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Lecture 7

Seismic Forces

RHU-CIVE519
Dr. Zaher Abou Saleh
Seismic Loads.

Seismic loads are a combination of some formulas and factors that help you find
each floor contribution to the reduction of the seismic load.

Seismic loads do not have specific direction patterns.

Seismic loads make structures sway back and forth like and inverted pendulum.

Seismic loads subject the structures to lateral forces that are proportional to their
weights.
Formulas Used (UBC):

V = (ZIC/Rw)W

C =1.25 S/T2/3

T = Cth3/4

Fx = (V-Ft) wxhx / (Swihi)

Ft = 0.07TV

Where: V: Design Base Shear


Z: Seismic Zone Factor
C: Coefficient Factor
T: Period of Vibration
W: otal Seismic Weight
Rw: Numerical Coefficient
I: Importance Factor
S: Soil Factor
Fx: Seismic Forces
Ft: Top story Floor (Force)
hx: Height of Each floor wrt Ground level
hi: Summation of all floor heights
Under seismic loads a building acts like an inverted pendulum:
The distribution of the seismic loads is at each story floor:
Calculations for the seismic load at each story:

F lo o r L e v e ls W x = W i (k ip s ) h i= h x ( ft) W ih i V ( k ip s ) Fx
1 4 1 5 .9 6 9 .8 4 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 2 .5 3
2 4 1 5 .9 6 1 9 .6 8 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 5 .0 7
3 4 1 5 .9 6 2 9 .5 2 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 7 .6 0
4 4 1 5 .9 6 3 9 .3 6 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 1 0 .1 3
5 4 1 5 .9 6 4 9 .2 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 1 2 .6 7
6 4 1 5 .9 6 5 9 .0 4 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 1 5 .2 0
7 4 1 5 .9 6 6 8 .8 8 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 1 7 .7 4
8 4 1 5 .9 6 7 8 .7 2 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 2 0 .2 7
Data: 9 4 1 5 .9 6 8 8 .5 6 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 2 2 .8 0
10 4 1 5 .9 6 9 8 .4 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 2 5 .3 4
W = 16635.84 Kips 11 4 1 5 .9 6 1 0 8 .2 4 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 2 7 .8 7
12 4 1 5 .9 6 1 1 8 .0 8 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 3 0 .4 0
# of Floors = 40 Story Building 13 4 1 5 .9 6 1 2 7 .9 2 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 3 2 .9 4
14 4 1 5 .9 6 1 3 7 .7 6 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 3 5 .4 7
Soil Type = S3 = 1.5 15 4 1 5 .9 6 1 4 7 .6 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 3 8 .0 1
Rw = 4.5 From Table 16-N 16 4 1 5 .9 6 1 5 7 .4 4 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 4 0 .5 4
(UBC-97) 17 4 1 5 .9 6 1 6 7 .2 8 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 4 3 .0 7
18 4 1 5 .9 6 1 7 7 .1 2 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 4 5 .6 1
Z = 0.40 19 4 1 5 .9 6 1 8 6 .9 6 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 4 8 .1 4
20 4 1 5 .9 6 1 9 6 .8 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 5 0 .6 7
Ct = 0.020 21 4 1 5 .9 6 2 0 6 .6 4 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 5 3 .2 1
22 4 1 5 .9 6 2 1 6 .4 8 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 5 5 .7 4
I = 1.25 23 4 1 5 .9 6 2 2 6 .3 2 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 5 8 .2 7
24 4 1 5 .9 6 2 3 6 .1 6 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 6 0 .8 1
25 4 1 5 .9 6 246 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 6 3 .3 4
26 4 1 5 .9 6 2 5 5 .8 4 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 6 5 .8 8
27 4 1 5 .9 6 2 6 5 .6 8 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 6 8 .4 1
28 4 1 5 .9 6 2 7 5 .5 2 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 7 0 .9 4
From Formulas : T (sec) = 1.77 29 4 1 5 .9 6 2 8 5 .3 6 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 7 3 .4 8
30 4 1 5 .9 6 2 9 5 .2 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 7 6 .0 1
C = 1.28 31 4 1 5 .9 6 3 0 5 .0 4 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 7 8 .5 4
32 4 1 5 .9 6 3 1 4 .8 8 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 8 1 .0 8
W(kips) = 415.9 33 4 1 5 .9 6 3 2 4 .7 2 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 8 3 .6 1
3313.6 6 34 4 1 5 .9 6 3 3 4 .5 6 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 8 6 .1 5
35 4 1 5 .9 6 3 4 4 .4 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 8 8 .6 8
2370. 36 4 1 5 .9 6 3 5 4 .2 4 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 9 1 .2 1
9 37 4 1 5 .9 6 3 6 4 .0 8 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 9 3 .7 5
V (kips) = 5 38 4 1 5 .9 6 3 7 3 .9 2 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 9 6 .2 8
39 4 1 5 .9 6 3 8 3 .7 6 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 9 8 .8 1
293.3 40 4 1 5 .9 6 3 9 3 .6 3356298 2 3 7 0 .9 5 1 0 1 .3 5
Ft(kips) = 2 ? h i= 8 0 6 8 .8 F t(k ip s )= 2 9 3 .3 2
2 3 7 0 .9 5
The Nature of Earthquake Motions upon a Building.

The figure below shows the effect of the distortions of the ground upon a building.
The foundations of the building move with the ground displacements. However, the
inertia of the mass of the building resists this displacement and causes it to distort.
This distortion wave moves upward along the entire height of the building. As the
shaking of the ground continues, the same shaking of the foundations lead the
building to undergo a complex series of oscillations.
Wind and seismic forces are different. Wind forces are applied to the exposed surfaces
of the building, whereas seismic forces are inertial (body forces), which result from the
distortion of the ground and the inertial resistance of the building. Therefore, they are
a function of mass rather than of the surfaces, such as wind forces.
The earthquake ground motion quantity most commonly used in analytical studies is
the time-wise variation of the ground acceleration in the immediate vicinity of the
building. This acceleration is usually described by two horizontal components. There
are also a vertical component and a rocking and a twisting component, although these
latter three are usually negligible compared to the two horizontal because buildings are
primarily susceptible to lateral distortions. The two horizontal components of the
ground accelerations are assumed to act non-concurrently in the direction of each
principal plan axis of the building.

The complete system of inertia forces in a building can only be determined by


evaluating the acceleration of every mass particle. The analysis is simplified by
considering a limited number of displacement components (ordinates), called the
number of degrees of freedom of the structure. In this lumped-mass idealization the
mass of the structure is assumed concentrated at a number of discrete locations. The
floors (diaphragms) are relatively heavy, so a large proportion of the building mass is
concentrated in the floors and roof. The rest, such as walls and columns are normally
assumed concentrated at the floor and roof levels.
A multi-degree of freedom system possesses as many natural modes of vibration as
there are degrees of freedom. In a dynamic system, a mode of vibration can under
certain circumstances, vibrate in that mode alone. During such vibration, the ratio of
the displacements of ay two masses remains constant with time. These ratios define the
characteristic shape of the mode; the absolute amplitude of the motion is arbitrary.
Each natural mode shape m has a natural period of vibration Tm associated with it.
The period is the time required for one cycle of motion in the deflected shape
characteristic of the mth natural mode of vibration. The term natural is used to
qualify each vibration quantity to emphasize the fact that these are natural properties
of the structure, depending on its stiffness and mass, when it is allowed to vibrate
freely without any external excitation.
An idealized n-story building possesses n periods of vibration (T1, T2, Tn)
arranged from the largest to the smallest, corresponding to natural modes 1 through
n. The longest period of the first mode, or fundamental mode, is designated T1.
Figure 2 below shows that any arbitrarily displaced shape of a building may be
expressed in terms of the amplitudes of the mode shapes. The equation of motion of
any mode m of a multi-degree system is equivalent to the equation of motion for a
single-degree system. The seismic response of short stiff buildings is dominated by
the fundamental mode, and most of its mass vibrates in that mode. Tall and flexible
buildings vibrate at higher modes of vibration.
A single-degree of freedom frame, with a lumped mass analogy.
A single-degree of freedom cantilever.
A single-degree of freedom rigid frame.
A three-degrees of freedom frame, with a lumped mass analogy.
Code overview:

In 1994, three model code organizations met to become a single body, the International
Code Council (ICC) with the purpose of issuing a unified building code to be called the
IBC (the International Building Code). These organizations were BOCA (Building
Officials and Code Administrators intl.), ICBO (Intl. Conference of Building Officials)
and SBCCI (Southern Building Code Congress International).

By 1999, their resulting code was called the 2000 IBC, which specified the design
requirements for the various types of loads and design load combinations for steel and
reinforced concrete buildings and structures. Within the 2000 IBC, the ASCE 7-98 is
followed for all non-seismic forces, whereas seismic design follows the 1997 NEHRP
Provisions with some elements of the 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC).
Steel Seismic Codes.

1. UBC
2. SEAOC
3. AISC (LRFD)
4. NEHRP
Analysis Procedure.

Equivalent Lateral Force;

Modal Analysis;

Site Specific Response Spectrum.


The Limitations of Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure.

Seismic Performance Category.


Height.
Configuration: Regular and Irregular.
Seismic Performance Category.
NEHRP Aa and Av Maps
Seismic Hazard Groups.

III - Essential Facilities for Post-Earthquake Recovery;


II - Substantial Hazard Due to Occupancy or Use;
I - Not Assigned to Groups III or II.
Seismic Performance.
Height Limitations.
Equivalent Lateral Force Analysis Procedure.

If there are plan or vertical irregularities special procedures must be made.


Plan Structural Irregularities.
Building Configuration (Regular or Irregular).

Building Plan Configuration.


Vertical Structural Irregularities.
Vertical Irregularity: 1 Stiffness.
Vertical Irregularity: 2 Mass.
Vertical Irregularity: 3 Geometry.
Seismic Analysis of Buildings.
Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure.
Soil Profile Type.
Seismic Coefficient Cv.
Response Modification Coefficients (R).
Upper Limit Coefficients on Calculated Period T.
Vertical Distribution of Seismic Forces.
Orthogonal Loads.
Torsion.
Overturning.
Select Preliminary Members.

Perform Stress / Drift Analysis.

Determine T by Rayleighs Method and compare with estimated T.


Rayleighs Method.
Drift.
Deflection Amplification Factor (Cd).
Allowable Story Drift.
Braced Frame.
Eccentric Braced Frame for Seismic and Wind.

Configurations.

Single Chevron
Stiffeners.
Link Selection.

More Rules for EBF:

Link must be compact selection;


Fy < 50 ksi;
No web doubler plates;
No web openings;
Link Design.
Diagonal Brace Axial Force.
Connections.

Braced Unbraced
Connections.
Stresses and Deformations.

Under gravity loads

Forces acting on the column web


Under lateral loading
Connections for Bracing.
An engineer checks the load on a jack that has lifted the foundation grade beam of Los Angeles City
Hall in order to retrofit the 452-ft tall building (32-story) with seismic base isolators (ENR 25 June 2001).
References: