate, accessible, and trusthworthy'".

To trust information, people need to know who provided a piece of information and when.

Information systems need to provide transparency by making it possible to trace a piece of

information back to its author. By doing so, they also provide an opportunity for the user to contact

the author directly to confirm the quality of the information, but also to ask for any additional

information that is needed to act upon it. The information becomes more trustworthy and thus

also actionable.

The work being done at different organizational units, teams or individuals is hidden from other

organizational units, teams and individuals. So are ideas, knowledge, expertise, talent, and --

most importantly risk.

Perhaps the most important aspect of transparency is that it helps to build interpersonal

trust, something which is absolutely essential for getting people to share and collaborate with

each other. (Berg Oscar, 2011)

If organizations are to succeed in improving their responsiveness, productivity and ability to

innovate, they need make full use of its main assets -- information and people -- wherever it may
reside. They cant afford to have their employees working with blinders on. The first step to avoid

such a situation is to make sure that both people and information are accessible and discoverable

across organizations, locations and systems. Organizations dont need to tear down the silos;

they just need to make them more transparent. If people are to build a fabric of trust that stretches

beyond teams and locations and makes sharing and collaboration happen throughout the

enterprise, they must first be able to see and discover each other.

Same as, Rewards and sanctions. Reward are being given to those sustained effort, high

achievement and excellent standards of work or behavior. (Berg Oscar, 2011)

4. Modernization and Upgrading of Physical Facilities, Equipment, Library and

Campus Developments

Modernization and Upgrading of Physical Facilities, Equipment, Library and Campus

Development is fourth in the Polytechnic University of the Philippines President 8-Point Agenda.

Under this, the PUP wants to execute the following: Starting up an open-shelves library system

to complement an upgraded e-Library; Upgrading physical facilities and laboratory build and

refurbish classrooms and new facilities for students, faculty and staff; state-of-the-art Information

Communication Technology; and Clean environment/Proper waste disposal management

system.

Modernization is define as the process in which most recent methods, ideas, equipment

is put into something more modern (Cambridge Dictionary), it is the act of remodeling something

into much modern needs (English Oxford Dictionary) while upgrading means to raise or lift

something into a higher grade or standard (Free Dictionary by Farlex), it also means enhancement

of the refinement of the condition or status (Collins Dictionary). Modernization and upgrading of
school facilities means to remodel, enhance, raise or put the facilities into a more modern or

higher standard that will suit the needs of the modern learning.

In maintaining the efficiency of the school facilities, there is a non-ending need for

modernization. It is more than creating new infrastructure for technology but it is also to provide

adequate resources in educating the students of twenty-first century. Upgrading and

modernization of the school facilities is a challenge for the university because of the new

technologies that are progressively integrated into programs of instructions. The university should

have the ability to finance sufficiently in the investment of the equipment, infrastructures and to

support the new technologies but, this act will have good effect to the instructors and students.

According Jeffery A. Lackney, an effective school facility is impressible to the changes in

programs of educational delivery and at least should give its student an environment that is

relaxing, secure, certain, accessible, well illuminated, well ventilated, and aesthetically pleasing.

A school facility is not just a passive container of the educational process but it is an essential

part of the state of learning. It contribute to the place experience of students, educators and

community members.

A review from Earthman and Lemasters (1996, 1998) report that there is a link between

the score of the students and quality of their school building, the example of this is the study of

the researchers on Georgias primary school in which they found out that the fourth-grade

students score in non-modernized building in basic skill assessment is lower than the students in

the modernized buildings (Plumley 1978).

Jago and Tanner (1999), also found a correlation between how old the buildings are and

the achievements and behavior of the students.


A relationship between the performance of the students and new facilities and enhanced

facilities and higher math scores is found by Maxwell (1999). She also found out the lower

performance of the students during the renovation of the facilities because the students got

interrupted by it.

Lewis (2000) attempted to determine the independent outcome of school quality in an

investigation of test scores from 139 schools in Milwaukee. Lewis found out that good school

facilities had a vital effect on learning of the students.

Stricherz (2000) notes that students failure or slow progress in accomplishment has

connection with inadequate school buildings but proposes that there is no hard proof to prove that

student performance rises when facilities improve well beyond the standard.

Poor repaired schools may contribute to educational imbalance since insufficient school

facilities disproportionately serve low-income and minority students (Filardo et al., 2006).

Their reviews showed that the school facility like school building has an impact in the

students performance but as Stricherz (2000) suggest, there is no hard proof that improved

facilities had risen the students performances.

5. Reconceptualization of Academic Freedom

Re-conceptualization of Academic Freedom as part of the PUP Presidents 8-point agenda

discusses the institutionalize student and faculty government and publication, review of student

and faculty development programs, allowing students to participate in knowledge production,

creation of venues for sectoral involvement in decision making, expansion of scholarship and

exchange programs discusses the improvement and development of the engagement of both

faculty members and students in line with academic terms. Where re-conceptualization is the

process of improving and developing new concept for a purpose (Your Dictionary). In accordance
with the Philippine Constitution Article XIV section 5(2) which stated that academic freedom shall

be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning which means it shall be practice in all universities

and colleges. According to The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, academic freedom is about

teachers and students are free to collaborate and be involve in terms of teaching, study and

sharing of knowledge through discussions and research without interference from institutions

policy or from the law which have basic elements among students that has something to do with

their freedom of expressing their own opinions and among teachers that relates on their concerns.

Cary Nelson (2010) in hes blog post Defining Academic Freedom to tell what academic

freedom does do are the following:

1. Academic Freedom defines as the involvement of both students and faculty members in

an academic or knowledgeable discussions without wall or restrictions

2. Academic Freedom forms the right of the faculty members to be true in terms of

educational philosophy and knowledgeable commitments. Serving the public as well as

preserving quality of education and intellectual integrity

3. Academic Freedom in terms of teaching defines as both students and faculty members

can compare and create differences between subjects in a course and opinion from

others.

4. Academic Freedom establishes the freedom in any forms of expression of both faculty

members and students including the point of view without restrictions, unless the way of

expression harms the right of the others.

5. Academic Freedom to both faculty members and students is having the right to study and

choose what topic the want to do a research and also giving conclusions based on their

findings to their research even though it does not prevent from judgment in terms of its

sound. Also, universities protects the research findings to be use by others.


6. Academic Freedom religion, politics and any philosophical beliefs from any of the people

in public cannot be imposed on student or faculty.

7. Academic Freedom means both students and faculty can demand an appeal to their rights

which have been violated.

8. Academic Freedom gives security for the faculty and students in terms of punishment for

contradicting the policies of the administration or suggested policies.

9. Academic Freedom means having the rights to examine and test the views of one another

(both faculty member and student) but it doesnt mean that they can take a revenge or

taking advantage to make them hard to prove their views.

10. Academic Freedom also secure the authority of the faculty in giving grades to the students

with a basis, not only just giving unfair grades. In general, both individual (faculty members

and students) and institutional right to keep the academic standards are included in the

academic freedom.

11. Academic Freedom is giving independence to the faculty members on how to teach the

course outline given to them.

12. Academic Freedom is providing the rights of the faculty member to be involve in the due

process such as before anyone from the administration committee, faculty member will be

heard first about the serious charges. Also, having the rights of the faculty to prove himself

by giving counter-proof, meet the one who accuse, and hire a lawyer who would protect

his or her rights.

The points stated above are the following that American Association of University

Professors (AAUP) mostly used since 1915 as a source of primary principles, responsibilities

and rights of the faculty members as well as the rights of the students.

But even though many are practicing the academic freedom in some institutions

(Universities and Colleges) there are still issues that needs development and improvement
such cases of restrictions on academic freedom not just in Philippines but also in countries

like United States, and in Europe. (Simbulan, R., 2011).

6. Institutionalizing Civil Society Engagement and Involved Extension Service

Program

Institutionalizing Civil Society Engagement and Involved Extension Service Program as

one of the Presidents 8-point agenda tackles about engaging social issues in both discourse

and practice, embedding a good social conscience in the sectors of PUP, expanding extension

and community involvement, expanding academic and institutional linkages, redefining our

involvement in LGUs and their communities. Civil society is in the state and community which

its concept are composed of the sets of voluntary actions of a group or associations for public

welfare or purpose. Civil society is also known as the third sector of the society which is

composed of government and non-government organizations, and also business sectors as

form of concerned society doing a change for modern society (Civil Society. United Nations.

Retrieved (Talk of A Civil Society (2001, July 5) BBC World Service)

Institution of higher education also complies with the Community Extension Service Unit which

its objective is to establish and offer opportunities for the students and others by implementing

programs and activities like outreach which is the role of the Student Affairs and Community

Services Office that follows the three functions of the Higher Education, instruction and research

with the outreach program.

According to Batangas State University, extension service is instructed to higher education as

an important role of universities and colleges for the development and improvement of the

community with instruction, research and production


7. Fiscal Responsibility

According to Northwestern University, Fiscal responsibilities associated with the

administration of grants and contracts reside with the department, center, or institute that

administers the award. Various circumstances may arise with the fiscal status of sponsored

awards, and the following policy addresses the required procedures to be followed in the noted

instances: over expenditures, cost transfers, audit disallowances, withholding of final payment,

bankruptcy of the sponsor, advance payments, Industry Clinical Trial appropriations, and funding

regarding Pre-Spending, Out Year awards and multiple projects.

Fiscal responsibility is very important in one University specially in PUP, Involving the Publics

of PUP in funds management, Prudent allocation of funds. Considering this responsibility will help

the University avoid unnecessary bankruptcy, over expenditure and so on.

SPG U-M STANDARD PRACTICE GUIDE of University of Michigan states that Four main

elements should exist in all University units that manage their own finances. The University

requires these elements for all units (and at all levels) that control their own finances. If a unit has

a unique DeptID, this policy is applicable. Major operating units, sponsoring agencies, donors,

and other internal or external agencies may impose additional requirements. The minimum

requirements are the following: Preparation of a budget plan (including anticipated revenues and

expenditures), Processing and Approving Financial Transactions, Financial Review, Internal

Controls and Management Responsibilities.

Fiscal responsibilities are distributed throughout the PUP, which has a large and highly

decentralized environment. The organization structure, in particular the administrative structure,

establishes many of the roles and responsibilities for financial management.

According to doctors in economics from the University of Braslia (SELENE; RICARDO, 2003,

p. 5): Although innovative and adapted to local needs, the Fiscal responsibility law of Brazil sought
inspiration also in recent international experience. Throughout the Decade of 90, some countries

have undertaken successful initiatives in order to prevent the emergence of large public deficits

and excessive levels of debt. Highlights, in this respect, the lessons provided by the experiences

of the European Economic Community (1992), of the Budget Enforcement Act of the United

States (1990) and Fiscal Responsibility Act of New Zealand's (1994). Are still very recent

initiatives; It can be said that in the years 90, the world began to wake up to fiscal responsibility.

Same on the PUP Fiscal responsibility is very important to prevent excessive levels of debts

that may occur, specially the kind of our university that we dont that much budget because of our

little amount of tuition fee.

According to Northwestern University, The University reserves the right to seek incremental

or total funding in advance, or to decline a project if it believes the financial status of the sponsor

is in doubt or if the sponsor is unknown to the University. If the sponsor is unwilling to provide a

sufficient advance or incremental funding, the Office for Sponsored Research (OSR)may require

that the department, school, or center to provide an at risk guarantee.

8. Assessment of the Institutional Processes and Critical-Rational Review of the Entire

Organization

The Assessment of the Institutional Processes and Critical-Rational review of the Entire

Organization of the PUP Presidents 8-Point Agenda involve the following: Review of current

organizational structures, personnel positions and qualifications, status of the faculty (academic

qualifications, research involvement and specialization)

According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, assessment means the act of making or giving

judgment into something. Institutional means having to with, formulated by or directed by an

institution (Business Dictionary), it is pertaining to the institutes or principles, especially of

jurisprudence (Dictionary.com). Process as define by English Oxford Living Dictionary and


The Critical Thinking Community gives meaning to critical thinking as a way of reasoning

about problems, subject, or content in which the thinker uses his or her skills in analyzing,

assessing, and reorganizing it. It is a self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-

corrective thinking. Critical thinking needs effective communication and problem-solving abilities.

It is carefully thinking about an issue or matters without being influenced with your own feelings

or opinions (Cambridge Dictionary).

Critical thinking, according to Ennis (1985) is reflective and reasonable thinking that is

focused on deciding what to believe or do. Lipman (1988) says that it is a talented way and

responsible thinking that facilitates good judgment because it 1) relies upon criteria, 2) is self-

correcting, and 3) is sensitive to context,According to Facione (1999) critical thinking is a

consciously judgment that results in the interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as

well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, or conceptual

considerations upon which that judgment is based and it is a thinking that is goal-directed and

purposive, the goal of the critical thinking is to form a judgment where the thinking itself meets

standards of adequacy and accuracy (Bailin et al., 1999b).

According to Kadie Regan (2015), critical thinking have better effects on the decision

making and reasoning. In decision making, critical thinking will make you use more of your

analytical and considered basis than your intuitions or guesswork decisions and this will result in

making better decisions. Being a critical thinker, you will become a more logical or rational and

unbiased problem solver and you will learn the two types of reasoning, the inductive and

deductive, and which is appropriate to use over one another. Making decisions without your

emotions and instincts affects the problem solving.


Overall, critical thinking means making reasonable judgments that are well-thought out

from the evidences presented. It is an attitude of criticizing the arguments and conclusion with

being influenced by your own emotions and feelings.

Polytechnic University of the Philippines were assessing its institutional process and has

a critical-rational review of the entire organization to make sure that the university will achieve its

goal for the betterment of the university.

Appraisal and critical thinking is very essential in reviewing the institutional processes of

the entire organization because it will ensure us the reliability of the recruited personnel and the

entire organization.

By evaluating the university institutional processes without allowing personal emotions

and feelings and just by giving reasonable conclusions through carefully thinking about the ideas,

issues and giving unbiased judgment, the university will have accurate review about its policies

and would formulate better one or make better decisions.

Synthesis

The reviewed literatures and studies, provides a significant background of the study which

practically guided the researchers in conducting this study. The researchers believed that this

study is unique and beneficial to the future researchers.

All the above review of related literature and studies have been of great importance in this

study as they served as the bases of comparison of findings and recommendations.

The literatures cited by the researchers are related to the present study. Other literatures

cited in the study and internet sources.


Chapter III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In this chapter, it defines and presents how data was gathered by research design,

employing specified method of the research, instruments will be use and statistical method in

addition, as mentioned.

RESEARCH DESIGN

The study used the Descriptive Method for it is the easiest way to gather data. Survey is

used to give accurate interpretation of the subject under study. Its objectives are to present facts,

which are significantly needed n the comprehensive and depth study of the study of the analysis

of an individual, institution, group or community.

Through the use of objective survey, it presents a choice of answer in such way that the

respondent has. To mark the answer which is most reflective of his response, the data gathered

will be tallied, tabulated and interpreted.

RESEARCH METHOD USED

This research study used the Quantitative method to determine, analyze and evaluate

the data which pertained to the satisfaction level among faculty members to the 8-Point Agenda

in Polytechnic University of the Philippines. As a qualitative study,

The researchers applied the descriptive-evaluation method to achieve the aim of this study, The

source of the data will come from a researcher-made questionnaire that is based on PUP
Presidents 8-Point Agenda which will be given to the respondents to determine the satisfaction

level of the faculty member.

The researchers also used survey method in the term of informal interviews and questionnaires

to achieve the desired answer to each problems

Description of the Respondents

The respondents of this study were the all faculty members of Polytechnic University of

the Philippines Quezon City Branch. The source of the data will come from a researcher-made

questionnaire that is based on PUP Presidents 8-Point Agenda which will be given to the

respondents. Faculty members involves the full-time and part-time faculty. Full-time faculty were

the professors who can be permanent and can hold an administrative position, Part-time

professors are teaching staffs who has a position or employed through a contract of service or a

job order whose work is part-time. While administrative staffs or clerk office staff are staff can be

administrative secretary of an organization doing the duties of the clerical works or job such as

organizing files and papers, listing and making a schedules for the organization.

The Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City branch is composed of 83

Faculty members including the administrative staffs. 15 of them are regular faculty members, 44

are part-time faculty, 3 are the new faculty and 20 are part of the administrative staffs.

Research Instrument

The researchers used checklist type of questionnaire in gathering data for this study/ The

researchers used this type of questionnaire to lessen the time consumed, and to minimized the
effort in answering the questions. The respondents are asked to answer the survey questionnaires

about the satisfaction among faculty members to the PUPs 8-Point Agenda.

8-Point Agenda has been tackled the following: Pursuing Academic Excellence through

Disciplinal Integrity, Embedding a Culture of Research, Assuring Transparency and

Participatoriness in Giving Rewards and Sanctions, Modernization and Upgrading of Physical

Facilities, Equipment, Library and Campus Development, Reconceptualization of Academic

Freedom, Institutionalizing Civil Society Engagement and Involved, Extension Service Program,

Fiscal Responsibility, and the Assessment of the Institutional Processes and Critical-Rational

Review of the Entire Organization.

Each statement under each items were responding to a Five-Point Likert equivalents

where the respondents could choose their satisfaction level to the Presidents 8-Point Agenda.

STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA

The profile of the respondents will be taken, according to age, sex, educational attainment

and length of service. To be able to get the description of the profile of the respondents, the data

coming from each item mentioned above will be placed in tabular form with the indicated

percentage as well as the frequency. This will show the predominant characteristics of the faculty

members of Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City Branch

The following statistical tools were used in the treatment of data for analyzing and interpretation.

Frequency Percentage

P Percentage, The percentage and frequency distribution used to classify the respondents

according to the variable such as demographic profile. It is computed by dividing the actual

number of respondents to the number of respondents who participated in the survey.


P = f x 100

Wherein:

f - Frequency

n - Total no. of respondents

100 - Constant

Weighted mean

It is used to compute the average values, and it is denoted by the symbol for population

mean.

It follows the formula:

= fx

Wherein:

x the mean

n no. of respondents
fx Sum of the scores

Slovins Formula to determine the sample population.

n= N

1 + NE 2

Where:

n number of samples

N total population

E margin of error

ANOVA (One Way) Analysis of Variance

It refers to the analysis of variance and is a statistical procedure used to test the degree

to which to or more groups vary or differ in an experiment.