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-

.
-
.
-

, ..
-
:
KAl(SO4)2 K+ + Al3+ + 2 SO42-

() ,


.

CuCl2 + 2NH4OH Cu()2 + 2H2O


CuCl2 + 4NH4OH [Cu(NH3)4] Cl2 + 4H2O





-

()
().
CuSO4 + 4 NH4OH [Cu(NH3)4]SO4 + 4 H2O
2+
[u(NH3)4]

CuSO4 + 4 NH4OH [Cu(NH3)4]SO4 + 4 H2O


(NH3 H2O) (II)

3d 4s 4p

Cu
3d 4s 4p
2+
Cu
2+ 3d 4s 4p
[u(NH3)4]
NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3




CuCl2 + 4NH4OH [Cu(NH3)4] Cl2 + 4H2O


- - .
- .


( )
.

Z = Z +Z

()
- ,
.


,
(K).
()
,
,
(
)
()

- , ,

.

()

,
.


d- f- ,
, Ag+, Au+,
Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Pt4+,
La3+, Eu2+, Th4+, U4+
,
Co, Ni, Fe.

( . ligo - ) -
, ,


.

:
NH3 , H2O, CO , NO, :
N2, O2 Cl- , Br-, CN-,
:
SO42-, CO32-
(D)
- ,
.


(NH3, H2O,Cl-)
(CO32-, C2O42-, )

= DL, L -
:
(NH3, H2O, Cl-)
-

(CO32-, C2O42-, SO42-)
-


-


:

1. Hg(NO3)2 + 2KI (-.) HgI2 +2KNO3


Hg(NO3)2 + 4KI (.) K2[HgI4] + 2KNO3

2. NiCl2 + 4NH4OH (.) [(Ni(NH3 )4]Cl2 + 4H2O

3. UO 2 ,
(=8)

2UO2SO4 + 6Na2CO3 + 2Na4[UO2(CO3)3] + 2Na2SO4



(
)
[Cu(NH3)4]SO4 , [Ni(NH3)6]Cl2 ,
[Co(H2O)6]Cl2 , [Ag(NH3)2]OH


( )
[Pt(NH3)2Cl4]0, [Co (CO)5]0 , [Ni (CO)4]0 ,
[Fe (CO)5]0


(
)
K4[Fe(CN)6], K2[PtCl4], K2[Fe(CO)4],
K2[Fe(CN)4]

2+ 3-
[Cu(NH3)4] SO4 Na3[Co(NO2)6]

+ 0
[Co(NH3)4Cl2] Cl [Pt(NH3)2Cl2]

0 3-
[Fe(CO)5] K3 [Fe(CN) 6]
[Cu(NH3)4]SO4
(II)

Na3[Co(NO2)6]
(III)

[Pt(NH3)2Cl2]

[Cr(H2O)2(NH3)3 Cl]Br2
(III)

1.

[Cu(NH3)4] Cl2 [Cu(NH3)4]2+ + 2 Cl

2. -
,
,

3.
:

.

(
)


(
)





(NH3 )
1. [Cu(NH3)4]2+ = [Cu(NH3)3]2++ NH30 K 1

[Cu(NH3 )3]2

[Cu(NH3 ) 4 ]2
2. [Cu(NH3)3]2+ = [Cu(NH3)2]2++ NH30 [Cu(NH ) 2 (NH3 )
K 2 3 2]

[Cu(NH ) 2

3. [Cu(NH3)2]2+ = [Cu(NH3)]2+ + NH30


3 3]

[Cu(NH )]2 (NH3 )


K 3 3

[Cu(NH )
4. [Cu(NH3)]2+ = Cu2+ + NH30
2
3 2]

Cu 2 (NH3 )
K 4
[Cu(NH )]2
3

:

[Cu(NH3)4]2+ = Cu2+ +4 NH30
Cu 2 c
4

K
NH3
13
K K1 K2 K3 K4 9,3 10
[Cu(NH )]2
3

1.


2. , .

3. ,
.

4.

.

.
,
,
,
.

[Ag(NO2)2]- Ag(NH3)2]+ [Ag(S2O3)]3- [Ag(CN)2]-


1,3 10-3 6,8 10-8 1 10-13 1 10-21

,


.

2
C
: Ag CN 1,0 10 21

C
[ Ag(CN ) 2 ]
[Ag(NH3)2]Cl , K = 5,7 10-8 2
C C NH
Ag
K[Ag(CN)2] , K = 1,0 10-21 3
5,7 10 8
C
[ Ag ( NH 3 )2 ]
, 1 /. :
C(NH3) = 2x, C(CN-) = 2x, C[Ag(NH3)2]+ = 1-x, C[Ag(CN)2]- = 1-x.
x<<1, (1 x) 1


2
= x (2 x)= 5,7 10-8 C(Ag+) =x= 3 2,4 103(/)
4

= x (2 x)2 = 1,0 10-21 (Ag+) = 7,4 10-8 (/)

[Ag(CN)2]-, [Ag(NH3)2]+

: [Ag(CN)2]- [Ag(NH3)2]+ .

.
.
K4[Fe(CN)6] 4K ++ [Fe(CN)6]4- ; C = 0,1 M; K = 1,0 10-37 ; KCN K+ + CN-
0,1 M 0,1M 1M 1M 1M

Fe [(CN)6]4- Fe2+ + 6CN-


0,1- x x 6x+1

x
<< 1, :
;
(0,1 x) 0,1 (6 x 1) 1
C 2 C 6
x (6 x 1)6 x 16
1,0 1037
Fe
K = CN
C 0,1 x 0,1
[ Fe(CN )6 ]4

x= 1,0 10-38 /;

CCN- = 6x+1 1 /


,

.


, , ,

.

,
:



, .

,
,
.
.

, ,
,

sp 180o BeCl2

sp 2 120o BCl3

sp3 109,5o CH4


-
sp3d
900 ; 1200 l5

sp3d2 900 SF6



= 2

= 4

= 6

,
:
= 2
( [Ag(NH3)2]+ )

Ag0 [ ]4d 10 5s1 -


Ag+ [ ]4d 10 5s0 -

5s- 5p-

()
= 4
( [BF4] )

-

= 6
( [FeF6]4 -
)

.
:

NiCl2 + 4NH4OH [Ni(NH3 )4]Cl2 + 4H2O


(NH3 H2O)


:
4Fel3 + 3K4[Fe(CN)6] Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 + 12 K Cl

[Cu(NH3)4]SO4 + BaCl2 [Cu(NH3)4]Cl2 + BaSO4


[Cu(NH3)4]2+ + SO42 + Ba2+ [Cu(NH3)4]2+ + BaSO4
:

[Cu(NH3)4 ]SO4 + Na2S +H2O CuS + Na2SO4 + 4NH3


[Cu ( NH 3 ) 4 ]2 S 2 CuS 4 NH 3

1. K3[Fe (SCN)6] + 6KF K3 [Fe F6]+ 6KSCN


[Fe (SCN)6]3-+ 6F- [Fe F6]3- + 6SCN-
= 5,910-4 = 7,910-17

2. K3 [Fe F6] + 6CN K3[Fe (CN)6] + 6KF


[Fe F6]3- + 6CN- [Fe (CN)6]3- + 6F-
= 7,910-17 = 1,010-45
-

2CoCl2 + 10NH4OH + 2NH4Cl + H2O2 2[Co(NH3)6]Cl3 +12H2O

Co 2 e Co 3 2
2O1 2e 2O2
-

2K2[Co(CN)4] + Br2 + 6KOH 2Co(OH)3 +


8KCN + 2KBr;
2 3 2

Co e Co
Br2 2e 2Br
-

KnO4+5K4[Fe(CN)6]+4H2SO4MnSO4+5K3[Fe(CN)6] +3K2SO4+4H2O

Mn 7 5e Mn 2
Fe2 e Fe3 5

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
[Ag (NH3)2]+ Ag+ + 2 NH3

+ KI
+ HNO3
+ KCN

NH4NO3





.
:
.

[Ag (NH3)2]++ KI =AgI+ 2NH3 +K+
= 9,3 10-8 AgI = 1,510 -16

[Ag (NH3)2]++2CN- = [Ag(CN)2]- +2NH3


= 9,3 10-8 = 810-22

( )

()
,


.

H2 C H2N NH2 CH2
Cu2+
O = C O- O- - C = O

Hb + 4 O2 Hb (O2)4




:

:


12
.
- ( . crown )
(),
22 .
N S. ,
.
-


,

, ,
,
- -
, (. )
(. )

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