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Lecture 6

Solved Example
Wind and Earthquake

L. Prieto-Portar - 2008 RHU-CIVE519


Dr. Zaher Abou Saleh
The building for this third example is a 14-story office building in Tampa. It is 100 feet wide and
200 feet long and 160 feet tall, including a 3 foot parapet. The structure is a reinforced concrete
rigid frame, with each floor and the roof providing a diaphragm reaction to lateral loads. Each
floor is 11 feet high, and is clad with two glazing panels 5 6 high and 5 feet wide (aluminum
mullions are spaced 5 feet on-center). The glazing is resistant to wind-borne debris impact.
For simplicity, the office building is assumed to be in an Exposure B. It is not an
essential facility, nor will it be occupied by 300 people in a single area at one time.
Therefore, it is a Category II (see Table 1-1 on the next slide).
Example #3 will use the same location in downtown Tampa.
For this Example #3 site, use V = 120 mph.
The design pressure p is,
p = qz (GC ) (GC )
p pi

where the velocity pressure qz is,

( )
qz = 0.00256 K z K zt K dV 2 I = 0.00256 K z (1.0 )( 0.85 )(120 ) (1.0 ) = 31.3 K z
2

Using ASCE-7-02, Table 6-3,


at z = 157 feet , qz = qh = ( 31.3)(1.12 ) = 35.1 psf
The Gust Effect Factor, G.

The building has a ratio of h / least width = 160 ft / 100 ft = 1.6 < 4 which means that
it can be classified as a rigid structure. The gust G is given by Equation 6-4,

G = ( 0.925 )
(1 + 1.7 g I Q)
Q z
= ( 0.925 )
1 + 1.7 ( 3.4 )( 0.25 )( 0.83)
= 0.83
(1 + 1.7 gv I z ) 1 + 1.7 ( 3.4 )( 0.25 )
where gQ = g v = 3.4 ( Section 6.5.8.1)
z = 0.6 (157 ) = 94.2 ft ( Section 6.5.8.1)
z = zmin = 30 ft (Table 6 2)
c = 0.30 (Table 6 2)
1 1
33 6 33 6
Iz = c = ( 0.30 ) = 0.25 ( Equation 6 5)
z 94.2
1 1
z 3 94.2 3
Lz = c = ( 0.30 ) = 454 ft ( Equation 6 7)
33 33
1 1
Q= 0.63
= 0.63
= 0.83
B+h 100 + 157
1 + 0.63 1 + 0.63
Lz 454
The External Pressure Coefficients Cp for walls.

The external pressure coefficients for the wall surfaces are taken from Table 6-6:

Therefore, the wall Cp is,


The Roof Pressure Coefficients Cp for winds normal to the 200-ft walls.

For the first value and h/L = 157/100 ~ 1.6 > 1.0 and < 10 the roof pressure
coefficients are also given by Figure 6-6,

Cp for wind normal to the


200 ft wall.
Cp for wind normal to the 100 ft wall.
The second value of Cp = -0.18 is a small value and is not used in this example.

The roof Cp with wind normal to the 100 ft face, h/L = 157/200 ~ 0.8. Notice that
interpolation is needed in Figure 6-6.

The external pressure at the roof at a distance from 0 to h/2 = 157 ft / 2 = 79 ft from
the edge with the wind normal to the 200 ft face.
The external design pressure p is,
p = qz GC p = ( 35.1 psf )( 0.83)( 1.04 ) = 30.3 psf

The external pressure at the roof at a distance from 79 ft to 100 ft from the edge with
the wind normal to the 200 ft face.

The external design pressure p is,


p = qz GC p = ( 35.1 psf )( 0.83)( 0.70 ) = 20.4 psf
Comparison of pressures between the two orthogonal faces.
How do the pressures change if some of the windows are breached?

Internal pressure coefficients GCpi.

p = qz GC p qi ( GC pi )
If the windows are breached by debris, the building becomes a partially enclosed
building. In that case, the internal pressure coefficient becomes,

GC pi = 0.55
The negative internal pressure pi will be evaluated using qi = qh = 35.1 psf,

Negative internal pressure = qh(GCpi) = (35.1 psf)(-0.55) = -19.3 psf

The positive pressure is found at the height z = 90 ft and qz is found through inter-
polation,

Positive internal pressure = (30.0 psf)(+0.55) = 16.5 psf


Wind Force on the Roof Parapet.

The pressure on the parapet with MWFRS pp is,


p p = q p GC pn = ( 35.4 psf )(1.8 ) for the windward parapet
p p = q p GC pn = ( 35.4 psf )( 1.1) for the leeward parapet
Since the parapet is 3 feet high, the force on the parapet in the MWFRS case is as
follows,
Fwindward = q p GC pn hwall = ( 35.4 psf )(1.8 )( 3 feet ) = 191.2 plf
Fleeward = q p GC pn hwall = ( 35.4 psf )( 1.1)( 3 feet ) = 116.8 plf
These forces are shown in the figures of slides #14 and #16.
IBC (2003)
Spectral
Response Modification Factor Soil Characteristics
(R)
Response
Design Spectrum Acceleration SITE
2 CLASS SOIL PROFILE NAME
SDS = FaSs
3 A Hard Rock
2
SD1 = FV S1 B Rock
3 Very dense soil and
C
Base Shear soft rock
D Stiff soil profile
S I
V = DS W E Soft soil profile
R
[Where I is the importance factor]

Distribution of Horizontal Seismic


Forces
w x h xk
Fx = V
w i h ik

[k depends on period (Ta)] Period (T)


(ASCE 7)


Ta = CT hn
Interstory Drift
(ASCE 7)

< 0.007 0.025


Example:

Consider a 12-story moment resistant frame reinforced concrete building with its
foundation upon a soft to firm soil.
Typical floor plan.
(B) Using the IBC.
3/4
CT = 0.03 T1 = CT h = 1.27
Sa = 0.183 I= 1
R=3
Floor level from Story weight, W i W i hi/ Wi hi Lateral Force Story Shear
Height hi (ft) W i hi (k-ft)
Base (k) (k-ft) Fi (k) Fi (k)

12 (roof) 148 2100 310800 0.14 231.91 231.91


11 136 2200 299200 0.14 223.26 455.17
10 124 2200 272800 0.13 203.56 658.73
9 112 2200 246400 0.11 183.86 842.59
8 100 2200 220000 0.10 164.16 1006.75
7 88 2200 193600 0.09 144.46 1151.22
6 76 2200 167200 0.08 124.76 1275.98
5 64 2200 140800 0.07 105.06 1381.04
4 52 2200 114400 0.05 85.36 1466.40
3 40 2200 88000 0.04 65.66 1532.07
2 28 2200 61600 0.03 45.97 1578.03
1 16 2200 35200 0.02 26.27 1604.30
26300 2150000 1.00 1604.30
Seismic Shear

160

140

120

100
Height (ft)

80

60

40

20

0
0.00 1000.00 2000.00

She ar (k )