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Protection of series compensated transmission


line: Issues and state of art

Article in Electric Power Systems Research February 2014


DOI: 10.1016/j.epsr.2013.09.017

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Electric Power Systems Research 107 (2014) 93108

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Electric Power Systems Research


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/epsr

Review

Protection of series compensated transmission line: Issues


and state of art
Bhargav Vyas a, , Rudra Prakash Maheshwari b , Biswarup Das b
a
Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India
b
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In the present-day scenario, per-capita power consumption symbolizes the development of any society.
Received 7 May 2013 This has resulted in a multifold increase in power demand. This drives power engineers to generate and
Received in revised form transfer maximum possible power through transmission line, i.e. up to thermal limits, which leads toward
15 September 2013
installation of compensating devices. However, this inclusion of compensation introduces changes in sys-
Accepted 24 September 2013
tem parameters, i.e. in its impedance seen from relay point, voltage and current inversion, introduction of
sub-harmonic frequency components, etc. This requires changes in existing protection concepts. There-
Keywords:
fore, there is a need to track all experiences, developments and research in the eld of protection of
Series compensated line protection
TCSC
series compensated transmission line and look for the gaps in it. This paper gives bibliographical survey
Fault location and general backgrounds of research and development in the eld of series compensated lines (xed
Fault classication capacitor and TCSC) since the application of series compensation. This article also compares and eval-
uates different techniques with their relative advantages and disadvantages to lead toward optimum
technique for application. More emphasis is given to modern techniques. The literature is divided into
parts to reduce the difculty for new researchers to evaluate different techniques with a set of references
of all concerned contributions.
2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
2. Series compensation impact on transmission line protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
2.1. Change in line impedance seen by relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
2.2. Over voltage protection of series capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
2.3. Voltage and current inversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
2.4. Series compensator generated transient issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
2.5. Unbalanced line impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
2.6. Parallel lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
2.7. Faults in capacitor bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
2.8. Problems with controlled series compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
2.8.1. Capacitive boost mode without MOV conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2.8.2. Capacitive boost mode with MOV conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2.8.3. Blocking mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2.8.4. TCSC bypass operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2.8.5. Circuit breaker bypass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
3. Series compensated transmission line protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
3.1. Multiple relay characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
3.2. Compensator modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 9012243090.


E-mail address: bhargavonline@gmail.com (B. Vyas).

0378-7796/$ see front matter 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2013.09.017
94 B. Vyas et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 107 (2014) 93108

3.3. Traveling wave based approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100


3.4. Signal processing tool and articial intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
3.4.1. Advancement in ltering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
3.4.2. Higher order statistic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
3.4.3. Wavelet transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
3.5. Articial intelligence techniques with/without digital signal processing tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
3.5.1. Neural network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
3.5.2. Support vector machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
3.5.3. Fuzzy logic based schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
4. Fault location and fault distance calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
5. Series compensated transmission line protection trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
6. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

1. Introduction 2. Series compensation impact on transmission line


protection
To switch from protection of an uncompensated transmis-
sion line to a transmission line with series compensation is Integration of the series compensation in transmission line
considered to be a difcult task for protection engineers, as it makes the protection complex due to the abrupt changes in line
needs to be adapted to the changes introduced by compensation parameters at the point of series compensation. This will lead to
devices. change in apparent impedance measured by the relays. In this sec-
With sustainable growth in power demand, the size of the power tion, the impact of series compensation on the impedance based
system is continuously increasing; it has become the most complex transmission line relay is briey discussed.
system ever built. A large amount of money is spent for devel-
opment of the power system right from generation of power to
2.1. Change in line impedance seen by relay
transmission and distribution; thus proper protection system is a
must for every power apparatus [1,2].
The distance relay resolves the impedance calculations from just
Continuous increase in power demand leads fast development
nished measurements of voltages and currents. The impedance
in transmission system, and requirement of power transfer up to
calculation gets effected due to inclusion of the series compensa-
the thermal limit of the transmission line. This will lead to instal-
tion, and leads the impedance relay for exaggerate conclusion. In
lation of series compensation on long Extra-High Voltage (EHV)
ideal conditions, the apparent impedance seen by a distance relay
transmission lines. The series compensation not only increases
for an uncompensated line at the relaying end can be seen by a
power transferring capacity, but also improves system transient
dashed line in Fig. 1(a) and on RX plane in Fig. 1(b). With inclu-
stability, voltage control, power ow control and will reduce losses.
sion of series compensation, the characteristic got modied at the
Two main types of series compensation used are xed capacitor
point of compensation, as seen by solid lines in Fig. 1(a) and (b). It
series compensation and controllable capacitor series compen-
is clear from Fig. 1(b) that the distance relay overreaches if Series
sation, each with their own advantages [3]. Two different line
Capacitor (SC) is included in the fault circuit [4,5]. The directional
congurations are used in practice according to position of the
integrity of the distance relay can be lost in the case of a fault just
compensating device on the circuit; end-line compensation and
after compensator for end line compensation as seen in Fig. 2.
mid-line compensation.
To take full advantage of the series capacitor installation in
a utility network, it is necessary to understand the impact of 2.2. Over voltage protection of series capacitor
series compensation on protection to design appropriate schemes
with necessary changes. As mentioned earlier compensation in a It is advisable to make a modication in the relay settings to
transmission system is normally introduced for high-power EHV accommodate the series compensation, only when it is established
transmission line, which usually employs distance relay for pro- that the capacitor is invariably going to be part of the fault circuit for
tection purpose. A distance relay works on real time impedance a fault after compensator [6]. However, over-voltage protection of
calculation of the line with real time measurements aided with the series capacitor could bypass the capacitor from the faulted cir-
fault type information. In case of series compensated transmission cuit. As a normal practice, a Spark Gap (SG) or Metal Oxide Varistor
line, inclusion of compensating device affects the line impedance. (MOV) or both with a bypass circuit breaker protects the capacitor
Therefore, the position of fault with respect to the compensator against over-voltage as shown in Fig. 3. This leads to two different
(fault zone) is required for a distance relay to accomplish its over- impedance conditions during fault:
all decision. Faulted phase selection also increases system stability
and availability by allowing single pole tripping. This will improve (i) In high-current fault condition, voltage across the capacitor
transient stability and reduces switching overvoltage in the system increases to a truly high value, which triggers MOV conduc-
[4]. tion to bypass the capacitor. In this case, SCMOV combination
Therefore, the fault type classication and fault zone iden- impedance will be reduced to the impedance of MOV only.
tication are very important aspects for protection of series (ii) During low-current fault condition; the MOV remained in
compensated transmission line. Research efforts toward fault its high impedance state. The SCMOV combination offers
analysis have been evaluated in Section 3. With the help of impedance equal to parallel combination of the pair.
this information, contributions toward fault location are ana-
lyzed in Section 4. Moreover, Section 2 investigates briey, Two impedance conditions increases difculty in relay setting. A
the effect of series compensation on transmission line protec- relay setting without consideration of MOV conduction could over-
tion. reach and easily lost its directional integrity. If the settings are made
B. Vyas et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 107 (2014) 93108 95

(a)

Fig. 2. Loss of directional integrity in case of end line compensation.

change of 90 or more in voltage phase angle is known as voltage


inversion. This type of condition occurs in a fault that occurs after
the series compensator for which, the total source impedance (ZS )
(b) is much higher than the fault line impedance (ZF ) (Fig. 4). Any fault
on line CD with inclusion of SC in the fault circuit will create angu-
Fig. 1. Change in impedance as seen from relay. lar difference to the line current on bus C and D. This difference is
approximately equal to the load angle of the line. This will force the
with sustained consideration of MOV, the relay may underreach in relay on bus C to see the fault in reverse direction [5,7,8].
low fault conditions. Current inversion is a phenomenon in which the current phase
angle is changed by more than 90 . A condition of current inversion
2.3. Voltage and current inversion occurs on a series-compensated line when, for an internal fault just
after the compensating device, the equivalent system on one side
Due to the presence of the series compensation in the fault cir- of the fault is capacitive, and another side of the fault is inductive
cuit, different electrical quantities like fault current, phase currents, as shown in Fig. 5.
sequence currents and voltages (phase, sequence) may exhibit sig- It is worth noticing here that, as current inversion and voltage
nicant phase shifts as compared with their natural positions. A inversion occurs at total distinct system conditions, therefore, the

Fig. 3. Over voltage protection of series compensator and MOV characteristic.


96 B. Vyas et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 107 (2014) 93108

400
Left side of Compensator Right Side of Compensator
300

200

Voltage (kV)
100

-100

-200

-300

-400
3,500 0.2 0.25 0.3
Time (Sec)

Fig. 4. Circuit condition and waveforms for a case of voltage inversion.

voltage and current inversion cannot occur simultaneously. Hence, spirally oscillation of impedance characteristic, when it shifts from
in case of any one of these inversions, the protective relay gets load impedance to fault impedance during fault as shown in Fig. 6
affected [5,7,9,10]. [6].
Assuming the transient frequency lesser than the fundamen-
2.4. Series compensator generated transient issues tal, the voltage drop across the line inductor is much less for the
transient current compared to the fundamental frequency current.
Addition of series compensation in the transmission line adds Conversely, the transient voltage drop across the capacitor is con-
up several transients in the faulted system. These transients affect siderably larger due to the lower frequency of the transient current.
estimation of the voltage and current phasors. A transient on a non- Thus, during low frequency transient condition, the line appears to
compensated transmission line has a major portion of the decaying have much higher percentage compensation.
DC. However, on lines with series compensation, the primary tran-
sient is an AC signal with a frequency determined by the series 2.5. Unbalanced line impedance
capacitance and the system inductance [11] and can be given by
(neglecting resistance) A non-transposed or partially transposed transmission line
 offers unbalanced impedance. This unbalance is signicantly mag-
1 XC nied with inclusion of series compensation in terms of percentage
fe = =f
2 LC XL

where XC represents reactance of SC, XL is the line reactance up


to fault point and f indicates the power frequency. It is evident
from the equation that a high-frequency component is introduced
into the system when a fault occurs just after the capacitor or in
other words, XC > XL . However, all the modern relays are equipped
with digital lters; this makes effect of high frequency negligible
in relays. For the fault at the remote end of the line (XC < XL ), a low-
frequency transient will be introduced into the system. Due to low
fault current, MOV offers high impedance and this frequency will
prevail in the system for long time. This frequency will lead to a

Fig. 5. The case of current inversion. Fig. 6. Impedance oscillation due to sub-harmonic frequency [6].
B. Vyas et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 107 (2014) 93108 97

Table 1
Summary of series compensation effects on distance relay.

Effect of series compensation Consequences Problem with distance relay

Abrupt change in line impedance at the point Relay overreach


of series compensation In a close in fault after compensation, relay can
see fault in reverse direction

Capacitor bypassed by gap for overvoltage Produces low frequency transients Relay overreach
protection Capacitor will bypassed before its voltage limit

Capacitor is bypassed by series reactor for Will produce high frequency transients Relay underreach
overvoltage protection of capacitor

MOV is used for overvoltage protection of Low fault current: impedance = capacitive reactance Change of impedance with MOV conduction
capacitor [13] High fault current: impedance = Parallel of capacitive Overreach of relay
reactant and MOV resistance

Voltage inversion Voltage phase angle shifts more than 90 Overreach if fault include capacitor
A potential underreach if fault occurs just after
capacitor (reverse direction)

Current inversion Current phase angle shifts more than 90 Relay fails to operate for some portion of line

Sub harmonic frequency Produced due to combination of SC and line inductive Can conduct MOV at low fault currents
reactance
Relay overreach

Unbalanced line impedance Increase in already available unbalance due unbalanced Affect the ground relay
loading or lack of transposition

Faults in capacitor bank Will produce imbalance in the system Affect the ground relay

of total line impedance. That means, increases in zero and neg- most preferred controllable series compensator and covering all
ative sequence components of the currents and needs change in possible conditions for other controllable devices, Thyristor Con-
protection algorithms, especially for earth sensing relays. trolled Series Compensator (TCSC) has been chosen in this review
to identify effects of controllable compensation on the transmission
2.6. Parallel lines line protection.
Fig. 7 shows a typical TCSC module with different protective ele-
Problems with protection of the series compensated lines ments. It comprises a series capacitor, in parallel with a thyristor
amplify with a parallel line conguration. The series compensator controlled reactor (TCR) with a reactor (Ls) and a MOV [13]. The
gets rid of a portion of the self-reactance of the transmission line. MOV will help the ideal tripping characteristic to be nearer to its
However, its effect is negligible on the mutual impedance of the original then the non MOV operation as shown in [14]. The circuit
parallel lines. Moreover, the outage of any line and grounding on breaker bypasses the TCSC module in case of a severe fault or equip-
either end changes the impedance equation. Therefore, all these ment malfunction. A current limiting inductor, (Ld), is incorporated
conditions should also be considered during the protection design into the circuit to restrain both the magnitude and the frequency
of parallel series compensated transmission line protection. of the capacitor current during the capacitor bypass operation.
During the fault, TCSCs control system would react swiftly to
take some protective measures. TCSC control circuit changes thyris-
2.7. Faults in capacitor bank
tor ring angles to take it in inductive mode, which reduces the
The series compensators are normally installed as a capacitor
bank on a platform. An internal over-voltage protection is always
necessary for this capacitor bank. The compensator necessitates BI-DIRECTIONAL INDUCTOR
shorting the whole capacitor platform in case of any over-voltage THYRISTORS LS
(for example, group over-voltage because of fuse blowing). For TCR
a single-phase fault, capacitor bank protection system needs to
bypass other two phase capacitor platforms also. A delay in bypass jXL
of other two platforms provides a window of opportunity for a high
speed sensitive ground and direction detection schemes to oper- ITCR -jXC
ate. This is due to the fact that this capacitor unbalance appears as
internal fault of the protected system [12]. ILINE IC
Table 1 gives a summary of the problems faced by a distance
protection scheme, when subjected to protect a transmission line
+ VC -
with series compensation.

2.8. Problems with controlled series compensation MOV


Ld
AIR GAP
Electronically Controlled Series Compensation (CSC) provides
better control over power ow of a transmission line than xed
series compensation. The CSC increases transient stability of the CIRCUIT BREAKER
system as well. However, it introduces additional harmonics,
rapid changes associated to its control actions in primary system
parameters such as line impedances and load currents. Being the Fig. 7. A practical TCSC arrangement.
98 B. Vyas et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 107 (2014) 93108

fault current. If the short circuit current were large enough, MOV will persist through TCSC continuously. Due to existence of com-
would be in reduces resistance mode, and will produce equivalent pensation, the relay can overreach considerably, and also can lose
impedance of TCSC in bypassed mode (inductive). Therefore, TCSCs its directional integrity.
capacitive reactance would decrease and gradually change into
inductive reactance. This affects adversely to the transmission line 2.8.2. Capacitive boost mode with MOV conduction
protection settings [15,16]. If the fault current is not large enough, For a high-current fault case, the MOV conducts to decrease the
TCSCs control system will not send its commands to bypass the voltage across the SC (Fig. 8(b)). However, the MOV is fast enough to
thyristor, in this case TCSCs impedance characteristic becomes conduct and reset within a half-cycle. In this case, neither the MOV
complicated. Moreover, with a fault where transient voltage and nor the circuit breaker would be short out the capacitor continu-
currents waveforms are not symmetrical, the TCSC ring becomes ously. This short-duration condition usually repeated several times
confusing. In this condition, TCSCs harmonics become very com- during the fault period. During this condition, the TCSC impedance
plicated [17]. Ghassemi and Johns [18] investigated the effect on would be the parallel combination of the capacitor and the MOV in
distance protection measurement due to the residual compensa- a lower resistance mode. The relay would overreach but differently
tion when an earth fault occurs on a series compensated line. The from the previous case without MOV operation.
directional integrity of the normal impedance relay will be com-
promised with TCSC installation as investigated in [14]. 2.8.3. Blocking mode
To understand the TCSC operation during a fault period, let we During fault transient time, phase angle of the voltage across
understand the normal operating conditions of TCSC. The TCSC nor- capacitor changes swiftly, which changes the ring angle of the
mally operates with anyone out of following operating modes [3]: TCSC rapidly in some cases. To avoid overcurrent situation for this
case, the thyristors are blocked by ring mechanism. In this condi-
Capacitive boost mode (Lim < < /2). tion, the TCSC acts like a xed series capacitor only (Fig. 8(c)). The
Inductive boost mode (0 < < Lim ). relay would overreach as in case of xed SC with MOV. However,
Bypass mode ( = 0). this overreach is less than the case, when the TCSC is in capacitive
Blocking mode ( = /2). boost mode.

2.8.4. TCSC bypass operation


During fault, TCSC gives different operations depending upon
For a very heavy fault current condition, the MOV operation is
the type of fault. Let we check various conditions of TCSC under
not enough to decrease the capacitor voltage. This leads toward
faulty condition.
total thyristor conduction (bypass mode Fig. 8(d)). In this case, the
distance relay would underreach due to the presence of the reactor
2.8.1. Capacitive boost mode without MOV conduction in circuit.
In a high impedance fault condition, a low fault current exists in
the system. The lower fault current exerts less voltage across the 2.8.5. Circuit breaker bypass
compensator than the protective voltage level of TCSC (Fig. 8(a)). If the fault is not cleared within a pre-specied time period, the
Therefore, the MOV remains in high impedance mode, and fault TCSC transits to circuit breaker bypass mode (Fig. 8 (e)). Since the

Fig. 8. TCSC operating modes during condition of fault.


B. Vyas et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 107 (2014) 93108 99

Table 2
CT SC CT SC
Effect of different modes of TCSC operations on distance protection.

Mode of operation of TCSC in faulty Effect on protection system


PT
G1 PT
condition
G1
Capacitive boost mode without MOV (i) Overreach of relay
conduction (ii) Directional integrity will be
lost
RELAY RELAY
Capacitive boost mode with MOV (iii) Relay will overreach, but
less than the case without (a) (b)
MOV operation
Fig. 9. (a) Bus-side measurement. (b) Line-side measurement.
Blocking mode (iv) TCSC will work like SC
(v) Relay will overreach as in
SCMOV and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are normally used for
TCSC bypass operation (vi) Distance relay will this purpose.
underreach (ii) Articial intelligence
Circuit breaker bypass (vii) Normal operation of relay
In second stage; the extracted features are used with arti-
(viii) Used only as backup cial intelligence techniques for decision making. Normally used
protection classiers are Articial Neural Network (ANN), Fuzzy Set The-
ory, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Extreme Learning Machine
(ELM), etc.
series reactor in the circuit breaker circuit is very small, the relay
experiences the normal situation. This condition is used only for In recent times, researchers made efforts for direct implemen-
back-up protection. tation of the AI techniques as pattern recognition tools for fault
Table 2 summarized these operating conditions and its effect on analysis also [2527].
distance protection. In elementary implementation of the distance relay for series
compensated transmission line protection; the reach settings have
3. Series compensated transmission line protection been reduced to accommodate effects of series compensation. The
rst zone used to be set far below its factual reach; around 30% of the
Addition of series compensation force changes into design of line length instead of 8090%. This cautious approach takes care of
the transmission line protection system. These changes are accord- disproportionally between actual and measured fault impedances.
ing to alteration in system parameters as per size, location and However, it will make relay underreach during MOV operation. One
over voltage protection of the compensator as discussed earlier. more solution to avoid relay over reaching is to use line side voltage
Besides the detection of faulty condition, fault type classication is measurement with respect to the compensator (Fig. 9(a)) instead
an essential protective relaying aspect for transmission line pro- of normally used bus side voltage (Fig. 9(b)). However, this solution
tection. In a series compensated transmission line, the end line can be applied easily in case of end line compensation, where the
fault currents may be of the order of the load currents. Moreover, compensator is available inside the sub-station only [21,28]. This
identical impedance conditions exist on either side of the series solution is impracticable for a mid-line compensation scheme.
compensation (Fig. 1). This necessitates information about location
of fault with respect to the compensator (fault zone). Therefore, the 3.1. Multiple relay characteristics
nal impedance calculations of the distance relay always use fault
type and zone information. Reviews for fault analysis (fault zone A fault zone detector sub-algorithm is a prime requirement in
and type identication) methods with fault location methods have this type of relaying, which investigate the presence and percent-
been presented throughout this section. age reactance of series compensation in the fault circuit. The relay
In recent times, considerable development efforts have been alters the impedance characteristic according to the size, shape and
registered for development of protective relaying schemes for reactance of the compensator. In an initial approach for adaption of
series compensated transmission lines. The available approaches distance relay characteristic to series compensation, Mandour and
can broadly be classied in following categories: El-Alaily [6] utilizes the existence of sub-harmonics in fault current
to investigate participation of the compensator in the fault circuit.
(1) Application of multiple/dynamic impedance characteristics According to the fault zone, appropriate impedance characteristic
according to the presence of the series compensator in the fault has been chosen for the relaying task. However, the compensator
circuit [19], or to use memory polarization to eliminate voltage model employed in this work, utilizes spark-gap for capacitor over-
alteration across compensation [20,21]. voltage protection. With introduction of the MOV, the proposed
(2) Development of a mathematical model of the compensation scheme in this work became erstwhile and necessitates changes in
device to estimate the impedance level during a course of fault. computation. In an effort, Srivani and Vittal [19] presented an algo-
The voltage across the compensator can be estimated to correct rithm for generation of varying impedance characteristic according
the measured voltage [2224]. to the level of xed compensation (Fig. 10). The dynamic charac-
(3) Protection of the series compensated line with a digital protec- teristic has been developed using ofine network details and Full
tion system that employs an advanced digital signal processing Cycle Fourier Algorithm (FCF). However, the scheme developed for
tool and/or articial intelligence technique. Normally, these this work has been authenticated for three xed levels of compen-
schemes operate into two stages: sations only. Moreover, a requirement of more than one cycle post
fault data proves it slow compare to recent requirements. A pro-
(i) Signal pre-processing and feature extraction tective algorithm in [29] divides the transmission line into two
In this stage, features of the measured electrical quantities are sub-systems of linear and nonlinear components to modify the
extracted and enhanced for further analysis. Signal processing characteristic according to compensation level.
tools like Fourier Transform (FT), Discrete Fourier Transform The prime advantage gained through this type of schemes is that
(DFT), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Wavelet Transform (WT), the relay characteristic gets modied/selected adaptively according
100 B. Vyas et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 107 (2014) 93108

with real-time measurements in case of mid-line compensation.


Usage of interpolation during calculation in this model reduces the
prediction accuracy. Moreover, increased computational complex-
ity encourages the researchers to use the previous linear models.
Saha et al. [31] presented a SCMOV impedance prevision algo-
rithm by calculating two different impedances across compensator.
The rst realized with measured voltage and current and the other
with measured current and calculated compensation voltage with
help of 2nd order gear differentiation rule. In this method, the nal
impedance has been estimated by checking position of these two
calculated impedances on three specially shaped regions on the
impedance plane.
The compensator modeling provides a great advantage in
compensated line protection, as voltage alteration by the com-
pensator can be estimated. However, it is difcult to replicate
exact non-linearity of the compensator in mathematical modeling
and these models marginally differ to the actual measured val-
ues. This indicates requirement of more considerable efforts in its
developments.

3.3. Traveling wave based approaches

Traveling wave is multi-frequency transient wave generated


from the fault point due to sudden change in system parameters
Fig. 10. Relay multiple characteristics [21].
with the inception of fault. These traveling waves propagate on
either side of line and reected back continuously until dies down
to the level of the compensation. However, these algorithms usually as shown in Fig. 12. Traveling wave equations are sufcient for
proved slower as modication/adoption necessitates knowledge of development of a transmission line protection system. However,
the fault zone before proceed to the nal characteristic. with inclusion of the non-linear component of the series com-
pensator, these equations need modication to adopt changes. A
modied traveling wave equation, including non-linearity because
3.2. Compensator modeling
of compensation has been developed by Thomas et al. [35]. This
equation was enhanced by Sadeh and Adinehzadeh [33]. The algo-
As already mentioned, the distance protection scheme for
rithm estimates voltage on either side of the compensator instead
transmission line protection might calculate the fault impedance
of modeling the compensator device. This makes the algorithm
fallaciously due to compensator voltage drop. This problem can
independent of compensator type, mode of operation and its
be eliminated by calculating this voltage drop with real-time
parameters. However, this two-ended scheme requires a dedicated
measured quantities. One of the methods is to develop a compen-
communication channel and a high amount of calculations, to sum
sator equivalent impedance model for calculations. Goldsworthy
up the nal result that makes it slow.
[22] presented an applicable linearize SCMOV model for system
It is worth to note that traveling wave is almost absent when the
parameter calculation in fault conditions as shown in Fig. 11. This
voltage fault inception angle is near to zero. Moreover, involvement
model provides an approximation of the actual value only. How-
of the series compensator can produce frequencies of a very high
ever, this model has been preferred by many researchers as fairly
range. These frequencies can be too high for a Capacitive Voltage
simple in application. Based on Goldsworthy [22], Coursol et al.
Transformer (CVT) for a close fault after compensating device, as it
[24] reported a quasi-linear model of SCMOV combination for
can be out of its measurable bandwidth.
use in simulation studies. These models are used by numbers of
the researchers for series compensated line protection applica-
tions. These models are found fairly useful in SCMOV impedance 3.4. Signal processing tool and articial intelligence
calculations and hence for voltage estimation across compensator
[5,11,19,23,2934]. Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is the method to describe a signal
A more recent non-linear model of parallel combination of into another form that makes certain features of the original sig-
SC and MOV has been developed by Rosolowski and Saha [23]. nal more amenable for study. DSP is able to describe the electrical
The model utilizes compensator current measurement as an input signal more completely for power system stability and protection
parameter. This necessitates a dedicated communication channel analysis.

MOV

Fig. 11. Compensator modeling [24].


B. Vyas et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 107 (2014) 93108 101

Fourier lter based series compensated transmission line protec-


tion scheme for simultaneously removal of the sub synchronous
frequency components to develop a clear fundamental frequency
component in a quick time. With series compensation, this process
can take a long time to extract features due to long time decaying
sub-harmonic resonance.
The DFT is one of the most preferred tools for protection indus-
try. The computational cost of the recursive DFT lter is lower.
Moreover, a very good harmonic immunity can be achieved by
DFT ltration, which improves the fault information. However,
during approximation of a discontinuous function (fault induces
current/voltage); the function is dened in the whole interval
of interest by a global basis set. Therefore, Gibbs phenomenon
will restrict the nal resolution. With exploration of recent signal
processing tools like Gabor Transform (GT) and Wavelet Trans-
forms (WT); the implementation of DFT has reduced drastically,
as they can provide more meaningful information for protective
requirements.

3.4.2. Higher order statistic


Spectral analysis is a good measure for judgment concerning
the predictability of the signal. Second order measures like DFT
generate non-zero values in its output due to Gaussian noise.
Higher-Order Statistic (HOS) eliminates this Gaussian noise and
can produce more accurate trispectrum of higher frequency, which
is advantageous for fault analysis with series compensation. The
use of HOS with fuzzy classier was investigated by Pradhan et al.
Fig. 12. Traveling wave (BawleyLattice diagram).
[39] for fault classication. However, this method requires a heavy
computation that makes the system sluggish.
3.4.1. Advancement in ltering
The basic signal processing tool of Discrete Fourier Transform 3.4.3. Wavelet transform
(DFT) decomposes the continuous time signal into an innite sum Both time and frequency resolution of a given signal is achieved
of sinusoids. The FT, in other words, is based on the principle of dila- by time localization of different frequency components using
tion of the subjected waveform in to reference sinusoidal waves. Wavelet Transform (WT) [40]. In WT, the inputs are manipulated
The DFT separates out all spectral details of the subjected time through a process of translation (i.e. movements along the time
domain signal in the frequency domain as shown in Fig. 13(a). In axis) and dilation (i.e. spreading out of the wavelet) to trans-
research articles by Yang and Liu [36] and Gu and Yu [37], DFT form the signal into another form which unfolds it in time and
based algorithms have been proposed with completely removal scale (Fig. 13(b)). The wavelet transform measures the correlation
of decaying DC component of fault currents for non-compensated between the input signal and scaled and translated version of the
transmission line. Based on these works, Yu and Gu [38] presented mother wavelet which is of limited duration and has zero average

1
Current (kA)

-1

-2
Time (Sec)

1
Current (kA)

-1

-2
Time (Sec)

Fig. 13. Fourier and wavelet transform comparison.


102 B. Vyas et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 107 (2014) 93108

value. Application of WT for series compensated line protection non-linear SCMOV model [22,24], it is found that the performance
for fault-zone identication using db4 mother wavelet and fault of ANN is superior than DDA and LM.
classication with Haar as mother wavelet was proposed by Mega- Xuan et al. [50] applied ANN for pattern recognition based
hed et al. [41]. In this article, the use of sampling frequency of adaptive relaying for a series compensated transmission line.
240 kHz proved high for practical implementation and enforces a The delta-bar-delta (DBD) training algorithm used in this effort
large amount of calculations. Dash and Samantray [42] presented improves time response by accelerating the convergence. How-
an algorithm for fault type and zone classication using WT analysis ever, authors investigated rst zone performance for the approach
for a controllable compensated transmission line. The same authors only with xed series end-line conguration. Radial Base Function
proposed fault type and zone identication scheme [43] with an based Neural Network (RBFNN) is a three-layer NN with the middle
improved signal processing method of wavelet packet transform layer carries radial basis as activation function. An approach for pro-
(WPT). tection of a controllable compensated transmission line has been
The entropy dened in terms of its probability distribution can developed with use of RBFNN by Song et al. [51]. However, to t in
be a good measure of randomness or uncertainty. The entropy pro- todays protection requirement, the system should not be accurate
vides improved information about the system condition in a state only, but fast also. RBFN requires comparatively large processing
of fault. Wavelet entropy based fault classication, zone identi- time, as its activation function is non-monotonic compare to BPNN.
cation and location scheme has been proposed by El-Zonkoly and Limitations of ANN or any AI technique as pattern recognition
Desouki [44]. Samantaray and Dash [45] presented an approach classier can be overcome by inclusion of a pre-processing sig-
based on s-transform and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) for nal analysis tool. Different protection schemes with two stages
fault analysis. The s-transform is an extension of Gabor transform (i) signal processing and (ii) classication are available in the lit-
and wavelet transform, and is based on moving and scalable local- erature. A combination of DFT as a signal-processing tool with
izing Gaussian window. However, application of the PNN requires ANN has been proposed by Song et al. [52], with special empha-
an extensive training and memory as PNN stores all the training sis on the zone-1 performance. However, a two-cycle window
information with its network. Another application of s-transform after fault inception required in this scheme is a rare possibility
in unit type TCSC compensated transmission line protection can be in todays fast protection environment. Moreover, scheme claims
seen in [46]. The scheme in this article works on s-transform sepa- to produce improvement in results with data of two consecutive
rated differential energies between sending and receiving end. The windows. In the rst stage of a two-stage algorithm presented by
scheme necessitates synchronization of measurement with data Ibrahim et al. [53], the model information from the measured signal
from the remote end. Therefore, it costs dedicated communication has been extracted by the Total Least Square Estimation of Sig-
channel between line ends. Moreover, necessity of two-cycle post nal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Technique (TLS-ESPRIT)
fault data proves it slow in view of recent available literature. An with non-fundamental portion of the measured transient signal.
advancement in s-transform, hyperbolic s-transform is applied for This model information is used for high-resolution signal param-
fault classication, zone identication and fault location estima- eter estimation. In the second stage, an articial neural network
tion with SVMs, SVCs, and SVRs, respectively, in [47]. Choice of the (ANN) is designed to estimate the faulted phase based upon the
support vector parameters is a major concern for the scheme. More- features extracted from the rst stage. The TLS-ESPRIT deals with
over, requirement and selection of a large input vector make it slow a very high amount of calculations. Testing of the algorithm under
in implementation. system parameter variation could authenticate the presented algo-
In recent developments the ability of wavelet transform has rithm in this work. In an approach, Abdelaziz et al. [54] examined
been widely appreciated for transmission line protection. Being a use of a model transform techniques of Wedepohl transforma-
a non-stationary phenomenon, fault analysis information about tion for fault detection and Karrenbauer transformation for fault
particular spectral components occurring at the time of fault occur- classication with ANN. Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is a
rence is very important. As WT expands a signal in terms of a learning algorithm for ANN proposed by Huang et al. in 2005
wavelet, generated using translation and dilation of a xed wavelet [55]. The ELM provides faster training speed by eliminating issues
function, it extracts time and frequency features simultaneously like local minima, improper learning rate and over-tting. The
(Fig. 13). By the help of WT, the changes introduced by the compen- ELM trained ANN has been used with DWT in [56] for fault
sating device can be identied clearly to enhance fault information. analysis.
However, most of the wavelet based techniques uses multi-level The ANN proved to be a simple, robust and efcient classier for
decomposition that requires multi-level ltering and a higher protection applications. The efforts also can be seen toward mak-
amount of calculations. Researchers are expected to work for reduc- ing the ANN scheme more practicable by increasing its training
tion in ltering requirement and calculations by improvisation of speed and accuracy with various training methods. From this dis-
the methodology. cussion, following advantages of ANN can be separated out over
other classiers:
3.5. Articial intelligence techniques with/without digital signal
processing tools
(i) It is able to acquire complex, non-linear relationships.
3.5.1. Neural network
(ii) Its generalization capabilities are good so can be used for dif-
An Articial Neural Network (ANN) is a computational model
ferent applications.
based on the structure and functions of biological neurons. The
(iii) It is quick in response.
ANN helps to estimate the computing function or distributions
(iv) It is very easy to implement in a digital system.
in the most efcient way. In a way, ANN is a better random
function approximation tool. Many contributions are registered
in the literature for series compensated line with ANN for fault
analysis with or without help of a signal-processing tool. The However, it requires an extensive training that necessitates a
ANN is considered as one of the better methods for voltage and large training data set and time. This leads to generation of a large
current pattern classication [48,49]. By investigation of its perfor- number of example simulations. A new ANN training is required
mance with Deterministic Differential Approach (DDA) and Linear for every line where the relay is used. ANN is sensitive to system
Model (LM) methods for online calculation of the voltage across a parameter variation also, like frequency.
B. Vyas et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 107 (2014) 93108 103

Fig. 14. Basic structure of DSP and AI based protection schemes.

3.5.2. Support vector machine The application of fuzzy logic for series compensated line pro-
Support vector machine is a computational learning method tection is limited due to large variation in system parameters. The
based on statistical learning theory. In recent years, SVM has formation of fuzzy rules under such variation makes it difcult and
emerged as a powerful tool for classication and regression slow in nature. However, other classier with a help of a fuzzy
problems. In SVM, the input features are mapped into higher system can make the system more accurate and easy.
dimensional dot product space for better classication. This high- A basic scheme with signal processing tool aiding articial intel-
dimensional space is called the feature space. In this feature space, ligence tool is shown in Fig. 14.
the SVM nds out separating hyperplane according to the training
data that contains target value (class type) and attributes (fea- 4. Fault location and fault distance calculation
tures). The training is made to nd out support vectors on, and
around this hyper plane in a way that the separation between the Introduction of series compensation makes fault location esti-
classes is maximum. This optimal hyper plane is found by utilizing mation difcult due to change in system parameters as discussed in
the optimization theory with application of the statistical learning previous section. Moreover, the fault location algorithm normally
theory. developed under an assumption of a properly transposed system.
An algorithm developed by Parikh et al. [57] utilizes Radial Base The unbalance or non-symmetry in line parameters and measure-
Function (RBF) kernel based SVM for fault zone identication. The ments get amplied with inclusion of series compensation and
DWT has been implemented as pre-signal processing tool in this introduces error in fault distance calculations. Furthermore, most
method. After successful development of fault zone detection algo- of the fault locator algorithm utilizes a lumped parameter model
rithm, Parikh et al. [25] uses SVMs for fault type classication using for system parameter calculations. The series compensation also
non-linear SVMs. An application of the SVM as a classier to clas- amplies line charging due to shunt capacitance, which is neglected
sify fault type and fault section for controllable series compensation during uncompensated relaying and affects the fault distance cal-
was derived by Dash et al. [27]. In a fault classication scheme by culation. Fault location techniques in the literature can broadly be
Bhalja et al. [58], db1 has been implemented as mother wavelet classied as per measurement for analysis as:
for rst level of decomposition to generate a feature vector to be
further classied by SVMs. single-end measurement algorithms (Fig. 15),
In all these applications, SVMs emerged as a potential tool for two-ends measurement algorithms (Fig. 16), and
protective classication. The SVM has a capability to handle very multi-ends measurement algorithms.
large feature spaces, so it is very efcient to handle large clas-
sication problems. Moreover, by dening the support vectors it
The single end algorithm poses an advantage as derives the
can classify classes very close to each other. However, SVMs are
nal fault distance estimation on relaying end measurements only.
very sensitive to their classication parameters. In the absence of
Two end and multi end algorithms need measurements from each
this parameter selection mechanism, the SVM parameters of cost
end of line. Moreover, data transmission requires a communica-
(C), gamma () and kernel function are chosen by trial-and-error
tion channel. These data can be used either in synchronized or
methods in all these schemes.
unsynchronized mode of calculations. In a way, the single end mea-
A step forward for SVM parameter selection, application of
surement algorithms are the easiest and yield fewer computational
Genetic Algorithm (GA) for SVM parameter approximation for TCSC
bourdon, however, lacks in accuracy. The two and multi end algo-
compensated transmission line protection can be seen in [59]. How-
rithms gain an advantage that measurements from either side of
ever, the choice of the Kernel function is still an issue and 5-fold
fault eliminate the effect of fault impedance and compensation
cross-validation based GA parameter estimation exhibits higher
voltage drop on distance calculations.
computation burden.
Fault location techniques with series compensated transmission
Moreover, requirement of a new set of classication parame-
line in the literature can also be categorized on their working as:
ters for SVM for each new line and change in system parameters is
a major concern for researchers. A comprehensive parameter iden-
Phasor based approaches.
tication methodology with protection requirement is due from
Time domain analysis or differential equation based models.
researchers.
Traveling wave based method to solve faulted network equations.
Signal processing on a basis of the high-frequency transients gen-
3.5.3. Fuzzy logic based schemes erated by the faults.
A fuzzy logic system represents the nonlinear data mapping of Other specially developed methods.
input into a scalar value with degrees of truthfulness (1) and false-
hood (0). Pradhan et al. [60] proposed a fuzzy logic based system
aided with DWT signal processing for fault analysis. The scheme
applies fourteen rules based minmax type fuzzy system for fault
classication. The fault zone identication is presented with a nine
rule based fuzzy system with two separate ratios generated from
DWT. The approach cannot guarantee same accuracy with fuzzy
systems as not tested with variety of fault resistances and fault
inception angles. Fig. 15. Single-end fault location approach.
104 B. Vyas et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 107 (2014) 93108

y y

x x

Fig. 16. Synchro-phasor approach for fault location.

Phasor based approach is the most fundamental for a trans- application. A typical two-ended synchro-phasor approach can be
mission line [32,61]. This method can have different variations seen in Fig. 16.
as per system parameter measurement location as described ear- Fault location algorithm for series compensated parallel trans-
lier. However, during a fault period, the voltage and current signal mission line with synchro-phasor can be seen in [67]. Two separate
are not purely sinusoidal; therefore, the phasor based approach model sequence matrices are formulated for fault location estima-
carries error-prone information and nal fault location accuracy tion according to fault position with respect to the compensator.
gets affected. This problem amplies with introduction of non- The scheme exhibits a heavier computational burden. However, an
linear series compensating devices. Time-domain algorithms have effort has been made to reduce this burden by utilizing relay end
been developed with single-circuit networks to overcome this voltage phasors only with current phasors from either end. The
problem [7,31,32,36]. A high-frequency transient traveling waves knowledge of the fault zone is a pre-requisite for implementation
based fault locator estimates the fault distance by reection of the of the algorithm.
high frequencies in transients. This method provided better fault The two-ended method proposed by Ahsaee et al. [68] calculates
location accuracy with series compensated devices also. However, two fault location vis--vis to the series compensator. The objective
accurate and faithful measurement of data is prime requirement function values derived for either case help to choose nal fault
for this method. Use of modern analysis and classication tool can location.
also be reported by researchers. Application of modern single processing techniques and arti-
In an initial approach for fault location estimation, Girgis at el. cial intelligence for fault location can be learned from the literature.
[62] applied Carsons developed method for fault impedance calcu- An application of ANN for fault location has been explored for
lations with additional estimation of the compensator equivalent xed capacitor compensated line by Novosel et al. [48] and for
impedance. The SCMOV combination voltage has been predicted controllable compensated line by Hosny et al. [69]. Yusuff et al.
with curve tting application of the Kalman lter. The SCMOV [70] presented a wavelet packet decomposition and Support Vec-
combined impedance has been predicted with method suggested tor Regression (SVR) based fault location algorithm using half cycle
by Goldsworthy [22], in a fault location approach by Ghassemi post fault data. However, the use of sampling frequency of 12.8 kHz
et al. [63]. These schemes show encouraging results for series in this method proved higher for implementation. Moreover, it
compensated transmission line fault location according to their should be noted that training and testing are provided from same
time; however, wide authentication has not been provided by the fault data set. Sadeh and Adinehzadeh [33] developed a fault locator
authors. algorithm by dividing the transmission line in three separate cir-
A single ended fault location algorithm using phasor coordinates cuits. The authors presented the fault resistance calculation by least
has been proposed in [61]. The method calculates two different square estimation as indicated in the previous section. This scheme
synchronized voltages from either side of the line with help of a works on data measurements from both ends of the line. This makes
distributed time model. An approach to estimate voltage across algorithm independent of compensator type and its mode of opera-
compensation devices to help estimating fault location has been tion. However, it requires a dedicated communication channel and
developed by Al-Dabbagh et al. [32]. However, in these methods applies a heavy computational bourdon.
[32,61], the procedure ignores shunt and mutual capacitance of the Traveling-wave differential equation based relaying algorithm
line that restricts accuracy of nal distance calculations. In [64] a is one of the widely preferred approaches for fault location esti-
high speed numerical method is proposed on the directional com- mation. However, the algorithm developed for uncompensated
parison principle. The method uses a communication channel and transmission line [71] fails with introduction of series compen-
measurement from either side of the line, to sum up fault location. sation. Modied traveling-wave differential equations for series
A Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) based two-ended fault loca- compensated transmission line have been developed successfully
tion estimation algorithm has been demonstrated by Chi-Shan et al. in many articles like [33,72].
[65]. The algorithm is unaffected by position and type of the com- The concept of time reversal for electromagnetic waves for
pensator. Another PMU based fault location estimation on series change in circuit impedance [73] can effectively be applied for fault
compensated line has been developed in [66]. The scheme claims location estimation by traveling wave measurements. Competent
application for uncompensated transmission line also. However, utilization of this principle for advanced fault location estimation
application of GPS for synchronization and requirement of a dedi- can be seen in [74,75]. However, these methods are directly not
cated communication channel makes it complex and expensive for suitable for series compensated transmission lines. Advancement
B. Vyas et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 107 (2014) 93108 105

Table 3
Comparison of few fault location estimation algorithms for series compensated transmission lines.

Article Type of algorithm Data requirement Number of Input quantities to the algorithm How SC taken in to account
reported considered test
cases

Novosel et al. [48] One-end algorithm 1 cycle 12 Three phase currents Linearized SCMOV model from
Phasor approach Gap ash current Goldsworthy [22] has been used
MOV protective level current
Protective peak of MOV voltage

One-end algorithm 1 cycle 12 Line currents DDA based time domain


Deterministic compensator voltage estimation
Differential Approach
(DDA)

One-end algorithm 1 cycle or more 12 Normalized line current ANN based compensator
ANN approach samples voltage estimation
Difference of the line currents

Girgis et al. [62] One-end algorithm 1 cycle or more Few Three phase currents and Kalman lter based
voltages compensator voltage estimation

Ghassemi et al. [63] One-end algorithm 1 cycle Few Voltage and currents SCMOV model from
Goldsworthy [22] has been used

Saha et al. [61] One-end algorithm 1.25 cycles 1944 Type of Fault Two separate algorithms are
FIA used to predict fault impedance
Three phase current on either side of the compensator
measurements
Three phase local pre-fault
current values
There phase voltages

Sadeh et al. [91] Two-end algorithm 1 cycle 08 Three phase voltages and Two separate algorithms are
currents used to predict fault impedance
for fault on either side of the
compensator

Chi-Shan et al. [65] Two-end algorithm 1 cycle 500 Three phase currents and No calculations required for
voltages from both ends series compensator
Independent of compensator
position

Cheong et al. [77] One-end algorithm 5 cycle post fault 600 Three phase voltages and NA
data currents

Al-Dabbagh [32] Two-end algorithm Pre and post fault 90 Three phase voltages and A model of the series
data currents compensation has been
developed
Capacitor protection level
current based MOV conduction
prediction has been applied

Sadeh et al. [33] Two-end algorithm One cycle 108 Three phase voltages and NA
currents

Yusuff et al. [70] One-end algorithm cycle post fault 60 Three phase voltages NA
signal

Ahsaee et al. [68] Two-end algorithm One cycle 66 Three phase voltages and NA
currents

Apostolopoulos et al. [67] Two-end algorithm One cycle 200 Three phase current form both Fault location is expressed with
end two model sequence matrices
Three phase voltage from
relaying end

Abdelaziz et al. [66] Two-end algorithm One cycle Few Three phase voltages and Least square tting based
currents from both line ends SCMOV model

Moravej et al. [47] One-end algorithm One cycle 6280 Three phase voltages and Support vector regression based
currents approach

in the method to accommodate the effect of the series compensa- transform for traveling waves for fault location. A brief comparison
tion has been provided by same authors [76]. of few cited methods is presented in Table 3.
The method presented by Cheong et al. [77] presented two-stage
methodology for fault location estimation with help of wavelet 5. Series compensated transmission line protection trends
transform and self-organizing map neural networks. The method
requires ve cycle post fault data to estimate fault location. Five It is clear from the discussion that the choice and application of
cycle post fault data is a rare possibility in todays digital protection protective relay for a series compensated transmission line needs
environment. The method proposed in [78] also applies wavelet a very careful evaluation. A detailed and generalized guideline for
106 B. Vyas et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 107 (2014) 93108

these issues is still due from industries; however, few practical solu- polarization in uncompensated line faces a problem due to volt-
tions are available in implementation manuals of the relays and are age reversal in series compensated environment. Therefore, the
based on eld experiences. memory control is normally applied in series compensated line for
In normal approach with impedance relay for series com- retaining the voltage value until the impedance fault criterion is
pensated transmission line, numerical relays are equipped with reset, and positive sequence voltage exceeds a specic rated value
adaptive impedance characteristic. Each phase and ground zone [83]. However, the sequence network outcome must be analyzed
element can be set to the quadrilateral or mho characteristic, with with due consideration for the operating conditions of the SCMOV
exibility of adopting appropriate characteristic shapes that suit network [5].
availability of the compensator in the circuit. The exemplary imple- Few of high-speed numerical distance relays REL-531 (ABB)
mentation and performance of the numerical relay can be seen in [87], SEL-421 (SEL) [88], SIPROTEC (Siemense) [89], D90+ (GE) [90],
[79]. IEDREL-670-ANSI [80] (ABB) are available in the market, which are
With addition of series compensation, the accuracy and reliabil- designed with series compensating capacitors in transmission lines
ity of distance relay are in question. Therefore, phasor comparison in mind. All these relays are designed with hybrid distance pro-
based approaches were common in initial series compensated tection schemes with adaptive distance characteristics. Therefore,
transmission line protection schemes. However, phasor based two- these relays can provide effective protection to uncompensated,
ended relaying approaches found operational difculties during series compensated and adjacent line that can have exposure to
implementation [9]. Recent advancements in signal conditioning series compensation. A special directional functional is necessary
improve phasor base unit protection scheme. Moreover, the segre- for all these relay to cope with capacitive reactance of the compen-
gated phase-comparators remove mixing of signals and can be able sator.
to provide fault type information as well [80]. Field implementations of these specially designed protective
With introduction of series compensation in a 400 kV transmis- numerical relays [8790] for series compensated transmission lines
sion system of the Central Western Network in Venezuela [81], the involve some additional considerations compared to the protec-
existing protection scheme has been replaced with newly designed tion functions of the normal uncompensated transmission lines.
numerical protection relay. The newly applied numerical relays Few of these additional important considerations necessary as sug-
are capable to operate in series compensated environment. The gested by the instructional manuals of these relays [8790] can be
reach of rst zone, second zone and third zone of these relays are summarized as:
reduced considerably to overcome the problem of overreaching in
its study [81]. However, relay settings remain unaltered for the lines The sub-synchronous oscillations in the system due to the series
that have feasibility to have line side voltage measurements. As capacitor should be considered during impedance settings; as it
mentioned earlier, use of the bus-side voltage measurement sig- affects nal impedance measurement.
nicantly improves reliability of the distance protection scheme. The relay parameter settings should consider an effect of the
However, application of bus-side voltage for protection applica- series capacitor bank on fault clearance time.
tion is more feasible and practical option for end-line compensation A correct capacitor bank equivalent impedance calculation for
(Fig. 9). Basic possible practical approach for Series Compensated the actual fault current is important for all range of the protected
Transmission line Cameroon-Southern Interconnected System has zone. Iterative calculations are necessary for many critical points
been shown in [82]. The suggested scheme in this work uses non- along the line.
unit protection type distance relay with modications to negate For directional integrity the many relays use memory voltage
effects of series compensation. polarization when applied to series compensated transmission
The current only schemes are normally simpler and easy com- lines. A multi-input comparator is commonly used to deal with
pared to those schemes utilizing potential measurement also. current inversion issues in series compensated lines.
As the series compensation largely affects potential drop across A comprehensive study report should be prepared for each series
faulted circuit, application of the current only scheme provides an compensated transmission line to improve the required settings.
advantage over other schemes [83].
Current based unit protection scheme were reported in [84] for
With all of these drawbacks of the distance protection schemes,
a series compensated transmission line in Dai-kurobe, Japan and
application of traveling wave based protection schemes are also
ve-end series compensated transmission line in Moscow [85]. For
considered as interesting options by protection industries [5].
the lone series compensated transmission line in Japan [84], pri-
Traveling-wave differential equation based relaying algorithm for
mary protection has been provided by a phase-comparison scheme,
series compensated transmission line has been developed in [72].
whereas, the FM based current differential protection has been uti-
The developed methodology modies the traveling wave equations
lized for nal tripping. The FM based current differential protection
to include effects of series compensation.
is the same as used before integration of the series compensa-
tion.
With an implementation experiences [85], it has been shown 6. Conclusion
that the current based line differential protection provides a bet-
ter solution for protection of long series compensated, high-voltage An overview of work in the eld of series compensated transmis-
transmission lines with more than two ends. The proposed charging sion line protection is presented in this paper. This work presents a
current compensation method is independent of voltage mea- bibliographical survey of relevant background, effect of series com-
surements, proved to work very well for such long overhead pensation on transmission line protection and protection efforts for
line congurations. Combination of multi-terminal line differential series compensated line. An effort is made to present all the tech-
protection with a distance protection scheme provides a better pro- niques and algorithms presented till the date. Each technique is
tection solution for multi-end lines. However, impedance schemes evaluated separately to identify the optimum techniques for appli-
with line-side potential are found more advantageous than the cur- cation. The article leads the researchers toward use of modern-day
rent only scheme in recent studies [86]. processing and classication techniques to improve performance
Application of memory polarization for the relay is another pre- of the protective relays.
ferred solution for series compensated transmission line protection Based on the literature available the following gaps are identi-
[80]. However, the under voltage control used for normal memory ed in the protection of series compensated transmission lines:
B. Vyas et al. / Electric Power Systems Research 107 (2014) 93108 107

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