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Veterinary College, Bengaluru

Monthly e-Bulletin

Newsletter Date : 30 April 2015 Volume No: 4 Issue : 4

Dr A. S. Patil, Dr Ramesh Rathod, Dr B. N. Nagaraj and Dr L. Ranganath


Veterinary Hospital, University of Agricultural Sciences Dharwad-580 005
(Email: patilas@uasd.in)
Restoration and maintenance of the rumen physiological environment and ecosystem is the primary
goal while treating the medicinal and surgical disorders of rumen. The rumen in the adult cow comprises
approximately 80% of the abdominal cavity with a capacity around 102-148 L (roughly 16% of body
weight) mature cattle. It is typically described as a Fermentation Vat. Rumen represents a very complex
ecosystem harbouring diverse group of microorganisms that interact and compete with each other for their
survival. In the rumen, reside cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic, amylolytic, proteolytic and acidutilizing
microbes to name a few.
The rumen maintains favourable conditions so that these microbes can thrive. Some of these
conditions include a constant temperature of 1020F, a buffered pH 5.5-7.0 and an anaerobic environment.
Different groups of micro-organisms so far identified as inhabitant of rumen ecosystem include bacteria
comprising of 50 genera, ciliate protozoa of 25 genera, anaerobic fungi and archaea of 5 genera each and
bacteriophages. Management of rumen physiological environment and ecosystem after surgical
intervention of rumen or prolonged illness is the key of successful outcome. Good management of ruminal
physiological microenvironment lead to early restoration of rumen microbial digestion. Rumen
transfaunation is a routine, widely accepted, successful procedure to treat simple indigestion in
ruminants.
Transfaunation
Transfaunation / cud transfer is the process of transferring rumen microbes from healthy donor cow
to another sick or convalescent recipient cow and is generally used to reinoculate the rumen of a sick cow
with a healthy microbial population. It is helpful in treating cows that are severely off-feed, particularly in
cases of pronounced acidosis, impaction, LDA and after rumenotomy. The normal physiological
intraruminal environment is most easily achieved through rumen transfaunation, which provides a
balanced, buffered, nutrient-dense solution that also includes essential microorganisms.
Collection from Donor Animals
Fistulated cows can be used as donors for transfaunation. Rumen fistula surgery is becoming more
common as the need for transfaunation becomes more evident with
todays production practices utilizing low forage and high
concentrate feeding, off-feed cows suffering from rumen acidosis
has become a common herd occurrence. An on-farm tool that
allows producers the option of transfaunation is a fistulated
cow(s) .fig1-7
The rumen contents can also be collected from cattle on the
farm by passing a stomach tube and back siphoning rumen juice.
This is a time consuming process and requires a number of cattle
and special stomach tubes because the volume obtained varies from
animal to animal. Stealing cuds from ruminating cattle has also
been proposed as a means of obtaining rumen juice, however this
method is impractical for routine use and incapable of producing
adequate volumes. At least 2 to 3L of freshly strained rumen juice is
necessary to transfaunate an adult dairy cow.
Adequate quantities of rumen cuds can also be collected at
the local abattoir from slaughtered healthy animals. It is convenient
economical, easy method of collecting of adequate quantities
ruminal cuds.
The ruminal fluid should be conserved during rumenotomy
procedures. In case when surgery performed on the impacted
rumen and there is less amount or almost absent of the rumen fluid,
the impacted material should be dissolved in drinking water and
sieved it than the fluid contents may be used to restoration of the
ruminal ecosystem along with medicinal management or
transfaunation.
Quantity of Fluid Collection
Generally an average rumen contains about 70 liters of flu-
id. Collection should be somewhere between 0.5 and 3.0% of
this fluid level. Therefore, the transfaunation fluid volume would
be between 350 ml and 2.0 liters. It is important that the collected
fluid be stored out of light, anaerobically and at the cows body
temperature. A prewarmed gallon thermos works well and can
be vented if more than 15 minutes will elapse between collection
and transfaunation. However, the quantity of fluid does not matter
if we are collecting fluid from abattoir.
Time between Collection and Transfaunation
Timing is very critical to the success of transfaunation.
Generally the fluid should be in the recipient cow within thirty
minutes post collection.
Two hours appears to be the limit to success if the collection is
maintained in a strict anaerobic environment. At about the two hour time
limit, the starch digesting organisms have increased dramatically and the
fiber-digesting microbes have decreased substantially.
Monitoring Fluid quality
The monitoring of fluid pH is an important selection criterion for
assessing microbe numbers. The ideal range is 5.8 to 6.2 for maximal
microflora count. If the pH is below this range, the microbial activity
will also be diminished. With a more highly acidic environment starch
fermenting organisms will dominate over cellulytic microbes. Protozoa
and fungi will also vary at lower pH.
Transfaunation Procedure
Transfaunation can be done to empty rumen before closer of the
rumen wall. If ruminal cuds are not available at the time of surgery,
transfaunation can be achieved via drenching of the cuds to the recipient
animals (Fig. 8 and 9). Recipient cows generally require 1000 ml of flu-
id twice daily for 2-4 days.
Most transfaunation failures occur with inadequate donor fluid
levels, not maintaining an anaerobic environment, concomitant use of
antibiotics and inadequate length of transfaunation fluid treatment.
Medicinal management
Probiotic agents may be of additional benefit to rumen
transfaunation. Commercial probiotics consist mainly of lactate
producers that are thought to create a favourable intraruminal
environment that prevents accumulation of lactic acid by inducing
growth of bacteria metabolizing lactic acid. The resulting enhanced
ability to remove lactate from the rumen thus stabilizes the ruminal pH.
Magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxide are strong
alkalinizing agents able to substantially increase ruminal pH and thus creating a hostile environment for
rumen protozoa.
Rumenotoric such as nux vomica, ginger, tarter and parasympathomimetics (neostigmine and
carbamylecholine), although frequently used, have a limited application to establishment of rumen
ecosystem.
The IV administration of benzodiazepine agonist at a dose of 0.002 mg/kg induce hyperphagia in
adult cattle and goat, resulting in a transient increase in feed intake and thus has been proposed as
supportive treatment. These drugs can alter rumen contraction but not induce return to normal rumen
activity. Restoration of physiologic normalcy appears to be the best means of stimulating fermentative
digestion and productive rumen function.

Conclusion
Conclusion
The prognosis and outcome of rumen surgery and other medicinal disorders are largely depends on
restoration and maintain the rumen physiological environment and ecosystem. In Indian condition,
transfaunation from slaughtered healthy animals and medicinal management along with yeast as probiotic
supplementation is feasible and gives good results and restores the rumen physiological environment and
ecosystem.

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( Email- uppisri2003@yahoo.com )
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Dr. Deepti C R and Dr. Sudha G
Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Veterinary College, Bangalore
(email :- dineshtumkur@gmail.com)

Heat stress is defined as any combination of environmental conditions that will cause the effective
temperature of the environment to be higher than the temperature range of the animals thermal neutral
zone.
Signs of heat stress
Restlessness
Crowding under shade or at water tanks
Panting (open-mouthed breathing)
Increased salivation
Increased respiration rate (gasping)
Rates of gut and ruminal motility are reduced
Lethargy
Decreased activity
Reduced feed intake: Under continuous heat stress lactating cows begin to show a decline in the intake
at 25-27 C with a marked decline of 40% above 30 C.
Increased sweating
Rise of rectal temperature
Reduced heart rate
Increased water intake: Heat stress increases water consumption by at least five times the normal level
in temperate zones. Milk is about 87% water, and contains large concentrations of the electrolytes
Na, K, and CI. Therefore, lactating dairy cows have large turnover of water and these electrolytes
(Shalit et al., 1991).
Drop in daily milk production: There is a decline in the productions of milk and fat as a direct result of
high environmental temperatures. This may be explained by the negative effects the heat stress has on
the secretary function of the udder. Milk production is reduced 15%, accompanied by a 35% decrease in
the efficiency of energy utilization for productive purposes.
Mechanisms of the negative impact of heat stress on reproductive function in cattle
The detrimental effect of high ambient temperatures on reproductive processes in dairy cattle has been
well documented and includes:
1. Impaired endocrine interactions and changed follicular development pattern
2. stress is known to be capable of delaying, shortening or completely inhibiting the expression of
3. An increase in maternal body temperature is likely to result in an increase in the ambient temperature
of oocytes, zygotes or embryos in the oviduct or uterus of the cow.
4. Stress can affect reproduction at almost any stage from calving until the next pregnancy is well
established (approximately two months post-conception). Critical areas include:
Around the time of ovulation: reduced oestrus intensity; interference with ovulation.
The first few days after fertilization: impaired progesterone production.
The first two months of pregnancy (especially about 3050 days after conception), when
embryo and early fetal loss can occur.
Calving.
5. Negative effect on the nutritional status and energy balance.
Strategies to decrease the negative impact of heat stress on reproduction in dairy cattle
Measures aimed at amelioration of the negative impact of heat stress on reproduction in dairy herds
should always combine:
Management adjustments- reduce the exposure of cows to heat stress
Changes in the production systems
Biotechnical approaches - aimed directly at fertility improvement
Selection of heat resistant breeds (bos indicus and crosses)
Embryo transfer
Pharmaceutical approaches -aimed directly at fertility improvement
1. Feeding management:
Feed TMR or forage more frequently during cooler periods of the day
Possibly shade and sprinklers over feeding areas
Feeding of good quality and high nutrient density diet.
Provide clean cool water at all times .
2. Housing management
Natural shade: Trees are an excellent natural source of shade on the pasture. Trees are not
effective blockers of solar radiation but the evaporation of moisture from leaf surface cools the
surrounding air.
Artificial shade: Solar radiation is a major factor in heat stress. Blocking its effects through the
use of properly constructed shade structures alone increases milk production remarkably. Two
options are available: permanent shade structures and portable shade structures (Shearer et al.,
2005).
Cooling by reducing ambient air temperature : Air temperature of micro-environment can be
lowered by use of fans in holding pens, sprinklers, high pressure foggers, misters, sprayers in
parlour exit lanes etc..
Cooling the animal by the use of sprinklers, allowing the animals to wallow etc..
3. Management: The common managerial deficiencies leading to infertility are
Poor heat detection and Improper time of insemination: The average length of the estrus period is 18
to 24 hrs and ovulations occur 12 hrs after the end of estrus period. Since, the sperm survivability is
48 hrs and the ovum survivability is only for 12-24 hrs, the sperms should be present in the female
reproductive tract about six hours before ovulation for optimum fertilization. Therefore, the best time
to do AI is 12 to 18 hrs after onset of estrus.
Improper insemination technique: In natural service the bull deposits the semen in the proper site,
while in artificial insemination there are many possibilities for man to render infertile the bovine
sperm cells. These include
I. Improper extension, freezing and storage of fertile semen.
II. Improper thawing of frozen semen.
III. Insemination should take place promptly, within several minutes after thawing.
IV. Thawing semen and keeping it at 5 C or 40 F for an hour or more is very detrimental
to sperm cells.
V. Proper insemination technique should be followed
VI. Palpation of the ovaries during estrus should be avoided as it may result in rupture of the
graffian follicle. Extreme caution should be taken to perform palpation in a gentle, skilled
manner so as to avoid manual rupturing of the thin walled follicle.
Other managemental practices to prevent infertility in bovines
Sanitation and hygiene practices
Vaccination and deworming.
Quarantine (30 days) and repeat testing.
Purchase of young animals under 6 months of age as replacement stock to avoid common venereal
diseases.
Avoid inbreeding
Close inbreeding should be carefully monitored so that hereditary effects can be culled from the
herd.
Regular veterinary examinations of the genital tract
Use of highly fertile active bulls with strong sex drive and free of infectious diseases.
Regular general health checkups.
Record maintenance.
Education of farmers.
Dr. Naveen kumar,. G.S., Dr. Basavaraj Inamdar & Dr. Shrikanth Dodamani
Assistant Professors, Department of AGB, Veterinary College, Hassan.
( email :-gsnaveenkumar@yahoo.com )
Synonyms: Dongari, Dongarpati, Wannera, Shevera, Balankya, Surti & Deccani
Facts :-
Popular dual purpose breed, developed from gir breed about 300 years back.
It is a admixture of Gir, Dangi & local cattle of Latur district
Medium to heavy animal
Broad and bulged forehead
Prominent, bright and alert eyes with black eyelashes and eyebrows
Long drooping ears
Thick horns emerged from sides of the poll and are blunt
Short neck, deep and wide chest
Thick and pendulous muscular dewlap
Long whip like tail reaches below hock joint and ends in B/W switch
Limbs are well set, straight and strong
Well attached medium sized milky udder with squarely placed black teats
Docile and calm in temperament
Adult male weight 620-680 kg
Adult female weight 430-485 kg
Service Period 1707 days
Age at first estrus 35.60.53 Months
Average Lactation Milk yield 940 kg
Lactation Length 299 days
Age at First calving 45.70.52 Months
Calving Interval 4478 days
Breeding Farms Deoni CBF Bidar & Dharwad

Raveendra Hegde
Incharge Scientist, AICRP on FMD Regional centre,
Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals, KVAFSU, Hebbal, Bangalore
( Email: fmdrciahbng@gmail.com )
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is still one of the major livestock diseases worldwide as a result of
the highly infectious nature of the virus and the significant direct impact of the virus on agribusiness.
FMDV is unevenly distributed throughout the world reflecting factors such as livestock density and
species mix, patterns of husbandry, animal movement and trade, wildlife reservoirs and incentives and
capacities for disease control.The virus exists as seven serotypes and multiple subtypes where
cross-immunity is absent or incomplete. The situation is dynamic and complex and affected by viral
evolution, waxing and waning of host immunity and changing ecosystems and trading patterns.
The Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Control Strategy introduced under the FAO/OIE Global
Framework for the Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases (GF-TADs), is the greatest and
most ambitious initiative, after the global eradication of Rinderpest, to address FMD in the affected
countries. It establishes the diseases eradication as a common interest and a world public good. FMD
control programme (CP) in India is envisaged as per the FAOs PCP, the basic approach is to vaccinate all
cattle and buffalo every 6 months.
In Karnataka, the FMD-CP is being implemented since September 2011 wherein all cattle, buffalo
and pigs are vaccinated every six months. After four rounds of vaccination, the state witnessed large
epidemic of FMD in the year 2013 and since then there is no major outbreaks barring few incidence of
FMD involving only few animals. After the epidemic the state has implemented three more rounds of
extensive vaccination campaign covering more than 90 percent population (8TH round of vaccination was
concluded in March 2015). As of now, the herd immunity in the population is more than 80 percent and
also the disease incidence is very limited. This may be due to infection immunity coupled with vaccine
immunity. The following points to be considered for prevention and control of FMD in the state in future.
Disease surveillance
Disease reporting, active clinical surveillance and epidemiological investigation are the
most important components of a surveillance system aimed at the timely detection of FMD. Among all
species, cattle produce, in general, the greatest total amount of infectious virus particles and, therefore,

PELVIC
the major source for the spread of FMD. Hence detection of suspected cases are very important for taking
up the effective control measures for further spread.
Detection of disease will be most effective if those directly in contact with the susceptible pop-
ulation have the necessary knowledge and are integrated in the system and have incentives or are en-
couraged to report suspicions. This includes farmers, community animal health workers, Pa-
ra-veterinarians, private practitioners, official veterinarians and other local sources of information at the
community level.
Preliminary disinfection , the main control effort must be on the prevention of virus escape from
infected premises, once discovered. Hence the preliminary disinfection should come first. Then cleaning
and disinfecting of premises, holding facilities, and equipment must be carried out with great care and in a
way to prevent the formation of aerosols. High pressure sprays, very likely, will generate large amounts of
(infectious) aerosols and, therefore, should be omitted unless it has been proven that disinfectants added to
the spray do their job.
Surveillance coverage
An effective surveillance system should reach all geographic areas in the state as well as all
susceptible species and production systems. Surveillance systems, including diagnostic laboratories,
should monitor continuously the geographic distribution of the different strains circulating in domestic
animals. This is regularly being carried out at the AICRP on FMD Regional centre, IAH&VB, Bangalore.
All clinical suspicions of FMD require laboratory confirmation and hence all clinical samples from the
suspected cases to be submitted to the laboratory at the regional centre.
Engagement of key players
All successful FMD control programmes involve the participation of farmers and producers in eve-
ry step of the process. A continuous dialogue between the official veterinary services, producer asso-
ciations, private veterinarians and para-veterinarians will assist in the development of strategies that stand
a better chance of adoption and success.Campaigns should emphasize that FMD control primarily benefits
livestock producers and not the government.
Vaccination
Vaccination is an essential tool in the control of FMD. However, vaccination on its own will not
achieve the desired results unless the vaccination programme is part of an integrated control strategy.
Vaccination does not prevent infection, but prevents the occurrence of clinical signs and thus reduces viral
shedding. Vaccination campaigns should be properly documented to monitor vaccination coverage, and
serologically monitored for their effectiveness
Vaccine delivery
Effective delivery of vaccine, including preservation of the cold chain and proper injection, is the
cornerstone for reaching an adequate level of population-immunity. Government/private schemes can be
established to ensure vaccine distribution at the local level. in which local enterprises share the
responsibilities to deliver vaccines to producers. This joint venture allows that local public/private
enterprises become responsible for the application of the vaccine.

PELVIC
Vaccination coverage and administration of vaccines
Over and above the needs to maintain and observe the cold chain, vaccination campaigns must be
properly prepared and announced, and the administration of the vaccines to the animals must be properly
supervised and documented. Evidence on vaccination coverage of the target populations should be
maintained. Poorly implemented vaccination campaigns in which only part of the target livestock pop-
ulation is immunized, will probably result in slow and uneven spread of infection difficult to detect in sur-
veillance programmes, and will increase the probability of endemicity.
Effective control of FMD is not merely a matter of organizing mass vaccination campaigns in the
hope that this will subdue infection. Mass vaccination is just one tool to be used; others include movement
control, quarantine, rapid detection and reporting of outbreaks, focused vaccination, disinfection,
sero-monitoring, sero-surveillance and public awareness. The above measures could create a favourable
climate for FMD control programmes.
The most readily visible impact of FMD control is usually seen when disease control addresses the
epidemic areas, especially where these would be potential areas of high productivity. Such areas have to be
maintained under high vigilance to prevent the incursion of infection from endemic areas within the state.
Properly implemented vaccination programme will suppress virus transmission to achieve absence of clin-
ical disease.
Sero-monitoring for viccinal immunity against FMD Virus Types O, A and Asia-1 In Animals
vaccinated in FMDCP areas: Karnataka

Vaccina- No of animals having No of animals having % of animals % of animals


tion Antibodies against antibodies against type protected protected
Coverage type of virus in Pre- of virus in Post - vac. against all against all three
(%) vac. Serum >1.8log10. Serum >1.8 log10. three serotypes Post
serotypes pre vaccinated
vaccinated
O A AS-1 O A AS-1
Phase I 40% 15% 09% 56% 40% 24.5% 4.53% 17.74%
58%

Phase II 50% 27% 39% 67% 47% 51% 21.38% 38.73%


82%

Phase III 42% 25% 49% 46% 31% 52% 20.21% 37.88%
73%
Phase IV 48% 79% 76% 62% 86% 82% 44% 59%
80%
Phase V 33% 52% 64% 59% 68% 81% 28% 53%
89%
Phase VI 61% 62% 75% 86% 87% 92.5% 49% 80%
96%
Phase VII 83% 88% 93% 97% 94% 98% 77.5% 93%
95%

PELVIC
sero monitoring under national fmd sero surveillance programme (random samples) by lpb-elisa &
diva elisa
Year Vaccination No of animals having % of ani- Apparent
Coverage Antibodies against type mals pro- FMD infec-
(%) of virus in random tected tion status
serum >1.8log10. against all (DIVA%
three sero-
types

O A AS-1
2012-13 Phase II-82% 59.50 25.10 59.12 22 17.60
Phase III-73%

2013-14 Phase IV-80% 38 56 71 33 21.09


Phase V-89%

2014-15 Phase VI-96% 83.95 85.97 92.58 78 33.22


Phase VII-95%

monthly e-Bulletin
Published and circulated by Veterinary College, Hebbal, Bengaluru.

Editor: Associate Editior:


Dean, Veterinary College, Hebbal, Bengaluru Head, Dept. of Vety.& Animal Husbandry Extension Education
Dr. S. Yathiraj (Ex-Officio) Dr. K. Satyanarayan (Ex-Officio)

Contact :
Dept of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education
Veterinary College, Hebbal Bangalore
email: pashubandhavch@gmail.com
Blog: pashubandhavch.blogspot.in

PELVIC