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Unit 44 Local Area Network Technology

Assignment Title : Fair lease lanka

Assignment No:(LAN-16-001)


Vagish Kirubaharan


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Task 1
1.1 Open Systems Interconnection Model (OSI)

OSI show is begun in the late 1970s. This administration helps for overall interchanges. It has
based seven layers of capacities. For example, Layer 1-Physical, Layer 2-Data Link, Layer 3-
Network, Layer 4-Transport, Layer 5-Session, Layer 6-Presentation, Layer 7-Application.
The most elevated layer is the application, the least is the other physical medium or link.
(Chamber, 1997)

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Layer 1 (Physical) It is the principle of links, microwave bars and cards work putting surges
of bits on the system out. The fundamental segments here join electrical properties, for
example, weakening, inductance, and impedance. (Chamber, 1997)

(ii) Layer 2 (Data interface) Some there rectification and blunder discovery happen here
alongside stream control. It includes its own data. For instance, goal and source delivers to an
edge so expanding there measure.

(iii) Layer 3 (Network) It has their own particular one of a kind distinguishing proof. It
includes directing information and system information to a casing. Can be taken care of
movement in the system. Actualizes of directing of parcels among arrange. (Chamber, 1997)

(iv) Layer 4 (Transport) There information units are conveyed mistake free and conveyed in
succession. This layer helps keep information and control the speed of the correspondence.
There is no duplication or misfortune information units. Different association of flag channel.

(v) Layer 5 (Session) It is controlling the discourse between the utilizations of the two end
frameworks. It characterizes how to control, begin, and end discussions between applications.
It is demands for a legitimate association with be built up demand of end client. This layer is
taken care of sign on or secret key approval. It is in charge of ending the association (Atrium,

(vi) Layer 6 (Presentation) This layer is dealt with characters, screens, documents designs,
and so forth. It is clarified the organization in which the information is traded among the two
imparting elements.

(vii) Layer 7 (Application) This is a most elevated amount of OSI demonstrate. It is

interfaces with application programs. Information is likewise gotten by another gadgets and
utilized by their applications. Case of utilization layer, for example, Electronic mail, File
exchange, Remote rationale, and so on. (Chamber, 1997)


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TCP/IP has a system demonstrate. It was en route of advancement when the OSI standard
was distributed and there was collaboration among the originators of TCP/IP and OSI
measures. Be that as it may, TCP/IP demonstrate isn't same OSI show. SO OSI display has
seven layer standard and TCP/IP show has four layer standard. The OSI demonstrate was has
been intense in the improvement and development of TCP/IP standard, and that is the reason
OSI is connected to TCP/IP.

1.2.1 TCP/IP model layers and their protocols

(1) Layer 1 (Network)

System is a first layer of TCP/IP display. It is clarify points of interest of how information is
physically sent through the system. Its equipment gadgets are Coaxial Cable, Twisted Pair,
and Optical Fiber. System layer conventions are Token Ring, Ethernet, Frame Relay, FDDI,
X.25, and so forth. The prevalent LAN engineering is Ethernet. It utilizes an entrance strategy
called transporter sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CDMA/CD) to get to the
media. An entrance strategy chooses how a host will information put on the medium.

(2) Layer 2 (Internet)

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It is a moment layer of TCP/IP display. Its place is between Network Access Layer and
Transport Layer. Web layer information parcel known as IP datagrams. Goal and source
address (IP address or coherent address) data that is used to forward the datagrams amongst
has and crosswise over systems. It is in charge of IP datagrams directing. The real
conventions of the web layer are Internet Protocol (IP), Address Resolution Protocol (ARP),
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP),
and Reverse Address Protocol (RAP).

7 Application

6 Presentation

5 Session

4 Transport

3 Network

2 Data Link

1 Physical


Layer 2 (Internet) Protocols:-

(I) Internet Protocol (IP) Internet Protocol is the essential convention in the web layer. IP
depict the organization of parcels, additionally called datagrams, and the tending to plot. IP

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fundamental intention is datagrams conveyance from the source host to the goal have in light
of their locations. IP incorporates structures and techniques for putting labels inside
datagrams. (Beal, 2016)

(ii) Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Internet Control Message Protocol is used to
report issues with conveyance of IPv4 datagrams inside an IPv4 organize. ICMP is likewise
used for investigating and different analysis capacities. Its header of parcel is 8 Bytes in
length. Its header takes after the IP header of IP datagram parcel. (Thomas, 2014)

(iii) Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Address Resolution Protocol is a noteworthy

convention in the TCP/IP show. Its principle object is to determine an IPv4 deliver to the
physical address. Its another motivation behind ARP is to discover the MAC address of
gadget in Local Area Network (LAN). (Thomas, 2014)

(iv) Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) TCP/IP show that allows a physical
address, for example, Ethernet address, its converted into an IP address. It is take care of an
issue, comprehending a host's equipment address given its convention address. Turn around
Address Resolution Protocol is characterizing in RFC 903. (Finlayson, 1984)

(v) Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) Internet Group Management Protocol
gives a way to a web PC to report its gathering participation of multicast to neighboring
switches. Multicasting enables one PC on the web to send substance to different another PC
that have recognized themselves as inspired by getting the starting of PC's substance.
Expansion to characterizing host and address augmentations for how IP has help
multicasting. IGMP give a convention to refresh and trade data about host enrollment
specifically multicast gatherings. (Energize, 2014)

(3) Layer 3 (Transport)

Transport layer is a third layer of TCP/IP. Its place is amongst Application and Internet layer.
Its fundamental reason for existing is to allow gadgets on the source and goal hosts to bear on
a discussion. Transport layer characterizes the status and administration level of the
association used while transporting information. It can be stream control, confirmation, and
mistake checking.

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Layer 3 (Transport) Protocols):-

(I) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) It is a solid convention. TCP is in charge

of separating the message into TCP portions and reassembling them at the
accepting side. TCP is in charge of keeping the portions of unordered organized
appropriately. TCP guarantee a dependable conveyance by resending something
that gets lost while venturing to every part of the system. TCP attributes are Flow
Control, Stream Data Transfer, Reliability, Multiplexing, and Full Duplex.
(Thomas, 2014)

Client Datagram Protocol (UDP) UDP is a moment convention of Transfer layer. It isn't
a solid convention contrasted and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). It is a
connectionless convention. It is just servers as a multiplexer and DE multiplexer using
port numbers.

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(4) Layer 4 (Application)

Application layer is the best most layer of TCP/IP show. It is characterized TCP/IP
application conventions and how interface of host programs with Transport layer
administrations to use the system. Application layer is concerned especially with human
collaboration and the execution of related conventions and programming applications. Its
information can be moved between remote clients and hosts convey. Application layer
conventions are Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
(SMTP), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), Secure Shell (SSH), File
Transfer Protocol (FTP), Domain Name System (DNS), and so on.

Layer 4 (Application) Protocols:-

(I) Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) HTTP convention empowers the association
between a customer and a web server. It is data circulating in the World Wide Web
(WWW). HTTP depends on the customer server design. HTTP server or web server are
Apache web server, Internet Information Server (IIS), and so on. HTTP customer is
additionally called a web program, for example, Google Chrome, Mozilla FireFox,
Internet Explorer, and so on. It works on a demand reaction display. Its messages are
Flexible and English based. (Thomas,2014)

(ii) Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) SMTP hands over TCP/IP systems message
administrations. It utilizes TCP/IP port 25. SMTP was first clarify in RFC 788. The
correspondence between a SMTP server and SMTP customer is by comprehensible
ASCII content.

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Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) DHCP is utilized to dynamically assign

TCP/IP configuration parameters to network devices such as, IP address, Subnet Mask,
DNS Server, Default Gateway, etc. It is described in RFC 1541, RFC 1534, RFC 2132,
and RFC 2131. Computer gets its information configuration by using DHCP. Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol clients communicate with a DHCP server to obtain related
TCP/IP configuration information and IP address. (Thomas, 2014).

Secure Shell (SSH) Secure Shell supports authentication, integrity, and confidentiality
for remote administration. SSH is replaced telnet. Telnet is utilizing for accessing the CLI
console of a server or a network device remotely. Telnet is an insecure protocol. Because
SSH is more secure than telnet. Secure Shell protocol explain how to connect securely
over a network. Secure Shell has two main versions, such as, SSH1, and SHH2. SSH1
and SSH2 supports secure connection of over network. But SSH2 helps for Diffie-
Hellman key exchange and public key certificates. (Thomas, 2014)

Record Transfer Protocol (FTP) FTP is used for trading document over the web. It
utilizes the web's TCP/IP convention for empower information exchange. FTP uses a
customer server engineering, secured with SSL/TLS. FTP is productive and dependable
information exchange.


(vi) Domain Name System (DNS) DNS for arrange administrations and naming PCs
that is sorted out into a progressive system of areas. Area Name System is used in TCP/IP
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systems. Enters a DNS name for application, DNS administrations can illuminate the
name to another data related with the name, for instance IP address. Area names are
alphabetic, on the grounds that they are less demanding to recollect. (Beal, 2014)

Task 2


Ethernet Technologies

Ethernet form 1 was created by Xerox Corporation in mid 1970s. Also, in 1982 Xerox,
DEC, and Intel together discharged Ethernet rendition 2. It is utilized Local Area
Network (LAN). It is a Link Layer convention of TCP/IP arrange demonstrate. Ethernet
portraying how gadgets of system can arrange information for transmission to another
system gadget on a similar system section and how to put that information out on the
system association. Ethernet utilizes both layer 1 (Physical Layer), and layer 2 (Data Link
Layer) in OSI organize display. Ethernet portrays two areas of bundle, transmission, and
casing. Tending to data distinguishing the physical "Media Access Control (MAC)"
locations of both sender and collector. Ethernet utilizes Carrier Sense Multiple
Access/Collision Detection (CSMD/CD) for choosing when a PC is allowed to transmit
information on to the entrance medium. Ethernet was right off the bat intended to keep
running over coaxial links, yet Ethernet LAN now use fiber optical links or curved match
links. Introduced Ethernet frameworks are called 100BASE-T. Ethernet favorable
circumstances are minimal effort of gear, simple to introduce, and simple to investigating.
(Awaken, 2014)

Sorts of Ethernet: -

(I) Fast Ethernet

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In 1992, Grand Junction requirement for expanded transmission capacity and propelled a
100 Mbps form of Ethernet. It is risen as an IEEE standard in 1995. Quick Ethernet of
Ethernet organize that can exchange information at a rate of 100Mbit/s. It is utilized
curved match or fiber link. Today most gadgets are associated with a system, for
example, a system camera or a portable workstation with a 100BASE-TX/10BASE-T
Ethernet interface. Feline 5 link of turned match bolsters for quick Ethernet organize.
Quick Ethernet issues related with impact location and recuperation. (Dilawar, 2014)

(ii) Gigabit Ethernet

It is redesign the information rate to 1Gbps. Gigabit Ethernet make it perfect with
standard. Its 1000BASE-LX most extreme length is 5000m and 1000BASE-T greatest
length is 100m. It is utilized contorted combine and fiber optical link.

(iii) 10Gigabit Ethernet

It is the most recent age and conveys an information rate of 10Gbit/s (10000 Mbit/s). It is
utilized a fiber optic or bent combine link. 10GBASE-SR, 10GBASE-ER, and 10GBASE
LX4 in light of an optical fiber link can be used to connect separation of up to 10000m
(6.2miles). It needs to turned combine top notch link, for example, Cat-6a or Cat-7.
10Gigabit Ethernet is essential used for spine in top of the line applications that require
high information rates. (Dilawar, 2014)

Fundamental Ethernet Parts: -

(1) Hub Network It is a basic Ethernet organize that highlights a PC or two and an
Ethernet link. It is set up to share documents or print them, however it isn't used with
respect to web association.

(2) Crossover Network It is an Ethernet organize that associates two gadgets. It is put in
two Ethernet ports that two PCs can work on a similar Ethernet arrange. Hybrid system is

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typically utilized for playing recreations, record sharing or printing papers. In any case,
Crossover arrange isn't used for web association.

(3) Routers and shared Internet Connection Routers enable PCs to share Internet
associations. Switches server as Wi-Fi gadgets, and any client can use a PC and tap on a
set switch with a specific end goal to be permit web get to.


Token Ring

It is a neighborhood (LAN) topology where hubs are organized in a ring topology.

Information passes successively among hubs on the system until the point when comes
back to the source station. The Token Ring LAN framework was institutionalized by
IEEE 802.5. Token Ring worked at 4 or 16 Mbps. Token Ring use a ring topology for
send starting with one machine then onto the next.

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)

FDDI is an arrangement of ISO and ANSI measures for information transmission fiber
optic lines in a neighborhood (LAN). FDDI use to associate at least two LAN's frequently
finished long separation. It is use to make physical topology with double rings. A switch
or a switch is used to for connecting a FDDI. It is utilized fiber optic links. Its speed 100
Mbps, most extreme length of system is 100km, and greatest number of hubs is 500 on
the system. (Dilawar, 2014)

Offbeat Transfer Mode (ATM)

Offbeat Transfer Mode is a fast systems administration standard made to help both voice
and information interchanges. Its exchanging information speed is 155 Mbps or more.
Diverse sorts of media are upheld, for example, video &imaging, CD quality sound. It is
utilized star topology. ATM can be at least two LAN associated. (Dilawar, 2014)

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2.1.4 Power over Ethernet (PoE)

It gives of providing gadgets associated with an Ethernet coordinate with control using an
indistinguishable link from for information correspondence. PoE is for the most part used
to control IP telephones, organize cameras, and remote access focuses in a LAN. Control
over Ethernet fundamental advantage is a cost reserve funds, for instance, circuit
repairman and introducing a different electrical cable are not required. Control over
Ethernet can make a video framework more secure. The power accessible from the PoE
empowered midspan or switch ought to be satisfactory for the associated gadgets and the
gadgets should help control order. (Dilawar, 2014)

Traffic intensive services and performance of Fair lease Lanka Companys

network system.
Movement Intensive Services constitute of other sub administrations like Quality of
Service (QoS) which endeavors to draw out the best yield of the accessible assets in a
system, for instance, Routers. Movement Intensive Services are imperative
administrations of system, for an association is concerned. For instance, Fair lease Lanka
(Pvt) Ltd organization should convey (Sales and Marketing Departments isn't allowed to
get to data on different divisions) among their areas of expertise (IT and Managers
Department and Accounts and Administration Departments) in a regular schedule like. So
if that is case then this QoS which is a kind of Traffic Intensive Services (TIS) can bolster
need their needs according to the need. The Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
administration to the best need will decide Lanka organization's system give higher
transmission capacity than contrasted with video spilling or get to their databases.

Outbound Traffic Rules

(1) Weighted Balance It is empower arranging the extent of information movement of

active to be taken care of by each WAN connection.

(2) Persistence It is make movement determined sorts to dependably be directed among

particular WAN connection in view of goal IP addresses.

(3) Enforced Its outcome in the steering of type(s) of determined of movement among a
particular VPN association or WAN association, its up/down status is in any case.

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(4) Priority Its tenets indicate the request of the accessible WAN connections in which
movement is to be steered. A need arranged for each WAN connection.

(5) Overflow Traffic will be steered among the sound WAN association that has the
need of most elevated and isn't in full heap of downlink data transfer capacity.

(6) Least Used This control will be directed among the sound WAN association with
the most accessible down connection data transfer capacity.

(7) Lowest Latency This run will be steered among the sound WAN association with
the most minimal dormancy. Intermittent dormancy checking parcels are sent to the
WAN conncetion.

Task 3

Network Security
PC organizing that joins securing a PC arrange framework. It is generally taken care of by
a framework head or system chairman who executes the system programming,
equipment, and security strategy needed to secure a system and the assets got to through
the system from unapproved get to and furthermore guarantee that representatives have
sufficient access to the assets and system to work.

Today many system security dangers are spread over the web, for example, Viruses,
Worms, Trojan Horses, Spyware, Adware, Zero-day assaults, Hacker assaults, and Data
Interception and Theft. Powerful and dependable system security focuses on an
assortment of dangers and prevents them from spreading or entering on organize. System
security for the most part utilized Business organizations for ensure their data. Since
CALL Lanka (Pvt) Ltd has a decent security framework in their Local Area Network.
(Beal, 2014)

Main types of network security threats

Programmer assaults Hacker signify "a sharp software engineer". Programmer use in
media to disclose somebody who endeavors to break into PC frameworks. Programmer be

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a capable specialist or software engineer with sufficient specialized learning to

comprehend the feeble focuses in security framework.

(2) Denial of Service (DoS) assaults DoS is an in which association or a client is

administrations denied of an asset they would more often than not desiderate to have. In a
DoS, bigger quantities of traded off frameworks assault single target. In any case, Denial
of Service assault documents and programming in influenced PC frameworks.
Foreswearing of Service assaults have constrained sites got to by millions individuals to
incidentally stop operation. (Energize, 2014)

(3) Spoofing Attack - A satirizing assault is the point at which a malignant gathering
imitates another client or gadget or on a system with a specific end goal to dispatch
assaults against arrange has, take information, spread malware. There are a few different
sorts of caricaturing assaults that malevolent gatherings can use to achieve this. Probably
the most widely recognized techniques incorporate IP address caricaturing assaults, and
DNS server parodying assaults, and ARP satirizing assaults. (DuPaul, 2016)

(4) Session Hijacking It happens when a session token is sent to a customer program
from the Web server following the fruitful confirmation of a customer logon. A session
commandeering assault works when it bargains the token by either seizing a bona fide
token session will be, hence getting unapproved dish to the Web server. This can bring
about session sniffing, Trojans, man-in-the-program assaults.

(5) ARP Poisoning It is an Address Resolution Protocol harming (ARP harming). It is a

type of assault in which an assailant changes the Media Access Control (MAC) address
and assaults an Ethernet Local Area Network by changing the objective PC's ARP reserve
with a produced ARP ask for and answer parcels. This alters the layer - Ethernet MAC
address into the programmer's known MAC deliver to screen it. Thus, both the security
and client's information are bargained. A successful Address Resolution Protocol harming
endeavor is imperceptible to the client.

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Network Security Components for Fair lease Lanka (Pvt) Ltd

(1) Firewall It is a system security framework. It can be executed in both programming
and equipment. Firewall keeps up approaching and active system movement in view of an
arrangement of principles. Firewalls are always used to keep unapproved web clients
from getting to private system among secure confirmation endorsements and logins. A
few sorts of firewall strategies are Packet Filter, Application Gateway, Circuit-level
Gateway, and Proxy Server.

(2) Instruction Prevention System (IPS) It is an approach of preemptive to organize

security used to distinguish potential react and dangers. Accordingly IPS it screens
arrange activity. IPS can be make quick move. It can be said to incorporate any item or
practice used to shield aggressors from accessing system, for example, against infection
programming and firewalls. (Energize, 2013)

(3) Virtual Private Network (VPN) VPN is an innovation that outlines a scrambled
association over less secure system. The benefit of VPN is that it guarantee the suitable
security level to the associated frameworks when the basic system foundation alone
remote access VPNs. Most undertakings are use Virtual Private Network in either site-to-
site mode or remote access mode to interface assets in an open foundation as an
administration situation. Accordingly VPN is particularly valuable for getting to open Wi-
Fi hotspots since open remote isn't secure. A Virtual Private Network benefit gives client
uncensored web get to and can bolster avoid information burglary and opened sites.
(Energize, 2013)

WinNet (Pvt) Ltd group is committed to giving the instruments to fair lease Lanka (Pvt)
Ltd Company needs to work safely, ensuring fair lease Lanka Company and their
customers' data. Notwithstanding WinNet (Pvt) Ltd Company's email facilitating and
unparalleled spam blocking programming, WinNet (Pvt) Ltd likewise affers programmer
security on a case-by-case premise. Since WinNet Company provides for good
dependability organize framework for Fair lease Lanka Company. With these additional
assurances, WinNet Company gives Fair lease Lanka Company's system with both front
and back-end security, limiting Fair lease lanka Company's weakness to unapproved
clients. WinNet Company will likewise help in making an exceptional debacle
recuperation design. This administration incorporates virtual access to all WinNet's
fundamental programming, equipment, and custom arrangements required to keep fair
lease Lanka (Pvt) Ltd Company's business operational until the point that another server
system can be ordered.

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With the broadly use of different security gadgets firewalls and guideline location
frameworks. Creates a lot of untrustworthy of security occasions, which are difficult to
oversee, organize security administration joined stage is proposed. Using alarms
relationship and hazard evaluation, the stage can break down the system chance

Advantages of utilizing DHCP server

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server is utilized as a part of Sales and
Marketing division as it were. DHCP server is a convention for doling out unique IP
delivers to CALL Lanka (Pvt) Ltd Sales and Marketing office's gadgets on a system
framework. With dynamic tending to, CALL Lanka (Pvt) Ltd offices gadgets can have an
alternate IP tends to each time it interfaces with the system. DHCP likewise underpins a
blend of dynamic and static IP addresses. Be that as it may, Sales and Marketing
Department isn't allowed to get to data in different offices. Since their data partaking in
their area of expertise PCs as it were. Points of interest of DHCP server is setup is solid,
no copy IP addresses, simple to refresh, no compelling reason to physically arrangement,
and it can distinguish unapproved DHCP servers on the system.

3.2.5 Using Static IP Addresses in divisions

CALL Lanka (Pvt) Ltd IT division, Accounts office, and Managers office are utilized
Static IP addresses. Static IP addresses are utilized as a part of an Internet Protocol (IP)
deliver number appointed to a system gadget by an overseer. Static IP addresses are more
dependable for Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP), more solid to have a gaming site or

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to Play Station, X-Box, use Virtual Private Network for secure access to records from
organization arrange PC, and so forth.

Advantages of giving separate LAN fragments to every office

Fear lease Lanka (Pvt) Ltd has LAN fragments for their specialties. Its first floor has
Administration and HR divisions. second floor has Sales and Marketing office and
Accounts division. What's more, third floor has IT and Managers offices. WinNet (Pvt)
Ltd is given separate LAN fragments to decreasing communicate movement in fair lease
Lanka (Pvt) Ltd organize framework. Isolate LAN fragments different focal points are
expanding the system, seclude arrange issues, and enhance security.

Using IP Subnets A subnet is an identifiably isolate some portion of CALL Lanka (Pvt)
Ltd organize. A subnet may speak to every one of the machines at one geographic area or
neighborhood (LAN). Having organization arrange separated into subnets enables it to be
associated with the Internet with a solitary shared system address. Without subnets,
organization could get various associations with the Internet, one for each of its
physically isolate subnetworks, however this would require a pointless use of the set
number of system numbers the Internet needs to allot. It would likewise require that
Internet steering tables on portals outside the association would need to think about and
need to oversee directing that could and ought to be taken care of inside organization.
(Animate, 2013)

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Task 4
WinNet (Pvt) Ltd is composed a protected and unwavering quality system framework for
CALL Lanka (Pvt) Ltd. Its system framework configuration can be seen above page.
CALL Lanka (Pvt) Ltd has six offices, those are separate to 1 story, 2 story and 3 story in
their building. Its first floor has Administration division and HR office. What's more, its
second floor has Sales and Marketing division and Accounts offices. What's more, third
floor has IT division with Network Admin Room and Managers office. CALL Lanka
(Pvt) Ltd need to IT division, Managers office, Accounts office, and Administration
office, associated just for sharing data in arrange framework. In any case, Sales and
Marketing office isn't allowed to get to data in different offices. Deals and Marketing
division has a DHCP server. CALL Lanka (Pvt) Ltd divisions need to FTP server for
sharing data. Also, a few offices need dynamic IP address for PCs.

CALL Lanka (Pvt) Ltd has Local Area Network System. Since WinNet (Pvt) Ltd is
chosen star Topologies, those are most appropriate topologies for CALL Lanka (Pvt) Ltd
arrange framework. Star Topology is associated with a focal gadget. Its primary favorable
position is one association flops, however does not assault different PCs. Subsequently it
is anything but difficult to keep up, quick execution, and great security.

CALL Lanka (Pvt) Ltd first floor Administration office has ten PCs including dynamic IP
addresses and first floor HR division has twelve PCs including dynamic IP addresses. Its
Administration office PCs are associated with Switch and along these lines HR division is
associated with another switch. second floor Sales and Marketing office has twenty PCs
including DHCP server and second floor Accounts division has eight PCs including IP
addresses. Its Sales and Marketing PCs and DHCP server is associated with switch, in this
way Accounts PC is associated with another switch. CALL Lanka (Pvt) Ltd third floor
has IT division and Network Admin Room has twenty five PCs incorporating
Administrator PC with Static IP locations and Managers office has ten PCs with Static IP
addresses. Their Server Room has Administrator PC, FTP Server, Core Switch and
Router Its. IT division and Network Admin Room PCs are associated with switch. In this
manner Managers division PCs are associated with switch. All divisions changes are
associated with Core switch, since sharing data in offices.

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Task 5
WinNet (Pvt) Ltd is outlined an unwavering quality and secure system framework for
CALL Lanka (Pvt) Ltd. Its equipment parts are Computers, Seven Switches, one Core
Switch and two Servers. Also, its product segments are Windows 10, Windows Server
2008 and PRTG Monitoring Tool. It has 85 PCs in framework. Framework necessity of
Administrator PC is Operating System - Windows Server 2008, Processor Intel Core
Quad 2.8 GHz, RAM 3GB, Graphic Card 1GB ATI, Hard Drive 500GB, Display
1024*768 determination. Also, System Requirement of Other PC is Operating System
Windows 10, Processor Core i3 2.8GHz, RAM 6GB, Graphic Card 2GB ATI, Hard
Drive 1TB, Display 1024*768 determination. Next LAN part is Switchers. A switch in
an Ethernet-based neighborhood peruses approaching TCP/IP information parcels
including goal data as they go into at least one information ports. Change is like center.
Also, next segment, Core Switch is a high limit switch. It is fill in as the entryway to a
wide region organize or the web. It is otherwise called a spine switch or a couple switch.
In this manner next equipment segment is a Router, it is that advances information parcels
along organize. It is associated with two LANs or WANs and its ISP's system. A switch
can share web everywhere throughout the system. They utilize conventions, for instance
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) to speak with each other and arrange the best
course among two hosts. Next equipment segment is Servers. A PC on a system that
oversees organize assets. There have two servers, for example, FTP server and DHCP

CALL Lanka organize framework has great information exchange speed. CALL Lanka
(Pvt) Ltd servers has great similarity in this system framework. Consequently Flexi Lease
(Pvt) Ltd needs to impart document to all representatives, since they utilized FTP server.
What's more, CALL Lanka (Pvt) Ltd needs powerful IP delivers to a few offices PCs on a
system framework, since its appropriate server is a DHCP server.

This system framework is utilized Copper Straight Through links and Copper Cross Over
link for associated gadgets. Copper Straight Through link is a sort of contorted match link
that is used in neighborhood) to associate a PC to a system switch or center point, for
example, a switch. This link is additionally now and again called a fix link and is an other
option to remote associations where at least one PCs get to a switch through a remote
flag. Furthermore,

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Copper Cross Over link is a kind of link establishment that is used for the interconnection
of two same gadgets. It is empowered by switching the transmission and getting pins at
the two closures, with the goal that yield from one PC progresses toward becoming
contribution to the next, and the other way around. Since those links are most appropriate
for this system framework.

Task 6

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Subnets, Default Gateway IP, and Subnet veil CALL Lanka (Pvt) Ltd arrange framework
has IPs for their specialties. Organization, and HR offices are utilized Dynamic IP
addresses. What's more, Accounts, IT, and Managers offices are utilized Static IP
addresses. Since this system framework PCs has IP addresses. Interconnectivity among
the different subnets would be given by switches, which will just transmit information
implied for another subnet crosswise over itself. To isolate a given system address into at
least two subnets, use subnet covers. The default subnet covers for class A systems are, for class B is, and for class C is A default portal
fills in as an entrance point or IP switch that an organized PC uses to send data to a PC in
another system or the Internet. Default just implies that this door is used as a matter of
course, unless an application indicates another entryway. Subnet cover is a veil used to
choose what subnet an IP deliver has a place with. An IP address has two parts, the host
address and the system address. For instance, consider the IP address
Accepting this is a piece of a Class B arrange, the initial two numbers (150.215) speak to
the Class B organize address, and the second two numbers (017.009) recognize a
particular host on this system. (Beal, 2013)

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Task 7
Subnets, Default Gateway IP, and Subnet veil CALL Lanka (Pvt) Ltd arrange framework
has IPs for their specialties. Organization, and HR offices are utilized Dynamic IP
addresses. What's more, Accounts, IT, and Managers offices are utilized Static IP
addresses. Since this system framework PCs has IP addresses. Interconnectivity among
the different subnets would be given by switches, which will just transmit information
implied for another subnet crosswise over itself. To isolate a given system address into at
least two subnets, use subnet covers. The default subnet covers for class A systems are, for class B is, and for class C is A default portal
fills in as an entrance point or IP switch that an organized PC uses to send data to a PC in
another system or the Internet. Default just implies that this door is used as a matter of
course, unless an application indicates another entryway. Subnet cover is a veil used to
choose what subnet an IP deliver has a place with. An IP address has two parts, the host
address and the system address. For instance, consider the IP address
Accepting this is a piece of a Class B arrange, the initial two numbers (150.215) speak to
the Class B organize address, and the second two numbers (017.009) recognize a
particular host on this system. (Beal, 2013)

Security Measurements of CALL Lanka (Pvt) Ltd Network System

1. Solid intermediary and firewall to be used to keep un-needed individuals out.

2. A solid Internet Security Software bundle and Antivirus programming bundle ought to
be introduced.

3.For validation, use solid passwords and change it on a week by week premise.

4.When using a remote association, use a vigorous secret word.

5.Employees ought to be careful about physical security.

6. Set up a system screen and system analyzer and utilize it when required.

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7.Execution of physical safety efforts like shut circuit TV for section regions and
confined zones.

8.Security hindrances to confine the association's edge.

7.3 Security Solution of Fair lease Lanka (Pvt) Ltd Network System

Fair lease Lanka (Pvt) Ltd organization Sales and Marketing Department isn't allowed to
get to data in different divisions. Since Sales and Marketing division need secure system
framework for anticipated their data. Since Fair lease Lanka (Pvt) Ltd arrange framework
Sales and Marketing division is utilized Access Control Lists (ACL). Access Control
Lists are a system channel utilized by switches and some changes to allow and limit
information streams into and out of system interfaces. At the point when an ACL is
arranged on an interface, the system gadget investigates information going through the
interface, thinks about it to the criteria depicted in the ACL, and either allows the
information to stream or disallows it. The primary reason is to give a fundamental level of
security for the system. Access Control Lists are not as unpredictable and inside and out
of assurance as stateful firewalls, however they do give security on higher speed
interfaces where line rate speed is essential and firewalls might be prohibitive. ACLs are
additionally used to confine refreshes for steering from arrange peers and can be
instrumental in characterizing stream control for organize activity. ACLs for switches are
not as mind boggling or hearty as stateful firewalls, but rather they do offer a lot of
firewall ability. As an IT system or security proficient, situation of guards is basic to
ensuring the system, its advantages and information. ACLs ought to be put on outer
switches to channel movement against less attractive systems and known helpless

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Task 8
Test Plan of Fair lease Lanka (Pvt) Ltd Network System

Since customer obviously comprehends and concede to the test degree, goals, and criteria
for progress, it is at long last time to move up sleeves and begin dealing with the test
design. As usual, it is critical to team up with the partners on the test intend to choose
specific in regards to the application qualities and new highlights that are anticipated from
the new framework. This is a critical advance in the process since it requires numerous
choices and noteworthy collaboration. (Solomon, 2011)

8.1 Network Monitoring of Fair lease Lanka (Pvt) Ltd arrange framework CALL Lanka
(Pvt) Ltd organize framework checking device is "PRTG". PRTG is a system observing
device that backings to guarantee that PC frameworks are running easily and that no
blackouts happen. In arrange administration terms, organize checking is the expression
used to depict a framework that persistently screens a system and advises a system
manager however informing frameworks when a gadget comes up short or a blackout
happens. System checking is typically performed through the use of programming
applications and devices. And no more fundamental level, ping is a kind of system
observing apparatus. A few applications are used to screen movement on arrange, for
example, VoIP observing, mail server (POP3 Server) checking, video stream checking,
and so on. (Beal, 2013)

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Current status of complete network

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Task 9
Neighborhood (LAN) are necessary to the operation of fair lease Lanka (Pvt) Ltd. The
most widely recognized LANs use Ethernet, an information connect layer convention,
and Internet Protocol (IP), a system layer convention. A Local Area Network is included
numerous segments, for example, screens, PCs, Servers, organizing gear, stockpiling
equipment, arrange applications, security programming, office profitability applications,
and endeavor applications. Gadgets on the system are connected physically by turned
combine copper. Regular system investigating issues incorporate moderate systems and
client association issues.

9.1 Root sources for arrange investigating issues

1. Physical layer: copper

Dirty harmed cabling or terminations

Excessive flag lessening

Insufficient link transfer speed

2. System Layer: Ethernet and IP

Damaged of system gadgets

Incorrect gadget arrangements

Authentication and affiliation issues

Insufficient system data transfer capacity

3. Switches and VLANs

Excessive usage

Too numerous mistakes

Incorrectly alloted VLAN participation

Traffic need (CoS/QoS) issues.

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Ventures of Successful LAN investigating

1. Recognize the correct issue: - Have the individual who detailed the issue clarify how
ordinary operation shows up, and after that exhibit the apparent issue
2. Reproduce the issue if conceivable: - Understand the trademark, and check the
revealed issue if conceivable.
3. Limit and confine the reason: - Attempt to disconnect the issue to a solitary gadget,
association, or programming application.
4. Detail an arrangement for taking care of the issue: - Research and think about the
conceivable answers for the issue.
5. Actualize the arrangement: - Actual answer for the issues might supplant equipment,
executing a product fix, reinstalling the application or cleaning an infection tainted
6. Test to check that the issue has been settled: - Implemented the arrangement,
guarantee that the whole issue has been settled by having the client test for the issue
once more
7. 7. Archive the issue and arrangement: - Documentation can be used for future
reference to help investigate a similar issue. Can likewise use the documentation to
plan writes about regular system issues for administration and clients, individuals
from the system help group
8. 8. Give criticism to the client: - This urges clients to report same circumstances later
on, which will build up the execution of system. On the off chance that the client
could have accomplished comment and maintain a strategic distance from the issue,
giving input may lessen the quantity of future system issues.

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Task 10
Fair lease Lanka (Pvt) Ltd arrange framework is utilized best checking instrument, it is
PRTG observing apparatus. PRTG is a system observing instrument that backings to
guarantee that PC frameworks are running easily and that no blackouts happen. It is
generally utilized and effective system observing programming. System checking is
additionally vital to build the system effectiveness by knowing asset and data
transmission utilization.

Upgrade Network Infrastructure

Increase benefits by staying away from misfortunes caused by undetected framework

Reduce costs by purchasing data transfer capacity and equipment as indicated by genuine
load. Eliminate server execution issues and transmission capacity bottlenecks. Improve
nature of administration through being proactive

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Current Status

Prerequisites for a Network Monitoring Tool

Remote Management through web program, Windows customer.

Notifications of blackouts by email, SMS, ICQ, and so forth
broad sensor sort determination.
Monitoring numerous area.
Every normal technique for arrange use information procurement (Packet Sniffing,
SNMP, Xflow) should be made a difference

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What to Monitor

The negligible execution of a system screen isn't sufficient. The way to viable system
checking is to guarantee that the picked apparatus has been designed to screen what are
basically a system's fundamental signs: accessibility, utilization and speed. At last, utilization
observing empowers to accurately survey CPU stack and realize exactly what kind of work
the servers are doing on occasion of various the day.

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