You are on page 1of 16

PTCL Internship Report

6 WEEKS INTERSHIP REPORT

Prepared By

Muhammad Shehzad Nadeem, Foundation University Rawalpindi Campus

1
PTCL Internship Report

Table of Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................................... 3


BACKGROUND ...................................................................................................................................... 4
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 5
ASSIGNEMTS ......................................................................................................................................... 6
1. AMPS.................................................................................................................................................... 6
2. GSM ...................................................................................................................................................... 6
3. UMTS ................................................................................................................................................... 8
4. LTE ....................................................................................................................................................... 9
5. RSU82 ................................................................................................................................................. 11
6. SDH .................................................................................................................................................... 11
7. PDH .................................................................................................................................................... 11
8 Switching ............................................................................................................................................ 12
9 Access Network .................................................................................................................................. 12
10 Operation and Maintenance (O&M) .................................................................................................. 12
SWOT ( STRENGTH WEAKNESS OPPORTUNITES & THREATS ) ANALYSIS OF PTCL ............. 13
STRENGTH................................................................................................................................................ 13
WEAKNESSES ...................................................................................................................................... 14
OPPORTUNITIES .................................................................................................................................. 15
THREATS .............................................................................................................................................. 16

2
PTCL Internship Report

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

I Muhammad Shehzad Nadeem recent graduate of Foundation University


Islamabad in Bachelors in Telecommunication Engineering. I applied for 6 Weeks
internship at PTCL and was called on for Interview and offered Internship at PTCL
office Satellite Town Rawalpindi under following departments.

Two Weeks under Manager Ops Switching, Islamabad


One Week under Manager Transport Network Ops, Attock/ Taxila
One Week under Manager Wireless BSS Ops , North Islamabad
One Week under Manager Power Plant , Rawalpindi
One Week under Manager Transit North , Islamabad

This report comprises of things that I learned during internship. This report has
been made as mentioned in internship letter for the issuance of Completion
Certificate.

3
PTCL Internship Report

BACKGROUND

PTCL came into being in 1947 following independence of Pakistan. First it


provided Telephone and Telegraph services. Passage of time PTCL introduced new
technologies to provide efficient telephony services and expanded it network
across Pakistan. New exchanges were installed to provide quality services and As
advancements were made in telecommunications, Internet services made PTCL
flourished the market. PTCL provides internet service to about 1.3 million people
and also introduced wireless broadband services like EVO- Wingle. Also
introduced V-fone, Smart TV and reasonable international landline services. As
demand of digital services increased , PTCL made its entry in cellular mobile
networks by forming new subsidiaries UFONE, which hold large subscriber base.

4
PTCL Internship Report

INTRODUCTION

Initially PTCL network consisted of exchanges connected through copper wire.


The copper wire provided low data rate, noisy and delay time & low capacity. The
switches were mechanical and manually operated. These exchanges and switches
later evolved to new technology which provided better services. The inception of
digital exchanges and switches flourished the telecom industry, by providing good
quality services. The hardware is getting smaller in size and software are used to
provide services. Value added services are being also offered. Now a day's copper
wire is becoming obsolete with the introduction of optical fiber. The digital
exchanges and switches are connected with each other with optical fiber. Only the
user is connected to exchange with copper wire, which results in slow data rate
and network congestion. PTCL provides wireless services to PTCL consumers
through BTS (Base Transceiver Station). Which is high speed employed by
CDMA 2000 technology.

5
PTCL Internship Report

ASSIGNEMTS
My daily work at different departments in PTCL is discussed in this part of the
report. First I started internship in Wireless Department where I learned about
EVO wireless, which deals with the maintenance & troubleshooting of Wireless
services of PTCL. BTS outages, alerts, coordination with multiple vendors. In
Switching Department, I learned about Digital Exchanges, soft switches Evolution
of PTCL Network, Operation & Maintenance. In Transport Department I learned
about PDH & SDH, optical fiber. In transit department I learned about High
Capacity Transit Exchange. My assignments at various departments is mentioned
below.

1. AMPS
Advanced Mobile Phone System AMPS was first generation Network
implemented using FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access). In which
different users are allotted different frequencies. It mainly supported voice
services. It required considerable bandwidth to operate and it had less security,
eavesdrop was very easy. Bandwidth was limited to 30 Khz.

2. GSM
GSM , Global System for Mobile is Second generation digital Cellular Network
based on TDMA Time division Multiplexing aimed to provide voice calls and
SMS. GSM standard has been used widely till today. It also provides Internet,
access to PSTN. The architecture of GSM is shown below. GSM employed
Gaussian Wave Division Multiplexing. The band width of GSM is 200 Khz.

6
PTCL Internship Report

As a passage of time GSM further evolved into GPRS (General Packet Radio
Service) which provided 9.6 KBits/s. GPRS networks evolved to 2.75 EDGE. It is
a digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates on
GSM networks. Used for packet switched network for internet applications. The
higher data rates are achieved by 8PSK modulation scheme at aDrates are
enhanced to 400 Kbit/s more speed and capacity EDGE can use existing GSM
network, hence not requiring new hardware and software design which reduces
cost.Improved quality of service is achieved by enhanced data rate and capacity
which decreases the response time for data services. EDGE can also provide an
evolutionary migration path from GPRS to UMTS by implementing now the
changes in modulation that will be necessary for implementing UMTS later. It can
handle the services of 3rd generation mobile phone networks.

7
PTCL Internship Report

3. UMTS
Universal Mobile telecommunication System is Third generation mobile system
employing Code division Multiplexing Access. In which all users are given same
time , frequency and divided on the basis of unique code. It provides access to high
speed internet and other features. It has larger bandwidth as compared to GSM.

8
PTCL Internship Report

4. LTE

Long Term Evloution is fourth generation mobile network employs Orthogonal


Frequency division Multiplexing providing high Speed services. LTE (Long-
Term Evolution, commonly marketed as 4G LTE) is a standard
for wireless communication of high-speed data for mobile phones and data
terminals. It is based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA network technologies,
increasing the capacity and speed using a different radio interface together with
core network improvements. The standard is developed by the (3rd Generation

9
PTCL Internship Report
Partnership Project) and is specified in its Release 8 document series, with minor
enhancements described in Release 9.

LTE is the natural upgrade path for carriers with both GSM/UMTS networks
and CDMA2000 networks. The different LTE frequencies and bands used in
different countries will mean that only multi-band phones will be able to use LTE
in all countries where it is supported.

10
PTCL Internship Report
5. RSU82
RSU82 is ZTE equipment installed in BTS (Base Transceiver Substation)
implements radio transmission in covered area, controlling radio channels and
realizing communication with BSC/RNC/LTE CN.

6. SDH

SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) is a standard technology for synchronous


data transmission on optical media. It is the international equivalent
of Synchronous Optical Network. Both technologies provide faster and less
expensive network interconnection than traditional PDH (Plesiochronous Digital
Hierarchy) equipment.

SDH uses the following Synchronous Transport Modules (STM) and rates: STM-1
(155 megabits per second), STM-4 (622 Mbps), STM-16 (2.5 gigabits per second),
and STM-64 (10 Gbps).

7. PDH

The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) is a technology used


in telecommunications networks to transport large quantities of data over digital
transport equipment such as fibre optic and microwave radio systems. The
term plesiochronous is derived from Greek plsios, meaning near, and chronos,
time, and refers to the fact that PDH networks run in a state where different parts
of the network are nearly, but not quite perfectly, synchronized.

11
PTCL Internship Report
8 Switching

A telephone exchange is a telecommunication system used in


the PSTN or in large enterprises. An exchange consists of electronic
components and in older systems also human operators that interconnect
(switch) telephone subscriber lines or virtual circuits of digital systems to
establish telephone calls between subscribers.

9 Access Network

An access network is the part of a telecommunications network which connects


subscribers to their immediate service provider. It is contrasted with the core
network, (for example the Network Switching Subsystem in GSM) which connects
local providers to each other. The access network may be further divided between
feeder plant or distribution network, and drop plant or edge network.

10 Operation and Maintenance (O&M)

Operation Maintenance Center (OMC) is used to monitor and maintain the


performance of each Mobile Station (MS), Base Station (BS), Base Station
Controller (BSC) and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) within a GSM system. The
OMC has three main functions which are:

1. To maintain all telecommunications hardware and network operations with a


particular market.
2. Manage all charging and billing procedures.
3. Manage all mobile equipment in the system.

12
PTCL Internship Report
The OMC is dedicated to each of these tasks and has provisions for adjusting all
base station parameters and billing procedures, as well as for providing system
operators with the ability to determine the performance and integrity of each piece
of subscriber equipment in the system.

SWOT ( STRENGTH WEAKNESS OPPORTUNITES & THREATS )


ANALYSIS OF PTCL

STRENGTH
The PTCL is the only telecom company providing landline services to every
Pakistani.
The broadband users are more than 1.3 million, which makes most of the
revenue.
Strong international brand names.
Strong financial position
Competent and Skillful Human Resources in few specialized fields.
PTCL is offering multiple services which includes Telephone, Internet and
T.V.
PTCL can be used as a backup network if the mobile networks are down due
to any reason.
PTCL maintain the records of customers in an organize way with the
principle of privacy.
Reasonable Tariffs, and because of PTCL huge market share and creating
competitive environment which permits other Internet service provider to
low price internet service.

13
PTCL Internship Report

WEAKNESSES

Poor quality of service, as technology is increasing new applications on


internet require larger bandwidth and high speed. Also the traffic on internet
is increasing, frequent fiber cut, no Fiber to the home/User (FTTH)
technology .
Large network is difficult to be upgraded. Other companies are taking
advantage of this weakness.
Poor customer service
Lack of technical staff in DSL technical support.
Poor organizational structure.
No clear strategic direction.
No research and development programs.
Functional units are not well organized.
Weak marketing of new services.
Bad debts due to non-payments of bills.
Low revenue per user.
Political intervention in decision making.

14
PTCL Internship Report
OPPORTUNITIES

PTCL should focus on new value added services.


Up gradation of technology to flourish the industry.
Re-structuring of organizational hierarchy (Proper planning and
implementation is required, to Improve overall services).
Adopt latest technologies.
Making technology accessible to all (e.g. broadband).
Hire competent marketers and adopt aggressive marketing that is required to
promote offered services and give tough time to competitors.
Improvement in customer services.
Joint ventures with other telecommunication companies for introducing new
services.
Hire technical staff in specific areas e.g. for DSL issues in order to increase
customer satisfaction

15
PTCL Internship Report
THREATS

New players in the industry.


Inconsistent and Adhoc decisions by Company management.
Security and fraud issues.
Cybercrimes percentage is increasing.
Political instability.
Inflation in the country, may increase the cost of services which will finally
transferred to customers.
Rapid raise in Government taxes.
Recession in economy.
Strong competition from telecommunication companies.

16